English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

S

 

soap

we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, whiten with it

we-ska-de (wskade) - soap [MS, OM]

cf. we (we) - that by which, with which to; ska (ska) - white; de (de) - cause to, to cause

 

socks stretching, stockings

hi-ni-ke zi-zi-ke (hinige ssike), (h́nigesiske) - stockings (socks stretching) [ASG]

hi-ni-ke zi-zi-ke (hinke zizke) - stockings, hose

hi-niⁿ-ke zi-zi (hin̨ke ziz) - stockings [MS]

cf. hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke), hi-ni-ke (hinke) - leggings; zi-zi-ke (zzike) - stretching

Dhegiha: hiu-iⁿ-ge (hi-iⁿ-ge) - leggings (mans) [FL-Osage]; hu-iⁿ-ke (huįke), hiⁿ-oⁿ-ke (h̨įǫke) - hosiery, stockings, socks, leggings [CQ-Osage]; hu-yoⁿ-ge (hyoⁿge), hu-yu-yiⁿ-ge (hyuyiⁿge) - leggings [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zi-zi-ge (zzige) - rubber, elastic, any rubber or elastic object [Omaha/Ponca]; zi-zi-ge (z-zi-ge) - India-rubber, any elastic object [JOD-Omaha]; zi-zi-ge (iige) - springy [Omaha]; wa-zi-zi-e (wa--i-e) - rubber, thing elastic [FL-Osage]

 

socks, leggings

hi-ni-ke (hinige) - socks [ASG]

hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke), hi-ni-ke (hinke) - leggings

hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke) - leggings [MS]

hi-ni-ke (ī nǐ kya), (ī nī kya) - leggings, from John Quapaw, Pete Claber, Mrs. Hominy [MH]

cf. ta-ha hi-niⁿ-ke (ta ha hǐ nǐ kya) - buckskin leggings, from Louis Angel Tallchief [MH]; hi-niⁿ-ke zi-zi (hin̨ke ziz) - stockings [MS]; hi-ni-ke zi-zi-ke (hinke zizke) - stockings, hose

Dhegiha: hiu-iⁿ-ge (hi-iⁿ-ge) - leggings (mans) [FL-Osage]; hu-iⁿ-ke (huįke), hiⁿ-oⁿ-ke (h̨įǫke) - hosiery, stockings, socks, leggings [CQ-Osage]; hu-yoⁿ-ge (hyoⁿge), hu-yu-yiⁿ-ge (hyuyiⁿge) - leggings [Kaw]

 

soda pop

ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, exploding water

ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - pop (soda pop) [LQ, OM]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - to cause burst by burning

Dhegiha: ni ka-pxo-ʰke (niikapxoʰke) - soda pop, soft drink, lit., liquid explodes [CQ-Osage]; ni ga-pho-ke (ni gaphke), ni ga-pho-ki (n gaphki) - soda pop [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpo-ʰki (p̣o-ḳ) - a dull thud, made by striking [FL-Osage]; ʰpo-ʰki-e (p̣o-ḳi-) - a sound like the report of a gun or a popgun [FL-Osage]; pho-ki (phki), pho-ke (phke) - a sound-word; to make the ground give out a deadened sound by thrusting at it; to stab a person or animal, running the knife or spear to the hilt, making a thud; thud, sound of striking a soft object or the ground [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-pu-ki (ga-p-k͓i) - to make the sound p-k͓i by striking against clothing, or any soft part of a oerson or animal [JOD-Omaha]; ga-ʰpo-ʰki (ga-p̣-ḳi) - to make a dull thud or sound by striking a soft object [FL-Osage]; ka-pxo-ʰke (kaapxʰke) - burst, explode, pop; hit someone on the back, knocking the wind out; stun, crash [CQ-Osage]; ga-pho-ki (gaphki) - popping sound made when hitting [Kaw]

Dhegiha: da-ʰpo-ʰki (d-p̣o-ḳi) - to explode; percussion [FL-Osage]; da-pho-ke (dphok) - to pop, as popcorn from exposure to heat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-pho-ki (baphki), ba-pho-ke (baphke) - be a thudding sound; pop, give off a popping noise; cause something to pop; cause something to make a popping noise [Kaw]; bu-pho-ke (buphke) - popping sound from bursting [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tu-shi (tush) - shooting sound, the sound of a gun shooting [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-shi (t͓u-c) - the sound heard when one shoots a gun [JOD-Omaha]; tu-shi (tshi) - snap, to snap, to make a snapping sound [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-shi (t͓-ci) - to make a snapping sound [JOD-Omaha]; ba-tu-shi (ba-t͓-ci) - to fire a pop gun; said also when A strikes B with the butt end of his gun, the concussion causing the gun to explode and injure A [JOD-Omaha]; mu-tu-shi (mtushi) - explode with a noise, like a rotten egg [Omaha/Ponca]; mu-tu-shi (m-t͓u-ci) - to make a report, as a rotten egg bursting [JOD-Omaha]

 

 

soft

shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk), shtaⁿ-ka (tąka) - soft

shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk) - soft [ASG]

ex: shtoⁿ-ka-hi (tǫkhi) - very soft [ASG]

ex: shtoⁿ-ka-hi-we (tǫkhiw) - they are very soft [ASG]

ex: a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, press softly upon

ex: di-shtoⁿ-ka (dit̨ka) - hold a soft object; soften by hand

ex: naⁿ-ta o-shtaⁿ-ka (nątt otąk) - ear lobe, soft part of the ear

ex: pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - soft part of the nose

ex: wa-shtaⁿ-ka (wat̨ka) - green corn, that which is soft

 

soft drink, soda pop

ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, exploding water

ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - pop (soda pop) [LQ, OM]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - to cause burst by burning

Dhegiha: ni ka-pxo-ʰke (niikapxoʰke) - soda pop, soft drink, lit., liquid explodes [CQ-Osage]; ni ga-pho-ke (ni gaphke), ni ga-pho-ki (n gaphki) - soda pop [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpo-ʰki (p̣o-ḳ) - a dull thud, made by striking [FL-Osage]; ʰpo-ʰki-e (p̣o-ḳi-) - a sound like the report of a gun or a popgun [FL-Osage]; pho-ki (phki), pho-ke (phke) - a sound-word; to make the ground give out a deadened sound by thrusting at it; to stab a person or animal, running the knife or spear to the hilt, making a thud; thud, sound of striking a soft object or the ground [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-pu-ki (ga-p-k͓i) - to make the sound p-k͓i by striking against clothing, or any soft part of a oerson or animal [JOD-Omaha]; ga-ʰpo-ʰki (ga-p̣-ḳi) - to make a dull thud or sound by striking a soft object [FL-Osage]; ka-pxo-ʰke (kaapxʰke) - burst, explode, pop; hit someone on the back, knocking the wind out; stun, crash [CQ-Osage]; ga-pho-ki (gaphki) - popping sound made when hitting [Kaw]

