English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

I

 

I alone, only I

wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - only I, I alone

wi-naⁿ (wną) - only I, I alone

cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; di-naⁿ (dną) - you only; oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną) - we, only, only us

Dhegiha: wi-noⁿ (wnoⁿ) - only I [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-naⁿ  (wną) - only I [CQ-Osage]

 

I indeed

mi-xti (mxti) - myself, I indeed, emphatic pronoun

cf. xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wi-xti (wqti) - I myself [JOD-Omaha]; zhu-ga wi-xti (zhga wqti) - I myself [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-e-xtsi (wexci) - I myself, more emphatic form of wi-e (we) [CQ-Osage]

 

I myself, even I

wi-e-hi-taⁿ (wihitt̨) - I myself, even I

 

I or whoever was meant

wi-e-te-te (wettett) - I or whoever was meant

cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; te te (tte tt) - such and such, expresses uncertainty; e-te te (tte tt) - perhaps, maybe

 

I to you

            wi (wi) - I to you, first person singular acting on second person

                        ex: i-wi-ki-de (wkide) - I see you; from i-ki-de (kide) - to see ones own

                    ► ex: i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wkide ą́dakn) - Im glad to see you [AB, OM]

                    ► ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, Im glad to see you   [FR]

                        ex: wi-na-xoⁿ (winaxʔǫ) - I heard you; from na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen

                        ex: wi-na-xoⁿ zhi (winaxʔ̨ i) - I didnt hear you [MS]

ex: wi-toⁿ-we (wit̨we) - Im looking at you; from toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something [MR]

ex: a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ-ta miⁿ-kʰe (wittąwe ątta mįkʰe) - I will lie watching you; from a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), a-taⁿ-we (ttąwe) - look upon

                    ► ex: o-wi-bda (owbda) - I tell you; from o-bda (obd) - I tell something

                    ► ex: wi-ki (wikʔ) - I give to you; from ki (kʔi) - to give something to someone

ex: ti de wi-ki (tti d wikʔ) - I give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkitt̨ dakd ną tti d wikʔ tte) - when you have taken her (have her) for me and return here I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her, my own, back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

                        ex: wi-bda-xta (wibdaxt) - I bite you; from bda-xta (bdxta) - I bite something [MS]

                        ex: wi-ki-kaⁿ ta (wi-gi-kun-t) - I will help you; from o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone  [LH]

ex: o-wi-kaⁿ-shi-ka (owkkąik) - I hate you; from o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik) - hate

ex: o-wi-tʰiⁿ (owtʰį) - I hit you; from o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

ex: a-wi-aⁿ-bde (wįbde) - I give it (illness) to you; from a-aⁿ-de (ąde) - to give an illness; communicate a disease

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you; from a-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (bdaska akn̨) - I sit close

ex: a-wi-bdi-xe (wibdiγe) - I take you for my husband; from a-bdi-xe (bdiγe) - I take a man for a husband, I marry a man

ex: a-wi-ka-zhi (wikai) - I command you, I tell you to do something; from a-ka-zhi (kai) - command, tell someone to do something

                        ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

                        ex: wa-wi-ka-zhiⁿ (wwikaį) - I tell you to do something [JOD]

ex: a-wi-ki-bda (wikkibda) - I attack you in return, blow for blow; from a-a-ki-bda (akkbda) - I attack in return, I return blow for blow

 ► ex: a-wi-ki-bda ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkibda tt mįkʰ) - I will attack you in return

                    ► ex: a-wi-ki-pa (wikkipp) - I meet you; from a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal

                    ► ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

                   ► ex: xta-wi-de (xtawid) - I love you, from xta-de (xtad) - love

                        ex: o-wi-ki (owikki) - I say/talk to you; from o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okki) - speak, talk with one

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe (owikki tta mįkʰ) - Im going to talk to you [MS]

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, emi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: a-wi-ki-bde (wikbde) - I go for/fetch for you; from a-ki-bde (akbd) - I go for/fetch something, not my own [JOD]

ex: a-wi-ki-bde te (wikbde tt) - I will go after it for you

ex: a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wikbnį akd) - I have brought back your, I have brought for you; from a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kibnį akd) - I brought it back to him/her

ex: we-da-niⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wdanį wikbnį akd) - I have brought back for you (my relation) clothing [JOD]

