English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

V

 

vagina

iⁿ-zhe (į), (̨e) - vagina

ex: iⁿ-zhe (į kʰe) - the vagina

Dhegiha: iⁿ-zhe (ⁿzhe) - vagina [Omaha/Ponca]; iu-zhe (i-zhe) - urethra [FL-Osage]; u-zhe (e) - vagina [CQ-Osage]; u-zhe (uzhé), iⁿ-zhe (iⁿzhe) - vagina [Kaw]

 

valley

ka-xo-we (kxowe), ka-xo-we (kaxʔwe) - gap in mountains, ravine

Dhegiha: o-ʰko-be (o-ḳ-be), u-ʰku-be (u-ḳ-be) - an abyss; a vale; a gulch; a gutter; dale; valley; ravine [FL-Osage]; o-ko-be o-xlo-xla (ókobe oxlóxla) - canyon, gorge [Kaw]; o-ko-be zhiⁿ-ga (ókobe zhíⁿga) - stream, smaller than a creek, a rill; a gorge [Kaw]

 

o-ki-no-da (okinoda) - valley [JOD]

 

o-ki-no-zha (okkina) - valley [OM]

 

o-ki-noⁿ-te (okknǫtt) - valley

 

te-xe do-ka ta-ke (ttγ dkka ttke) - valley

cf. te-xe (ttγe) - prairie

 

te-xe o-ka-xo-we (ttex okxowe) - prairie/hollow [JOD]

cf. te-xe (ttγe) - prairie; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; ka-xo-we (kxowe), ka-xo-we (kaxʔwe) - gap in mountains, ravine

Dhegiha: te-xe (tex) - a marshy place on high land, an upland marsh [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-xe (ṭsex) - the open prairie [FL-Osage]; tse-ghe (cegh) - flood plain, level ground without trees [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰko-be (o-ḳ-be), u-ʰku-be (u-ḳ-be) - an abyss; a vale; a gulch; a gutter; dale; valley; ravine [FL-Osage]; o-ko-be o-xlo-xla (ókobe oxlóxla) - canyon, gorge [Kaw]; o-ko-be zhiⁿ-ga (ókobe zhíⁿga) - stream, smaller than a creek, a rill; a gorge [Kaw]

 

vegetables, smell like decayed vegetables

xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables

cf. xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption; bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor

 

vegetation, dry up and die as vegetation from the sun

ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching

 

vegetation, kill vegetation by punching

po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching po-a-ta-te (pottatʔe) - I, po-da-ta-te (pdattatʔe) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

Dhegiha: na-te-ga (n-te-ga) - withered, dead, dried up, as leaves by the sun [JOD-Omaha]

da-ʰtse-ga (d-ṭse-ga) - wilted, withered [FL-Osage]; da-tse-ga (dtsega) - be withered, killed, or injured by heat [Kaw]

 

vein, artery

wa-pa-iⁿ kaⁿ (wappą kką) - vein, artery

cf. wa-pa-iⁿ (wappą) - blood; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant; sinew, string, line

Dhegiha: wa-mi koⁿ (wam koⁿ) - a vein or artery [Omaha/Ponca]; kaⁿ wa-biⁿ (kⁿ wabⁿ) - vein or artery [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-mi (wam) - blood; to bleed; to be bloody [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-biⁿ (wa-bⁿ) - blood, bleeding [FL-Osage]; wa-piⁿ (wa-p̨), wa-peiⁿ (wapį) - bleed, blood [CQ-Osage]; wa-biⁿ (wabⁿ) - blood [Kaw]

Dhegiha: koⁿ (koⁿ) - a root; sinew; muscle; a vein or artery; something used for tying, sinew, root, string [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel; veins; artery; root; string [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ) - a vein or blood vessel; roots of trees or plants; sinew [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kʔą) - root [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein or artery, root, sinew, string [Kaw]

 

venereal disease

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - white people, white man, white race [MS, MR, OM]

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - American; derived from Virginia

wa-jhi-ni (ŭatschinni) - American (Amricain) [GI]

wa-tshi-ni (w-tci-ni) - Virginian, white man [LH]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ni-ka (waǰni nkka) - white man [AG, OM]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ko-i (waǰni ki) - hes a white man [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkk̨ik) - white man didnt like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta aⁿ-ba o-zha hne (waǰni kd tta ̨ba a hn) - you white people go home and dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-dsi-ne (w-dsi-ni) - a disease, a malady [FL-Osage]; wa-tsʰi-ni (wcʰini), wa-tsi-ni-e (wcinie) - venereal disease, sexually transmitted disease [probably from Virginia (which may have been used to mean white man) [CQ-Osage]; wa-ji-ne (wji ne) - disease, a malady [Kaw]

