English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

O

 

oak acorns

pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns of the ta-shka (ttaka) oak are different

cf. pi-de kde-ze hi (ppde kdze hi) - red oak, lit. striped tree; pi-de sha hi (ppde hi) - white oak, named for the color of its acorns; pi-de taⁿ-ka (ppde tt̨ka) - a type of bird, large acorn; a bird called, pi-de taⁿ-ka (ppde tt̨ka), or Large Acorn, red dots on middle of head, is larger than a hummingbird, dark on temples, bluish body, in the spring of the year it cries, zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte)! zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte)! Red buds! Red buds!]; pi-de ste-te hi (ppde sttte hi) - water oak, lit. tall acorn tree

Dhegiha: bu-de (bde) - nut, acorn [Omaha/Ponca]; bu-de (bde) - a nut resembling the acorn, but growing on a different tree, the trunk of which is red (the red oak?), eaten by the Omahas after some preparation, a red oak acorn [JOD-Omaha]; pi-si (p̣i-) - acorn, acorn of the red oak [FL-Osage]; ʰpo-su (ʰpos) - acorn [CQ-Osage]; pu-su zhiⁿ-ga (pus zhiⁿga), pu-su hiⁿ-ga (pushiⁿga) - the smallest type of acorn [Kaw]

 

ta-shka (ttak) - acorn of the burr oak

cf. ta-shka hi (ttakhi) - burr oak, Quercus macrocarpa

Dhegiha: ta-shka (tshka) - acorn [Omaha]; ta-shka (tshka) - acorn [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-shka skiu-e (ṭa-shk-kiu-e) - a sweet acorn [FL-Osage]; ta-ska sku-we (tsk skwe) - acorn or the burr oak, hog acorns, these are fully 2 inches in diameter [Kaw]

 

oak colored

hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

cf. sho-te ta-zi (tte ttzi) - soot, yellowed by smoke

Dhegiha: na-zi (nzi) - smoked yellow, as an old tent; to scorch or smoke an object yellow; to be burnt or scorched yellow [JOD-Omaha]; da-zi-hi (d-i-hi) - to burn a stick until it becomes yellow [FL-Osage]; ta-zi-hi (taazhi) - brown, become brown by application of heat; (be) browned, fried [CQ-Osage]; da-zi-hi (dzihi) - to become yellow; become grayish-yellow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ (h̨į) - color, colors, bright colors [CQ-Osage]

 

oak, black oak

zhaⁿ sha (ǫ) - black oak, Q. velutina

zhaⁿ sha (ą ) - black tree [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood, tree [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood, tree [Omaha]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - a tree, wood, fuel [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - tree, log, wood, lumber, stick, pole, woods, forest [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - wood, a tree or log [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sha-be (shbe) - dark [Omaha/Ponca]; sha-be (shabe) - dark [Omaha]; sha-be (sh-be) - dark in color [FL-Osage]; sha-pe (pe) - dark in color, shaded, darkened [CQ-Osage]; sha-be (shbe) - dark, a distant black, brown [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ sha-be hi (zhⁿ sha-be hi) - dark wood, the redbud or Judas tree (Cercis Canadensis) [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ sha-be hu (zhⁿ shabe hu) - redbud tree, lit. the dark wood tree [Kaw]

 

oak, blackjack oak

zhaⁿ-ha di-sha-sha-ke hi (ąh dakehi) - blackjack oak, Q. marilandia

cf. zhoⁿ-ha (ǫh), zhaⁿ-ha (ąh) - bark of a tree; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿha) - bark, tree bark (on the tree) [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿ-ha) - the outer bark of a tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-ha (̨ą ha) - outer bark of a tree [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg, tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, tooth, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

oak, burr oak

ta-shka hi (ttakhi) - burr oak, Quercus macrocarpa

cf. ta-shka (ttak) - acorn of the burr oak; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ta-shka hi (tshkahi) - white oak tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-shka ska hi  (ṭ-shka ka hi) - white oak tree [FL-Osage]; ʰta-shka hi (ṭ-shka hi) - buckeye (Aesculus), a kind of tea is made from this tree and taken just before a sweat bath to bring up bile, this is also the name given to the white oak tree [FL-Osage]; ta-shka hu (tshka hu) - the burr oak [Kaw]; ʰta-shka skiu-e hi  (ṭa-shk-kiu-e hi) - a sweet acorn tree, the oak family (Quercus alba) [FL-Osage]

 

oak, post oak

zhoⁿ xo-te (ǫ xtte) - post oak, Q. stellata

zhaⁿ xo-te (ą xtte) - gray tree [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xo-te (xtte) - gray

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ xu-dse (zhⁿ-xu-dse) - white oak [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ xu-dse (zhoⁿ x-dse) - gray oak tree (Quercus borealis), oak tree [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ xo-dse hi (zhⁿ-xo-dse hi) - the gray tree, the post oak, this tree is sometimes known as the iron oak, but should not be confused with ironwood [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ xo-je hu (zhⁿ xoje h) - white oak tree, lit. gray wood tree, the white oak, it has a large trunk, about 2 1/2 ft. in diameter [Kaw]

 

oak, red oak

pi-de kde-ze hi (ppde kdze hi) - red oak, lit. striped tree

cf. pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns; kde-ze (kdez) - striped; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bu-de hi (bde hi) - red oak [Omaha]; ʰpi-si hi (p̣i- hi) - red oak tree (Quercus rubra) [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-su hu (ʰpishu) - oak, lit., acorn tree [CQ-Osage]; pu-su hu (pushu) - jack oak, a species that bears smallest acorns [Kaw]

 

oak, water oak

pi-de ste-te hi (ppde sttte hi) - water oak, lit. tall acorn tree

cf. pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bu-de hi (bde hi) - red oak [Omaha]; ʰpi-si hi (p̣i- hi) - red oak tree (Quercus rubra) [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-su hu (ʰpishu) - oak, lit., acorn tree [CQ-Osage]; pu-su hu (pushu) - jack oak, a species that bears smallest acorns [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-si stse-dse (p̣i--stse-dse) - long acorn, acorn of the white oak [FL-Osage]; pi-si stse-dse hi (p̣i--stse-dse hi) - the long acorn tree [FL-Osage]

 

oak, white oak

pi-de sha hi (ppde hi) - white oak, named for the color of its acorns

cf. pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bu-de hi (bde hi) - red oak [Omaha]; ʰpi-si hi (p̣i- hi) - red oak tree (Quercus rubra) [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-su hu (ʰpishu) - oak, lit., acorn tree [CQ-Osage]; pu-su hu (pushu) - jack oak, a species that bears smallest acorns [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-si sha-be hi (p̣i- sha-be hi) - the dark acorn tree [FL-Osage]

 

oar, paddle

maⁿ-te iⁿ-kʰe (mątt įkʰ) - oar, paddle [JOD]

maⁿ-te iⁿ-kʰe (monnteh-nkĭēh) - oar, paddle (aviron) [GI]

cf. maⁿ-te (mątt) - boat, canoe

ex: maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (mątt-įkʰe ąn̨ke) - I do not have a paddle [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe o-pʰe koiⁿ-xe aniⁿ de naⁿ, i-ya-we (e mąttįkʰ opʰ kįγe an̨ d ną, iywe) - when he used the paddle, he went crooked (around and around), they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-de (moⁿ-de) - hunting bow, boat, ferry, boat deck, canoe [Omaha]; maⁿ-de (mand) - boat [JOD-Omaha]; ba-dse (ba-ds) - any kind of boat [FL-Osage]; pa-tse (pce) - boat [CQ-Osage]; ba-je (baj) - boat, canoe [Kaw]

 

oblong, elliptical

sto-ka (stokk) - oblong, elliptical

cf. di-sto-ka (distkka) - round, make elliptical

Dhegiha: snu-ʰka (n-ḳa) - oval, egg-shaped [FL-Osage]

 

obstruct, stop, impede

wa-ba-to (wbatʔo) - stop, obstruct, impede wa-pa-to (wppatʔo) - I, wa-shpa-to (wpatʔo) - you

cf. a-ba-to (batʔo) - stop, impede progress; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors

ex: a-ba-to-i (batʔoi) - his progress was checked [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu (batu) - to brace or prop an object to keep it from falling [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-ʰtu (-ba-ṭu) - to prevent one from moving by holding one back [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]; a-ba-tso (batso) - brace something, prop something up; to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence; be bashful, hesitant [Kaw]