Dhegiha: da-ʰpo-ʰki (d-p̣o-ḳi) - to explode; percussion [FL-Osage]; da-pho-ke (dphok) - to pop, as popcorn from exposure to heat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-pho-ki (baphki), ba-pho-ke (baphke) - be a thudding sound; pop, give off a popping noise; cause something to pop; cause something to make a popping noise [Kaw]; bu-pho-ke (buphke) - popping sound from bursting [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tu-shi (tush) - shooting sound, the sound of a gun shooting [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-shi (t͓u-c) - the sound heard when one shoots a gun [JOD-Omaha]; tu-shi (tshi) - snap, to snap, to make a snapping sound [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-shi (t͓-ci) - to make a snapping sound [JOD-Omaha]; ba-tu-shi (ba-t͓-ci) - to fire a pop gun; said also when A strikes B with the butt end of his gun, the concussion causing the gun to explode and injure A [JOD-Omaha]; mu-tu-shi (mtushi) - explode with a noise, like a rotten egg [Omaha/Ponca]; mu-tu-shi (m-t͓u-ci) - to make a report, as a rotten egg bursting [JOD-Omaha]

 

soft maple, black dye tree

we-sa-de hi (wsade h) - soft maple, black dye tree

cf. we (we) - that by which, with which to; sa-de (sde) - blacken, cause to be black; sa (sa) - black that is near, distinct; de (de) - cause to, to cause; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg; iⁿ-te sa-de (įtt sde) - to fast, lit. blacken the face; we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, whiten with it

Dhegiha: we-na-sha-be the hi (wnashabe the hi) - Maple Tree [Omaha]; we-sha-be-the hiu (w-sha-be-the-hiu) - maple sugar, the bark of this tree was used for making a black dye [FL-Osage]; we-tso sa-be hu (wco sbe hu) - sugar maple [Kaw]

 

soft part of the nose, the tip

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, soft part

cf. pa (ppa) - nose; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose; pʰa-zi zhe (p'az˙e) - nose, may mean tip of nose [VG]; pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk), shtaⁿ-ka (tąka) - soft

Dhegiha: pa u-shtoⁿ-ga (p ushtⁿga) - the soft part of the nose, around the tip, including the septum [Omaha/Ponca]; pa u-shtoⁿ-ga (paushtoⁿga) - septum [Omaha]

Dhegiha: pa (pa) - nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa (pa) - nose [Omaha]; ʰpa (p̣a) - snout, the projecting nose of an animal [FL-Osage]; ʰpa (ʰp) - nose, snout [CQ-Osage]; pa (pa) - nose [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-shi-zhe (pashzhe) - nose tip, tip of the nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-shi-zhe (pashizhe) - tip of the nose [Omaha]; ʰpa-zhu-zhe (p̣a-zh-zhe) - the tip of the nose; the bill of a swan and other birds [FL-Osage]; pa-zho-zhe (pzhozhe), pa-zhu-zhe (pazhzhe) - nostrils [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tongue-tip, tree-top, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (p̣a-) - point, a peak, the top of a pole, the top of a tree [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object, like the point of a pencil [Kaw]

 

soft shelled water turtle

ke zhoⁿ-te (kke z̨tte) - turtle, soft shelled water

cf. ke (kke) - turtle

 

soften ground by plowing

di-poⁿ-te (dip̨tte) - soften ground by plowing bdi-poⁿ-te (bdpǫtte) - I, ti-poⁿ-te (ttpǫtte) - you

 

soften something by pulling

di-taⁿ-haⁿ (ditt̨hą) - soften something by pulling bdi-taⁿ-haⁿ (bdttąhą) - I, ti-taⁿ-haⁿ (ttttąhą) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

Dhegiha: yu-taⁿ-taⁿ-ha (yuttaha) - soften by working with the hands, as leather [Kaw]; ba-taⁿ-haⁿ (batha) - dull a knife or blade by pushing [Kaw]; ga-taⁿ-haⁿ (gatha) - mash and break something up, pound up; dull by striking, as from frequent use [Kaw]; tha-ʰtoⁿ-hoⁿ (tha-ṭⁿ-hoⁿ) - to masticate, to chew thoroughly [FL-Osage]

 

soften, hold a soft object

di-shtoⁿ-ka (dit̨ka) - hold a soft object; soften bdi-shtoⁿ-ka (bdtǫka) - I, ti-shtoⁿ-ka (tttǫka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk), shtaⁿ-ka (tąka) - soft; naⁿ-ta o-shtaⁿ-ka (nątt otąk) - ear lobe; a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, soft part; wa-shtaⁿ-ka (wat̨ka) - green corn

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ-ga (thishtoⁿga) - soften [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ-ga (thi-shtⁿ-ga) - to soften the skin by working with the hands [FL-Osage]; yu-shtoⁿ-ga (yushtⁿga) - soften, take hold of a soft object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - soft, puffy, bunched [Omaha/Ponca]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿga) - soft [Omaha]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿ-ga) - soft [FL-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ka (t̨ka) - soft [CQ-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - be soft [Kaw]

 

softly, carefully

a-ka-ze (kaze) - carefully, softly

ex: a-ka-ze hi o-da-tʰiⁿ (kaze h odtʰį) - you hit an object softly or carefully

Dhegiha: a-ga-ze (-ga-ze) - to hit carefully, not too hard [JOD-Omaha]

 

softly, hit softly or lightly

i-we-pi-aⁿ (weppį) - hit softly, lightly i-we-pi-maⁿ (weppim̨) - I, i-we-shpi-zhaⁿ (wepį) - you

cf. i-we-pi-aⁿ-hi (weppįhi) - pull, bite, tug gently on something

 

softly, sit softly on

a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket a-pi-shtaⁿ-ka (ppitąka) - I, a-shpi-shtaⁿ-ka (pitąka) - you

cf. a (a) - on, upon; bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk), shtaⁿ-ka (tąka) - soft