 

venison

ta-zho (tta) - venison [JOD]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, meat, venison, dried meat; zho (o) - flesh, skin, meat

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - dried meat, especially buffalo, elk, or deer meat, jerky [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (ta) - dried meat [Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - the deer, meat of any kind [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - deer, doe, fawn, buck, meat [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - deer, meat of any sort [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhu (zhu) - flesh, body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu (zhu) - flesh or body [FL-Osage]

 

Verdigris River

wa-se-taⁿ ni (wasttą ni) - Verdigris River

wa-se-taⁿ ni (wasstun ni) - Verdigris River [ASG]

cf. wa-se (was) - red paint [JOD]; wa-se sa (was sa) - black paint; wa-se to (was tto) - blue paint; wa-se to-hi (wass tthi) - green paint; wa-se zi (was zi) - yellow paint

Dhegiha: wa-se ʰtoⁿ xo-e (wa- ṭoⁿ-xo-e) - the Verdigris River, green paint was secured here, this was the second camp of the second buffalo trail [FL-Osage]; wa-se ʰtoⁿ xo-dse ga-xa (wa- ṭoⁿ xo-dse ga-xa) - green clay creek, branch of the Verdigris River, Okla [FL-Osage]; wa-se-ʰtaⁿ xo-e (wasʰtą xe) - Verdigris River, lit., gray sycamore [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-se tu xu-de (wa-s-t͓u-q-de) - verdigris, gray green clay or light blue clay [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-se tu (wae tu) - blue paint [Omaha]; wa-se tu (wa-s t͓u) - green clay or green paint, verdigris [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se to (wasto) - verdigris, patina [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-se saⁿ (wassaⁿ) - white clay; made of white clay; earthenware; plaster; lime [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se zi (was zi) - yellow clay [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-se zhi-de ni-ka (wasjde nka) - Indian red paint [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se zhi-de (wasjide) - red paint; red clay [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se zhu-dse (wa--zhu-dse) - red clay, red paint, rouge [FL-Osage]

 

vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

ta-i-ta-kde (ttittkde) - spinal prominence, vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

cf. ta-i-ta (ttitt) - neck; a-kde (akd) - put; set a standing object upright upon a surface or within something which supports it; o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand

Dhegiha: ta-i-u-gthe (tigthe) - neck bone, bone in the lower back of the neck, into which the spine fits [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i-u-gthe (t-i--gĕ) - the lower bone in the back of the neck, the place into which the spine fits [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i u-gthe (tai gthe) - hollow at the nape of the neck [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ta-i-a-ta (taita) - at or near the back of the head [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i-a-ta (ta-i--t͓a) - at or near the back of the head [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ta-i (ti) - back of the head, from the parting of the hair on the crown to the neck [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i (ta) - back of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-hiu (ṭ-hiu) - nape of the neck, the neck [FL-Osage]; ʰta-hu (ʰthu) - neck [CQ-Osage]; ta-hu (thu) - neck [Kaw]

 

very

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

a-ta-pa (ttapp) - too, great, exceeding; often, always [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

de (d), e-de (ed) - really, indeed, sure enough, surely, truely; intentive by agent; clause final partical; evidential

 

hi (hi) - very; with numerals: just, only

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-e-he (nąhe) - exceedingly, very very

 

taⁿ-da (tt̨da) - very, too

 

xti (xti) - very, real, fully, intensifier suffix

Dhegiha: xti (qti), xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

very active

si-si a-ta-ha (sis ttaha) - very active

cf. si-si (sis) - active; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always

ex: aⁿ-si-si a-ta-ha (ąssi attah) - me active/very [JOD]

ex: si-si a-ta-ha (sis ttaha) - active/exceedingly [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha, i-ya (mat̨ke nį sis ttaha, iy) - the Rabbit was very active, it is said [JOD]

ex: si-si a-ta-ha (sis ttaha) - active/exceedingly [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha e-naⁿ, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te (nkkaka nį sis ttaha ną, nį̨ iy sniwtte) - that person is extremely active! thought Winter, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

si-si hi (sis hi) - very active

cf. si-si (sis) - active; hi (hi) - very

ex: si-si hi naⁿ-we (sis hi ną-w) - they are very active usually [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to naⁿhaⁿ maⁿ-di-taⁿ si-si hi naⁿ-we e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto nąh̨ mądttą sis hi ną-w kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the grown boys who pull a bow and are very active (able to run swiftly and far), it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

very bad

shi-ke-xti (ke-xti) - very bad, really bad

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: shi-ke-xti (ke-xti) - very bad [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-a-bde a-tʰaⁿ-he shi-ke-xti i-da-hoⁿ-bde (h̨abde atʰąh ke-xti idhǫbde) - Ive been dreaming, I dreamed a very bad dream [JOD]