 

odor, armpit odor

to-si zaⁿ-ze (tos z̨ze) - armpit odor

cf. to-si (tos) - armpit; zaⁿ-ze (z̨ze) - offensive smell, , strong smell

Dhegiha: nu-si (nus) - armpit, underarm [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-si (nu) - armpit [Omaha]; thu-si (thu-), do-siu (do-i) - armpit, the pit of the arm [FL-Osage]; do-su (dos) - armpits [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zaⁿ-ze (zⁿ-ze) - applicable to the strong odor of a negro, goat, buck, or that of a male of the black-tailed deer during the rutting season [JOD-Omaha]; zoⁿ-ze (zⁿze) - musky, smelly [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-ze (zoⁿze) - stink [Omaha]; zaⁿ-zi (z̨zi) - sour odor, acrid smell (such as armpit odor or onion smell [CQ-Osage]

 

odor, emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell, emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell [OM]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ, pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą, pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good

ex: bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad

ex: di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands)

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something

ex: ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

ex: xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, emit odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, fumes, odor [Omaha]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - odor, scent [FL-Osage]; braⁿ (br̨) - smell, emanate an odor, give off a fragrance, scent [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ (blaⁿ), bloⁿ (bloⁿ) - smell, odor, exhale or emit an odor [Kaw]

 

odor, offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį), xo-wiⁿ (xow̨) - stink, emit offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį) - stink [MS]

ex: si xwiⁿ (si xwį) - stink feet [OM]

ex: ni xwiⁿ (ni xwį) - sulphur spring water [OM]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-zhe o-di-zhiⁿ-te i-ya-we, o-di-bnaⁿ i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (n̨ ̨e odįtte iywe, odbną iywe, hǫhǫ, xwį h, iy) - he thrust his hand/fingers into her vagina again, he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-a-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-bde, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te (̨įtte, xw̨ nįkʰ pape ną ǫbd, ną httą tte) - well, when I cut out the bad/offensive smelling part and I throw it away, then it will be good [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte, xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫde, ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: xwiⁿ (qwiⁿ), xuiⁿ (quⁿ) - corrupt, putrid, rotten, offensive, stink, stinking, as carrion [Omaha/Ponca]; xuiⁿ (xuiⁿ) - stink, stench [Omaha]; xwiⁿ (xwiⁿ) - fetid, offensive smell [FL-Osage]; xoiⁿ (ɣǫ) - stink, stinky, fetid odor or offensive smell [CQ-Osage]

 

off and on

a-ta-pa-xti (ttapaxt) - off and on, at regular intervals [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

 

i-da-da (idda) - showing at intervals [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-da i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

 

off white

saⁿ (są) - white in the distance

cf. saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - white in the distance; ska (ska) - white, white nearby

ex: xi-da pa saⁿ (xid ppa s̨) - bald eagle

ex: zhoⁿ saⁿ (̨ są) - sycamore, Platanus occidental

Dhegiha: saⁿ (saⁿ) - whitish [JOD-Omaha]; soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - white in the distance

saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - whitish, grayish [JOD]

cf. saⁿ (są) - white in the distance; ska (ska) - white, white nearby

ex: ma-xe o-ta-saⁿ-haⁿ (maγe ottasąhą) - aurora

ex: to soⁿ-ha (tu soⁿho) - pale green [JOD]

ex: tu sa-ho (tu s-ho) - pale green [OM]

ex: zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - scarlet, pink

ex: zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - pink [OM)]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-de i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he h̨ba s̨hą tih) - dawn, daybreak [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he taⁿ (h̨ba s̨hą tih tą) - when it is daybreak [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight

Dhegiha: saⁿ (saⁿ) - whitish [JOD-Omaha]; soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

off, bite off

da-zho (da) - bite off bda-zho (bdo) - I, ta-zho (tto) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; di-zho-de (dide) - hull, peel

Dhegiha: ya-zhu-zhu (yzhuzhu) - bite off the hull or skin, eat corn on the cob [Kaw]; ya-zhu-we (yazhwe) - bite off the hull or skin, eat corn on the cob [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-zhu (gazh) - to hull or husk [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-zhu (ga-zh) - to hull walnuts by pounding [FL-Osage]; ga-zhu-we (gazhwe) - hull walnuts by pounding; to remove bran from grains of corn [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-zhu-e (thi-zh-e) - to hull; to take off the outer coating of grain, nuts, etc. [FL-Osage]; yu-zho-we (yuzhwe), yu-zhu-we (yuzhwe) - hull nuts with the hands, to remove the hull or skin of any object with the hands; to hull walnuts, beans, hazelnuts, etc. when green, with the hands [Kaw]

 

off, bite off something

da-ti-ze (dattze) - bite off something bda-ti-ze (bdttize) - I, ta-ti-ze (ttttize) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; i-ti-ze (ttize) - clean out the house; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing or blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet; po-ti-ze (pttize), po-tʰi-ze (ptʰize) - move something by punching or shooting

 

off, bites off a teat

ma-ze-pa wa-da-se (mazppa wadse) - katydid, lit. bites off a teat

cf. ma-ze-pa (mazppa) - nipple of the breast; da (da) - by mouth; pa-se (pse) - cut off with a knife

Dhegiha: ba-ze wa-tha-se (ba--wa-tha-e) - katydid, the Osage women lived in fear of the katydid [FL-Osage]; si-pa wa-tha-se (sip wathse) - stag beetle, toe biter [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze-pa (moⁿpa) - womans nipple [Omaha]; ba-ze-pa (ba--pa) - nipple, teat [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-se (as) - biting off [JOD-Omaha]; ya-se (yas) - bite off [Kaw]

 

off, blows cold on and off

ka-sni-sni (kasnsni) - autumn, blows cold on and off

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water; sni (sni) - cold, to be cold

Dhegiha: u-ga-sni (ugni) - breezy, ventilate [Omaha]

 

off, break off or out

i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out

cf. di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; pa-shpe (ppĕ) - to cut out a piece or portion with a knife [JOD]; pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

Dhegiha: thi-shpe (thishpe) - wound, gouge [Omaha]; thi-shpe (thshpe) - to break off a piece [FL-Osage]; yu-shpe (yushp) - pinch off, pull off a piece; to shell (corn) [Kaw]

 

off, burn off

ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet

Dhegiha: ba-wa-thi-shna (ba-w-i-c͓na) - to punch at an object under the surface of the water, etc., making it appear [JOD-Omaha]; shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi-wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

off, close off

a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

cf. a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ba-to (batʔo) - stop, impede progress; wa-ba-to (wbatʔo) - stop, obstruct, impede; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-ʰpa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-p̣a-ṭsu) - blocking a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu (batu) - brace, prop, to brace or prop an object to keep it from falling [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-ʰtsu (-ba-ṭsu) - to push one back [FL-Osage]; a-ʰpa-ʰtsu (a-p̣a-ṭsu) - to interfere in passing [FL-Osage]; a-ba-tso (batso) - brace something, prop something up [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-tha-ba-ʰtsu (i-th-ba-ṭsu) - to brace or support that which is liable to fall [FL-Osage]; i-ya-ba-tso (iybatso) - a prop, support, brace, prop up: used with inanimate subjects only, such as a stick or girder [Kaw]

 

off, cut off all the hair

a-di-ski (diski) - cut off all the hair, shave a-bdi-ski (bdiski) - I, a-ti-ski (ttiski) - you

cf. we-da-di-ski (wdadski) - scissors

ex: a-di-ski (adisk) - wore the hair shingled [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - back then, the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: ni-zhi-ha a-di-ski (niha diski) - shave the head, crop short, to shave or cut off short, as the hair of the head

 

off, cut off causing to wither

ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither a-ta-te (ttatʔe) - I, da-ta-te (dttatʔe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