Dhegiha: a-bi-shtaⁿ-ga (-bi-cta-ga) - to sit, press, or bear softly on any thing; to press on an object in order to soften it [JOD-Omaha]

 

softly, to hit an object softly or carefully

i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan; hi (hi) - very; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

Dhegiha: i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - have on ones mind, think about, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ) - beat, hit, spank, strike, a blow, club [Omaha]; u-tʰiⁿ (utʰⁿ) - to hit or strike him [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drub, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

soil, earth, ground

ma-ni-ka (mankka) - earth, soil, ground

ma-ni-ka (mankka) - ground, earth, dirt, soil [MS, OM]

ma-ni-ka (monick-kah) - soil, ground, earth (terre de la) [GI]

ma-ni-ka (man˙kka) - earth, dirt, ground [FS]

ex: ma-ni-ka de-xe (mankka dγe) - pottery, clay pottery

ex: ma-ni-ka di-haⁿ-haⁿ (mankka dih̨hą) - earthquake

ex: ma-ni-ka ka-tʰe (mankka katʰ) - dirt clod [JOD]

ex: ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

ex: ma-ni-ka shi-we (mankka we) - worm, earthworm

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ-kʰa (moⁿthⁿkʰa) - earth, soil [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-thiⁿ-ʰka (moⁿ-thⁿ-ḳa), moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (moⁿ-ⁿ-ḳa) - ground, earth, soil, clay, mud [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-thiⁿ-ʰka (mǫįʰka), maⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (m̨įʰka) - soil, ground, earth, clay, mud, dirt [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka (maⁿyⁿka) - earth, ground, clay, soil [Kaw]

 

soil, make dirty

o-ki-shi-ke ka-xe (kkike kγe) - soil, make dirty

cf. o-ki-shi-ke (kkike) - dirty, soiled; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

soil, pulverize the soil

di-to-we (dittwe) - to plow, to pulverize the soil bdi-to-we (bdttowe) - I, ti-to-we (ttttowe) - you

cf. we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - plow; ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: thi-tu-be (thi tube) - grind, pinch [Omaha]; thi-tu-ba-ga (iʇba-gă) - plow it! [JOD-Omaha]; toⁿ-de thi-tu-be (toⁿde thitube) - plow [Omaha]; yu-to-be (yutbe), yu-to-we (yutwe) - plow, break virgin ground; to grind, grind up [Kaw]; gi-sa-ka yu-to-be (giska yutbe) - plow, break virgin ground [Kaw]; maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka i-yi-to-we (maⁿyⁿka yitowe), maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka yi-to-we (maⁿyⁿka yitwe) - plow, lit. it breaks the soil [Kaw]

 

soil, root up the soil

ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil pa-ta-xe (ppttaxe) - I, shpa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - you

cf. ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

soiled, dirty

o-ki-shi-ke (kkike) - dirty, soiled

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad

 

o-kdi-shi-ke (kdiik) - aint good, dirty [MS]

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad

 

soiled, worn, second hand

di-xdi-ke (dixdke) - worn, soiled, second hand

cf. a-di-xdi-ke (dixdke) - worn, well worn; soiled from use; second-hand but not worn out

Dhegiha: thi-xthi-ge (thiqthge) - worn a long time; soiled for use; second-hand, but not worn out [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xthi-ge (thi-xth-ge) - old, worn out [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-xthi-ge (wa-th-xthi-ge) - worn, faded, secondhand goods [FL-Osage]

 

a-di-xdi-ke (dixdke) - worn, well worn; soiled from use; second-hand but not worn out

cf. di-xdi-ke (dixdke) - worn, soiled, second hand

Dhegiha: thi-xthi-ge (thiqthge) - worn a long time; soiled for use; second-hand, but not worn out [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xthi-ge (thi-xth-ge) - old, worn out [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-xthi-ge (wa-th-xthi-ge) - worn, faded, secondhand goods [FL-Osage]

 

soldier, police

ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (nikkąs̨) - soldier [MS]

ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (nikkąs̨) - police

ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (nikkąs̨) - police [JOD]

ex: ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ kdaⁿ-ni-ke wa-xo di-shi-shi-ke [wi]ʰpi-a-we (nikkąs̨ kdąnke waxʔ diike [wi]ʰpiwe) - sometime they treat a woman mean, thats the way they, they do, they say, they, all soldiers drunk then [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then/just as they started home/when/shoe/other one/on one side/pull ye it off from her/he was saying it to them/it is said/police [JOD]

 

sole of the foot

si-ha (sih) - sole of the foot

cf. si (si) - foot; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

ex: si-ha kʰe (sih-kʰe) - the sole of the foot

Dhegiha: si-ha tʰoⁿ (sihtʰoⁿ) - the long foot-skin on which one treads; the entire sole of the foot [Omaha/Ponca]; si-ha (i-h) - Soles, personal name, refers to the footprints of the buffalo [FL-Osage]; si-ha (-ha) - horses hoof [FL-Osage]

 

sole, arch of the sole of the foot

si o-ski-ta (siskitt) - arch of the sole of the foot

cf. si (si) - foot; ski-ta (skitt) - notch, groove

Dhegiha: si-u-noⁿ-ski-da (sinoⁿkida) - hollow below the instep of the foot [Omaha]; si o-ski-da (i--ki-da) - the hollow in the sole of the human foot [FL-Osage]; si-o-ski (sioski) - arch of the foot [CQ-Osage]; si-o-ski-da (sióskida) - arch of the foot [Kaw]

 

solid, beneath a solid object

o-di-xda (odxda) - under, beneath a solid object

Dhegiha: u-thu-xtha-ha (u-th-xtha-ha) - underneath, downward [FL-Osage]; o-thu-lu-ha (oluha) - underneath, beneath, below, under [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-xla (oyxla) - undersomething, underneath [Kaw]

 

solids, measure for solids

i-toⁿ-we (ttǫwe), i-tʰoⁿ-we (tʰǫwe) - bushel, measure for solids

cf. si-toⁿ-we (sttǫwe) - one foot, unit of measure

 

soliloquy

tʰoⁿ (tʰ̨) - in soliloquy [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ naⁿ o-te niⁿ e tʰoⁿ? i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tttą ną ott nį e tʰ̨? nį̨ iy mat̨ke) - just what can he be looking for? thought the rabbit, it is said [JOD]