 

shi-ke de (ke d) - very bad, really bad

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad; de (d), e-de (ed) - really, indeed

ex: shi-ke de (ke d) - bad/indeed [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ shi-ke de! (ett̨ ke d!) - but it is extremely bad! [JOD]

 

very bad mood

wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti (wąąnkext) - a very bad mood

cf. wa-zhaⁿ-ni-ke (wąnike) - ill humored; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti (wąąnkext) - I in a very bad humor [JOD]

ex: i-kaⁿ aⁿ-xdi hi tʰe, e-koⁿ wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ikk̨ ̨xdi hi tʰe, ek̨ wąąnkext pʰ anih, iy iy mat̨ke) - my grandmother almost beat the life out of me, so I have come here in a very bad mood, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

very bitter

pa hi (ppa h) - very bitter

cf. pa (ppa) - bitter; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: pʰa (pʰa) - bitter [Omaha/Ponca]; pa (pa) - bitter taste [Omaha]; ʰpa (p̣a) - bitter [FL-Osage]; ʰpa (ʰpa) - bitter [CQ-Osage]; pa (pa) - bitter, sour [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

very close

a-shka hi (ak hi) - very close

cf. a-shka (ak) - near, close; hi (hi) - very

ex: a-shka hi (ak hi) - close/very [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-shka (shka) - near, close by [Omaha/Ponca]; a-shka (-shka) - near, close by, short distance [FL-Osage]; a-shka (ka) - nearby, close, a short distance away [CQ-Osage]; a-shka (shka) - near, something nearby; close, close at hand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

very cold

sni hi (sn hi) - cold (very cold) [MS, OM]

cf. sni (sni) - cold, to be cold; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: zni (zni) - cool, cold [Omaha/Ponca]; zni (ni) - cold [Omaha]; sni (ni), hni (hn), ni (ni) - cold [FL-Osage]; ni-ni (nni) - (be) cold (used for inanimates only), cool to the touch, cool, as weather; cool weather [CQ-Osage]; hni-hiⁿ (hníhiⁿ) - something inanimate to be cold (not the body) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

sni-wa-te hi (snwatte hi) - very cold

cf. sni-wa-te (snwatte) - cold, cold weather; north, winter; power of winter (male); hi (hi) - very

ex: sni-wa-te shi-naⁿ sni-wa-te hi ka-xe naⁿ, shi-naⁿ de, i-ya (sniwtte ną sniwtte h kγe ną, ną d, iy) - Winter made it very cold again and again departed, it is said [JOD]

ex: i-ka-sho-te ka-xe, i-ya, sni-wa-te hi, i-ya (katte kγe, iy, snwatte hi, iy) - he made a blizzard, it is said, it was very cold, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: hni-wa-tse (hn-wa-tse), ni-wa-tse (n-wa-tse) - to be cold; cold weather; a cold day; it is cold [FL-Osage]; ni-wa-ʰtse (nwaʰce) - (be) cold (an impersonal weather expression, not used for people) [CQ-Osage]; ʰni-wa-tse (ʰniwace) - cold, as the weather; winter, the cold months [Kaw]

 

very far away

ko-zhi hi (kkihi) - far away, very far

ko-zhi hi (kki hi) - way off, far away [MS]

cf. ko-zhi (kki) - far; hi (hi) - very

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (kkihi akn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I going to live far away [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (kki hi bd tta mįkʰ) - I go a long ways (I will be going very far away) [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi taⁿ o-xde naⁿ te-da-we, i-ya (kki h-tą oxd ną tʔdaw, iy) - they went a long distance, when they overtook him, they killed him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰku-zhi (ḳ-zhi) - far away, at a great distance [FL-Osage]; go-ji (goj) - far off, remote, long way off [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

very fast

so-te hi (sott hi) - very fast; very rapid; very swift

cf. so-te (sott) - fast, swift of an animal, rapidly; hi (hi) - very

ex: maⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (mąn̨ sott hi) - walk fast [MS]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (tt̨nį sott hi) - run fast [MS]

ex: so-te hi kde niⁿ (stte h kde n̨) - very rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa-xti so-te hi kde kʰe (owxti stte h kde kʰ) - with great effort/with all her might, very fast/rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