                        ex: a-wi-zha-miⁿ (wiam̨) - I honor you; from a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąmį) - I think, regard; I treat as

ex: o-wi-ki-bda-ke (wikibdke) - I tell you; from o-ki-da-ke (kibdake) - I tell it to my own [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe (wikibdke ta mįkʰ) - I will tell youall the news [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ wikibdke ta mįkʰ iwke iy mat̨ke) - yes, I have come, I have come to tell you something, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ (wikkdakʔ̨) - I carry you, my own (around) on my back; from ki-kda-kiⁿ (kikdakʔį) - carry ones own bundle or pack on ones own back [JOD]

                        ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a (wikkdakʔ̨ tte) - I will carry you on my back [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a, i-ke (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tte, ik) - all right! I will carry you (on my back), she said to him [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te iⁿ, i-yi (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tt ̨, iy) - all right! I will carry you (on my back), he said [JOD]

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi (awkda atʰ) - I have come for you, my own; from a-kda a-tʰi (kda atʰ) - I arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not my home) to get my own object (horse, child, gun, etc.)

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi, iⁿ-kaⁿ, i-ke (awkda atʰ, įkk̨, ik) - he said to her, I have come for you (my own), grandmother [JOD]

ex: wi-bdi-ze (wibdze) - I get for you [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka wa-da-ki-te naⁿ maⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ tʰe a-shi-aⁿ-he a-ni-he (wąka wadkkitt n̨ m̨ wibdze am̨bdį tʰe įhe anih) - when you shoot the birds, Ill walk behind you getting the arrows for you [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ tʰe a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tʰe įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi (wi) - a pr. fragment, including both sub. and ob.; I--you(s) [JOD-Omaha]; wi (wi) - combined marker of 1st person sg. Subject and 2nd person object, I you [CQ-Osage]; wi (wi) -  I/you, where 'I' is the subject and 'you' is the object [Kaw]

 

I too, me too

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, also as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (weh̨), wi-e-haⁿ (wieh̨) - I too, me too [JOD]

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - me too [OM]

cf. di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too; e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

ex: wi-e-haⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ hi-we (wiehaⁿ́ ̨nį-hiw) - they took me there also [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde iy tʰą iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

I, as for me

wi-e e-miⁿ-kʰe-ti (we mįkʰtti) - I, as for me

       ► cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - 1sg continuative aux sitting

 

I, but I, whereas I, contrastive

wi-e-zha (wea) - I, but I, whereas I, contrastive

cf. di-e-zha (dea) - you, contrastive; oⁿ-ko-we-zha (ǫkwea - we (contrastive), we, on the one hand

Dhegiha: wi-e-zha (wezha) - I, in contrast to others, marks a contrast between the speaker and someone else [Omaha/Ponca]

 

I, if it were I

wi-e-taⁿ (wettą) - I, if it were I

                    ► cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; taⁿ (tą) - when, if

 

I, me

wi-e (we) - I, 1st singular actor

wi-e (we) - me [MS, OM]

wi-e (wi-eh) - me (moi) [GI]

cf. di-e (de) - you, disjunctive 2nd singular; e (e) - he, she, it, that; oⁿ-ko-we (ǫkwe) - we

ex: wi-e bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we bd tta mįkʰ) - Im going [MS]

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I will go in this direction [JOD]

ex: wi-e a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we akd tta mįkʰ) - I want to go home (I will be going home) [AG]

ex: wi-e a-wa-naⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-khe (we awaną́bde ta mįkʰ) - Im going to eat [AG]

ex: wi-e a-gi-ta (we gtta) - Im getting up [AG]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: wi-e ho-taⁿ (we httą) - I am happy [MW], would expect aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (ąhttą) - Im good, happy

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi wi-e i-da-de (hǫ we idde) - no, I didn't see it [AG]; would expect, i-da-da zhi (idda zhi) - I dont/didnt see

ex: e wi-e a-de (e we de) - yes, I saw it [AG]; conjugates i-de (de) - to see, as a-de (de), expected conjugation i-da-de (idde) - I see

ex: wi-e i-xa (we xa) - I laugh [AG]; would expect i-da-xa (idxa) - I laugh

ex: wi-e maⁿ-niⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (we mąn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I am going to go walking [AG]; would expect conjugated form of verb, a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ (am̨bdį) - I walk

ex: wi-e o-ka-xpa (we okxpa) - Im Quapaw [AG]

ex: wi-e toⁿ ni miⁿ-kʰe (we t̨ ni mįkʰ) - I see you [AG]; would expect same as, wi-toⁿ-we (wit̨we) - Im looking at you [MR]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow); a-kde (akd) - I go home, I start homeward [AG]

