English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

L

 

lace up

o-di-snoⁿ (odsnǫ) - lace up o-bdi-snoⁿ (obdsnǫ) - I, o-ti-snoⁿ (ottsnǫ) - you

Dhegiha: u-thi-znoⁿ (uthznoⁿ) - thread, lace, harness, to thread a needle, lace a shoe, harness a horse to a wagon [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-hoⁿ u-thi-znoⁿ (wahoⁿ uthinoⁿ) - thread [Omaha]; o-thi-naⁿ (oiną) - fasten, button (e.g., an old-fashioned shoe with buttons or a sweater with buttons), zip, tie up, rope (e.g., a calf) [CQ-Osage]

 

lace up, as a pack

i-ba-zoⁿ-te (baz̨tte) - lace up, as a pack i-pa-zoⁿ-te (ppazǫtte) - I, i-shpa-zoⁿ-te (pazǫtte) - you

cf. i-ki-pa-zoⁿ-te (kkippaz̨tte) - fasten; ka-zaⁿ-te (kaz̨tte) - weave, braid; wa-zoⁿ-te (wzǫtte) - mat

Dhegiha: i-ba-zaⁿ-je (bazaⁿje) - lace up with, fasten shut, to fasten, as the end skins of a tent, by running the sticks or cords from one side to the other [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-zoⁿ-de (bazoⁿde) - to stitch up, sew up, or lace up [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-zoⁿ-dse (-ba-oⁿ-dse) - to lace a shoe, to lace up as a shoe [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zoⁿ-de (zoⁿzoⁿde) - stitch [Omaha]; wa-zoⁿ-dse (w-oⁿ-dse) - any woven article, textile [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-zoⁿ-de (gaoⁿde) - weave, braid [Omaha]; ga-zoⁿ-dse (ga-ⁿ-dse) - to weave, to braid [FL-Osage]; ga-zaⁿ-je (gazⁿje) - weave [Kaw]

 

lack, to have none, be lacking

ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I, di-ni-ke (dinke) - you

niⁿ-ke (nik͓) - none [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, semi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (mątt-įkʰe ąn̨ke) - I do not have a paddle [JOD]

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, mind [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were lacking [JOD]

ex: wa-niⁿ-ke-hi-we (wan̨kehiw) - we have none at all [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-we (nikwe) - they are not, there are none [JOD]

ex: ni niⁿ-ke (ni nįk) - no water [JOD]

ex: ni-ke hi (nik h) - there is none [OM]

ex: ni-ge hi (ni-ge-i) - there is none [LH]

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk' (MS)]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke naⁿ-ta ni-ke niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke nątt nik nįkʰ) - the dog didnt have no ear [MS]

ex: wa-xo ni-ke hi niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nik hi nįkʰ) - hes no good, he has no woman/wife [AG]

ex: ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health, without sickness

ex: wa-haⁿ-ni-ke (wah̨nik) - orphan, without family/relation

ex: hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha ni-ke (hǫb̨tteha nik) - slippers, lit. without moccasin flaps

ex: te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. cow without balls

ex: o-xaⁿ ni-ke (xʔą nik) - for nothing, without cause

ex: ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient, lack hearing

ex: o-ki-te ni-ke (okktte nke) - elephant, lit. without joints

ex: o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿ́-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

ladder, stairway

i-da-ta-kde (idttakde) - ladder, stairway

hi-da-ta-kde (hidttakde) - ladder [JOD]

cf. a-kde (akd) - put; set a standing or perpendicular object upright upon a surface or within something which supports it, as in pitching a tent, placing a candle on a table, etc.; o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand

ex: hi-da-ta-kde o-ha de (hidttakde ha d) - she ascended the ladder [JOD]

 

ladle

ka-te (katt) - dip or ladle out, as food a-te (tte) - I, da-te (date) - you

cf. ni-da-ta-iⁿ-yaⁿ ka-tʰe (nidttąiy̨ katʰ) - ladle out with a cup

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtse (ga-ṭs) - to skim, to skim grease off the surface of water in a kettle [FL-Osage]; ga-tse (gac) - skim a liquid, skim grease [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ga-ʰtse (-ga-ṭse) - an implement for skimming grease from food that is cooking [FL-Osage]; o-yo-ga-tse (oygace) - skim a liquid with an instrument [Kaw]

 

ni-da-taⁿ-i-yaⁿ ka-tʰe (nidttąiy̨ katʰ) - ladle out with a cup

cf. ni i-da-taⁿ (ni dattą́) - cup, with which to drink water [MS]; i-aⁿ (į), i-yaⁿ (iy̨) - with, by means of, i + ʔǫ; ka-te (katt) - dip or ladle out, as food

Dhegiha: ni i-tha-toⁿ (ni ithatoⁿ) - cup [Omaha]; ni i-tha-ʰtoⁿ (n i-tha-ṭoⁿ) - cup, mug, drinking glass, drinking cup, tankard, dipper [FL-Osage]; ni i-tha-ʰtaⁿ (niaaʰtą) - dipper, lsdle, lit., with which to drink water [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni i-ya-taⁿ (zhⁿni iytaⁿ) - dipper, cup made of wood [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtse (ga-ṭs) - to skim, to skim grease off the surface of water in a kettle [FL-Osage]; ga-tse (gac) - skim a liquid, skim grease [Kaw]

 

ti-ke (ttke) - cup, ladle made of horn, refers to clam shell spoon etymologically

ti-ke (ttke) - dipper [MS]

ti-ke (tī gĕ) - wooden spoon, from Francis Good Eagle [MH]

cf. ma-ze ti-ke (maze ttke) - spoon, metal spoon; te-he ti-ke (tteh ttke) - buffalo horn spoon; ti-ke ma-ni (ttke mni) - clam

Dhegiha: ʰtsiu-ge (ṭsiu-ge) - a spoon, a shell spoon, before metal spoons were known to the Indians shells were used for spoons [FL-Osage]; ʰtsu-ke (ʰcke) - spoon, abalone shell, Osage spoons were originally clamshells from creeks, used only for scraping corn, with little ones for children, larger ones for adults, this term is now used for spoons of other materials such as metal, plastic, or wood [CQ-Osage]

 

lady, old lady

wa-xo zhi-ka (waxʔik) - old woman, old female animal; little old lady

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

 

wa-xo zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - aged woman

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been

Dhegiha: wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga hi (wa-ḳ zhⁿ-ga hi) - a woman who has reached old age [FL-Osage]

 

wa-xo zhi-ka xti (waxʔika xti) - aged woman

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother (older uncle); iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt, older [OM]; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka i-niⁿ pa naⁿ (waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek in̨ pa n̨) - grown (old) women wore short dresses [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-u naⁿ hi (wa-u naⁿ h) - to arrive at middle age, said of women only [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wa-ḳ noⁿ-hoⁿ) - a woman of questionable chastity, a harlot, a prostitute [FL-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wakʔ nǫǫh̨) - a woman who has been married, but who is now alone, a widow; prostitute, woman of bad reputation [CQ-Osage]

 

lake

te (te) - lake

te (te) - lake [MS, OM]

te taⁿ (tech-tohn) - lake (lac) [GI]

tʰe xe (t'exʔe˙) - lake [FS]

ex: te kʰe (t kʰe) - the lake

ex: te shoⁿ-shoⁿ (t ̨ǫ) - circular lake [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtse (ṭse), dse (dse) - a lake, small inland body of water [FL-Osage]; je (je) - lake [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtse doⁿ (ṭs doⁿ) - the great lake [FL-Osage]; je taⁿ (j taⁿ), je daⁿ (j dⁿ) - great water, ocean [Kaw]; je taⁿ-ga (je taⁿga), je taⁿ (j taⁿ) - ocean, great lake [Kaw]; je ni-oⁿ-zhu (jnioⁿzh) - lowland lake [Kaw]

 

ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

cf. ni wa-sha-ke hi ( n waʔke h) - bay, large body of water

Dhegiha: ni (n) - water [Omaha/Ponca]; ni (ni) - water, liquid, river [Omaha]; ni (ni) - water, river, rivulet, creek [FL-Osage]; ni (ni) - water, any fluid, liquid [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - water, river, any liquid [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni o-thi-shaⁿ (ni--i-caⁿ) - a lake [JOD-Omaha]; ne u-the-shoⁿ (nutheshoⁿ) - lake, pool of water [Omaha]

Dhegiha:

ni taⁿ-ga (ni-t͓á-ga) - big water, the sea; ocean [JOD-Omaha]; ni-u-ʰtoⁿ-ga (ni-u ṭoⁿ-ga) - big water, the osage name for the Mississippi River [FL-Osage]; ni ʰtaⁿ-ka (ni ʰt̨ka), ni ʰtaⁿ (ni ʰt̨ą) - ocean, sea, Mississippi River, lit., big water [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ni oⁿ-zhu (ni ⁿzhu) - a highland lake [Kaw]; ni stse-je (n scje) - lake, longer than wide, long body of water [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-da-pa (ndapa) - pond, round lake [Kaw]; ni-da-ʰpa (n-da-p̣a) - round water, a pond [FL-Osage]; ni-ta-ʰpa (niitaʰpa) - pond, lit., round water [CQ-Osage]

 

lake, circular lake

te shoⁿ-shoⁿ (t ̨ǫ) - circular lake [JOD]

cf. te (te) - lake; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical

ex: te shoⁿ-shoⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (t ̨ǫ ett nįkʰ) - there was the circular lake [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtse (ṭse), dse (dse) - a lake, small inland body of water [FL-Osage]; je (je) - lake [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtse doⁿ (ṭs doⁿ) - the great lake [FL-Osage]; je taⁿ (j taⁿ), je daⁿ (j dⁿ) - great water, ocean [Kaw]; je taⁿ-ga (je taⁿga), je taⁿ (j taⁿ) - ocean, great lake [Kaw]; je ni-oⁿ-zhu (jnioⁿzh) - lowland lake [Kaw]