 

e-naⁿ (ną) - ! (in soliloquy) [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha e-naⁿ, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te (nkkaka nį sis ttaha ną, nį̨ iy sniwtte) - that person is extremely active! thought Winter, it is said [JOD]

 

some

ki-zoⁿ (kkiz̨) - some

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ka-wi-a-we ki-zoⁿ (kdąnkawiwe kkiz̨) - they said that, they all drunk, some of them [MS]

Dhegiha: ʰki-zoⁿ (ḳi-ⁿ) - some; as some water, some bread [FL-Osage]; ki-zaⁿ ki-zaⁿ (kizáⁿ... kizáⁿ) - some...some [Kaw]

 

ni-ha (nih) - some

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa ta-i ni-ha wa-hi ke wa-ska-ha h ke naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp tʔa nih wah ke waskha h ke ną, iy) - and then (when the Rabbit had gone very far into the Hill) there lay a long line of whitened bones of some of the people who had been first to arrive there and had died, it is said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi te ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ ̨čʰǫ h tʔ nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there who had just now died, it is said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ zho i-kdi-za-za hi ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ o kdizza h nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there with their flesh adhering here and there, it is said [JOD]

 

ha-na iⁿ-ke (han įk) - some

cf. iⁿ-ke (įk) - lying objects, plural/lying/animate; collocations of lying objects; ha-na-hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many; ha-na i-te (han itte) - however much or many

ex: ha-na iⁿ-ke (han įk) - some (however many lying objects)

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, maⁿ ha-na iⁿ-ke aⁿ-ka-xa! (įttatt, m̨ han įk ̨kaγ!) - my father, make some arrows for me! [JOD]

 

some kind or other

ta-taⁿ hi-te (tttą hitt) - some kind or other [JOD]

cf. ta-taⁿ (tttą), ta-toⁿ (tttǫ) - what, something; hi-te (hitt), i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever; ta-taⁿ za-ni (tttą zan) - everything, what/something + all; ta-taⁿ-zhi (tttą) - nothing, what/something + not

ex: wa-hiⁿ-ska ta-taⁿ hi-te ho-taⁿ iⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi te a (wah̨ska tttą hitt httą ̨ wikbnį akd tte ) - I will bring you (my own daughter) back some kind of really good calico cloth [JOD]

Dhegiha: da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what?; something, a thing [JOD-Omaha]; da-doⁿ (ddoⁿ) - what, interrogation [FL-Osage]; ta-taⁿ (tatą) - what (interrogative), thing(s), anything, something, what, whatever (indefinite or relative), what kind, what sort, what type, what class of (interrogative), do what (interrogative) [CQ-Osage]; da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what, something, thing, things [Kaw]

 

some, after some time

e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eǫh nąh̨ ik h t̨ ną) - then, after some time, she grew a little larger (a little older) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-kniⁿ (kįttą eǫh ąkn̨) - then after awhile we camped [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: ni o-ha naⁿ kde e-shoⁿ-hi ki, i-ya-we (n oh ną kd ǫhi k, iywe) - she followed the course of the stream/water heading home, after some time she reached home, they say [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de, iywe) - then, after he had sought him for some time, he found him, they said [JOD]

 

some, at some future time

a-tʰaⁿ-ta-i te (atʰ̨ttai tte) - at some future time

cf. ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future; ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time; a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

Dhegiha: a-tʰaⁿ-daⁿ (atⁿdaⁿ) - at what time (of the day) [JOD-Omaha]; ha-toⁿ-doⁿ (ha-tⁿ doⁿ) - when [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakhⁿda) - when, at what future time [Kaw]

 

some, few, insufficient

zho-wa (ow) - few, insufficient, some

zho-wa (jwa) - little [JOD]

cf. di-zho-wa (diow) - lessen

ex: ni-ka-shi-we zho-wa (nkkaka wa) - a few men [ASG]

ex: e-koⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zh-ka da-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (kǫ nį ow hi ate ka dad k̨ mįkʰ) - so, I urinated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

Dhegiha: ju-ba (jba) - a few, a small quantity [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-pa (zhupa) - few [Omaha]; dsu-ba (ds-ba) - few, scant, not sufficient [FL-Osage]; cho-pa (čopa) - little, few, a small amount or number, a little bit [CQ-Osage]; jo-ba (jba) - some, few, a little, small quantity, diminutive form of dba some [Kaw]

 

somehow or other

haⁿ-ni-tʰe (h̨nitʰ), haⁿ-niⁿ hi-te (h̨nį htte) - somehow or other [JOD]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ (hąn̨ttą), hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ (hǫn̨ttą) - why or how; hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe hǫnįkʰ), hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you?; haⁿ-ni-haⁿ (h̨nih̨) - why [JOD]; hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?; hoⁿ-tʰe (h̨tʰe), hoⁿ-te (h̨tte) - why, how

ex: haⁿ-ni-tʰe ka-ta-te ka-xdo de (h̨nitʰ katttte kaxd d) - somehow or other he got through (pierced) the mud/mire [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ hi-te shi-naⁿ de (h̨nį htte ną d) - somehow he went again [JOD]

 

something, what

ta-taⁿ (tttą) - what, something

ta-taⁿ (tttą) - what, something [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi (tttą hott̨ hi) - something very good [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi zhaⁿ-pi-zhi o-zhi taⁿ ki-ki (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą tttą hott̨ hi ąppi o tą kikʔ) - so then when they (the other girls) went back, he gave his own (his daughter) a wooden box filled with something very good [JOD]

ex: hooa! ta-taⁿ hi wa-zhoⁿ-iⁿ ni-wa-de! (hooʔ! tttą hi wǫ̨ nwade!) - really! this is indeed something hateful! [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ-zhi (tttą) - nothing, what, something+not, negation

ex: ta-taⁿ hi-te (tttą hitt) - some kind or other, whatever [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ za-ni (tttą zan) - everything, what, something+all [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ za-ni hi ki-kiⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ da-wi (tttą zan hi kikʔ̨ ̨tą dwi) - she carried everything on her back when they went [JOD]

ex: e-ti ta-taⁿ e (etti tttą e) - is there anything else? [JOD]

ex: di-te-ke ta-taⁿ naⁿ-pe ni-ke hi, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (dtteke tttą n̨ppe nik hi, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - your uncle (your mothers brother) fears nothing whatsoever, it is said the old woman said.