Dhegiha: tha-na-te-ga (thantega) - kill, bite, to kill plants by biting around the roots, as rabbits do [Omaha/Ponca]; da-ʰtse-ga (d-ṭse-ga) - wilted, withered [FL-Osage]; thi-da-tse-ga (thi-d-tse-ga) - to cause green plants to wither by rough handling [FL-Osage]; ba-da-tse-ga (bdatsega) - cause a tree or bush to wilt by cutting [Kaw]; ba-da-tse-ga (badtsega) - cause vegetation to wilt punching or by rooting up the ground [Kaw]; da-tse-ga (dtsega) - be withered, killed, or injured by heat [Kaw]; ga-da-tse-ga (gadtsega) - wind to dry something a little, especially fresh meat which is hung up, by blowing on it [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ga (naⁿdtsega) - trample, make vegetation wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ye (naⁿdtsye) - trample, make wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; ya-tse-ga (yatsga) - wither from being gnawed on, as a plant [Kaw]; ya-da-tse-ga (yadtsega) - kill plants by gnawing on them, as rabbits, to make vegetation wither by gnawing on the bark or at the roots, as rabbits do in winter [Kaw]; yu-da-tse-ga (yudtsega) - wilt from being pulled up, as plants, wood [Kaw]

 

off, cut off something of ones own

pa-ki-shta (pkkita) - cut off something of one's own pa-a-ki-shta (pakkita) - I, pa-da-ki-shta (pdakkita) - you

cf. pa-shte (pte) - cut; ki (kki) - ones own

 

off, cut off with a knife

pa-se (pse) - cut off with a knife pa-a-se (pase) - I, pa-da-se (pdase) - you

cf. di-pa-se (dippse) - to pull the hair ; ma-ze-pa wa-da-se (mazppa wadse) - katydid, lit. bites off a teat; di-se (dis) - pick, harvest corn

Dhegiha: se (sĕ) - separated, as rope: broken in two of itself [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ba-se (ba-sĕ) - to saw wood, etc., entirely in two; to break off, as a stick, by punching with it, when thrust at the ob. from a little distance [JOD-Omaha]; ba-se (b-e) - to cut hair, cord, or rope with a knife [FL-Osage]; pa-se (pse) - cut with a sharp edge [CQ-Osage]; pa-se (paas) - cut up, cut into pieces, lit., cut by pushing down, cut off by using a pushing motion [CQ-Osage]; ba-se (bse) - slice, cut bread meat, etc. [Kaw]

 

off, cut or knock off a piece

ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

cf. i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump

Dhegiha: ga-shpe (ga-cp) - to separate, cut loose from; to cut off a piece with an ax or knife; to knock off a piece [JOD-Omaha]; ga-shpe (ga-shp) - bit, a small coin valued at 12 1/2 cents [FL-Osage]; ka-shpe (kap) - bit, portion of any item, twelve and a half cents [CQ-Osage]; ga-shpe (gashp) - cut in two, cut loose from, cut, chip, or knock a piece off from, as with an ax [Kaw]

 

off, drive something or someone off

ba-zhi (ba) - drive something or someone off pa-zhi (ppi) - I, shpa-zhi (pi) - you

cf. ba-zhi de-de (ba dde) - scare out, flush out; naⁿ-zhi-we (nąwe) - drive, flush out with the feet; a-ka-zhi (kai) - command; tell someone to do something

ex: wa-ba-zhi (wba) - drive them off [MS, FR]

Dhegiha: ba-si (bas) - to drive one animal [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-si (ba-) - to drive away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-zhiⁿ (ga-zhⁿ) - to drive a team of horses or an automobile [FL-Osage]; ka-zhi (kaa), ka-zhiⁿ (kaą) - drive a vehicle, herd animals; make or force someone to do something, commnd someone to do something; blow with force [CQ-Osage]; ga-zhiⁿ (gazhⁿ) - whip, drive a horse; blow to nose [Kaw]

 

off, head off

a-na-se (nase) - intercept, head off a-a-na-se (anse) - I, a-da-na-se (danse) - you

cf. a-na-se-ta (nastta) - isthmus; wa-na-se (wnase) - attack

Dhegiha: a-na-se (nasĕ) - to fasten a door or gate, to check, hinder, impede, cut off the retreat of, to prevent [JOD-Omaha]; wa-na-se (wanse) - surrounding of a herd, to surround them, as a herd of buffalo or elk [Omaha/Ponca]; a-noⁿ-se (noⁿe) - closed, shut, enclose, block, shutter [Omaha]; a-noⁿ-se (-noⁿ-e) - to intercept, to cut off a retreat, to surround [FL-Osage]; a-na-sa (nasa), a-naⁿ-sa (naⁿsa) - to head off, cut off the retreat or anything; to surround [Kaw]

 

off, help one off

ki-ha-knaⁿ (kihkną) - helped her off (the horse) [JOD]

cf. ki-ha (kih) - down; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; ki-ha-ti (kihtti) - down below, below, on the ground [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-ha (kih) - down, downward, down into [Omaha/Ponca]

 

off, kick off

o-naⁿ-shto-te (on̨totte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - he pulled it off [JOD]; hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel; kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own

ex: ki-di-ki-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ taⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing and quickly started to run towards the water, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-zhnu-de (naⁿɔnde) - slipped off while running [JOD-Omaha]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe; to kick off moccasins on some object [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ-de thi-zhnu-de (sho ⁿd thizhnde) - to castrate, to pull out the contents of the scrotum [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-zhnu-de (wthizhnde) - tack drawer, something for pulling out [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-thi-zhnu-de (giɔnde) - he pulled out for him [JOD-Omaha]; gthi-zhnu-de (gɔnude) - pulled off his [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-zhnu-de (bazhnde) - push off, shove off, as ones coat [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnu-de (thazhnde) - to pull out a splinter or small nail with the teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse) - I pulled off my moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be tha-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-b tha-gthi-stsu-dse) - you pulled off your moccasins [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

off, knock off and cause to fall

o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off o-a-ka-xpa-de (okaxpade) - I, o-da-ka-xpa-de (odkaxpade) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling star; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - cause to fall by pressure or weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa-the (u-g-xpa-the) - to be thrown from a horse [FL-Osage]; o-ga-xpa-ye (ogxpaye) - knock somebody off from a height, as from a horse, perch, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uqpĕ) - to be lost, to lose his place; to fall from a height [JOD-Omaha]; u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - lost, to become lost; to feel around with the hands in the dark, to grope; to fall [FL-Osage]; o-xpa-the (oxpe) - fall from a height; get lost, become lost, lose [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, to fall from a height; get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

off, knock or push off

ba-xi-hi-a-de (baxhi ade) - knock off, push off pa-xi-hi a-de (ppxihi de) - I, shpa-xi-hi a-da-de (pxihi adad) - you

cf. ba-xi (bax) - push off balance, shove off balance; ba-xi de-de (bax ded) - push, shove suddenly, forcibly; di-xi (dix) - awaken, arouse; di-xi-xi (dixxi) - awaken, arouse by shaking

Dhegiha: ba-xi-a-tha (ba-qi--a) - to shove down by pushing: said of an object that extends to the ground or floor; to oppose; to offend against [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xi-tha (ba-x-tha) - to push a person down [FL-Osage]; ba-xi-ya (baxya) - push something down or cause it to fall with an instrument; to push an object to the ground with a stick, knife point, etc.; to make an object fall by pushing in this manner: said of anything of which one end touches the ground or floor [Kaw]; ba-xi-ya (bxiya) - cut something down; to make an object fall to the ground by cutting it near the bottom (which touches the ground) with a knife blade or saw [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-xi (ba-q) - to awaken one by pushing him; to contend or oppose: said of the contending parties (not fighting) [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xi (ba-x) - to arouse one from sleep by pushing [FL-Osage]; pa-xi (paaγ) - push to awaken or make active, activate by pushing on [CQ-Osage]; ba-xi (bax) - rouse by nudging [Kaw]

 

off, knock splinter(s) off causing them to fall on someone

a-ka-ta de-de (katta dde) - knock splinter(s) off causing them to fall on someone

cf. a-ka-ta (katta) - splash; make spray fall on one accidentally by hitting the water; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: a-ga-ta-ye (gataye), a-ga-ta-ya (gataya) - knock to pieces, smash, make fly in pieces, as a ball of snow or clod of earth, by throwing it at someone; shatter glass, as a bottle, by throwing at it or hitting it [Kaw]