 

lame

hi di-ko (hi dkko) - lame, springhalt, be lame as horses

hi di-ko (hi dkko) - cripple [OM]

cf. hi (hi) - leg, stalk, tree, bush, vine; di-ko-ke (dikkke) - cramp in the legs

Dhegiha: thi-ku (thi k) - cramp, convulsion [Omaha]; thi-ʰku-ge (thi-ḳ-ge) - a cramp [FL-Osage]; yu-ko-ge (yukge) - be cramped [Kaw]

 

lamp oil, coal oil, kerosene

a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

cf. a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil, fat; ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil; ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - lamp, coal oil; ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. milk grease; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]; we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - fat wrapped around [JOD]; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ-gthe we-gthi (wnakⁿgthe wgthi) - lamp oil [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ we-gthiⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ we-gthiⁿ) - kerosene oil [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ we-li ni-ni (taʰką wli nini) - oil well, lamp oil spring/well [CQ-Osage]; we-li a-da-kaⁿ (wli dakaⁿ) - coal oil [Kaw]

 

lamp, coal oil lamp

ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil, fat; ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil; a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ-gthe we-gthi (wnakⁿgthe wgthi) - lamp oil [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ we-gthiⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ we-gthiⁿ) - kerosene oil [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ we-li ni-ni (taʰką wli nini) - oil well, lamp oil spring/well [CQ-Osage]; we-li a-da-kaⁿ (wli dakaⁿ) - coal oil [Kaw]

 

lamp, lantern, candle, light

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), ha-ta-kaⁿ (hattką) - lamp, lantern, candle, light

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), a-ta-koⁿ (ttakkǫ) - lantern, light [MS, AB]

ex: a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

ex: ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-da-ʰkoⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ) - a light, articial light [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ (taʰką) - lamp, light [CQ-Osage]; a-da-kaⁿ (dakaⁿ) - shine on, to give forth a light on an object; candle; light something up, illuminate [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-kaⁿ (n-k͓aⁿ) - to shed a light, as a prarie-fire at night, or as a lamp or candle after dark [JOD-Omaha]; na-koⁿ (nakoⁿ) - when a light is on [Omaha]; da-ʰkoⁿ(d-ḳoⁿ) - light, luminous [FL-Osage]; da-kaⁿ (dkaⁿ) - light; be a light [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ gthe (wnakⁿgthe), we-a-na-koⁿ-gthe (wenakⁿgthe) - candle, lamp [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ-gthe (-da-ḳoⁿ-gthe) - a (a), on or upon (i.e., the surroundings); da-ʰkoⁿ (da-ḳoⁿ), light; gthe (gthe), placed upright or in a standing position: a lamp or candle [FL-Osage]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ-the (-da-ḳoⁿ-the) - a lantern [FL-Osage]; a-da-kaⁿ o-le (dakaⁿ ol) - lamp chimney, candlestick [Kaw]; maⁿ-ze a-da-kaⁿ o-le (mⁿze dakaⁿ ol) - lantern, metal lamp [Kaw]

 

land

ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land

ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land [AB, OM]

ex: ma-zhaⁿ kʰe (mą kʰe) - the land

ex: ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de (mą ikąskde) - mile, lit. land measure

ex: ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (mą ikąskde mįxti) - one mile

ex: ma-zhaⁿ shi-ke (mą ike) - war, lit. bad land

ex: ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi (mą iki) - prewar times, before civil war, lit. when the land was good

ex: ma-zhoⁿ wa-da (mą wad), ma-zhaⁿ wa-da (mą wad) - acre of land

ex: ma-zhaⁿ ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (mą kwanįkʰe) - yonder (piece of) land

ex: ha-zi ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (hzi mą i) - grapes, out in the country [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (skka tt̨ka mąatti) - wild turkey

ex: taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat

Dhegiha: moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿzhoⁿ) - world, country, land [Omaha]; ma-zhoⁿ (mazhⁿ) - land [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿ-zhoⁿ) - earth, country, farm, world, land [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-zhaⁿ (m̨ą), moⁿ-zhoⁿ (m̨ǫ) - land, country, countryside, earth, world, allotment, farm [CQ-Osage]; mo-zhoⁿ (mozhⁿ), ma-zhaⁿ (mazhⁿ), moⁿ-zhaⁿ (moⁿzhⁿ) - land, earth, country [Kaw]

 

land, bottom land

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom, same as o-zo-ti-o-we (ozttiow), name of a Quapaw town in Arkansas

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber [Kaw]

 

o-zo-ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber [Kaw]

 

land, point of land

pa-si-kde (ppaskde) - hill with pointed peak or top

pa-si-kde (psikd) - point of land [JOD]

cf. a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; pa-pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose; ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace; pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River; ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tree top, tongue tip, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpa-si (p̣a-) - a peak, point, top of a tree, the top of a pole [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object like the point of a pencil [Kaw]

 

land, striped land turtle

ke kde-ze (kk kdze) - turtle, striped land

ke kde-ze (kk kdze) - turtle, terrapin [MS]

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; kde-ze (kdez) - striped

Dhegiha: ke gthe-ze (kgthee) - tortoise, striped turtle [Omaha]; ʰke gthe-ze (ḳe-gth-e) - box turtle, striped turtle [FL-Osage]; ke le-ze (k lze) - striped turtle, a land turtle, the male of which has red eyes [Kaw]

 

language

i-ye (ye), i-e (e) - language

cf. i-ye (ye) - word; i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; i-ye shtaⁿ (yet̨) - talker, loquacious person; i-ya-zhi (yai) - he/she spoke not [JOD]; i-ye si-ze-ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate; i-ye (iy) - quotative, non-hearsay eviden.; i-ye (iy) - say; i-ye wa-ska (iywaska) - interpreter, lit. talk clear; i-ye-ye (iyye) - to have spoken

Dhegiha: i-e (i) - language [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word, language [Omaha]; i-e (-e) - language, to speak [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer, speak a language, talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speech, language, sentence, speak [Kaw]

 

lantern, lamp, candle, light

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), ha-ta-kaⁿ (hattką) - lamp, lantern, candle, light

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), a-ta-koⁿ (ttakkǫ) - lantern, light [MS, AB]

ex: a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

ex: ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-da-ʰkoⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ) - a light, articial light [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ (taʰką) - lamp, light [CQ-Osage]; a-da-kaⁿ (dakaⁿ) - shine on, to give forth a light on an object; candle; light something up, illuminate [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-kaⁿ (n-k͓aⁿ) - to shed a light, as a prarie-fire at night, or as a lamp or candle after dark [JOD-Omaha]; na-koⁿ (nakoⁿ) - when a light is on [Omaha]; da-ʰkoⁿ(d-ḳoⁿ) - light, luminous [FL-Osage]; da-kaⁿ (dkaⁿ) - light; be a light [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ gthe (wnakⁿgthe), we-a-na-koⁿ-gthe (wenakⁿgthe) - candle, lamp [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ-gthe (-da-ḳoⁿ-gthe) - a (a), on or upon (i.e., the surroundings); da-ʰkoⁿ (da-ḳoⁿ), light; gthe (gthe), placed upright or in a standing position: a lamp or candle [FL-Osage]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ-the (-da-ḳoⁿ-the) - a lantern [FL-Osage]; a-da-kaⁿ o-le (dakaⁿ ol) - lamp chimney, candlestick [Kaw]; maⁿ-ze a-da-kaⁿ o-le (mⁿze dakaⁿ ol) - lantern, metal lamp [Kaw]

 

lard, fat, grease, oil

we-kdi (wkdi) - lard, fat, grease, oil

we-kdi (wkti) - grease, fat [JOD]

we-kdi (weghetih) - oil (huile) [GI]

we-kdi (wkdi) - lard, grease [AB]

we-kjhi (wkǰ) - lard, grease [OM]

ex: ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. milk grease

ex: we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

ex: wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

ex: ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

ex: we-kdi u-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - fat wrapped around [JOD]

ex: ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil

ex: a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

ex: ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - lamp, coal oil               

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

large tendon in the arm

a-koⁿ-ta (akk̨tta) - upper arm; large tendon in the arm of humans and monkeys and that of the foreleg in oxen, etc.

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ-ta (-kaⁿ-ta) - the large tendon of the arm [JOD-Omaha]; a-kaⁿ-ta kaⁿ (-kaⁿ-ta k͓ⁿ) - the muscle of the arm [JOD-Omaha]; te-a-kʰoⁿ-tʰa (tekʰoⁿtʰa) - large tendon in the arm of humans and monkeys, and in the upper foreleg of buffalo, oxen, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ka-toⁿ (akatoⁿ) - muscle [Omaha]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - muscle of the arm [FL-Osage]; a-ʰkoⁿ-ʰtoⁿ-ga (-ḳoⁿ-ṭoⁿ-ga) - muscle of the arm or foreleg [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-ʰtoⁿ-ga (ḳⁿ-ṭoⁿ-ga) - large muscle [FL-Osage]; a-ʰkoⁿ (aʰkǫ) - muscle [CQ-Osage]; a-kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - muscle of the arm [Kaw]

 

large, be large

wa-sha-ke (waʔke), (wʔak) - large, be large aⁿ-wa-sha-ke (ąwʔake) - Im, di-wa-sha-ke (diwʔake) - youre

wa-sha-ke (wacak͓) - very large [JOD]

ex: ma-xpi wa-sha-ke (maxp waʔke) - large clouds

ex: ni wa-sha-ke (n waʔke) - river, large/big river

ex: ni wa-sha-ke pi-za-ti shka-te niⁿ (n waʔk ppiztti ktte n̨) - he was playing in the sand of the large body of water/river [JOD]

ex: o-shta wa-sha-ke (ot waʔak) - very large smooth place [JOD]

ex: o-shta-tʰi, o-shta wa-sha-ke, o-shta taⁿ o-ka-ki-xe hi a-taⁿ-we ki-we (ottʰi, ot waʔak, ot tą okkixe h tąwe kwe) - they arrived at the large smooth place forming a circle to watch him [JOD]

ex: ni wa-zha-ge (n wag) - big river [LQ, OM]

ex: ni wa-sa-ke (ni˙was˙Ge) - river [VG]