Dhegiha: wi-e (we), wi (wi) - I, me [Omaha/Ponca]; wi (wi) - me [Omaha]; wi-e (w-e) - I, me [FL-Osage]; wi (wi) - I am [FL-Osage]; wi-e (we), wi (w) - me, I [CQ-Osage]; we (we), wi-e (wie) - I, me [Kaw]; wi-e (wi), we (we) - me, I am the one who...; it is I who... [Kaw]

 

ice

to-xe (tγe) - ice

Dhegiha: nu-xe (nxe) - ice [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-xe (nxe) - ice, iceberg, icicle, icy [Omaha]; noⁿ-xe (noⁿ-xe) - ice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xe (ną́γe) - ice [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-ghe (nⁿghe), na-ghe (nghe) - ice [Kaw]

 

to-xa-ta (toγtta) - ice

to-xa-ta (toγtta) - ice [MS]

to-xa-ta (toγtta) - on the ice

 

to-xe snaⁿ-ka (t-xe sná-ka), (tqe snáka) - masculine name of the Kwapa ho e-ni-ka-shi-ka (hu nikacik͓a) or Fish gens; Perpendicular Ice, or Ice Standing-on-end: a name of John Hak͓a, the head man of the gens. This name was given as tu-ha snaⁿ-ka (t-ha sná-ka), in 1883 by K.; John Hák͓a of the to-xe a haⁿ-ka (tqe a hak͓a) people [JOD]

 

icicle

maⁿ-ta (m̨tta) - icicle

Dhegiha: nu-xe (nxe) - ice, iceberg, icicle, icy [Omaha]; noⁿ-xe u-ba-doⁿ-the (nⁿ-xe u-ba-doⁿ-the) - icicle [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-ghe o-ja (nⁿghe oj) - icicle [Kaw]

 

if

wi-e-taⁿ (wettą) - I, if it were I

                   ► cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; taⁿ (tą) - when, if

 

i-naⁿ (inaⁿ) - when, if [JOD]

 

naⁿ-haⁿ (naⁿh̨) - if, when [JOD]

ex: maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ te a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tte įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

 

taⁿ (tą) - when, if, following subjunctive verb

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨͓ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

Dhegiha: doⁿ (doⁿ) - because, when, did [FL-Osage]; taⁿ (tą) - if, when, provided that, since, because [CQ-Osage]; daⁿ (daⁿ), da (da) - and, when, so [Kaw]

 

taⁿ-he (tąh) - if only, irrealis modal, postposed to verb phrase

 

e-te te (tte tt) - perhaps, maybe

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe naⁿ, ta-taⁿ ke aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de e-te te, i-ye (ate ną, tttą ke ̨tee hid, mikkxʔe ̨tee hid tte tt, iy) - when I urinated, what is this urinating on me, I wonder if its the stars urinating on me, he said [JOD]

ex: koi ta-taⁿ te-zha-i ke, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zha-i ke e-te te (ki tttą tai k, mikkxʔe ąteai ke tte tt) - what is that urinating, I wonder if the stars are urinating on me [JOD]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we a, e-te te (pahąw a, tte tt) - do youall know? I wonder. [JOD]

 

ignore, heed not, disobey

a-na-xoⁿ-zhi (naxʔǫi) - ignore, heed not, disobey a-a-na-xoⁿ-zhi (anaxʔ̨i) - I, a-da-na-xoⁿ-zhi (danaxʔ̨i) - you

cf. a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - listen to; zhi (i) - not, negation; na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen; wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wanxʔǫ) - to be deaf; ki-na-xoⁿ (knaxʔǫ) - listen to someone, heed someone; o-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - hear about something, hear a report; o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-zo-zo (naxʔǫ kazzo) - newspaper, lit. paper that hears; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph; o-na-xoⁿ-de (onxʔǫde) - tell, lit. cause to hear something

ex: a-a-na-xoⁿ-zhi pʰi (anaxʔ̨i pʰ) - I did not heed him-I was coming, (I ignored him as I was coming) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi (̨nąxʔ̨i) - she had not listened to me, she ignored me [JOD]

ex: tʰi-we, tʰi-we, wi-he, i-ye naⁿ a-na-xaⁿ-zhi hi kde i-ya-we (tʰiw, tʰiw, wih, iy ną naxʔąi h kd iywe) - come, come, younger sister, he said, she was not listening to (ignoring) him as she headed home, they say [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-na-aⁿ-zhi (naaⁿ́ji) - he did not listen to, he does not listen to [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-tha-na-aⁿ-zhi (aⁿ́anaaⁿ́ji) - you do not listen to me [JOD-Omaha]; a-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ-zhi (-noⁿ-ḳoⁿ zhi) - to disobey [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-tha-na-koⁿ-zhi-e (̨anakʔǫe) - you did not listen to me [CQ-Osage]