Dhegiha: the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send, to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go, send, mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

off, lift off as a door or plank

di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank bdi-ki-kda (bdkkikda) - I, ti-ki-kda (ttkkikda) - you

cf. di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe (kakkkdattie) - tumble over

 

off, pay off a wrong

e-ki-kaⁿ (kikʔ̨) - get even, pay off a wrong e-ki-a-kaⁿ (kiakʔ̨) - I, e-ki-da-kaⁿ (kidakʔ̨) - you

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ-gi-ʰkoⁿ (-goⁿ-gi-ḳoⁿ) - retaliation of one individual upon another [FL-Osage]; e-gi-wa-gi-ʰkoⁿ (-gi-wa-gi-ḳoⁿ) - revenge, injury for injury received, retaliation of one tribe on another tribe [FL-Osage]

 

off, peel off

xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab

cf. di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface; xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord; di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back; o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache; o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache

Dhegiha: xthu-de (qthde) - peel, slip; to be peeled off; to slip out of [Omaha/Ponca]; xlo-je (xlje) - shed, as a locusts shell; taken off, as bark; skinned, as when skin is abraded from the hand [Kaw]

 

xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord

cf. xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab; di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface; di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back; o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache; o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache

Dhegiha: xthu-da-the (qthdthe) - peeled; peeled off of its own accord, as the bark of certain trees [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface bdi-xdo-te (bdixdtte) - I, ti-xdo-te (ttixdtte) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab; xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord; di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back; o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache; o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache

Dhegiha: thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse), thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse) - to pull the bark off a tree, to peel with the bare hands; to peel, as the peeling of potato [FL-Osage]; thi-lo-tse  (iilce) - peel [CQ-Osage]; yu-xlo-je (yuxlje) - peel something; peel with the hand [Kaw]

 

off, to pull off

di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot bdi-shto-te (bdtotte) - I, ti-shto-te (tttotte) - you

cf. o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - to pull off [JOD]; hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth; hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-te (hǫp kidittte) - to pull off someones moccasins; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel; kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own; o-naⁿ-shto-te (on̨totte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]; o-shto-te (ottte) - broken in, caved in

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ-de thi-zhnu-de (sho ⁿd thizhnde) - to castrate, to pull out the contents of the scrotum [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-zhnu-de (wthizhnde) - tack drawer, something for pulling out [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-thi-zhnu-de (giɔnde) - he pulled out for him [JOD-Omaha]; gthi-zhnu-de (gɔnude) - pulled off his [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-zhnu-de (bazhnde) - push off, shove off, as ones coat [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnu-de (thazhnde) - to pull out a splinter or small nail with the teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse) - I pulled off my moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be tha-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-b tha-gthi-stsu-dse) - you pulled off your moccasins [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - to pull off

cf. di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth; hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-te (hǫp kidittte) - to pull off someones moccasins; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel; kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own; o-naⁿ-shto-te (on̨totte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]; o-shto-te (ottte) - broken in, caved in

ex: o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - he pulled it off [JOD]

ex: ha kʰe bdo-ka hi o-di-shto-te (h kʰe bdka h odtotte) - he pulled off all the skin [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-di-shto-te o-ba-haⁿ a-taⁿ ma-xi-wa-de tʰaⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke i-niⁿ-aⁿ-we ke i-ya-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ i-ya-we (h̨ka ęke h kʰe odtotte obhą att̨ maγwad tʰ̨ iywe, h̨ka ęke etʰ̨ inį̨we k iyw, mat̨ke etʰ̨ iywe) - he skinned Haⁿ-kas son, put on his skin and tricked them, they thought that rabbit was Haⁿ-kas son, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ-de thi-zhnu-de (sho ⁿd thizhnde) - to castrate, to pull out the contents of the scrotum [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-zhnu-de (wthizhnde) - tack drawer, something for pulling out [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-thi-zhnu-de (giɔnde) - he pulled out for him [JOD-Omaha]; gthi-zhnu-de (gɔnude) - pulled off his [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-zhnu-de (bazhnde) - push off, shove off, as ones coat [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnu-de (thazhnde) - to pull out a splinter or small nail with the teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse) - I pulled off my moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be tha-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-b tha-gthi-stsu-dse) - you pulled off your moccasins [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-te (hǫp kidittte) - to pull off someones moccasins

cf. di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel; kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own; o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - he pulled it off [JOD]; o-naⁿ-shto-te (onątotte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he (hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-inih) - pull off her other shoe, the one on the other side! [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then-just as they started home-when-shoe-other one-on one side-pull ye it off from her-he was saying it to them-it is said-police [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-i (hǫp͓ kidtot-i) - shoe-they pulled off from her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti a-ka-sa-ni taⁿ e-ti hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-i niⁿ-kʰe-ta hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe a-niⁿ zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ tʰi-we (kįttą tti kasni tą tti hǫp͓ kidtot-i nįkʰtta h̨p͓ nįkʰ nį ̨ditt̨da ik oknį ttą tʰwe) - then-there-the next morning-when-there-shoe-they pulled off from her-to the st. one-shoe-the part-having it-when-wagon-small-sat in-and-they came [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-wi (hǫp kidtottwi) - shoe-they pulled it off from her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kde taⁿ hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-wi (kįttą ̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨ tą k̨į kd tą hǫp kidtottwi) - then-horse-to the std.-she sat on her own-when-just as she was starting home-when-shoe-they pulled it off from her [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ-de thi-zhnu-de (sho ⁿd thizhnde) - to castrate, to pull out the contents of the scrotum [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-zhnu-de (wthizhnde) - tack drawer, something for pulling out [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-thi-zhnu-de (giɔnde) - he pulled out for him [JOD-Omaha]; gthi-zhnu-de (gɔnude) - pulled off his [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-zhnu-de (bazhnde) - push off, shove off, as ones coat [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnu-de (thazhnde) - to pull out a splinter or small nail with the teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse) - I pulled off my moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be tha-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-b tha-gthi-stsu-dse) - you pulled off your moccasins [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

off, pull off and cause to fall

o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall o-bdi-xpa-de (obdixpade) - I, o-ti-xpa-de (ottixpade) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling star; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - cause to fall by pressure or weight; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-thi-xpa-the (uthxpathe) - drop, fumble, eliminate [Omaha]; o-yu-xpa-ye (oyxpaye) - let fall from the hand, to lose [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uqpĕ) - to be lost, to lose his place; to fall from a height [JOD-Omaha]; u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - lost, to become lost; to feel around with the hands in the dark, to grope; to fall [FL-Osage]; o-xpa-the (oxpe) - fall from a height; get lost, become lost, lose [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, to fall from a height; get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

off, pull off balance

di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance bdi-shoⁿ-da-da (bdǫdada) - I, ti-shoⁿ-da-da (ttǫdada) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ (dį), di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shaⁿ (dią) - spill, pull over a vessel; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning, said of a fire, not a personal act; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

 

di-ta-kiⁿ-kiⁿ (dittakk̨kkį) - pull off balance bdi-ta-kiⁿ-kiⁿ (bdttakkįkkį) - I, ti-ta-kiⁿ-kiⁿ (ttttakkįkkį) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ta-kiⁿ-kiⁿ (ttakk̨kkį) - stagger

Dhegiha: ta-kʰiⁿ-kʰiⁿ (tkʰiⁿkʰiⁿ) - stagger walking, totter walking, to stagger or trotter when walking on a secure foundation, used only for persons [Omaha/Ponca]

 

off, pull off something adhering

di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering bdi-shpe (bdpe) - I, ti-shpe (ttpe) - you

cf. di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; pa-shpe (ppĕ) - to cut out a piece or portion with a knife [JOD]; pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

Dhegiha: thi-shpe (thishpe) - wound, gouge [Omaha]; thi-shpe (thshpe) - to break off a piece [FL-Osage]; yu-shpe (yushp) - pinch off, pull off a piece; to shell (corn) [Kaw]