 

large, big

taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large aⁿ-taⁿ-ka (ątt̨ka) - Im, di-taⁿ-ka (ditt̨ka) - youre

taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big [MS]

toⁿ-ga (ttoⁿg) - big [OM]

tʰaⁿ-ka (t'̨Ga) - big, large [FS]

ex: zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka taⁿ-ka (ąh̨ka tt̨ka) - large black ant

ex: to taⁿ-ka (tuk-tonkah) - apple of the earth, large potato, prairie turnip (pomme de terre) [GI]

ex: wa-kdi-shka taⁿ-ka (wakdka tt̨ka) - alligator, large reptile

ex: pi-de taⁿ-ka (ppde tt̨ka) - a bird called, pi-de taⁿ-ka (ppde tt̨ka), or Large Acorn, red dots on middle of head, is larger than a hummingbird, dark on temples, bluish body, in the spring of the year it cries, zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte)! zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte), Red buds! Red buds!

ex: maⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (mont-teh-tonkah) - large boat (canot grand) [GI]

ex: shoⁿ-zhi-ka koi-she taⁿ-ka to-wa ke (̨ika koi ttąk twa ke) - they were four large pups [JOD]

ex: kde-bdaⁿ hi taⁿ-ka (kdbdą hi tt̨ka) - thousand, large stock of 10s

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka kʰe (thi ttąk kʰe) - the large thorn (the long object) [JOD]

ex: wa-hi o-taⁿ-ka (whi ttąka), wa-hi o-taⁿ-ka (whi ott̨ka) - spine

ex: zhaⁿ o-taⁿ-ka (̨ ott̨ka) - tree trunk

ex: hi o-taⁿka (h ott̨ka) - teeth, molars

ex: wa-taⁿ-ka (watt̨ka) - special, great, high rank, authority, principal, the great one, a master [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte miⁿ-xti wa-taⁿ-ka a-niⁿ (waokte m̨xti watt̨ka an̨) - so they dance, one leader, special leader [MS]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-ga (toⁿg) - large, big, great [Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-ga (toⁿga) - large, immense, enlargement, big, ample [Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-ga (ṭoⁿ-g) - big, large [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-ka (ʰt̨ka) - big, large, great, grand [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-ga (tⁿga) - be large, big [Kaw]

 

large, cut into large pieces

pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces pa-a-to-we (pattowe) - I, pa-da-to-we (pdattwe) - you

cf. ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil

we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - plow; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu-be (batube) - crush, to crush on something by punching, pounding, or ramming [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-tu-be (bitbe) - crumble, to make something crumble by weight or pressure, as an old log or stump [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-tu-be (gtube) - crumble [Omaha]; tha-tu-be (thtube) - crush with the teeth, chew [Omaha]; ba-ʰto-be (b-ṭo-be) - to slice, to cut up [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]; ba-to-be (batbe) - grind, pound fine [Kaw]; yu-to-we (yutwe), yu-to-be (yutbe) - plow, break virgin ground, to grind, grind up [Kaw]; i-yu-to-we (yutowe), i-yu-to-be (yutobe) - tear something up [Kaw]

 

large, hunt large animals

ta-bde (tbde) - hunt large animals ta-bde bde (tbde bd) - I, ta-bde te (tbde tt) - you, ta-bde de (tbde de) - he/she, ta-bde aⁿ-ka-de (tbde ąkde) - we, I and one other, ta-bde da-we (tbde dwe) - they

ex: ta-bde bde koⁿ-bda miⁿ-kʰe (tbde bd kkǫbd mįkʰ) - I want to go hunting [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de koⁿ-da (tbde de kǫd) - he wanted to go hunting [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de (tbde de) - he went hunting [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ a-ka-sa-ni ta-bde de (ną kasni tbde d) - again, the next morning he went hunting [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de tʰe taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ tʰi (tbde de tʰ tą nkkaka mį tʰ) - when you went hunting a person came [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ tʰaⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tʰą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: i-ki-ho-shi a-ti shi-naⁿ naⁿ ta-bde de (kiho-ti in̨-ną tbde d) - after he forbade her (from eating it), he went hunting again [JOD]

ex: ki-da-ha ta-bde da-we (kkidha tbde dwe) - they went hunting and separated/split up [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka wa-xo i-da-kda-niⁿ ta-bde da-we (h̨tʰąh nkka waxʔ idkdan̨ tbde dwe) - once upon a time, a man and his woman went hunting [JOD]

ex: wa-xo ni-ka zho-ki-kde ta-bde da-we (waxʔ nikk kikde tbde dwe) - a man went hunting with his woman/wife [JOD]

ex: ta-bde aⁿ-ka-de, ni u-ha naⁿ-hi aⁿ-de aⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti shi-a-pe aⁿ-ka-de (tbde ąkde, n oh nąh ̨de ̨nį ną, kįttą tti ipe ąkde) - we went hunting, we were following along the course of the stream/water, then we went ashore there [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ knoⁿ-ke taⁿ ta-bde naⁿ ta te-de taⁿ a-zho-wa ta da-tʰe-wi (kįttą knǫk tą tbde ną tt tʔde tą owa tta dtʰewi) - then he married her, when he hunted, he killed deer, they often ate deer [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka taⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą nkka tʰą tbde kaⁿ-tʰ̨ ną) - then-man-the std.-hunting-he was standing so awhile-past sign) [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: ta-bde kaⁿ-a-tʰaⁿ-he si-ka i-ta da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-da-ki-ho-shi (tbde k̨-atʰ̨he skka itt datʰ dikn̨ tą idkiho) - while I was hunting, she decided to eat a chicken egg, which I had forbidden her to do [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰta-bthe (ṭ-bthe) - to hunt deer, deer hunting [FL-Osage]; ʰta-bre (ʰtabre) - hunting for big game or small game [CQ-Osage]; da-ble (dble) - hunt, go on a hunt [Kaw]

 

large, to walk all around in a large circle

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - to circumambulate at a distance, to walk all around in a large circle [JOD]

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - go around something at a distance o-a-ka-ki-xe (okakixe) - I, o-da-ka-ki-xe (odkakixe) - you

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - going all around in a circle, to be going around [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - when the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-shta-tʰi, o-shta wa-sha-ke, o-shta taⁿ o-ka-ki-xe hi a-taⁿ-we ki-we (ottʰi, ot waʔak, ot tą okkixe h tąwe kwe) - they arrived at the large smooth place forming a circle to watch him [JOD]

ex: o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - he was going around it [JOD]

ex: o-ka-ki-xe hi o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi o-a-zha aⁿ-maⁿ (okkixe h osk̨ską h a ąm̨) - I usually dance, going around in the middle [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-xe (-gi-xe) - all around a place [FL-Osage]; a-thi-gi-xe (-thi-gi-xe) - a circle [FL-Osage]; a-ki-xe (kiɣe) - move around, be all around, encircle a place or a person, be around especially in a bothersome way, pass by, circle around as in a tipi meeting go clear around, avoiding the center, around, skirting the edge of something [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-ghe (gighe) - all around, a roll of something [Kaw]; o-gi-ghe (gighe) - surround something [Kaw]; yu-gi-ghe (yugghe) - tie something up by tying all around the object [Kaw]; ba-gi-ghe (bgighe) - cut around with a knife [Kaw]

 

large, very large

wa-sha-ke hi (waʔke hi) - very large, very big [MS]

wa-sha-ke hi (wak hi) - big [AG]

cf. wa-sha-ke (waʔke), (wʔak) - large, be large; hi (hi) - very

ex: ni wa-sha-ke hi (n waʔke h) - bay, large body of water

ex: ma-xpi wa-sha-ke (maxp waʔke) - large clouds

ex: wa-tʰi-shka wa-sha-ke hi (watʰka waʔke hi) - big river [MS]

ex: pe-te wa-sha-ke hi (pptte waʔke hi) - big fire [MS]

ex: ta wa-sha-ke hi (tta waʔke hi) - buck deer [MS]

ex: si-po-za wa-sha-ke hi (sippza waʔke hi) - big toe [MS]

ex: maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi (mątte waʔke h) - large/broad canoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

 

larger, hunt any of the larger animals

a-ba-zhi (bai) - hunt any of the larger animals a-pa-zhi (ppai) - I, a-shpa-zhi (pai) - you, oⁿ-ba-zhi-we (ǫbiwe) - we

Dhegiha: a-ba-e (bae) - hunt, scout [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba e (aba e) - hunt, hunter [Omaha]; a-ba-e (bae) - to hunt [JOD-Omaha]

 

largest type of hawk

xnaⁿ-shka (xnąk) - largest type of hawk, Goshawk, feeds on rabbits and squirrels

cf. i-be zi-ka (be zkka) - hawk, red tailed or sparrow; kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk, smallest species; ma-ni he-ka (man hkka) - brown hawk, bird hawk; si-ka di-ze (skka dze) - chicken hawk

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ-shka (gthoⁿshk) - a type of hawk that has greyish feathers with white stripes [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ-shka (gthoⁿshka) - red shouldered hawk [Omaha]