ex: wi-zhiⁿ-de, ta-taⁿ bdi-za-zhi hi, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wįde, tttą bdzai h, iy iy mat̨ke) - my elder brother, I have taken nothing at all, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were really lacking [JOD] 

ex: haⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, ta-taʰ bda-tʰe niⁿ-haⁿ (hą, n̨ppįhi mįkʰ, tttą bdatʰ nįh̨) - yes, Im hungry, what can I eat? [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-mi, wi-te-ke ta-taⁿ naⁿ-pe niⁿ e? (wttim, wittke tttą n̨ppe n̨ e?) - aunt (my fathers sister), what does uncle (my mothers brother) fear? [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ naⁿ o-te niⁿ e tʰoⁿ? i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tttą ną ott nį e tʰ̨? nį̨ iy mat̨ke) - just what can he be looking for? thought the rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: ta-toⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (tttǫ k̨tta) - what/you desire [JOD]

ex: ta-toⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (tttǫ kǫtt) - what do you want? [OM]

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: ta-taⁿ zha-zhe a-tiⁿ (tttą e att̨) - whats your name? [MS]

ex: ta-taⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka e-tʰaⁿ (tttą wąka etʰą) - what kind of bird is this? [JOD]

ex:  ta-taⁿ ti-ze e (tttą ttiz e) - what have you taken? [JOD]

ex:  wi-zhiⁿ-de, ta-taⁿ bdi-za-zhi hi (wįde, tttą bdzai h) - elder brother, I have taken nothing at all [JOD]

Dhegiha: da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what?; something, a thing [JOD-Omaha]; da-doⁿ (ddoⁿ) - what, interrogation [FL-Osage]; ta-taⁿ (tatą) - what (interrogative), thing(s), anything, something, what, whatever (indefinite or relative), what kind, what sort, what type, what class of (interrogative), do what (interrogative) [CQ-Osage]; da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what, something, thing, things [Kaw]

 

somewhat, to feel like

ti-aⁿ (tį) - to feel like, somewhat

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (ate tį ttaha) - I feel a strong urge to urintate [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe te-zhe ti-aⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nįkʰ te tį nįkʰ) - the woman was feeling the urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (hį tį) - feel a sneeze coming on

ex: a-ki-zhi ti-aⁿ (kkii tį) - feel like farting

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I'm going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

ex: da-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tią́) - sleepy (you feel like laying down) [MS]

 

somewhere else, elsewhere

e-ki-zhi (eki) - somewhere else, elsewhere

e-ki-zhi (eki) - different [JOD]

cf. e-zhi (i) - another, different, other; e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

ex: koⁿi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kǫįttą eki bd ttnih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-zhi (zhi) - strange, different [Omaha]; e-zhi (-zhi) - not that kind [FL-Osage]; e-zhi (ezhi) - odd, unusual, of a different kind, inappropriate, unsuitable, different, other, otherwise, strange [CQ-Osage]; e-zhi (zhi) - other, different, another [Kaw]

 

son

i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhiⁿ-ke (ęke) - son, someones son wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - my, di-zhiⁿ-ke (dįke) - your

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - his or her son [Omaha/Ponca]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - son [Omaha]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (i-zhⁿ-ge) - his or her son [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke) - his/her son (any son); his brothers son, her sisters son (more precise than English his nephew or her nephew [CQ-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhíⁿge) - his or her son [Kaw]

 

wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - son, my son [MS]

wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wizhnke) - son (my son) [ASG]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-zhiⁿ-ke (h̨, wįke) - yes, my son [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-ge (wijge) - my son [JOD-Omaha]; wi-zhiⁿ-ge (wi-zhiⁿ-ge) - my son [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿke (wįke) - my son (any of my sons, including a fist born; in this meaning, used regardless of whether speaker in male or female); my brothers son (used only when speaker is male; more precise than English my nephew; Sonny (as a nickname, used by either male or female speakers for a son or a friend [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-ge (wizhíⁿge) - my son [Kaw]

 

di-zhiⁿ-ke (dįke) - you

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-ge (ijge) - your son [JOD-Omaha]; thi-zhiⁿ-ke (įke) - your son; your brothers son (in both senses used when speaking to a man or to a woman, but its use for speaking to a woman may be more recent) [CQ-Osage]; yi-zhiⁿ-ge (yizhíⁿge) - your son [Kaw]

 

i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhiⁿ-ke (ęke) - son, his or her son

ex: wa-kaⁿ-ta i-zhiⁿ-ke (wakk̨tta įke), wa-koⁿ-ta e-zhiⁿ-ke (wak̨ta ęke) - Gods son

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke (kahke tt̨ka ęke) - Big Chiefs son; the principal chiefs son [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - the Rabbits son [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - his or her son [Omaha/Ponca]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (i-zhⁿ-ge) - his or her son [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke) - his/her son (any son); his brothers son, her sisters son (more precise than English his nephew or her nephew [CQ-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhíⁿge) - his or her son [Kaw]

 

i-zhiⁿ-ke-de (įkede), e-zhiⁿ-ke-de (ękede) - to have as a son i-zhiⁿ-ke-a-de (įkeade) - I, i-zhiⁿ-ke-da-de (įkedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-ge-the (izhⁿgethe) - to have one for a son [Omaha/Ponca]; i-zhiⁿ-ge-ye (izhíⁿgeye) - to have for a son, to call someone i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhíⁿge) [Kaw]

 

son of womans brother or mans sister, nephew

i-taⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), i-toⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), e-taⁿ-shka (ett̨ka) - nephew, son of womans brother or mans sister wi-taⁿ-shka (witt̨ka) - my, di-taⁿ-shka (ditt̨ka) - your

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-shka (i-t͓aⁿ-cka) - his sisters son, his fathers sisters son [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-tu-shka (i-t͓-cka) - her brothers son, including fathers brothers sons son, her mothers sisters sons son, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtsu-shka (i-ṭs-shka) - nephew, son of a sister or fathers sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtso-shka (iʰcka) - his wifes brothers son, his sisters son, her brothers son (more precise than English his/her nephew; his/her fathers sisters son (his/her paternal aunts son; more precise than English his/her cousin [CQ-Osage]; i-tso-shka (icshka) - nephew, mans sisters son [Kaw]