 

off, pull off string

di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string bdi-ste (bdste) - I, ti-ste (ttste) - you

cf. di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers

 

off, push and send off

ba-taⁿ de-de (batt̨ ded) - push and send off [JOD]

cf. de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe ba-taⁿ de-da-taⁿ kde, i-ya-we (mątt kʰe batt̨ ded-ttą kd, iywe) - she pushed with a pole against the bank and sent the canoe off and headed home, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-daⁿ the-the (ba-dⁿ -ĕ) - to push off a boat, said of the act of one std. on the shore, not on the boat [JOD-Omaha]; ba-daⁿ ye-ye (badⁿ yye) - to push a boat off, said of one standing on the bank or shore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-doⁿ (padoⁿ), ba-doⁿ (badoⁿ) - push [Omaha]; ba-daⁿ (ba-dⁿ) - to push or pole a boat along,i.e., by pushing with a pole or oar against the bank or bottom of a stream; to push a sled from behind [JOD-Omaha]; ba-doⁿ (ba-dⁿ) - to push [FL-Osage]; ba-daⁿ (badⁿ) - push, push away, push off, shove over [Kaw]

Dhegiha: the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send, to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go, send, mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰki-ʰpa-doⁿ (ḳi-p̣-doⁿ) - to push ones self along as in a boat [FL-Osage]; ki-pa-daⁿ (kipdaⁿ) - push oneself along in a boat (reflexive); push off ones boat while sitting in it (suus) [Kaw]

 

off, push off and cause to fall

o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall o-pa-xpa-de (oppaxpade) - I, o-shpa-xpa-de (opxpade) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling star; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - cause to fall by pressure or weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-thu-ba-xpa-the (uthubaqpathe) - to make something fall by pushing [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ba-xpa-the (u-b-xpa-the) - to push one down from a height [FL-Osage]; o-ba-xpa-ye (obxpaye) - to make someone fall by pushing him, push off, shove something off [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uqpĕ) - to be lost, to lose his place; to fall from a height [JOD-Omaha]; u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - lost, to become lost; to feel around with the hands in the dark, to grope; to fall [FL-Osage]; o-xpa-the (oxpe) - fall from a height; get lost, become lost, lose [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, to fall from a height; get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

off, push or shove off balance

ba-xi (bax) - push off balance, shove off balance pa-xi (ppxi) - I, shpa-xi (pxi) - you

cf. ba-xi de-de (bax ded) - push, shove suddenly, forcibly; ba-xi-hi-a-de (baxhi ade) - knock off, push off; di-xi (dix) - awaken, arouse; di-xi-xi (dixxi) - awaken, arouse by shaking

Dhegiha: ba-xi (ba-q) - to awaken one by pushing him; to contend or oppose: said of the contending parties (not fighting) [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xi (ba-x) - to arouse one from sleep by pushing [FL-Osage]; pa-xi (paaγ) - push to awaken or make active, activate by pushing on [CQ-Osage]; ba-xi (bax) - rouse by nudging [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-xi-a-tha (ba-qi--a) - to shove down by pushing: said of an object that extends to the ground or floor; to oppose; to offend against [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xi-tha (ba-x-tha) - to push a person down [FL-Osage]; ba-xi-ya (baxya) - push something down or cause it to fall with an instrument; to push an object to the ground with a stick, knife point, etc.; to make an object fall by pushing in this manner: said of anything of which one end touches the ground or floor [Kaw]; ba-xi-ya (bxiya) - cut something down; to make an object fall to the ground by cutting it near the bottom (which touches the ground) with a knife blade or saw [Kaw]

 

off, scare off an animal

di-hi de-de (dih dede) - scare off (an animal) bdi-hi de-a-de (bdhi dade) - I, ti-hi de-a-de (tthi ddade) - you

Dhegiha: thi-hi (thi-h) - disturb an animal by fright; to cause an animal to leave its hiding place through fright [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-hi (wathhi) - to startle game, personal name [JOD-Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ thi-hi (gthedⁿthihi) - hawk; to scare by approaching, personal name [JOD-Omaha]; ke thi-hi (kethhi) - turtle; to scare animals, male personal name [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send, to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go, send, mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

off, scrub or rub off

di-kaⁿ-da (dikk̨da) - rub off, scrub bdi-kaⁿ-da (bdkkąda) - I, ti-kaⁿ-da (ttkkąda) - you

 

off, send off

de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go de-a-de (dad) - I, de-da-de (ddad) - you, de-oⁿ-da-we (dędawe) - we, de-da-we (ddawe) - they

ex: de-a-de (dede) - I sent it off or thither [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so, I uriniated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-a-de (̨tʰį dede) - I threw the stick/club [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de i-niⁿ-haⁿ, i-da-a-ki-he de-a-de (hąn̨ttą pʰi-kkid inįh̨, idakih dad) - how can I get myself there? I said to him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: de-de (dde) - to throw it off; he sent it off or thither; he threw it away or off [JOD]

ex: wa-xo kʰe ni-ka tʰaⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de i-ke (waxʔ kʰe nkka tʰą ̨tʰį dde ik) - the woman told the man to throw the stick/club away/off' (JOD)]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de (̨tʰį dde) - stick, club-to throw it off [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de (̨tʰį ded) - stick, club-he threw it away or off [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de i-niⁿ-haⁿ, i-ke de-de (hąn̨ttą pʰi-kkid inįh̨, ik dde) - how can I get myself there? he said to him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals-she did it-when-she looked at him-she sent it off-so she lay awhile-they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ kʰe de-de (m̨ kʰe dde) - arrow-the lg. ob.-he sent it off [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: de-da-we (ddawe) - they sent it off (JOD)]

ex: aⁿ-da de-da-we (̨da ddawe) - threw it away-they sent it off (JOD)]

ex: ki-ki-aⁿ-da de-da-we (kkįda ddawe) - threw away her own for him-they sent it off ' (JOD)]

ex: de-da (ded) - send/throw it away or off! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da (̨tʰį ded) - club,stick-throw it away or off! [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club/stick there again! she said to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send, to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go, send, mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

off, send saliva off

chʰo de-de (čʰo dde) - spit, send saliva off a-chʰo de-a-de (ačʰ dade) - I, da-chʰo de-da-de (dačʰ ddade) - you

cf. chʰo (čʰo) - saliva; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: tshu (tcu) - to spit, expectorate [JOD-Omaha]; ta-xe chu (taxechu) - saliva [Omaha]; tu (tu) - expectorate [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send, to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go, send, mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

off, shorten by biting off

da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten bda-te-shka (bdtteka) - I, ta-te-shka (ttatteka) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; di-te-shka (dittek, dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping off; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife; po-te-shka (ptteka) - shorten by shooting/punching; ta-te-shka (ttteka) - shorten by burning, burn off; ta-te-shka-a-de (tttekade) - shorten by burning, burn off

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka), che-shka (chshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; je-shka (jeshka) - short [Omaha]; te-shka (t-cka), tshe-shka (tc-cka) - short [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xpe ʰtse-shka (p̣a-xpe ṭse-shka) - the short stunted oak [FL-Osage]

 

off, shorten by burning off

ta-te-shka (ttteka) - shorten by burning, burn off

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; ta-te-shka-a-de (tttekade) - shorten by burning, burn off; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; di-te-shka (dittek, dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping off; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife; po-te-shka (ptteka) - shorten by shooting/punching;

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka), che-shka (chshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; je-shka (jeshka) - short [Omaha]; te-shka (t-cka), tshe-shka (tc-cka) - short [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xpe ʰtse-shka (p̣a-xpe ṭse-shka) - the short stunted oak [FL-Osage]

 

ta-te-shka-de (tttekade) - shorten by burning, burn off ta-te-shka a-de (ttteka de) - I, ta-te-shka da-de (ttteka dde) - you

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; de (de) - cause to; ta-te-shka (ttteka) - shorten by burning, burn off; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; di-te-shka (dittek, dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping off; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife; po-te-shka (ptteka) - shorten by shooting/punching

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka), che-shka (chshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; je-shka (jeshka) - short [Omaha]; te-shka (t-cka), tshe-shka (tc-cka) - short [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xpe ʰtse-shka (p̣a-xpe ṭse-shka) - the short stunted oak [FL-Osage]

 

off, shorten by chopping off

ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping off a-te-shka (tteka) - I, da-te-shka (dtteka) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; di-te-shka (dittek, dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife; po-te-shka (ptteka) - shorten by shooting/punching; ta-te-shka (ttteka) - shorten by burning, burn off; ta-te-shka-a-de (tttekade) - shorten by burning, burn off