 

lariat

i-kaⁿ-de (kkąde) - lariat

cf. koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant; sinew, string, line; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root; ta-kaⁿ (ttakk̨) - thread, deers sinew; i-ki-kaⁿ-de (kikk̨de) - string one's bow; maⁿ-te-kaⁿ (m̨ttekk̨) - bow string; wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line; hoⁿ-be-koⁿ (hǫbkkǫ) - shoelaces, moccasin strings; maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de (mąt-kkąde) - canoe string/rope [JOD]; maⁿ-te kaⁿ (mąt-kką) - canoe string/rope [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-kaⁿ-ye (kaⁿye) - line, strap, lead [Kaw]; we-kaⁿ-ye (wkaⁿye) - lariat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-koⁿ-the (ikoⁿthe) - handle [Omaha]; i-ʰkoⁿ-the (-ḳoⁿ-the) - the pot hanger [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-ke-de i-ʰkoⁿ-the (iⁿ-k-de i-ḳoⁿ-the) - shoulder strap [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ta-koⁿ (takⁿ) - deer sinew, sinew taken from the backs of deer and buffalo and used for thread, bows, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-koⁿ-ha (takⁿha) - sinew, special deer or buffalo sinew used for sewing [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-goⁿ-ha (tagoⁿ ha) - sinew [Omaha]; ʰta-ʰkoⁿ (ṭa-ḳⁿ), ʰkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ) - sinew, the sinew made from deerskin was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ta-kaⁿ (tkⁿ) - deer sinew used for sewing [Kaw]

 

wa-hi-oⁿ (wahǫ) - string, thread, lariat

ex: wa-hi-oⁿ zhi-ka (wahǫ ka) - little rope, string [MS]

ex: wa-hi-oⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (wahǫ ̨ka), wa-hi-oⁿ zhi-ka (wahǫ ka) - small string

ex: ni-ka wa-hi-oⁿ (nkka wahǫ) - rope

ex: ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire

ex: ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph

 

lariat, braid or plait a lariat in two strands

a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands

cf. be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral; be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. twisted tobacco; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

ex: a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ni thi-be-bthiⁿ (zhoⁿn thibbthiⁿ) - twisted or plaited candy, twisted sugar, striped stick candy, candy cane, candy of any type [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-be-bthiⁿ (thi-b-bthiⁿ) - to twist [FL-Osage]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

lark, meadowlark

to-ti-niⁿ-ke (ttttin̨ke) - meadowlark

to-ti-niⁿ-ke (ttttin̨ke) - meadowlark [MS]

Dhegiha: tʰa-tʰi-thiⁿ-ge (tʰtʰithⁿge), tʰa-chʰi-thiⁿ-ge (tʰchʰithⁿge) - meadowlark [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ti thiⁿ-ge (tti thiⁿge) - meadowlark [Omaha]; to-tsiⁿ-yiⁿ-ge (tciⁿyiⁿge), to-i-tsiⁿ-yiⁿ-ge (tociⁿyiⁿge) - meadow lark [Kaw]

 

last

we-ha-ke (whake) - last [JOD]

cf. o-do-ha-ke (odhake) - last one [JOD]

ex: de we-ha-ke, de zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ (d whake, d įk tʰą) - this last one, this small/young one [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-ha-ge (w-ha-ge) - the last one in line [FL-Osage]; wa-ha-ge (wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers [FL-Osage]

 

last of a party or series

a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - last of a party or series

cf. a-shi-aⁿ-he (įhe) - behind, or after him [JOD]; a-shi-aⁿ-he (iąh) - afterward [JOD]; a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago); a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ (iǫhttą) - later, afterward; a-shi-ta (atta) - behind; at or to the back or rear

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he hi tʰaⁿ tʰi-da-taⁿ te-de (iǫhe h tʰą tʰidttą tʔde) - the last of the (hunting) party came, passed and killed it (the buffalo)

ex: zhi-ka a-shi-oⁿ-he niⁿ-kʰe (ik iǫh nįkʰ) - the last of the young ones; the youngest one

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he de (wah̨nįk tʰą iąh d) - the orphan went afterward (behind them, after them) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ha-shi (hci) - last, after [JOD-Omaha]; ha-shi (hashi) - last [Omaha]; ha-shi (h-shi) - end, the last, omega [FL-Osage]; ha-shi (haa) - last, in the back of, behind [CQ-Osage]; ha-shi (hshi) - last, tail end [Kaw]

 

last one

o-do-ha-ke (odhake) - last one [JOD]

ex: de o-do-ha-ke miⁿ-xti o-shte (de odhake m̨xti ot) - this last one was left; this last one remained [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ( odhake) - that last one [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: e-ti i-to-wa tʰaⁿ o-do-ha-ke ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti towa tʰą odhake kkikn̨wi) - they put down the fourth, last born for him [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thu-ha-ge (ahage) - last, at the last [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-ha-ge (u-th-ha-ge) - the last time [FL-Osage]; u-thu-ha-ge tse (u-th-ha-ge tse) - the last, final, the final act [FL-Osage]; o-tho-ha-ke (ohake) - more, last, final [CQ-Osage]; o-yo-ha-ge (oyhage) - last, to be the last [Kaw]

 

last, then at last

koi-she-taⁿ (koitą) - then at last [JOD]

cf. koi-she (kie) - aforementioned words or manner; koi-she (koi) - that [JOD]; koi-she (kie) - that part [JOD]; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

 

late Autumn

wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn, precedes sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska)

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; zhoⁿ (ǫ), zhaⁿ (ą) - sleep, lie, recline; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

 

late, be late, slow, to delay

o-sti-te (stitte) - slow, be late, to delay oⁿ-sti-te (̨stitte) - I, o-di-sti-te (disttte) - you

o-sti-te (stitte) - slow [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te ni-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

Dhegiha: o-shtsu-tse (ocuce) - slowpoke, slow person, pokey one [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-sniⁿ-de (wasnińde) - delay [JOD-Omaha]; u-wa-sniⁿ-de (-wa-s͓nin-de) - delay, tardiness [JOD-Omaha]; shkoⁿ wa-zniⁿ-de (shkⁿ waznⁿde) - slow, movement, to be slow and deliberate in one's movements, to work slowly or take a long time to do something [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-sni-de (wanide) - tardy, late [Omaha]; we-sni-de (wenide) - slow [Omaha]; wa-stu-dse (wa-t-dse) - slow movements, slow walking or moving [FL-Osage]; wa-stsu-tse (wascuce) - slow, pokey, slowly, late, overdue [CQ-Osage]

 

later, afterward

a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ (iǫhttą) - later, afterward

cf. a-shi-aⁿ-he (iąh) - afterward [JOD]; a-shi-aⁿ-he (įhe) - behind or after one [JOD]; a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - last of a party or series; a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago)

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-taⁿ oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨ [tta ǫkatʰ̨]) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: ha-shi (hci) - last, after [JOD-Omaha]; ha-shi (hashi) - last [Omaha]; ha-shi (h-shi) - end, the last, omega [FL-Osage]; ha-shi (haa) - last, in the back of, behind [CQ-Osage]; ha-shi (hshi) - last, tail end [Kaw]

 

laugh much, giggle

i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much i-da-xa de-a-de (idxa dade) - I, i-da-xa de-da-de (daxa ddade) - you

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

Dhegiha: i-xa wa-the-the (xa wathethe) - comical [Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-xa (qa) - laugh, laugh at, to laugh, to laugh at someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-xa (xa) - chuckle, giggle, laugh, smile [Omaha]; i-xa (-xa) - to laugh, to titter [FL-Osage]; i-xa (ixa) - laugh, laugh at [CQ-Osage]; i-xa (xa) - laugh; smile [Kaw]

Dhegiha: the-the (th-the) - to send to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - cause to go [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

laugh often, make fun of

i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe: dissike hnįh ʔ̨w) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were very cruel to mankind [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xa-xa (-qa-qa) - to laugh at, ridicule, make fun of; to get a laugh on one, as by playing a trick on him; to abuse, or maltreat a person [JOD-Omaha]; i-xa-xa (ixaxa) - humiliate, ridicule, harass [Omaha]; i-xa-xa (i-x-xa) - to ridicule [FL-Osage]

 

laugh, smile

i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile i-da-xa (idxa) - I, i-da-xa (daxa) - you

i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile [MS, AG]

i-xa (ich-hah) - laugh, laughter (rire) [GI]

cf. i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much; i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

ex: i-da-xa koⁿ-bda a-ni-he (idxa kkǫbd nih) - I wanted to laugh [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa-zhi (idxa) - I laugh not [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa- iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: i-xa-zhi (ixa) - he/she laugh not [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe i-xa koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe e-ni-te o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi (waxʔ nįkʰe xa k̨da nįkʰe nitte, dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąmį idxa-i) - the woman wanted to laugh, although she thought he will see/find me, I won't laugh [JOD]

ex: i-ki-xa (kixa) - laughing at her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xa (qa) - laugh, laugh at, to laugh, to laugh at someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-xa (xa) - chuckle, giggle, laugh, smile [Omaha]; i-xa (-xa) - to laugh, to titter [FL-Osage]; i-xa (ixa) - laugh, laugh at [CQ-Osage]; i-xa (xa) - laugh; smile [Kaw]

 

laugh, tickle and make laugh

di-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨da) - tickle and make laugh bdi-shiⁿ-da (bdʔįda) - I, ti-shiⁿ-da (ttʔįda) - you

cf. shi-we di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (we diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs; di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs repeatedly; di-xi-xi-da (dixʔxʔida) - scratch an itch

Dhegiha: thi-i-i-tha (thiitha) - tickle, to tickle someone [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be thi-i-tha (shbe thi tha) - tickle [Omaha]; thi-ʰki-tha (thi-ḳ-tha) - to tickle [FL-Osage]; thi-ki-the (ikʔe) - scratch, tickle [CQ-Osage]; yu-ki-ki-ya (yukkiya) - scratch an itch repeatedly, to tickle [Kaw]; yu-ki-ya (yukya) - scratch an itch once [Kaw]