 

i-taⁿ-shka-de (itt̨kade), i-toⁿ-shka-de (itt̨kade) - to have as a nephew or cousin i-taⁿ-shka-a-de (itt̨kaade) - I, i-taⁿ-shka-da-de (itt̨kadade) - you

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-shka-the (i-t͓ⁿ-cka-ĕ) - to have one for an i-taⁿ-shka (it͓aⁿcka) [JOD-Omaha]

 

son-in-law, a mans son-in-law

i-toⁿ-te (itt̨tte), e-toⁿ-te (eT̨Te) - a mans son-in-law wi-i-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my, di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your

Dhegiha: taⁿ-de-ha (tandha) - son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtoⁿ-de (i-ṭⁿ-de), i-ʰtoⁿ-dse (i-ṭⁿ-dse) - son-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtoⁿ-tse (iʰt̨ce) - his/her son-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-toⁿ-je (itⁿje) - son-in-law, his or her son-in-law [Kaw]

           

wi-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my son-in-law

wi-to-ta (witttta) - son-in-law, my son-in-law [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-de (witⁿde) - my son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-dse (wi ṭⁿ-dse) - my son-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (wiʰt̨ce) - my son-in-law, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-toⁿ-je (witⁿje) - my son-in-law [Kaw]

 

 

di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your son-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (iʰt̨ce) - your son-in-law, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-toⁿ-je (yitⁿje) - your son-in-law [Kaw]

                       

i-toⁿ-te-de (itt̨ttede), e-toⁿ-te-de (eT̨Tede) - to have as a son-in-law i-toⁿ-te-a-de (itt̨tteade) - I, i-toⁿ-te-da-de (itt̨ttedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-de-tha-i (itndea) - has him for his son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-toⁿ-je-ye (itⁿjeye) - to have for a son-in-law, to call someone i-toⁿ-je (itⁿje) [Kaw]

 

son, first son

iⁿ-knaⁿ (įkn̨) - first son [JOD]

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi-ka (įkd̨ ka) - first born son

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi (įkd̨ ) - first son [MS]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, wa-zhiⁿ ki-te da ni-he (įkn̨, wą kkte d-nih) - first son, go shoot some birds! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, aⁿ-ka-kde te, i-ke tʰaⁿ (įkn̨, ąkkde tt, ik tʰą) - first son, lets go home, he said to him [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, be ti di-ki niⁿ-ha (įkn̨, be tt dikʔ nįhą) - first son, who would give you a lodge [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, da-kdi a-e (įkn̨, dakd ae) - first son, you have come home? [JOD]

ex: e-ti da, iⁿ-knaⁿ (tti d, įkn̨) - first son, you go there! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, ha-zhoⁿ ni-kʰe, i-ke (įkn̨, hą nikʰ, ik) - first son, what are you doing? she said to him [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti kʰi naⁿ, iⁿknaⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (tt tʰtti kʰ ną, įkn̨, nąppįhi mįkʰ, iy) - when they reached home, she said, first son I am hungry [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿgthⁿ) - first son, a birth order name [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿ-gthⁿ) - special kinship term for the first son, one that only the immediate family uses [FL-Osage]; i-loⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ǫʰpa) - fist son in any clan [CQ-Osage]; i-loⁿ (il̨ǫ), i-loⁿ-taⁿ (il̨ǫʰtą) - eldest son [CQ-Osage]; i-loⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ǫʰpa) - first son in any clan (probably a baby name) [CQ-Osage]; i-lo-a-pa (ilapa) - first born son [Kaw]; i-lo hiⁿ-ga (ilhⁿga) - first born son [Kaw]

 

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, oldest boys birth name

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - oldest boy [MR, OM]

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - boy closer to you [AG]

Dhegiha: kʰa-ge (ka-g) - the _______ born son: also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-ha-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the younger brothers serve as messengers for the elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) - third son or subsequent son in any clan [CQ-Osage]; kʰa-ge (kʰage) - 3rd son, all the way down past 3rd [Kaw]

 

kʰa-zhiⁿ (kʰį) - first son, birth name

 

son, fourth sons birthname

kʰa-ke zhi-ka (kʰak ka) - son, 4th sons birthname

 

son, second born son

iⁿ-kʰe zhi-ka (įkʰ ka), kʰe zhi-ka (kʰe ka) - second born son; birth name

 

son, third sons birthname

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, third sons birthname

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (kʰke, hak nkkaka ett nįkʰe, iy) - younger brother, where is the human being? he said [JOD]

ex: ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ, kʰa-ke, i-ye (hak nkkaka ett nį, kʰke, ye) - where is the human being? younger brother, he said [JOD]

ex: kʰa-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka ha-ki e-ti niⁿ, i-ye (kʰke, nkkaka hak ett nį, iy) - younger brother, where is the human being? he said [JOD]

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-zhoⁿ wi-ke (kʰke, hą wike) - younger brothers, what are you doing [JOD]

Dhegiha: kʰa-ge (ka-g) - the _______ born son: also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-ha-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the younger brothers serve as messengers for the elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) - third son or subsequent son in any clan [CQ-Osage]; kʰa-ge (kʰage) - 3rd son, all the way down past 3rd [Kaw]

 

songs, sing dancing songs

xo-ka (xkka) - sing dancing songs a-xo-ka (axkka) - I, da-xo-ka (daxkka) - you

xo-ka (hŭk-kah) - sing (chanter) [GI]

cf. i-ni-da-he xo-ka (nidhe xkka) - sing dancing songs

ex: a-wa-xo-ka (awxokk) - I sing to them [JOD]

ex: xo-ka (xkka) - he sang [JOD]

ex: xo-ka niⁿ (xkka nį) - he is/was singing [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-xi-ka-zhi wa-xo-ka niⁿ-kʰe (skka tt̨ka mxiki waxkka nįkʰe) - the wild turkey was singing [JOD]

Dhegiha: xu-ka (qka) - to sing when others dance, to sing a dancing song [Omaha/Ponca]; xo-ʰka (xʰka) - sing dancing songs, singers and drummers, all singers of dancing songs [CQ-Osage]

 

songs, sing dancing songs slowly

i-ni-da-he xo-ka (nidhe xkka) - sing dancing songs slowly i-ni-da-he a-xo-ka (nidhe axkka) - I, i-ni-da-he da-xo-ka (nidhe daxkka) - you

cf. xo-ka (xkka) - sing dancing songs

Dhegiha: xu-ka (qka) - to sing when others dance, to sing a dancing song [Omaha/Ponca]; xo-ʰka (xʰka) - sing dancing songs, singers and drummers, all singers of dancing songs [CQ-Osage]