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka), che-shka (chshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; je-shka (jeshka) - short [Omaha]; te-shka (t-cka), tshe-shka (tc-cka) - short [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xpe ʰtse-shka (p̣a-xpe ṭse-shka) - the short stunted oak [FL-Osage]

 

off, shorten by sawing or cutting off

di-te-shka (dittek), (dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off bdi-te-shka (bdtteka) - I, ti-te-shka (tttteka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping off; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife; po-te-shka (ptteka) - shorten by shooting/punching; ta-te-shka (ttteka) - shorten by burning, burn off; ta-te-shka-a-de (tttekade) - shorten by burning, burn off

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka), che-shka (chshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; je-shka (jeshka) - short [Omaha]; te-shka (t-cka), tshe-shka (tc-cka) - short [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xpe ʰtse-shka (p̣a-xpe ṭse-shka) - the short stunted oak [FL-Osage]

 

off, slipped off of its own accord

e-wa-ki-kaⁿ o-shi-we (wakkikʔ̨ owe) - slipped off of its own accord

cf. e-wa-ki-koⁿ (wakkikʔ̨), e-wa-ki-kaⁿ (wakkikʔ̨) - do something for onself; di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open; i-di-shi-we (diwe) - key

Dhegiha: e-wa-ki-aⁿ (ewakiaⁿ) - of himself, of his own accord, without advice [JOD-Omaha]; e-wa-ki-koⁿ (wakikʔǫ) - do to oneself [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shi-be (shi-be) - unfasten or open [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-shi-be (thishibe) - open, unlock, uncap, unhitch [Omaha]; thi-shi-be (thi-sh-be), thi-shu-be (thi-sh-be) - to open anything that has a lid or a door, to open a covered box, to open as a door, to open or unfasten a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-pe (iipe), thu-shu-pe (uupe) - open, unlock and open [CQ-Osage]; yu-shu-be (yushbe), yu-shu-we (yushwe) - open, as a door or a sacred bundle, unlock, gate [Kaw]

 

off, spin someone off balance

di-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-de (dikkwįγe hde) - spin someone off balance bdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-a-de (bdkkwįγe hade) - I, ti-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-da-de (ttkkwįγe hdade) - you

cf. di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: thi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (thi wiⁿxe) - turn [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-koiⁿ-xe (iiʰkįɣe) - turn someone or something around [CQ-Osage]; yu-ko-miⁿ-ghe (yukmiⁿghe) - turn something around and around with the hands, to crank [Kaw]

 

off, strip off

di-ka (dik) - strip off, as leaves bdi-ka (bdka) - I, ti-ka (ttka) - you

Dhegiha: thi-ga (thi-g) - to husk corn [FL-Osage]; yu-ga (yug) - husk corn, shell nuts [Kaw]; wa-thi-ga (wathi ga) - husk corn [Omaha]; wa-thi-ga (wa-th-ga), wa-thu-ga (wa-th-ga) - to husk corn [FL-Osage]

 

off, strip ones clothing off

wa-di-ha-ki-zhi (wadhakki) - strip ones clothing off wa-di-ha-a-ki-zhi (wadhaakki) - I, wa-di-ha-da-ki-zhi (wadhadakki) - you, wa-di-ha-oⁿ-ki-zhi-we (wadhąkkiiwe) - we

cf. di-ha-knaⁿ (dihkną) - take off, remove a garment

 

off, Sun Way Off

mi ko-zhi (mi kki) - Sun Way Off, female personal name [MS]

cf. mi (mi) - sun; ko-zhi (kki) - far

Dhegiha: miⁿ (miⁿ) - sun, moon [Omaha/Ponca]; mi (mi) - sun [Omaha]; mi (mi) - sun [FL-Osage]; mi (m), miⁿ (m̨į) - sun [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - sun [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰku-zhi (ḳ-zhi) - far away, at a great distance [FL-Osage]; ʰko-zhi si-gthe (ḳ-zhi-i-gthe) - tracks - far - away, Personal name [FL-Osage]; ʰko-zhi moⁿ-iⁿ (ḳ-zhi-moⁿ-iⁿ) - travels-in-distant-lands, Personal name [FL-Osage]; go-ji (goj) - far off, remote, long way off [Kaw]

 

off, take off

di-ha-knaⁿ (dihkną) - take off, remove a garment bdi-ha-knaⁿ (bdhakną) - I, ti-ha-knaⁿ (tthakną) - you

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress!, go take off your dress and press it [AG]

 

off, take off or remove ones own

kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own a-kdi-shto-te (akdtotte) - I, da-kdi-shto-te (dakdtotte) - you

cf. di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - he pulled it off [JOD]; hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel; o-naⁿ-shto-te (on̨totte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthi-zhnu-de (gɔnude) - pulled off his [JOD-Omaha]; hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse) - I pulled off my moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be tha-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-b tha-gthi-stsu-dse) - you pulled off your moccasins [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ-de thi-zhnu-de (sho ⁿd thizhnde) - to castrate, to pull out the contents of the scrotum [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-zhnu-de (wthizhnde) - tack drawer, something for pulling out [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-thi-zhnu-de (giɔnde) - he pulled out for him [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-zhnu-de (bazhnde) - push off, shove off, as ones coat [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnu-de (thazhnde) - to pull out a splinter or small nail with the teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

off, turn off the light

di-da-zhi (didi), di-ta-zhi (ditti) - to extinguish or put out a fire or light; turn off

cf. a-da-zhi (dai) - extinguish, scatter; ta (t) - by extreme temperature

ex: a-ta-kaⁿ di-ta-zhi (ttakką ditti) - turn off the light, extinguish the light

Dhegiha: thi-da-zhi (thi-d-zhi) - to put out a light; to put out a fire with the hands [FL-Osage]; thu-ta-zhi (uutai), thi-ta-zhi (iitai) - turn off, switch off, extinguish [CQ-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaiⁿ thu-ta-zhi  (taʰkaį uutai) - turn off the light [CQ-Osage]; yu-da-zhi (yudzhi) - extinguish a fire by scattering it
[Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-da-zhi (ba-d-zhi) - to extinguish a fire by poking [FL-Osage]; ba-da-zhi (badzhi) - extinguish a fire, push dirt on a fire to extinguish it [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bi-da-zhi (bi-d-zhi) - to extinguish; to cause to become extinct [FL-Osage]; bu-da-zhi (budzhi) - extinguish, put out by pressure [Kaw]; bo-da-zhi (bdazhi), bo-da-zhe (bdazhe) - extinguish a light by shooting or blowing it out with the mouth [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-na-zhi (ganazhi) - extinguish [Omaha]; ga-da-zhi (ga-d-zhi) - to extinguish a fire by beating it with wet clothes [FL-Osage]; ga-da-zhi (gadzhi), ga-da-zhe (gadzhe) - extinguish, put out by striking; rain to extinguish a fire [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-da-zhi (noⁿ-d-zhi) - to stamp out a fire [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-da-zhe (naⁿdzhe) - extinguish coals or a fire by stamping on it [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-zhi (nzhi) - go out; to go out, as a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; da-zhi (da-zhi) - burn out; extinguish; put out (a fire) [FL-Osage]; ta-zhi (tai) - go out, not burn, become extinguished [CQ-Osage]; da-zhi (dzhi) - be extinguished, to have gone out, as a fire [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na (na) - prefix showing that the act is the effect of heat or cold, frost, fire, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; da (da) - a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) -by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

off, twist off the head

di-pa-xa (dipxʔa) - to twist off the head [JOD]

cf. di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling

ex: bdi-pa-xa (bdpaxʔ) - I twist off its head [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka miⁿ-xti bdi-pa-xa taⁿ a-wa-ki aⁿ -maⁿ (wąka m̨xti bdpaxʔ tą awkʔi ąm̨) - I usually give them just one bird, I twist its head off [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-ba-xe (thi-b-xe) - to snap; to break a string in half [FL-Osage]; yu-ba-ghe (yubghe) - break or snap a cord by pulling with the hands [Kaw]