 

very fat

shiⁿ hi (į h) - very fat

cf. shiⁿ (į) - fat, as a person or animal; hi (hi) - very

ex: te miⁿ shiⁿ hi te-de naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tt m̨ į h tʔde-ną iy mat̨ke) - Rabbit killed a very fat buffalo, it is said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ te miⁿ shiⁿ hi te-de naⁿ, i-ya (ną tt m̨ į h tʔde-ną, iy) - he killed a very fat buffalo again, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ (shiⁿ) - fat, obese, plump, fleshy [Omaha/Ponca]; shiⁿ (shiⁿ) - fat, husky [Omaha]; shiⁿ (shⁿ) - to be fat [FL-Osage]; shiⁿ (̨) - be fat [CQ-Osage]; shiⁿ (shiⁿ), shi (shi) - be fat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

shiⁿ-xti (įxt) - fat, very, really

cf. shiⁿ (į) - fat, as a person or animal; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: te-naⁿ-te de niⁿ-kʰe shiⁿ-xti ta-ta-we ho-taⁿ ni-tʰe (tten̨tte d-nįkʰ įxt ttatwe httą nitʰ) - it would have been good for youall to eat this very fat buffalo heart [JOD]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ-xti (shⁿqti) - very fat [Omaha/Ponca]; shiⁿ-xti (shiⁿxti) - fatty [Omaha]

 

very fine

da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine bda-taⁿ-ha (bdttąha) - I, ta-taⁿ-ha (ttttąha) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtoⁿ-he (ga-ṭoⁿ-he) - to pound into fine powder, as seeds for perfume [FL-Osage]; ga-taⁿ-haⁿ (gatáⁿhaⁿ) - mash and break something up, pound up [Kaw]

 

pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco pa-a-taⁿ-ha (pattąha) - I, pa-da-taⁿ-ha (pdattąha) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtoⁿ-he (ga-ṭoⁿ-he) - to pound into fine powder, as seeds for perfume [FL-Osage]; ga-taⁿ-haⁿ (gatáⁿhaⁿ) - mash and break something up, pound up [Kaw]

 

very good

ho-taⁿ hi (httą hi) - very good

cf. ho-taⁿ (httą) - good; hi (hi) - very

ex: iⁿ-da ho-taⁿ hi (įd httą hi) - very good mother [MS]

ex: she-mi ho-taⁿ hi (mi httą hi) - pretty girl [MS]

ex: we-ta-sta-de ho-taⁿ hi (wtstde httą hi) - good iron [MS]

ex: wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi (wah̨ska httą h) - calico/good/very [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, i-ni-naⁿ-haⁿ ho-taⁿ hi koⁿ-bda, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (įttatt, innąh̨ httą h kkǫbd, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - my father, I want to wear very fine clothing, it is said the Rabbits son said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: wa-hiⁿ-ska ta-taⁿ hi-te ho-taⁿ iⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi te a (wah̨ska tttą hitt httą ̨ wikbnį akd tte ) - I will bring you (his own daughter) back some kind of really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi zhaⁿ-pi-zhi o-zhi taⁿ ki-ki (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą tttą hott̨ hi ąppi o tą kikʔ) - so then when they (the other girls) went back, he gave his own (his daughter) a wooden box filled with something very good [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-daⁿ (daⁿ) - good, to be good [Omaha/Ponca]; u-doⁿ (doⁿ) - good, better, nice [Omaha]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, peaceful and beautiful, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid  [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį), tha-ʰliⁿ (aʰlį) - good, be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good or well-behaved person, or good food; good, pleasant [Kaw]

 

very green

to-hi (tthi) - very green, dark green [ASG]

cf. to (tto) - blue, green, grue; hi (hi) - very

ex: ma-hiⁿ to-hi (mah̨ tthi) - green grass [MS]

Dhegiha: tu-xti (tqti) - green, dark green, very dark green [Omaha/Ponca]

 

very high

maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - very high

maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative

cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, above, heaven, high; hi (hi) - very

ex: pe-te-shte maⁿ-shi hi (ppettte m̨i h) - very high blaze, flame [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - above; high in the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (m̨i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]