 

songs, to sing non dancing songs

wa-naⁿ (wan̨) - sing (not dancing songs) a-wa-naⁿ (awną) - I, wa-da-naⁿ (wadną) - you

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ e-wa-naⁿ niⁿ (mat̨ke nį waną nį) - the rabbit was singing it (the aforementioned) as he was moving along [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-oⁿ (waoⁿ) - sing, song, choir, music, hum, hymn [Omaha]; wa-aⁿ (waⁿ) - sing, song [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thoⁿ (wa-thⁿ) - to sing; a song [FL-Osage]; wa-thoⁿ (waą) - sing, song [CQ-Osage]; wa-yoⁿ (wayóⁿ), wa-oⁿ (waóⁿ) - sing; song [Kaw]

 

soon, as soon as

o-taⁿ-ka (ttąka) - as soon as [JOD]

ex: pe-ta-ti o-taⁿ-ka (pttatti ttąka) - early in the spring [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨) - day/as soon as/it arrives/when [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ, hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨, h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy) - as soon as it was day, at that time, a great many of people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ (itti hi otąka hi tą) - outside of the lodge/he arrived/as soon as/very/when

ex: a-shi-ti hi o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke te-de i-ya wa-sa (itti hi otąka hi tą mat̨ke tʔede iy was) - just as soon as the black bear went outside, the rabbit killed him, (shot the black bear, giving him a fatal wound) it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ, wa-te-baⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tą, wattb̨ iy mat̨ke tʰą) - as soon as day arrived, the rabbit gave the attack signal, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-wa-tʰoⁿ-ga (watʰⁿga) - as soon as [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-u-tʰoⁿ-ga (wutʰⁿga) - as soon as, immediately after, directly [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-u-wa-tʰoⁿ-ga (wuwatʰⁿga) - as soon as [Omaha/Ponca]

 

soon, not a long time

ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

cf. ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago; ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]; ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-zhi hi (ttįi h) - not a long time, very soon [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te (kįttą ttįi h hatʔ) - then in a very short time, he became sick [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

soot, yellowed by smoke

sho-te ta-zi (tte ttzi) - soot, yellowed by smoke

cf. sho-te (tte) - smoke; ta-zi (ttzi) - burnt yellow; hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

Dhegiha: shu-de na-zi (shdenazi) - soot, turned yellow or brown by smoke [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: shu-de (shde) - smoke; to smoke as a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; shu-de (shide) - smoky; smoke, as a fire [Omaha]; sho-dse (shdse) - smoke [FL-Osage]; sho-tse (ce) - smoke, smoky, dingy, gray [CQ-Osage]; sho-je (shóje) - smoke, fog, to smoke [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-zi (nzi) - smoked yellow, as an old tent; to scorch or smoke an object yellow; to be burnt or scorched yellow [JOD-Omaha]; da-zi-hi (d-i-hi) - to burn a stick until it becomes yellow [FL-Osage]; ta-zi-hi (taazhi) - brown, become brown by application of heat; (be) browned, fried [CQ-Osage]; da-zi-hi (dzihi) - to become yellow; become grayish-yellow [Kaw]

 

sore, a boil

de-ska-kde (dskakde) - boil, sore

Dhegiha: the-ska-gthe (thskagthe) - a purulent swelling or boil about an inch in diameter; boils or pimples, sometimes on the face, they do not break and discharge pus in all cases, if the seed be removed, the lumps will soon disappear [Omaha/Ponca]; the-ska-gthe (th-ka-gthe) - a boil; carbuncle [FL-Osage]; the-ska-li (skali) - boil, sore [CQ-Osage]

 

xdi-xdi (xdxdi), xti-xti (xtxti) - boil; a sore on the body

cf. xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption; pa-xni (ppaxn) - snot, nasal mucus

Dhegiha: xthi-xthi (qthqthi) - to have the body covered with running sores [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: xthi (qthi) - a raw place, a running sore; to ooze out, as pus from a boil or pimple that has burst; to break out in sores [Omaha/Ponca]; xthi (xthi) - sore, opus [Omaha]; xthi (qthi) - ooze, break out; to ooze out as pus from a boil or pimple that has burst; to break out in sores; xthi (xthi) - fester, suppurate [FL-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - mucus, pus [Kaw]

 

sore, pain, ache

iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - to have a pain, ache, hurt aⁿ-te (ąt) - I, di-iⁿ-te (dįte) - you, waⁿ-te-a-we (w̨tewe) - we

iⁿ-de (įd) - hurt [AG]

ex: aⁿ-te (ąt) - hurt me, Im hurting [MS]

 

hi iⁿ-te (hi įt) - toothache, have a toothache hi aⁿ-te (hi ąt) - I, hi di-iⁿ-te (hi dįt) - you, waⁿ-te-a-we (w̨[t]tewe) - we

cf. hi (hi) - tooth; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tooth or teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Kaw]

 

mo-iⁿ-ke iⁿ-te (mǫke įt) - angina, chest pain mo-iⁿ-ke aⁿ-te (mǫke ąt) - I, mo-iⁿ-ke di-iⁿ-te (mǫke dįt) - you

cf. maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿ-iⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), mo-iⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - to have a pain, ache, hurt

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ge (moⁿge) - human chest, breast [Omaha]; moⁿ-ge (mⁿ-ge) - breast or chest of a human being [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ke (mą́ąke), moⁿ-ke (m̨ǫke) - chest [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest of a man, breast of an animal [Kaw]

 

o-ki-te iⁿ-te (okktte įt) - to have rheumatism, joint pain o-ki-te aⁿ-te (okktte ąt) - I, o-ki-te di-iⁿ-te (okktte dįt) - you

cf. o-ki-te (okktte) - joint; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-tʰe (ukʰtʰe) - joint [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ki-te (kite) - joint [Omaha]; u-ʰki-tse (u-ḳ-tse) - a joint [FL-Osage]; o-ki-che (okche), o-ku-che (okche) - joint, the place where two bones are joined [Kaw]