 

off, way off

ko-zhi hi (kkihi) - far away, very far

ko-zhi hi (kki hi) - way off, far away [MS]

cf. ko-zhi (kki) - far; hi (hi) - very

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (kkihi akn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I going to live far away [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (kki hi bd tta mįkʰ) - I go a long ways (I will be going very far away) [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi taⁿ o-xde naⁿ te-da-we i-ya (kki h-tą oxd ną tʔdaw iy) - they went a long distance, when they overtook him, they killed him, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰku-zhi (ḳ-zhi) - far away, at a great distance [FL-Osage]; ʰko-zhi si-gthe (ḳ-zhi-i-gthe) - tracks - far - away, Personal name [FL-Osage]; ʰko-zhi moⁿ-iⁿ (ḳ-zhi-moⁿ-iⁿ) - travels-in-distant-lands, Personal name [FL-Osage]; go-ji (goj) - far off, remote, long way off [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several, many, more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

ko-zhi (kki) - far

ko-zhi (kki) - far [JOD]

cf. ko-zhi hi (kkihi) - far away, very far

ex: mi ko-zhi (mi kki) - Sun Way Off, female personal name [MS]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi to-ke-taⁿ wa-bdi-xe a-taⁿ wa-bdi-ze, ko-zhi da-zhi hi bdi-ze (skka tt̨ka hi h toktą wabdxe att̨ wbdze, kki di hi bdze) - there were many turkeys there then, I chased them and I caught them, it didnt go very far, I caught it [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰku-zhi (ḳ-zhi) - far away, at a great distance [FL-Osage]; ʰko-zhi si-gthe (ḳ-zhi-i-gthe) - tracks - far - away, Personal name [FL-Osage]; ʰko-zhi moⁿ-iⁿ (ḳ-zhi-moⁿ-iⁿ) - travels-in-distant-lands, Personal name [FL-Osage]; go-ji (goj) - far off, remote, long way off [Kaw]

 

 

offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį), xo-wiⁿ (xow̨) - stink, emit offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį) - stink [MS]

ex: si xwiⁿ (si xwį) - stink feet [OM]

ex: ni xwiⁿ (ni xwį) - sulphur spring water [OM]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-zhe o-di-zhiⁿ-te i-ya-we, o-di-bnaⁿ i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (n̨ ̨e odįtte iywe, odbną iywe, hǫhǫ, xwį h, iy) - he thrust his hand/fingers into her vagina again, he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-a-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-bde, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te (̨įtte, xw̨ nįkʰ pape ną ǫbd, ną httą tte) - well, when I cut out the bad/offensive smelling part and I throw it away, then it will be good [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte, xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫde, ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: xwiⁿ (qwiⁿ), xuiⁿ (quⁿ) - corrupt, putrid, rotten, offensive, stink, stinking, as carrion [Omaha/Ponca]; xuiⁿ (xuiⁿ) - stink, stench [Omaha]; xwiⁿ (xwiⁿ) - fetid, offensive smell [FL-Osage]; xoiⁿ (ɣǫ) - stink, stinky, fetid odor or offensive smell [CQ-Osage]

 

offering, make offering

a-da ka-xe (da kγe) - share, divide with, part with, make offering a-da pa-xe (da ppγe) - I, a-da shka-xe (da kγe) - you

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

offering, make offering or sacrifice

o-ki (kʔi) - make offering or sacrifice o-a-ki (okʔi) - I, o-da-ki (odkʔi) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-we (ǫkkʔiwe) - we

cf. o-ki (okʔ) - lend something; give food to someone; ki (kʔi) - give something to someone; ki-ki (kkʔi) - give back, return; ki-ki (kikʔ) - give to ones own (kin)

Dhegiha: u-i (i) - to give food to another [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki (-ḳ) - to feed [FL-Osage]; o-ku (kʔu) - give, provide, furnish, give stuff to someone, feed, giving, giveaway, event of giving or giving away [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-i (u) - to lend anything, to lend something [Omaha/Ponca]; u-i (ui) - loan, lend, treat [Omaha]; u-ʰki (u-ḳ) - to lend [FL-Osage]; o-ku (okʔ) - lend, give, provide, furnish, supply [CQ-Osage]

 

often, abundance

a-zho-wa (owa) - often, abundance [JOD]

cf. zho-wa (ow) - few, insufficient, some; zho-wa (wa) - little [JOD]; di-zho-wa (diow) - lessen; a-zho-wa (aow) - having a good time; a-zho-wa hi (aow hi) - as fast as possible [JOD]; a-zho-wa-xti (owxti) - with a great effort, with all ones might [JOD]; ki-zho-wa (kiwa) - quick, handy; ki-zho-wa-zhi (kkiwai) - pull lightly on something

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ knoⁿ-ke taⁿ ta-bde naⁿ ta te-de taⁿ a-zho-wa ta da-tʰe-wi (kįttą knǫk tą tbde ną tt tʔde tą owa tta dtʰewi) - then he married her, when he hunted, he killed deer, they often ate deer [JOD]

 

often, abuse one as much and as often as one can

di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ (disske hnįh ̨) - to abuse one as much and as often as one can [JOD]

cf. di-si-si-ke (dissike) - mistreat, abuse; hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ (hnįh ʔ̨) - to do ones utmost; to the limit

ex: di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (disske h nį h ̨w) - theyall abuse one as much and as often as they can [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe dissike hnįh ̨we) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were extremely cruel to mankind [JOD]

 

often, always, great, exceeding

a-ta-pa (ttappa) - great, exceeding, often, always [JOD]

a-ta-pa (ttapp) - too

cf. a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much

ex: aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi tʰe aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi a-ta-pa (̨kidi h tʰe ą̨i ttapp) - I did not like it much that he did not tell me at all

ex: a-ta-pa pa (ttappa pp) - great, exceeding-3pl [JOD]

ex: ma-xi-ka-zhi a-ta-pa-we (mxiki attappwe) - they are very wild [JOD)]

Dhegiha: a-ta (ta) - extreme, exceedingly, excellent, chief one, beyond, over, far beyond, furthest [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta-shoⁿ (atashoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

often, always, too, exceedingly, much, very

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very, often, always

a-ta-ha (attah) - often, always [JOD]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha (nkkaka bn̨ attah) - sure enough smells like a human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ, pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą, pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-si-si a-ta-ha (ąssi attah) - me very active [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: e-ti-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttą ttįi h htʔe kkatte ttaha) - then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o-ki-hoⁿ a-ta-ha ti-te-ki-da-zhi (kihǫ attah tttekidi) - cooking-much-she had not caused it to be done [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha-wi (nąpphi attahwi) - they were very hungry [JOD]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

Dhegiha: a-ta (-ta) - beyond, more than, extreme, excessive [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta shoⁿ (ata shoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

often, cough often

ho-xpa-xpa (hoxpxpa) - cough often, tuberculosis a-ho-xpa-xpa (ahxpaxpa) - I, da-ho-xpa-xpa (dahxpaxpa) - you

cf. ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough; ho-xpe shi-ke (hxpe ke) - tuberculosis, a bad cough

Dhegiha: hu-xpa-xpa (hqpaqpa) - cough, to cough often [Omaha/Ponca]; hu-xpa-xpa (h-qpa-qpa) - freq. of huqpe, to cough often [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: hu-xpe (hqpe) - cough [Omaha/Ponca]; hu-xpe (huxpe) - cough, coughing [Omaha]; hu-xpe (h-qpe) - to cough [JOD-Omaha]; hu-xpe (h-xpe) - to cough, to hawk, to clear ones throat [FL-Osage]; ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough, cold with sniffles and fever [CQ-Osage]; ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough [Kaw]

 

often, digs out often

di-ko-ko (dikko) - digs out often [JOD]

cf. di-ko-te (diktte) - dig out, probe; di-ko (dikʔ) - dig with knife, spade or paws

ex: ti xe-tʰe-ti ma-ni-ka di-ko-ko a-taⁿ e-ti o-kniⁿ naⁿ (tt xetʰtti mankka dikko ttą tti okn̨ ną) - in the corner of the lodge, he (toad) digs out the dirt and lives there [JOD]