 

ill behaved

wa-haⁿ-ka zhi  (whǫki) - wild, crazy, ill behaved aⁿ-wa-hoⁿ-ka zhi (ąwhǫki) - I, di-wa-hoⁿ-ka zhi (diwhǫki) - you

wa-haⁿ-ka zhi (whąk i) - crazy, wild [MS, AG, MW]

cf. wa-hoⁿ-ka (whǫk) - to be well behaved

ex: wa-xo wa-haⁿ-ka zhi (uahŭ-uahunkajih) - whore, hooker (putain) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-hoⁿ-ga zhi (whoⁿgazhi) - fearless, unafraid of the cold, not to be afraid of the cold, as said of one who does not seek a shelter, but continues traveling on foot or horseback [Kaw]

 

ill humored

wa-zhaⁿ-ni-ke (wąnike) - ill humored wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke (wąąnike) - I

cf. wa-zhoⁿ-iⁿ ni-wa-de (wǫ̨ nwade) - hateful

 

ill, sick

ha-te (htʔe) - to be sick, ill aⁿ-ha-te (ąhtʔe) - I, di-ha-te (dihtʔe) - you, wa-ha-ta-we (whatʔawe) - we

ha-te (htʔe) - sick [MS, AB, OM]

cf. ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health; ha-te wa-shkoⁿ (htʔe wak̨) - relapse

ex: ha-te miⁿ-kʰe (htʔe mįkʰ) - Im sick [MS]

ex: ha-te shtaⁿ (hątʔ tą) - sickly [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

ex: ha-te niⁿ-kʰe (htʔe nįkʰ) - hes/shes sick [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, ti-aⁿ-zhi, ha-te (kįttą, ttįi h, hatʔ) - then, in a very short time, he became sick [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: ha-te naⁿ di-sha i-ki-ba-haⁿ (hatʔ ną diʔ kibah̨) - he knew he would fail because of his sickness [JOD]

 

ill, speak ill of ones own

kda-shi-ke (kdike) - speak ill of ones own a-kda-shi-ke (akdike) - I, da-kda-shi-ke (dakdike) - you

                        cf. da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly; shi-ke (ke) - bad

Dhegiha: u-gtha-shi-ge (ugthshige) - to complain of his relations, friends, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha-shi-ge (-tha-shi-ge) - to complain [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-shi-ge (wa-th-shi-ge) - to slander [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: gtha-pi-a-zhi (gthpizhi) - to speak ones own badly, speak ones native language incorrectly or speak babdly of ones relative [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: tha-pi-a-zhi (thpazhi) - speak badly, mispronounce, speak evil, to speak a language incorrectly, to pronounce a word or phrase badly, to speak evil of someone [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ʰpi-zhi (tha-p̣-zhi) - execrate [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ʰpi-zhi (wa-th-p̣i-zhi) - to disparage, to speak evil of one [FL-Osage]

 

illness, to give an illness

a-aⁿ-de (ąde) - to give an illness; communicate a disease a-a-aⁿ-bde (aąbde) - I, a-da-aⁿ-te (daątte) - you, oⁿ-ka-aⁿ-da-we (̨kaądawe) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave; oⁿ-da (̨da) - threw it away [JOD]; oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly; ki-oⁿ-de de-de kįde dde) - throw something at someone suddenly

ex: a-wi-aⁿ-bde (wįbde) - I give it (illness) to you

ex: a-di-aⁿ-de (dįde) - he has thrown it on you, he has left his illness with you

ex: aⁿ-da-aⁿ-te (̨daątte) - you have thrown away yours (illness) on me

Dhegiha: a-oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - throw, give, to throw something on someone, to gove someone a disease [Omaha/Ponca]

 

impede

a-ba-to (batʔo) - stop, impede progress a-pa-to (ppatʔo) - I, a-shpa-to (patʔo) - you

cf. a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; wa-ba-to (wbatʔo) - stop, obstruct, impede

ex: a-ba-to-i (batʔoi) - his progress was checked [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu (batu) - to brace or prop an object to keep it from falling [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-ʰtu (-ba-ṭu) - to prevent one from moving by holding one back [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]; a-ba-tso (batso) - brace something, prop something up; to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence; be bashful, hesitant [Kaw]