 

very hot

ka-te hi (kktte h) - hot [OM]

cf. ka-te (kktte), ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot; hi (hi) - very

ex: ka-te hi a-shi-ti (kktte itti) - its awful hot outside [MS]

Dhegiha: ʰka-tse (ʰkace) - heat, hot [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰka-tse (ʰkace) - cook, grill, barbecue, cook outside (refers only to cooking meat on a rack, as for barbecue) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: na-kʰa-de (nkʰade) - hot; to be hot [Omaha/Ponca]; na-ka-de (nkade) - heat [Omaha]; da-ʰka-dse (d-ḳa-dse) - hot [FL-Osage]; ta-ʰka-tse (taʰkace) - (be) hot to the touch, (be) warm, (an object or a substance; or a person only in special circumstances, such as with fever; does not apply to weather) [CQ-Osage]; da-ka-je (dkaje) - hot, as a person, stove [Kaw]

 

very hungry

naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha (nąpphi ttaha) - very hungry

cf. naⁿ-pe-hi (nąpphi) - to be hungry; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha-wi (nąpphi attahwi) - they were very hungry [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-pe-hiⁿ (naⁿphiⁿ) - hungry [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-pe-hi (noⁿpehi) - starvation; famine; hungry [Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰpe-hi (noⁿ-p-hi) - to be hungry [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpe-hi (nǫʰphi) - be hungry [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-pe-hi (noⁿphi) - be hungry [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

naⁿ-pe-hi-xti (nąpphi-xti) - very hungry [JOD]

cf. naⁿ-pe-hi (nąpphi) - to be hungry; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi-xti niⁿ a-zha-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (nąpphi-xti n̨ ąm̨, iy iy sniwtte) - I think that he is very hungry, it is said Winter said [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-pe-hiⁿ-xti (naⁿphiⁿqti) - very hungry [JOD-Omaha]

 

very kind

da-xe-de hi (daxʔde h) - very kind

cf. da-xe-de (daxʔde) - pity, be kind to someone; hi (hi) - very

ex: da-xe-de hi (daxʔde h) - was kind to him/very [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ zhi-ka a-shi-oⁿ-he niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke da-xe-de hi naⁿ, i-ya (ę ik iǫh nįkʰ mat̨ke daxʔde h ną, iy) - and the youngest one was very kind to Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-e-the (thathe) - to consider him miserable; to pity him; to have mercy on him [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-e-the (tha ethe) - pity, befriend [Omaha]; tha-ʰke-the (tha-ḳe-the) - to be tender, gentle, and sympathetic to one who suffers with grief or is in great trouble, tenderness, kind-heartedness [FL-Osage]; tha-ke-the (akʔe) - feel sorry for, pity, be good to, be merciful to, take care of, bless [CQ-Osage]; ya-ke-ye (yakye) - pity or love, bless [Kaw]

 

very large

wa-sha-ke hi (waʔke hi) - very large

wa-sha-ke hi (wak hi) - big [AG]

cf. wa-sha-ke (waʔke), wa-sha-ke (waak) - very large, large, be large; hi (hi) - very

ex: ni-wa-sha-ke hi (n waʔke h) - bay, large body of water

ex: pe-te wa-sha-ke hi (pptte waʔke hi) - big fire [MS]

ex: si-po-za wa-sha-ke hi (sippza waʔke hi) - big toe [MS]

ex: ta wa-sha-ke hi (tta waʔke hi) - buck deer [MS]

ex: wa-tʰi-shka wa-sha-ke hi (watʰka waʔke hi) - big river [MS]

 

wa-sha-ke (waʔke), wa-sha-ke (waak) - very large, large, be large aⁿ-wa-sha-ke (ąwʔake) - Im, di-wa-sha-ke (diwʔake) - youre

ex: ma-xpi wa-sha-ke (maxp waʔke) - large clouds

ex: ni wa-sha-ke (n waʔke) - river, large/big river

ex: ni wa-zha-ge (n wag) - big river [LQ, OM]

ex: ni wa-sa-ke (ni˙was˙Ge) - river [VG]

ex: ni wa-sha-ke pi-za-ti shka-te niⁿ (n waʔak ppiztti ktte n̨) - he was playing in the sand of the large body of water/river [JOD]

ex: o-shta wa-sha-ke (ot waʔak) - very large smooth place [JOD]

ex: o-shta-tʰi, o-shta wa-sha-ke, o-shta taⁿ o-ka-ki-xe hi a-taⁿ-we ki-we (ottʰi, ot waʔak, ot tą okkixe h tąwe kwe) - they arrived at the large smooth place forming a circle to watch him [JOD]