 

lawyer

wa-ki-ya (wkkiy) - lawyer

Dhegiha: wa-u-i-e (waie), wa-w-u-e (wwiu), wa-wi-u-e (wawue) - lawyer, he who gives council or advice; the advice, counsel, law [JOD-Omaha]; wa-o-we (wao we), wa-o-we ga-xe (wao we ga-xe) - lawyer [Omaha]; wa-ʰki-e (w-ḳi-e) - lawyer, a jurist [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰki-e (wʰkie) - lawyer, attorney, lit., taking up for a person [CQ-Osage]

 

lay a long/inanimate object on something

aⁿ-he (̨he) - lay a long/inanimate object on something aⁿ-he (ąh) - I, a-daⁿ-he (dąhe) - you

cf. oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something, put; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn, precedes sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska); i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

ex: ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti-oⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind, ta-te (tttte) + aⁿ-he (̨he)

ex: siⁿ-ti-oⁿ-he (sįttįhe) - crupper, saddle strap, a piece of tack used on horses to keep a saddle, harness or other equipment from sliding forward

 

lay down a singular/lying/inanimate object

a-i-he-de (ihed) - lay down a singular/lying/inanimate object a-i-ha-de (ihde) - I, a-i-he-da-de (ihedde) - you, oⁿ-ka-hi-oⁿ-de (̨kahiǫd) - we, I and one other, oⁿ-ka-hi-oⁿ-da-we (̨kahǫdaw) - we

cf. i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-toⁿ-wi-he-de (ttǫwihde) - put horizontal object down carefully; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; kaⁿ i-he-de (ką ihde), gaⁿ i-he-de (gą ihde) - prone; na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someones singular/lying/inanimate object; pi i-he-de (ppi ihde) - put down safely; so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise; shoⁿ i-he-de (̨ ihde) - bequeath, will, leave something

Dhegiha: i-he-the (ithĕ) - laid down [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something, put

oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something, put o-woⁿ-he (ow̨he) - I, o-doⁿ-he (od̨he) - you, oⁿ-koⁿ-ha-we (ǫk̨hawe) - we

cf. aⁿ-he (̨he) - lay a long/inanimate object on something; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn, precedes sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska); i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

ex: sa-ti o-kdaⁿ oⁿ-he (stti kdą ǫh) - joists, cross timbers of house

ex: ma-hiⁿ oⁿ-he (mhį ǫhe) - knife sheath

Dhegiha: (u-oⁿ-he) - lay [FL-Osage]; o-he (he) - to lay a horizontal object down, such as a pencil or a fork onto a table [Kaw]; oⁿ-he (oⁿh) - classifier for sitting or lying broad object, this is used followng another verb when a large or large and broad object is acted on [Kaw]

 

lay something down, to lay out

kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out

cf. a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze aⁿ-taⁿ ki-kaⁿ-he (kattttize ̨ttaⁿ kkʔąh) - when he swept away/cleared a spot, he put it down (his own item) [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhe-oⁿ-he (zhoⁿhe) - roast, to place a long object, such as an ear of corn, in front of the fire to roast [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay into [CQ-Osage]; ko-he (khe) - lay down an inanimate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-koⁿ-he (koⁿhe), a-ko-he (kohe) - lay something on top of something else [Kaw]; a-ku-ko-he (kukohe) - lay ones own object on a surface for ones own benefit [Kaw]; a-gu-ko-he (gukohe) - lay ones own horizontal object on a surface; lay something on surface for someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ʰkoⁿ-he (-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe), o-ko-he (okhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰki-koⁿ-he (oʰkkʔǫhe) - interrupt, lit., insert oneself into [CQ-Osage]

 

lay, put a horizontal object 

i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object  i-he-a-de (ihade) - I, i-he-da-de (ihdade) - you

cf. i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

ex: ni-ti ni i-he-de (ntti n ihde) - he laid it in the water [JOD]

ex: a-i-he-de (ihed) - lay down a singular/lying/inanimate object

ex: a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight

ex: a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board

ex: a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch

ex: a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

ex: a-toⁿ-wi-he-de (ttǫwihde) - put horizontal object down carefully

ex: di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long

ex: kaⁿ i-he-de (ką ihde), gaⁿ i-he-de (gą ihde) - prone

ex: na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someones singular/lying/inanimate object

ex: pi i-he-de (ppi ihde) - put down safely

ex: so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise

ex: shoⁿ i-he-de (̨ ihde) - bequeath, will, leave something

Dhegiha: i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

lay, to sink and lay or lie

o-spe (osp kʰe) - to sink and lay or lie

cf. spe (spe) - sink; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ex: o-spe kʰe (osp kʰe) - it sank and lay [JOD]

ex: o-da-kdo tʰaⁿ o-spe kʰe (odkdo tʰ̨ osp kʰe) - gnawed holes in it and it sank [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-spe (u-sp) - to sink in water of its own accord, as a person, animal, boat, or tool [JOD-Omaha]; u-spe (u-sp) - a sunken or hollow place; the bed of a stream which has dried up; a valley [JOD-Omaha]; u-spe (uspe) - lowland, ravine, sink, anything dented [Omaha]

 

lazy

o-di-sha-ke hi (odʔake hi) - very lazy [MS]

o-di-sha-ke (odʔake) - refuse, be unwilling, decline o-bdi-sha-ke (obdʔake) - I, o-ti-sha-ke (ottsʔake) - you

ex: o-di-sha-ke (od횒ak) - he refused [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-sha-ge (uthshage) - to be unwilling, to refuse [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thu-ʰtsa-ge (u-th-ṭsa-ge) - anything that becomes a nuisance; offensive; vexatious or annoying; not willing; lazy; idle; one who shirks, avoids work, evades responsibility [FL-Osage]; u-thi-sha-ge (u-th-sha-ge) - lazy man, an idler [FL-Osage]; o-thu-tsa-ke (oucʔake) - laziness, lazy, be or become tired or weary of [CQ-Osage]; o-thu-tsa-ke (uucʔake) - be lazy [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-tsa-ge (yutsage) - be unwilling, refuse, deny, lazy [Kaw]

 

lead

we-da-ka-bni (wdakabni) - lead

 

lead, pull along

di-sto-we (distwe) - lead, pull along bdi-sto-we (bdstowe) - I, ti-sto-we (ttstowe) - you

cf. a-sto-we (stowe) - slide; ki-kdi-sto-we (kkikdstowe) - crawl on ones stomach

Dhegiha: we-thi-znu (wthiznu) - something to pull or drag along by, as a lariat fastened to a sled [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-znu (thinu) - drag, pull, tow [Omaha]; a-ga-stu-e (a-ga-tu-e) - slides [FL-Osage]

 

leader, chief

ka-hi-ke (kahke), ga-hi-ge (gahge) - chief

ga-hi-ge (gahge) - chief [MR, OM]

ka-hi-ke (k͓a-h-k͓e) - masculine name, Chief [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-hi-ge (gahge) - Chief, male name [Omaha]; ga-hi-ge (ga-h-ge) - the great one, the chief [FL-Osage]; ka-hi-ke (ka-h-ke) - chief [CQ-Osage]; ga-hi-ge (gahge) - chief, leader, ruler, be chief, rule over; JOD (reflecting his times): to rule over, as a chief or U.S. agent does [Kaw]

 

leader, stomp dance leader

ki-we-zho-xte (kiwoxkte), ki-we-zho-kte (kiwokte) - stomp dance leader [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte o-zha (waokte a), wa-zho-xte o-zha (waoxte a) - stomp dance [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte ho-ta-iⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we got some good leaders here [MS]

ex: o-zha wa-zho-kte ho-ta-iⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (a waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we have good leaders [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte miⁿ-xti wa-taⁿ-ka a-niⁿ (waokte m̨xti wattą́ka an̨) - so they dance, one leader, special leader [MS]

 

leader, war captain, war chief

to-taⁿ haⁿ-ka (tot̨hąka) - war captain, war chief

cf. to-taⁿ (tot̨) - war; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens

Dhegiha: nu-doⁿ hoⁿ-ga (nudoⁿ hoⁿga) - master, overseer, captain, colonel, director, emperor, boss, chairman, officer, leader, commander [Omaha]; do-doⁿ hoⁿ-ga (do-dⁿ hoⁿ-ga) - chief commander of the army [FL-Osage]; to-taⁿ-ha (tot̨ ha), to-taⁿ haⁿ-ka (tot̨ hąka) - committeeman, member of war 
dance committee, one with rank of war dance committee, one with rank of 
authority, ranking member [CQ-Osage]; do-daⁿ haⁿ-ga (dodⁿ hⁿga) - leader of a war party, captain of a team [Kaw]

 

leaf, leaves

a-pe (ap) - leaf

cf. zhoⁿ a-pe (̨ape) - leaf; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage

Dhegiha: a-be (be) - leaf, leaves of a plant, leaf, leaves [Omaha/Ponca]; a-be (-be) - foliage, leaves, leaf [FL-Osage]; a-pe (pe) - leaf [CQ-Osage]

 

zhoⁿ a-pe (̨ape) - leaf

zhaⁿ a-pe (ą́ ape) - leaves [MS]

zhaⁿ a-pe (jaⁿ́-a-p͓ĕ) - masculine name, Leaf. Dead; son of ni ka-xe (ni k͓axĕ) [JOD]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; a-pe (ap) - leaf

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ a-be (zhⁿabe) - leaf, leaf of a tree or bush [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ a-be (zhoⁿabe) - leaf [Omaha]; zhoⁿ a-be (zhoⁿ΄-a-be) - the leaves of trees [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-pe (ąąp) - leaf [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-ya-be (zhⁿyabe) - leaf, leaves [Kaw]

 

lean near the ground but not touching it

a-da-bda (dabda) - bend near the ground, lean near the ground but not touching it, as tree branches

 

 

lean on

a-bi-ta (bitta) - lean on a-pi-ta (ppitta) - I, a-shpi-ta (pitta) - you, oⁿ-ka-bi-ta-we (ǫkbittawe) - we

ex: a-wi-pa-ta (wippatta) - I lean on you

ex: aⁿ-shpi-ta na-ha (̨pitta nah) - beware lest you lean on me!