 

pa-hiⁿ-te (ppah̨te) - to have a headache pa-hi aⁿ-te (ppah ąt) - I, pa-hi di-iⁿ-te (ppah diįt) - you, pa-hi waⁿ-te-a-we (ppah w̨tewe) - we

pa-hi iⁿ-te (ppah įt), pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - headache [MS, AG]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - I've got a headache [AG]

ex: pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - I have a headache (to have a headache, he/she has a headache) [OM]

 

ta iⁿ-te (tta ̨te) - diarrhea, to have diarrhea, belly pain ta i-aⁿ-te (tt ąt) - I, ta i-di-iⁿ-te (tt dįte) - you

cf. ta-iⁿ (ttą) - belly below navel; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

 

zho iⁿ-de (jŭ-indeh) - pain (douleur), body/flesh pain [GI]

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

Dhegiha: zhu (zhu) - flesh, body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu (ju) - flesh; a body [JOD-Omaha]; zhu (zhu) - flesh or body [FL-Osage]

 

sorrel, chestnut

hiⁿ zhi-te (hį tte) - sorrel

cf. hiⁿ ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored; zhi-te (tte) - red

 

sort, any sort of bread

wa-ske (wske), wa-ske (wask) - bread, cake or any sort

wa-ske (wske) - bread [AG, OM]

wa-ske (uaskeh) - bread, loaf (pain) [GI]

wa-ske (w˙sGe) - bread [FS]

ex: wa-ske di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (wske dįǫ) - dumplings, corn

ex: wa-ske ski-de (wskeskde) - cake

ex: wa-ske taⁿ-ka (wske tt̨ka) - rye bread [MS]

ex: wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

ex: ma-ze-ni wa-ske (mazni wske) - cheese, lit. milk bread/cake

ex: pe-zhe-xta wa-ske (ppexta wske) - wheat bread

ex: wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread

ex: a-pʰe a-taⁿ wa-ske pa-xa-taⁿ bda-tʰe e-shoⁿ a-ni-he (pʰe ttą wske ppaγ-ttą bdatʰ ę anhe) - I pounded and made bread and I ate it [JOD]

ex: wa-ske ka-xa hne (wske kγa hn) - make bread! [MS]

ex: wa-ske koⁿ-bda (wske kkǫbd) - I want bread [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-ske (w-skĕ) - the hard masses into which parched and pounded corn is kneaded in making wacage [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-mu-ske (wamke) - bread, barley [Omaha]; wa-mu-ske (wamske) - wheat, bread, wheat bread [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-bo-ske (wa-b-ke) - wheat, flour [FL-Osage]; wa-bo-ski (wabski) - bread, wheat flour [Kaw]

 

sort, fruit of any sort

wa-ski-de (waskde) - fruit of any sort

cf. ski-de (skde) - sweet

Dhegiha: wa-ski-the (wakithe) - dessert; pudding; jelly; fruit; berries [Omaha]; wa-ski-the (wa-k-the) - sauce; fruit; sweet food [FL-Osage]; wa-sku-e (waske) - fruit, dessert, any sweet food or sweet sauce [CQ-Osage]; wa-sku-we (waskúwe) - fruit, sweets, berries [Kaw]

 

sort, only that sort

e-koⁿ naⁿ (ek̨ n̨) - only that sort, only that kind

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so; naⁿ-hi (nąh) - alone, all alone; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

ex: e-koⁿ naⁿ (ek̨ n̨) - only that sort [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, e-koⁿ naⁿ o-a-te a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (hǫ, ek̨ n̨ otte anih, iy iy sniwtte) - yes, I have been looking for just that kind, it is said Winter said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - kind, type, as, like, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like, verily, very (FL-Osage); e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true, thats the way, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-naⁿ (enⁿ) - that only [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (e-nⁿ) - only one, sole, exclusive [FL-Osage]; e-na (een), e-naⁿ (een̨) - be the only one, that only, therefore, thats why, enough [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

 

sort, separate

di-ki-da-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort bdi-ki-da-ha (bdkkidaha) - I, ti-ki-da-ha (ttkkidaha) - you

cf. ki-da-ha (kkidha) - separated

Dhegiha: thi-ʰki-tha-ha (th-ḳi-tha-ha) - to separate, to pull apart; to sunder; to rend apart; to sever; to disconnect; to disjoint [FL-Osage]; yu-ki-ya-ha (yukíyaha) - pull apart things that are stuck together, take something apart [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-a-kʰi-tha-ha (i--ki-a-h) - to separate two objects by pulling them apart [JOD-Omaha]

 

sort, so or of that sort

koi-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]; koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

 

sort, that sort

e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so

ex: e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort [JOD]

ex: wi-e e-koⁿ wa-bda-ta-zhi moⁿ, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (we ek̨ w-bdati m̨, iy nįkʰ, iy mat̨ke) - the Rabbit said, I am not accustomed to eating that kind (of food), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like it [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, e-koⁿ o-a-ta-zhi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (hǫ, ek̨ ottai anih, iy iy sniwtte) - no, I am not looking for that kind, it is said Winter said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - kind, type, as, like, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like, verily, very (FL-Osage); e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true, thats the way, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so [Kaw]

 

koⁿ (k̨) - sort [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ (m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną) - quiver/carries on his back/sort/the ones who (as a class) [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ wi-a-de pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, įtʰ̨na m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną wide pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - Oh my son I hope that you become like the young unmarried men (able to take wives) whom I have seen carrying quivers on their backs, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

sort, this sort

de-kaⁿ (dek̨), de-koⁿ (dek̨) - this sort; this kind, like this [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so; koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since, so

Dhegiha: the-goⁿ (thgoⁿ) - thus, so, after this manner, of this sort [Omaha/Ponca]; the-goⁿ (th-goⁿ) - like this, this kind [FL-Osage]; the e-koⁿ (e ek̨) - this way, that way, thus, like this, like that [CQ-Osage]

 

 

soul, spirit, ghost

wa-na-xe (wanγe) - ghost, spirit

wa-na-xe (wanγe) - ghost [MS]

cf. wa-po-ka wa-na-xe (wappka wanγe) - owl, eared, Asio otus

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, and mind [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-na-xe (wanxe) - ghost, spirit [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-xe (wanⁿxe) - ghost, spirit [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-xe (wa-nⁿ-xe) - the soul of a man, the spirit used in rituals, a ghost [FL-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-xe (wan̨ąγe) - spirit, holy spirit, ghost, soul [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-ghe (wanⁿghe) - ghost, spirit [Kaw]

 

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