 

wa-ba-to (wbatʔo) - stop, obstruct, impede wa-pa-to (wppatʔo) - I, wa-shpa-to (wpatʔo) - you

cf. a-ba-to (batʔo) - stop, impede progress; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu (batu) - to brace or prop an object to keep it from falling [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-ʰtu (-ba-ṭu) - to prevent one from moving by holding one back [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]; a-ba-tso (batso) - brace something, prop something up; to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence; be bashful, hesitant [Kaw]

 

imperative

ka (k) - imperative, command, male speech [JOD]

ex: da-we ka (d-wek) - youall begone! [JOD]

ex: o-kda-xa-xa-we ka (okdxʔaxʔ-we k) - give ye the scalp yell often! [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ, etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k, iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell! the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - male imperative, command, male [Omaha]

 

a (a) - imperative, appearing at the end of a command, it replaces the final e (e) of the verb

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!; command form of a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut, cave in

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it! [MS]

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it! (imperative)

ex: a-kda-da (kda d) - go get your own!; command form of a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch one's own

ex: a-shi-niⁿ a-kda da (inį kda d) - go get your coat! [MS]

ex: a-kda da (kda d) - go get your own! (imperative sg.)

ex: a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!; command form of a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

ex: aⁿ-ki-a (ą́kki) - talk to me!; command form of o-ki-e (okkie) - speak, talk with one

ex: aⁿ-ki-a (ą́kki) - talk to me! [MS]

ex: da (d) - go!; command form of de (de) - go

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da, a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te  (dttąnį tti d, iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first!, and I will join you later on

ex: di-e e-ti da (de ett d) - you go! (you go there!) [MS]

ex: ki-te da (kktte d) - go shoot him! [MS]

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: ba-shoⁿ de-da (baǫ́ de-d) - throw it out! [MS]

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

ex: a-ba-taⁿ-de da (battąde da) - push away!, push it! [MS]

ex: ka-xa (kaγ) - make it!, do it!; command form of ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: ki-ka-xa (kikaγ) - make it for him!

ex: a-ki-di-be-niⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: wa-ske ka-xa hne (wske kγa hn) - you making bread (make bread!) [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe bi-ze ka-xa (nąp biz kaγ) - make dry hands! (dry your hands!) [MS]

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn! (turn on the lantern, make it burn!) [MS]

ex: kda (kd) - go home!, start homeward!; command form of kde (kd) - go home, to start homeward

ex: ti-a-di kda (ttadi kd) - go in the house! [MS]

ex: a-kda kda (kda kd) - go back and get yours! (imperative sg.)

ex: o-da (od) - tell it!; command form of o-da (od) - tell something

ex: kdi-za (kdiz) - take your own!; command form of kdi-ze (kdze) - take one's own

ex: maⁿ-niⁿ kdi-za (mąn̨ kdiz) - go get it! [MS]

ex: toⁿ-wa (t̨w) - look!; command form of toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something

ex: toⁿ-wa (t̨w) - look! [AG, OM]

Dhegiha: a (a) - female imperative [Omaha]; a (a) - imperative, particle appearing at the end of a command, replaces final e of verb [CQ-Osage]; a (a) - imperative, used to form commands, used with 3S verb form, regardless of subject, similar to English, please do, please be, do now, or be now [Kaw]

 

ʰne (ʰne) - imperative, possible alternate pronunciation of ni-he (nih)

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da ʰne (de ttǫ tti d ʰn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: wa-ske ka-xa ʰne (wske kγa ʰn) - make bread! [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi ʰne za-ni (ną a kdi ʰn zan)  - youall come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi ʰne (ną zan kdi ʰn) - everybody come back again! [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ba o-zha ʰne za-ni (ą́ba a ʰn zan) - whole bunch of them dance all night! [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta aⁿ-ba o-zha ʰne (waǰni kd tta ą́ba a ʰn) - you white people go home and dance all night! [MS]

ex: di-maⁿ-shi ʰne (dim̨i ʰn) - raise it up! [MS]

ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ ʰne (kidikdą ʰn) - slow!, go easy!, think about it! [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi ʰne (ąkitoį tʰi ʰn) - come see me! [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi ʰne (ną ąkitoį tʰi ʰn) - come back and see me again! [MS]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi ʰne (mą́tʰe datʰ ʰn) - come back inside! [MS]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-he (thiⁿh) - strong suggestion or imperative, sign of strong prohibition, strong warning, express a strong urging [Omaha]; thiⁿ-hau (thiⁿ-ha) - be sure, used at the end of a sentence [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ (į), thi (i), niⁿ (nį), ni (ni) - imperative marker, sentence final marker for command to sg. addressee [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-he (hnⁿhe) - strong imperative or prohibition marker [Kaw]