Dhegiha: a-bi-ta (-bi-tă) - to touch, as a table, by leanng on it; to touch, as with the hand when one falls [JOD-Omaha]; a-bi-ta (abita) - touch [Omaha]; a-bi-ʰta (-bi-ṭa) - to touch with the flat (palm) of the hand [FL-Osage]; a-bu-ta (buta) - hold, hold down, as to put the hands down gently on and around an object pressing it in order to hold it [Kaw]

 

lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall a-a-kʰaⁿ hi-a-zhoⁿ (akʰą haǫ) - I, a-da-kʰaⁿ hi-da-zhoⁿ (dakʰą hdaǫ) - you, oⁿ-ka-kʰaⁿ hi-oⁿ-zhoⁿ (̨kakʰą hǫǫ) - we, I and one other, oⁿ-ka-kʰaⁿ hi-oⁿ-zhoⁿ-we (̨kakʰą hǫǫw) - we

cf. a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object, make an upright object lean by pulling it; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on, to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lie down, as to sleep or rest, lie against, lean up against [CQ-Osage]; akhaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ (gaⁿ) - against [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ zhiⁿ-he (gaⁿ zhⁿhe) - to lie against an object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-za-da hi-zhoⁿ (ga--da hi-zhoⁿ) - to lie prostrate, as to spread out flat from a fall [FL-Osage]

 

lean, make an upright object lean by pulling it

a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (dikʰą itʰdade), a-ti-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (ttikʰą itʰdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

Dhegiha: a-thi-ʰkoⁿ (-thi-ḳoⁿ) - lay on either side; to recline as when attacking [FL-Osage]; a-thi-kxaⁿ (iikxą) - lie down against; lean up against, recline, rest [CQ-Osage]; a-yu-khaⁿ (yukhaⁿ) - lean on something, as a door [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-koⁿ (-koⁿ) - to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lean up against; lie against; lie down, as to sleep or rest [CQ-Osage]; a-khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]

 

lean, set up a movable object so that it leans against something

a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something (kʰą itʰdade) - you

cf. a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ i-te-the (akaⁿ itĕ) - to place, a stick, etc., against any object [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on, to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lie down, as to sleep or rest, lie against, lean up against [CQ-Osage]; akhaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ (gaⁿ) - against [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ zhiⁿ-he (gaⁿ zhⁿhe) - to lie against an object [Kaw]

 

lean, skinny, thin

xda (xd) - skinny

xda (xd) - skinny [AG]

ex: si-ke xda (ske xd) - skinny girl (daughter) [AG]

Dhegiha: xtha (qtha) - lean, thin, poor [Omaha/Ponca]; xtha (xtha) - reduce [Omaha]; xtha (xtha) - haggard; weary from work [FL-Osage]; xla (xla) - be thin, lean, skinny, poor, weak [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xtha zhiⁿ-ga (xtha-zhⁿ-ga) - lean, gaunt, haggard, slender, slim, thin, lean [FL-Osage]; la-zhiⁿ (ląį) - skinny, slim, slender, thin, lean, poor, pitiful, gaunt, haggard [CQ-Osage]

 

leap, jump

zha-ko-i-de (akkide), (akoide) - jump zha-ko-i-bde (akkibde) - I, zha-ko-i-te (akkitte) - you

cf. zha-ka i-de (kka de), zha-ko-i-de (akide) - jump a rope; zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps; zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance; a-zha-ki i-de (akki de) - jump rope; a-zha-ko-i-de (akkid) - jump over something; jump and go over a stream, log, etc.

ex: o-zha taⁿ maⁿ-shi zha-koi-de taⁿ (a tą m̨i akide tą) - when he danced, he leaped high [JOD]

 

zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps

cf. zha-ko-i-de (akkide), (akoide) - jump; zha-ka i-de (kka de), zha-ko-i-de (akide) - jump a rope; a-zha-ki i-de (akki de) - jump rope; a-zha-ko-i-de (akkid) - jump over something; jump and go over a stream, log, etc.; i-naⁿ (in̨) - sign of sudden effect; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - suddenly and often [JOD]; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - unsteady, ungainly

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną) - he leaped often, or each time [JOD]

 

leave a mark

o-we-tiⁿ (owttį) - to leave a mark o-a-we-tiⁿ (owettį) - I, o-da-we-tiⁿ (odwettį) - you

cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

Dhegiha: u-we-ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ-iⁿ) - a mark of some kind by which a thing may be found; a sign, something placed to aid in the memory of a place; identification mark; a register, a token, a keepsake; to register [FL-Osage]; we-toⁿ-iⁿ (wtoⁿiⁿ) - distinction, difference [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (w-ṭoⁿ-iⁿ) - mark of identification [FL-Osage]; we-tiⁿ (wtiⁿ) - difference, distinction [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

o-ka-maⁿ-te (okmątte) - leave a mark or track o-a-ka-maⁿ-te (okamątte) - I, o-da-ka-maⁿ-te (odkamątte) - you

 

leave none, exterminate

ni-wa-de (nwade) - exterminate, lit. leave none ni-a-wa-de (niawade) - I, ni-wa-da-de (niwadade) - you, ni-oⁿ-wa-da-we (niǫwadawe) - we

cf. ni-de hi (nid hi) - use up, take or destroy all; ni-ki-de (nkide) - to expend someones property; wa-ni-de (wande) - to be generous, give away; wa-ni-ki-de (wankide) - give away someones property

ex: o-ki-hi-ta-zhi ni-ki-de tʰe (okhittai nkide tʰe) - he is anxious to expend it all [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-the) - to exterminate; to destroy utterly; annihilate; to spend money; to give away ones own possessions, till all are gone [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - give away, divest oneself of, be out of, be lacking [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ye (yⁿye) - exterminate, wipe out [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thi e-the (wathi the) - give away [Omaha]; wa-ni-the (wane) - give things away, hold a giveaway, giveaway at i-loⁿ-shka (il̨ǫka) dances and other special occasions [CQ-Osage]; wa-yiⁿ-ye (wayⁿye) - give away freely, as gifts at a dance; to give to a stranger or to a member of another tribe [Kaw]

 

leave something, bequeath, will

shoⁿ i-he-de (̨ ihde) - bequeath, will, leave something shoⁿ i-he-a-de (̨ ihade) - I, shoⁿ i-he-da-de (̨ ihdade) - you

 

shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (̨ in̨de) - bequeath sg/si/in/ob or cloth shoⁿ i-naⁿ-a-de (̨ in̨ade) - I, shoⁿ i-naⁿ-da-de (̨ in̨dade) - you

 

shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-de (̨nįkʰde) - bequeath sg/si/an/ob to someone shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-a-de (̨nįkʰade) - I, shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-da-de (̨nįkʰdade) - you

 

leave, abandon

a-di-o-te (ditte) - abandon, leave a-bdi-o-te (bditte) - I, a-ti-o-te (ttitte) - you, oⁿ-ka-di-o-ta-we (ǫkdittawe) - we

 

leave, abandon ones own

i-ki-ti-ze (kittize) - leave, abandon ones own i-da-ki-ti-ze (idkittze) - I, i-da-ki-ti-ze (dakittze) - you

 

leave, abandon, throw away

oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave oⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I, oⁿ-te (ǫtt) - you, oⁿ-oⁿ-da-we (̨ǫdawe) - we, oⁿ-da-we (ǫdwe) -they

cf. oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly; ki-oⁿ-de de-de (kįde dde) - throw something at someone suddenly; oⁿ-de de-da-da (̨de ddad) - throw back and forth, as the arms when running; a-aⁿ-de (ąde) - to give an illness; communicate a disease

ex: oⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I throw it away [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-a-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-bde naⁿ ho-taⁿ te (̨įtte xw̨ nįkʰ pape ną ǫbd ną httą tte) - well, when I cut out the bad/offensive smelling part and I throw it away, then it will be good [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-de (ǫd) - to throw it away [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫd ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-da-we (ǫdwe) - they threw them away [JOD]

ex: zho-i-ka bdo-ka di-shpa-shpa taⁿ oⁿ-da-we, i-ya (oka bdka dippa attą ǫdwe, iy) - tearing his entire body to pieces and scattering the pieces all around, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ki-ki-aⁿ-de (kikkįde) - she threw away her own for him [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da (̨da) - threw it away [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da de-da-we (̨da ddawe) - threw it away-they sent it off [JOD]

ex: ki-ki-aⁿ-da de-da-we (kkkįda ddawe) - threw away her own for him-they sent it off [JOD]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-the (̨ǫe) - throw away, discard, leave behind, remove, as from office, quit someone, divorce or separate from [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-ye (ⁿye) - leave, throw away, abandon, forsake [Kaw]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - forsake, abandon, leave, throw away [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - oust, discard, abandon, discharge, disqualify, desert, abandoned [Omaha]; oⁿ-tha (ⁿ-tha) - to throw away, to dispense [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-tha (̨ǫa) - throw away, throw, leave or quit someone, discard someone or something, toss out [CQ-Osage]

 

leave, cause to leave, move, cause to move, dislodge, stirrup

shkoⁿ-de (k̨de) - move, cause to move, leave, cause to leave, dislodge, stirrup [JOD]

cf. shkoⁿ (kǫ) - move; de (de) - cause to, to cause

ex: shkoⁿ-aⁿ-de (k̨ąd) - they cause me to move [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ shkoⁿ-aⁿ-de ni-hoⁿ? i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą k̨ąd nih̨? iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - how would it be possible for anyone to make me move?, said the black bear, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: shkoⁿ-wa-da-we (k̨wadwe) - they cause us to move [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ-ki-de (wakkaγe kǫkde) - movie, show, picture show, picture that causes itself to move