 

often, laugh often

i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe: dissike hnįh ʔ̨w) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were very cruel to mankind [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xa-xa (-qa-qa) - to laugh at, ridicule, make fun of; to get a laugh on one, as by playing a trick on him; to abuse, or maltreat a person [JOD-Omaha]; i-xa-xa (ixaxa) - humiliate, ridicule, harass [Omaha]; i-xa-xa (i-x-xa) - to ridicule [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-xa (qa) - laugh, laugh at, to laugh, to laugh at someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-xa (xa) - chuckle, giggle, laugh, smile [Omaha]; i-xa (-xa) - to laugh, to titter [FL-Osage]; i-xa (ixa) - laugh, laugh at [CQ-Osage]; i-xa (xa) - laugh; smile [Kaw]

 

often, leap often or each time

zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną) - to leap often or each time

zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną), zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną) - jump, make sudden leaps

cf. zha-ko-i-de (akkide), (akoide) - jump; zha-ko-i-de (akide), zha-ka i-de (kka de) - jump a rope; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - suddenly and often [JOD]; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - unsteady, ungainly; i-naⁿ (in̨) - sign of sudden effect

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną) - he leaped often, or each time [JOD]

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance

 

often, move often

shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (kǫk̨) - move often a-shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (ak̨kǫ) - I, da-shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (dak̨kǫ) - you

cf. shkoⁿ (kǫ) - move

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (shkⁿshkoⁿ) - motion, move; to be in constant motion, moving back and forth [Omaha/Ponca]; shkaⁿ-shkaⁿ (kąk̨) - keep moving, move again and again [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ (shkⁿ) - move, act, do; to act, be active, move around, do [Omaha/Ponca]; shkoⁿ (shkoⁿ) - to move, to stir, to be active, motion [FL-Osage]; shkaⁿ (shk̨) - move, change (as weather), go on, continue, start [CQ-Osage]; shkaⁿ (shkaⁿ) - move around, stir [Kaw]

 

often, once in a while

kda-he-he (kdahhe) - often, once in a while

Dhegiha: gtha-he thoⁿ-thoⁿ (gthahe thoⁿthoⁿ) - frequently [Omaha]

 

often, push at a fire often sending off sparks

pe-te ki-ba-xniⁿ-xniⁿ-zhe (pptte kbaxnįxn̨e) - to push at a fire often sending off sparks

cf. di-xni-zhe (dixne) - make sparks from poking fire

ex: pe-te a-ki-ba-xniⁿ-xniⁿ-zhe (pptte akbaxnįxn̨e) - I pushed at the fire often (sending off sparks) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰpe-dse ga-xthiⁿ-zhe (p-dse ga-xthiⁿ-zhe) - shooting sparks from a fire or from burning brands [FL-Osage]; ga-xliⁿ-xliⁿ-zhe (gaxlⁿxliⁿzhe) - sparkle, give off sparks like a meteor or a descending rocket as it falls [Kaw]; ga-xthiⁿ-zhe (ga-xthⁿ-zhe) - steel and flint [FL-Osage]; ka-liⁿ-zhe (kaal̨įe), ka-li-zhe (kaalie) - sparks that are struck (as by hitting the iron against the flint to create sparks to make the sponge-like material from a tree catch fire), flint used to make flint fire (for peyote meetings or swear lodge) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ-zhe (qthⁿzhe) - spark, sparkle, sparkling, sending out sparks [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ-zha (xthiⁿ-zh) - sparks of a fire, sparks that fly upward from the sticks or fire drills used for starting a fire [FL-Osage]; liⁿ-zhe (l̨įe) - sparks that fly from a fire [CQ-Osage]

 

often, scalp yell often

o-kda-xa-xa (okdxʔaxʔ) - scalp yell often, in succession [JOD]

o-kda-xa-xa (okdxʔaxʔ) - whoop, give the scalp yell

cf. o-kda-xa (okdxʔa) - whoop

ex: o-kda-xa-xa-we ka (okdxʔaxʔ-we k) - give ye the scalp yell often! [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k! iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔa ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta, iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya, bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy, bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya, ni-ka-shi-ka ke (zan hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy, nkkaka ke) - all of the people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k, iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a-a (ugtha) - give the scalp yell [JOD-Omaha]; i o-la-ka-ka ( olkaka) - to give the war whoop or scalp yell, lit. to make a succession of arrested sounds come from ones own mouth, war whoop, scalp yell [Kaw]

 

often, scrape the dirt away often

ka-ti-ti-ze (kattittze) - to scrape away surface earth with ones hand; scrape the dirt away often [JOD]

cf. ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; ba-ti-ze (battze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move one's possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along; po-ti-ze (pttize) - move something by punching/shooting

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze (kattittze) - scraped away surface earth with his hand; scraped the dirt away often [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze aⁿ-taⁿ ki-kaⁿ-he (kattittze ̨tą kkʔąh) - when he swept away/cleared a spot, he put it down (his own item) [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

 

often, split often

pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often pa-a-ste-ste (pastste) - I, pa-da-ste-ste (pdastste) - you

cf. pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers, v. split; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers

Dhegiha: ba-zne-zne (baznzne) - fringe [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-zne-zne (ba-s͓n-s͓ne) - fringe [JOD-Omaha]; ba-stse-stse-ge (b-stse-stse-ge) - to cut skin or meat into many strips with a knife [FL-Osage]; ba-stse-stse-ge (bscescge) - gash the skin in many places using a blade [Kaw]

 

often, tell them often to look at

wa-kda-ti-ti (wkdatttti) - to tell them often to look at

cf. o-da (od) - tell something; o-ki-da (okda) - tell something to another; o-da-ke (odke) - tell about something; o-ki-da-ke (okdake) - tell it to (some)one; o-kda (okd) - confess, tell of ones own; o-ki-kda-ke (kkikdke) - speak of oneself

ex: wa-kda-ti-ti (wkdatttti) - he told them often to look at him (the dancer) [JOD]

ex: ni-kshi-ka za-ni hi taⁿ-we-ni-he, i-ki-wa-ta-ta tʰaⁿ, i-ya-we, wa-kda-ti-ti tʰ̨, i-ya-we (nkkaka zan hi t̨we-nihe, kiwatttta tʰ̨, iywe, wkdatttti tʰ̨, iywe) - everyone, youll look at him! he cried aloud often,they say, he told them often, to look at him, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gtha (ga) - to tell about his relations [JOD-Omaha]; u-gtha (ugtha) - confess [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-gtha-ge (u-ḳ-gtha-ge) - to speak of ones self [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-la-ke (oʰklaake) - tell about oneself, speak of oneself [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-tha (uth) - tell anything, tell anything about another [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha (tha) - to tell them about [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha (utha) - announce, report, warn, inform, tell [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-tha-ge (u-th-ge) - to tell a tale or a story; to make a statement [FL-Osage]; u-tha-ge (-tha-ge) - a story, narrative, a legend, tradition [FL-Osage]; o-tha-ke (oake) - tell e.g., news, stories, relate, narrate, recite, state, proclaim, inform, say so [CQ-Osage]; o-tha-ke (aake) - tell things, inform; story, tale, legend, narrative, telling of something, reporting of news [CQ-Osage]; o-ya-ge (oyge) - tell someone; promise [Kaw]; o-ya-ge (yage) - tell something to someone [Kaw]

 

often, usually

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ), ʰnaⁿ (ʰną) - habitual postclitic

ex: bda-taⁿ naⁿ (bdatt̨ ną) - I drink, Im a drunkard

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

ex: hoⁿ-i-she naⁿ (hǫi ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ naⁿ (ttatt̨ ną) - you drink, you're a drunkard

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-he naⁿ (tti tt nah ih ną) - you do not go there, Ive been saying [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: to ke de-naⁿ-wi (t kʔe d-ną-wi) - they usually dig for potatoes [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-toⁿ-we-naⁿ-we (ąt̨we-ną-w) - they usually look (watch) at me [JOD]

ex: pi-naⁿ (ppną), pi-noⁿ (ppnǫ) - do well at something precociously

Dhegiha: hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - customary [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect; usually; always generally; used to, it used to be so [Kaw]

 

oh oh oh, cry of pain

haⁿ-haⁿ-haⁿ (h̨hąh̨) - oh oh oh, cry of pain

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (hⁿ! hoⁿ! hⁿ!) - ouch, interjection of pain, ow!, ouch! [Omaha/Ponca]

 

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