 

ni-he (nih) - imperative plural

ex: da ni-he (d-nih) - go thou!, you go! [JOD]

ex: di-e ka-ki-de-de da ni-he (de kkiddĕ d nih) - you go in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, wa-zhiⁿ ki-te da ni-he (įkn̨, wą kkte d-nih) - first son, go shoot some birds! [JOD]

ex: shka-te da ni-he (ktte d-nih) - go play! [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he (hǫp im̨tta masni kidtott-inih) - youall pull off/remove the other shoe, the one on the other side! [JOD]

ex: hi ni-he (h-nih) - come thou!, you come! [JOD]

ex: kdi ni-he (kd-nih) - come back! [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-hi-te aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe, aⁿ-te taⁿ zho za-ni ta-xaⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿki-ye (̨hite ątʔ tta mįkʰ, ątʔ tą zan txʔąkid-nih, ąn̨kiye) - well/at any rate I am going to die, when I'm dead barbecue all my flesh for me, he said to me [JOD]

ex: o-ta-shti-te a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ e taⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him! [JOD]

ex: na-zhiⁿ ni-he (ną nih) - stand up!

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-he (thiⁿh) - strong suggestion or imperative, sign of strong prohibition, strong warning, express a strong urging [Omaha]; thiⁿ-hau (thiⁿ-ha) - be sure, used at the end of a sentence [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ (į), thi (i), niⁿ (nį), ni (ni) - imperative marker, sentence final marker for command to sg. addressee [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-he (hnⁿhe) - strong imperative or prohibition marker [Kaw]

 

na-ha (nah) - prohibitive, beware lest...

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ, te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we, i-yi iya (nąp̨, tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe, iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges!, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-he naⁿ (tti tt nah ih ną) - you do not go there!, Ive been saying [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there!, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah) - do not go to the village of the black bears! [JOD)]

ex: da-xa-ke naⁿ-ha (daγke nąh) - beware lest you cry out! [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-shpi-ta na-ha (̨pitta nah) - beware lest you lean on me!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

ex: a-da-ka-xdi-we da-na-zhiⁿ na-ha (dakaxdwe danį nah) - beware lest you stand gazing on it!

ex: ka-she-naⁿ na-ha (kaną nah) - dont do that! [AB]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ha (naⁿha), noⁿ-ha (noⁿha) - imperative [Kaw]; na-ha-o (nahao) - imperative, masculine singular [Kaw]

 

she-do (ed) - get out of the way!, imperative function

she-do (ed) - get away! [MS]

cf. she-do (do) - yonder, there

Dhegiha: she-thu (sh-thu) - yonder, there where you are [FL-Osage]; she-tho (eeo), she-thoⁿ (eę) - there where you are, right there where you are, that person there [CQ-Osage]; she-yo (shy) - there in the distance, yonder [Kaw]

 

impermissive

niⁿ-kʰe de (nįkʰe d) - impermissive, done without permission

cf. ni-ke (nik), niⁿ-ke (nįk) - to have none, be lacking; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative auxiliary sitting

 

impetuous

wa-ki-xdo-zhi (wkkixdoi) - rash, impetuous aⁿ-wa-ki-xdo-zhi (ąwkkixdi) - I, wa-di-ki-xdo-zhi (wadkkixdi) - you

 

improbability

ni-hoⁿ (nih̨) - improbability post clitic, dubitative

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ za-ni te-a-wa-dai ni-hoⁿ, i-ya-we i-ya wa-sa ke (hǫn̨ttą zan tʔewada nih̨ iywe iy was ke) - the black bears said, how could anyone kill all of us?, they say [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te-da-de ni-hoⁿ (hǫn̨ttą tʔdade nih̨) - how would it be possible for you to kill him? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ shkoⁿ-aⁿ-de ni-hoⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą k̨ąd nih̨ iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - how would it be possible for anyone to make me move? said the black bear, it is said

 

improve

ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - convalesce, improve aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (̨hottą) - I, di-ho-taⁿ (dhottą) - you

cf. we-ki-ho-taⁿ de-de (wkihttą dde) - medicine, make you get better; di-ho-taⁿ (dihttą) - do well, to excel; ho-taⁿ (httą) - good

 

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