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) - do you want to go to the show? [OM]

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ-the (shkⁿthe) - move, dislodge, to cause to move, to dislodge, make restless; stir up [Omaha/Ponca]; shkaⁿ-the (ckaⁿ́ĕ) - made to move, to cause to move; to dislodge game or foe; to make restless; to stir up or start up; to cause deer, etc., to move out from a thicket [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ (shkoⁿ) - move, act, do, to act, be active, move around, do [Omaha/Ponca]; shkaⁿ (ckaⁿ) - to move about, stir; to act, do [JOD-Omaha]; shkoⁿ (shkoⁿ) - to move, to stir, to be active [FL-Osage]; shkaⁿ (ką́) - move, change, as weather, go on, continue, start [CQ-Osage]; shkaⁿ (shkaⁿ) - move around, stir [Kaw]

Dhegiha: the (the) - to cause [Omaha/Ponca]; the (the) - to cause [FL-Osage]; the (e) - make, have or make someone do something, cause something to happen to someone or something [CQ-Osage]; ye (ye) - causative, make happen, to cause, to make, to persuade one to do something [Kaw]

 

leaves, strip off as leaves

di-ka (dik) - strip off, as leaves bdi-ka (bdka) - I, ti-ka (ttka) - you

cf. thi-ga (thi-g) - to husk corn [FL-Osage]; yu-ga (yug) - husk corn, shell nuts [Kaw]; wa-thi-ga (wathi ga) - husk corn [Omaha]; wa-thi-ga (wa-th-ga), wa-thu-ga (wa-th-ga) - to husk corn [FL-Osage]

 

leaving a mark or dent

di-ski-ta (disktta) - to tie tightly leaving a mark or dent bdi-ski-ta (bdskitta) - I, ti-ski-ta (ttskitta) - you

Dhegiha: thi-sku-da (thiskda) - mark by tying or drawing rope over, to mark across the grain by tying or drawing a rope over the surface [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ski-da (thi-k-da) - to tie something tightly, to make an indention [FL-Osage]; yu-ski-da (yuskda) - mark, make a mark with the hands, to make a groove or depression in a bag, or a mark on the leg of a person or animal by tying it very tightly [Kaw]

 

left

de (de) - go bde (bd) - I, te (tt) - you, de (d) - he/she, aⁿ-ka-de (ąkde) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-ka-da-we (ąkdawe) - we, da-we (dwe), da-wi (dwi), da-i (da) - they

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-do-tʰe niⁿ de a-taⁿ wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe ki-ha kdi (kįttą odotʰ nį d ttą waxʔ nįkʰ kih kd) - then when the man eater left, the woman came back down (from up in the tree) [JOD]

 

left hand

da-ta (dtta) - left hand or side

cf. naⁿ-pe da-ta te-ta (nąp dtta tttta) - left hand; a da-ta kʰe ( dtta kʰe) - the left arm

Dhegiha: tha-ta ta-thi-shoⁿ (thata tathishoⁿ) - left side [Omaha]; tha-ta (ta) - left handed [JOD-Omaha]; tha-ʰta (th-ṭa) - the left, on the left, left handed [FL-Osage]; tha-ʰta (ʰta) - left, leftward, lefthand [CQ-Osage]; ya-ta (yta) - left, left side, be left handed [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-pe da-ta te-ta (nąp dtta tttta) - left hand

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; da-ta (dtta) - left hand or side; tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]; a da-ta kʰe ( dtta kʰe) - the left arm

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be tha-ʰta tse (nⁿ-be tha-ṭa tse) - the left hand [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-be ya-ta che (noⁿb yta che), noⁿ-be ya-ta yiⁿ-khe (noⁿb yta yiⁿkh) - the left hand [Kaw]

 

left over, remain

o-shte (ot) - remain, be left over oⁿ-shte (̨te) - I, o-di-shte (odte) - you

cf. o-ka-shte (okte) - to remain after striking [JOD]; o-po-shte (opte) - remain after a shooting

ex: miⁿ-xti o-shte (m̨xti ot) - just one remained [JOD]

ex: de o-do-ha-ke miⁿ-xti o-shte (de odhake m̨xti ot) - this last one was left; this last one remained [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: e-da-te naⁿ-hi a-kda-niⁿ o-shte (edtte nąh akdnį ot) - her father-only-keeping his own-remained [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe, she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ, tto dbnį ̨kit, emi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive (my own remaining), I have already lost (Im lacking) a boy and a girl [MS]

Dhegiha: u-shte (uct) - to remain, to be left over; the remainder, the balance, the rest; remaining, remainder [JOD-Omaha]; u-shte (ushte) - remainder [Omaha]; u-shtse (u-shts), u-stse (u-sts) - the rest, remainder, remained, remnant, left over [FL-Osage]; o-shtse (oc) - remain, be left or left over, leave (as leftovers), spare, remainder, rest, leftover [CQ-Osage]; o-shtse (shce) - remain, be left, be left over [Kaw]

 

o-ka-shte (okte) - to remain after striking [JOD]

cf. o-shte (ot) - remain, be left over; o-po-shte (opte) - remain after a shooting

ex: o-ka-shte (okte) - remained after striking [JOD]

ex: ni-ka miⁿ-xti wa-xo miⁿ-xti, naⁿ-pa o-ka-shte, i-ya (nkka m̨-xti waxʔ m̨-xti, n̨pa okt, iy) - one male and one female, two remained after the striking down of the others, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ga-shte (gacte) - to leave a remnant; to reserve, as a part of anothers wages, yet to be paid him [JOD-Omaha]; u-ga-shte (u-g-shte) - exempt, free from [FL-Osage]; o-ga-shtse (ogshce) - to remain after being struck; save something, set aside, spare, reserve [Kaw]; o-wa-ga-shtse (wagshce) - to allow them to remain after killing the rest by blows; to spare them instead of killing them by blows [Kaw]

 

o-po-shte (opte) - remain after a shooting

cf. o-shte (ot) - remain, be left over; o-ka-shte (okte) - to remain after striking [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-mu-shte (umcte) - to leave after shooting, as bullets, cartridges, or arrows; what remains after shooting, as bullets, cartridges, or arrows [JOD-Omaha]; o-bo-shtse (obshce) - remain after filing, rubbing, or painting, as bullets or arrows; remnant, that which remains after shooting, such as arrows or bullets [Kaw]

 

leg

zhe-ka (ek) - mans leg; hind leg of animal

zhe-ka (ek) - legs [MS]

zhe-ka (jaccah) - leg (jambes) [GI]

cf. zhe-ka taⁿ (ek ttą) - pot, lit. it has legs [MS]; zhe-ka ta (ektta) - leg of a chair; wa-zhiⁿ-ka zhe-ka (wąka ek) - birds legs

Dhegiha: zhe-ga (zhga) - upper part of the leg, thigh [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe-ga (zhega) - leg [Omaha]; zhe-ga (zhe-g) - leg, upper part [FL-Osage]; zhe-ka (ek) - leg [CQ-Osage]; zhe-ga (zheg) - leg; thigh, leg above the knee [Kaw]

 

leg above the knee, thigh

de-ta-ba-ko (dttabakk) - leg above the knee, thigh

cf. de-ta (dtta) - upper part of leg; de-ta-ba-kaⁿ (dttabkką) - front part of upper leg; de-ta-ba-ko wa-hi (dttabakk wah) - femur, thigh bone

 

leg below the knee

hi-naⁿ-pe-hi (hinąpphi), hi-noⁿ-pe-hi (hinǫpphi) - leg below the knee

cf. hi-naⁿ-pe-hi wa-hi (hinąpphi wah) - tibia; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xpe-hi (noⁿxpehi) - shin [Omaha]; noⁿ-xpe-hi (nⁿ-xpe-hi) - the shin, that part of the leg between the knee and the ankle [FL-Osage]; na-xpe-hu (nxpehu) - shin; tibia and fibula (the two bones of the lower leg) [Kaw]

 

leg of a chair

zhe-ka ta (ektta) - leg of a chair

cf. zhe-ka (ek) - mans leg; hind leg of animal

Dhegiha: zhe-ga (zhga) - upper part of the leg, thigh [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe-ga (zhega) - leg [Omaha]; zhe-ga (zhe-g) - leg, upper part [FL-Osage]; zhe-ka (ek) - leg [CQ-Osage]; zhe-ga (zheg) - leg; thigh, leg above the knee [Kaw]

 

leg, back of leg joint

hi-ko-xa-ni-ka (hkkoxankka) - back of leg joint

cf. hi (hi) - leg, tree, bush, vine, stalk

Dhegiha: hi-u-kʰi-tʰe (hukʰtʰe) - the leg joint, under or back of the knee [Omaha/Ponca]; hi-u-ki-te  (hikite) - knee joint [Omaha]; hi-ʰkoʰ-i-noⁿ-doⁿ (h-ḳoⁿ-i-noⁿ-doⁿ) - a hamstring [FL-Osage]; hu-kaⁿ o-zhiⁿ-ga (hkaⁿ ozhⁿga) - lower part of the leg just above the ankle [Kaw]

 

leg, birds legs

wa-zhiⁿ-ka zhe-ka (wąka ek) - birds legs

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; zhe-ka (ek) - mans leg; hind leg of animal

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga te zhe-ga (wazhiⁿga te zhega) - drumstick (birds leg) [Omaha]

 

leg, calf of the leg

hi-zho (ho), hiⁿ-zho (hį) - calf of the leg

Dhegiha: hi-zhi (hi-zh) - calf of the leg [FL-Osage]

 

leg, front part of upper leg

de-ta-ba-kaⁿ (dttabkką) - front part of upper leg

cf. de-ta (dtta) - upper part of leg; de-ta-ba-ko (dttabakk) - leg above the knee, thigh; de-ta-ba-ko wa-hi (dttabakk wah) - femur, thigh bone

 

leg, tree, bush, vine, stalk

hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

hi (hi) - stalk, trunk of tree [FS]

cf. hi di-ko (hi dkko) - lame, springhalt, be lame (horses); hi-ko-xa-ni-ka (hkkoxankka) - back of leg joint; hi-naⁿ-pe-hi (hinąpphi), hi-noⁿ-pe-hi (hinǫpphi) - leg below the knee; hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke), hi-ni-ke (hinke) - leggings; hi-zho (ho), hiⁿ-zho (hį) - calf of the leg; di-xe hi (dγe hi) - willow tree; di-zho-de hi (dide hi) - peach tree, free stone; e-hi (eh) - elm tree; hiⁿ-te naⁿ-be hi (h̨tte n̨be hi) - slippery elm tree; kaⁿ-te hi (kkątthi) - apple tree; kaⁿ-te i-iⁿ-xe (kk̨tte įx hi) - apple tree; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka hi (kkątt tt̨ka hi) - peach tree, clingstone; pa-saⁿ hi (pasąhi) - pine tree; pi-de kde-ze hi (ppde kdze hi) - red oak, lit. striped tree; pi-de sha hi (ppde hi) - white oak, named for the color of its acorns; pi-de ste-te hi (ppde sttte hi) - water oak, lit. tall acorn tree; poⁿ hi (ppǫh) - hickory tree; shta-naⁿ hi (tan̨hi) - persimmon tree; ta-ke hi (ttakhi) - black walnut tree; ta-shka hi (ttakhi) - burr oak; ta-shna hi (ttan̨hi) - ash tree, Fraxinus; wa-ta-sto-ta hi (watstott hi) - pecan tree; we-sa-de hi (wsade hi) - soft maple, black dye tree; xoⁿ-te hi (xǫtthi) - cedar tree; zhaⁿ-ha di-sha-sha-ke hi (ąh dakehi) - blackjack oak, Q. marilandia; zhoⁿ-ni hi (ǫn hi) - maple tree, Acer saccharum; zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te hi (̨xda tte hi) - redbud tree, Cercis Canadensis; maⁿ-sa hi (m̨sa h) - dogwood bush or tree, Cornus; naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree, lit. cracks across the grain; po hi (phi) - black hawthorn bush; pe-zi-ka hi (ppzika h) - gooseberry bush; sha-zhi-ka hi (ika h) - whortleberry bush(es); ta-ni-ba-he-ta hi (tanbahtta hi) - elder bush (Sambucus); to-di-xa-ta hi (ttdixtta hi) - cockleburs; to-di-xa-ta taⁿ-ka hi (ttdixtta tt̨ka hi) - the large cockleburr; Jimpson weed; ti-o-spaⁿ hi (ttispąhi) - red hawthorn bush or tree; wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka hi (watstotta kka hi) - hazel bush; wa-xe-ka hi (waxka hi) - blackberry bush; wa-xe-ka ma-ni hi (waxka mni h) - dewberry bush; wa-xe-ka xo-te hi (waxka xtte h) - raspberry bush; zhi-we taⁿ-ka hi (we tt̨ka hi) - wahoo bush, euonymus atropurpureus; ha-zi kaⁿ-hiⁿ (hzi k̨hį) - grape vine; pa-shte-ka hi (patka hi) - strawberry vine; wa-hi (wah) - cornstalk; o-we wa-hi (we wah) - cornstalk; wa-tʰaⁿ-zi hi (watʰ̨zi h) - cornstalk

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg, tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, tooth, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

leg, upper part of leg

de-ta (dtta) - upper part of leg

cf. de-ta-ba-kaⁿ (dttabkką) - front part of upper leg; de-ta-ba-ko (dttabakk) - leg above the knee, thigh; de-ta-ba-ko wa-hi (dttabakk wah) - femur, thigh bone

 

leggings

hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke), hi-ni-ke (hinke) - leggings

hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke) - leggings [MS]

hin̨ke (ī nǐ kya), (ī nī kya) - leggings, from John Quapaw, Pete Claber, Mrs. Hominy [MH]

cf. ta-ha hi-niⁿ-ke (ta ha hǐ nǐ kya) - buckskin leggings, from Louis Angel Tallchief [MH]; hi-niⁿ-ke zi-zi (hin̨ke ziz) - stockings [MS]; hi-ni-ke zi-zi-ke (hinke zizke) - stockings, hose

Dhegiha: hiu-iⁿ-ge (hi-iⁿ-ge) - leggings (mans) [FL-Osage]; hu-iⁿ-ke (huįke), hiⁿ-oⁿ-ke (h̨įǫke) - hosiery, stockings, socks, leggings [CQ-Osage]; hu-yoⁿ-ge (hyoⁿge), hu-yu-yiⁿ-ge (hyuyiⁿge) - leggings [Kaw]

 

leggings, buckskin leggings

ta-ha hi-niⁿ-ke (ta ha hǐ nǐ kya) - buckskin leggings, from Louis Angel Tallchief [MH]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, meat, especially dried meat; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ta-ha (ttah) - deerskin; hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke), hi-ni-ke (hinke) - leggings; ta-ha hoⁿ-pe (ttah hǫp) - moccasins made of deerskin; ta-ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - shirt, coat, mans tunic, made of buckskin; ta-ha wa-ka-xe (ttah wakγe) - to tan deerskin

Dhegiha: ta-xti ha (tqtiha) - deer hide, deer skin [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-ha (ṭa-ha) - deer skin [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ha (ʰtaaha) - buckskin, deerskin [CQ-Osage]; ta-ha (tah) - deerskin [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu-iⁿ-ge (hi-iⁿ-ge) - leggings (mans) [FL-Osage]; hu-iⁿ-ke (huįke), hiⁿ-oⁿ-ke (h̨įǫke) - hosiery, stockings, socks, leggings [CQ-Osage]; hu-yoⁿ-ge (hyoⁿge), hu-yu-yiⁿ-ge (hyuyiⁿge) - leggings [Kaw]

 

leggings, put on shoes or leggings

o-tʰaⁿ (otʰ̨), o-tʰoⁿ (otʰ̨) - put on shoes or leggings, wear o-a-tʰaⁿ (otʰą) - I, o-da-tʰaⁿ (odtʰą) - you

cf. o-ki-tʰoⁿ (oktʰǫ) - put on, as leggings or moccasins

Dhegiha: u-taⁿ (u-taⁿ́) - to put on leggings; to put on moccasins [JOD-Omaha]; se-hiⁿ-be u-tʰoⁿ (shiⁿbe utʰⁿ) - put on, snowshoe; to put on snow shoes [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-be u-toⁿ (hoⁿ-b u-toⁿ) - to put on moccasins or shoes [FL-Osage]; o-txaⁿ (otx̨), o-kxaⁿ (okx̨) - put on (e.g., pants, shoes) [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ki-tʰoⁿ (oktʰǫ) - put on, as leggings or moccasins o-a-ki-tʰoⁿ (okitʰǫ) - I, o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ (odkitʰǫ) - you

cf. o-tʰaⁿ (otʰ̨), o-tʰoⁿ (otʰ̨) - put on shoes or leggings, wear

Dhegiha:; u-gi-taⁿ (u-g-taⁿ) - to put on his own leggings or pants [JOD-Omaha]; o-ki-txaⁿ (oktxą), o-ki-kxaⁿ (okkxą) - put on ones own pants or shoes [CQ-Osage]

 

legs, cramp in the legs

di-ko-ke (dikkke) - cramp in the legs (only) bdi-ko-ke (bdkkoke) - I, ti-ko-ke (ttkkoke) - you

cf. hi di-ko (hi dkko) - lame, springhalt, be lame (horses); hi di-ko (hi dkko) - cripple [OM)]

Dhegiha: thi-ku (thi k) - cramp, convulsion [Omaha]; thi-ʰku-ge (thi-ḳ-ge) - a cramp [FL-Osage]; yu-ko-ge (yukge) - be cramped [Kaw]

 

legs, stretch or straighten ones legs

naⁿ-sa-ta (nąstta) - stretch or straighten ones legs a-naⁿ-sa-ta (an̨satta) - I, da-naⁿ-sa-ta (dan̨satta) - you

Dhegiha: ki-naⁿ-sa-da (k͓i-naⁿ́-sa-da) - refl. of naⁿ-sa-da (naⁿsada); to stretch his limbs by running or walking; to take a walk for the sake of exercise [JOD-Omaha]

noⁿ-sa-da (noⁿ--da) - to stretch anything with the foot, as one stretches a tight pair of moccasins [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: sa-da (sda) - stretched, straightened out, as an arm or leg [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-da (-da) - stretched, stretch, stiff, rigid, stiff-jointed [FL-Osage]; sa-ta (sta) - stiff, rigid, stiffened [CQ-Osage]; sa-da (sda) - stiff, straightened out [Kaw]

 

lend, loan

o-ki (okʔ) - lend something; give food to someone o-a-ki (okʔi) - I, o-da-ki (odkʔi) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-we (ǫkkʔiwe) - we

cf. ki (kʔi) - give something to someone; o-ki (kʔi) - make offering or sacrifice; ki-ki (kkʔi) - give back, return; ki-ki (kikʔ) - give to ones own (kin)

Dhegiha: u-i (u) - to lend anything, to lend something [Omaha/Ponca]; u-i (ui) - loan, lend, treat [Omaha]; u-ʰki (u-ḳ) - to lend [FL-Osage]; o-ku (okʔ) - lend, give, provide, furnish, supply [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-i (i) - to give food to another [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki (-ḳ) - to feed [FL-Osage]; o-ku (kʔu) - give, provide, furnish, give stuff to someone, feed, giving, giveaway, event of giving or giving away [CQ-Osage]

 

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