 

very light, not very heavy

ha-ha hi (hha hi) - very light, not very heavy [MS]

cf. ha-ha (hha) - light, not heavy; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: ha-ha-da (hahada) - lightweight [Omaha]; ha-ha-daⁿ (hhadⁿ) - light [JOD-Omaha]; ha-ha (h-ha) - light weight [FL-Osage]; ha-ha (hha) - light, lightweight [Kaw]

 

very long time

ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]

cf. ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago; ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time; ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ-miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi ki-zhi i-ya ma-shti-ke (ek̨ n̨kʰtti ttįhi ki iy mat̨ke) - rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

very many, very much

zho-hi hi (hi hi) - very many, very much

cf. zho-hi (hi) - much, many; hi (hi) - very

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke, nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle (my mothers brother), many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi, nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi (skka tt̨ka hi hi) - many turkeys [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-aⁿ-de aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (wąka hi h tʔęde ąkkde tte) - we have killed many birds, lets go home [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi, wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi, wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

ex: maⁿ zho-hi hi ka-xe naⁿ, i-ya (m̨ hi h kγe ną, iy) - he (Rabbit) made a lot of arrows for him (Rabbits son), it is said [JOD]

ex: zho-hi hi ka-xa-we (oh hi kγawe) - they made many [JOD]

 

very motionless

kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti (kkąhitti) - very motionless

cf. kaⁿ-zhi (kk̨i) - still, motionless; hi (hi) - very

ex: kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti kniⁿ-zhi (kkąhitt kn̨i) - very motionless/when/he did not sit [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti kniⁿ-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kkąhitt kn̨i iy mat̨ke) - Rabbit could not sit still, it is said [JOD]

 

very offensive odor

xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

cf. xwiⁿ (xwį), xo-wiⁿ (xow̨) - stink, emit offensive odor; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always

Dhegiha: xwiⁿ (qwiⁿ), xuiⁿ (quⁿ) - corrupt, putrid, rotten, offensive, stink, stinking, as carrion [Omaha/Ponca]; xuiⁿ (xuiⁿ) - stink, stench [Omaha]; xwiⁿ (xwiⁿ) - fetid, offensive smell [FL-Osage]; xoiⁿ (ɣǫ) - stink, stinky, fetid odor or offensive smell [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

xwiⁿ hi (xwį h) - smell very bad

cf. xwiⁿ (xwį), xo-wiⁿ (xow̨) - stink, emit offensive odor; hi (hi) - very

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (odbną iywe, hǫhǫ, xwį h, iy) - he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: xwiⁿ (qwiⁿ), xuiⁿ (quⁿ) - corrupt, putrid, rotten, offensive, stink, stinking, as carrion [Omaha/Ponca]; xuiⁿ (xuiⁿ) - stink, stench [Omaha]; xwiⁿ (xwiⁿ) - fetid, offensive smell [FL-Osage]; xoiⁿ (ɣǫ) - stink, stinky, fetid odor or offensive smell [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

zaⁿ-ze hi (ząz hi) - very offensive odor [JOD]

cf. zaⁿ-ze (z̨ze) - offensive smell, strong smell; hi (hi) - very

ex: si taⁿ-ka! zaⁿ-ze hi! i-shta taⁿ-ka! i-ha-shka! i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (si tt̨ka! ząz hi! it tt̨ka! hak! iy iy mątʰ) - big foot! stinky! big eyes! split lip! it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

Dhegiha: zaⁿ-ze (zⁿ-ze) - applicable to the strong odor of a negro, goat, buck, or that of a male of the black-tailed deer during the rutting season [JOD-Omaha]; zoⁿ-ze (zⁿze) - musky, smelly [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-ze (zoⁿze) - stink [Omaha]; zaⁿ-zi (z̨zi) - sour odor, acrid smell (such as armpit odor or onion smell [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw

 

very old person

sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - very old, very aged, old man, elder

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of ones father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of ones father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

very old woman

wa-xo zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - really old woman, very aged woman

cf. wa-xo zhi-ka (waxʔik) - old woman, little old lady; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

 

wa-xo zhi-ka-xti (waxʔikaxti) - really old woman, very aged woman

cf. wa-xo zhi-ka (waxʔik) - old woman, little old lady; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

 

very rich

wa-she-xti (wa-xti) - very rich, very prosperous

cf. wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: wa-she-xti (wa-xti) - very rich [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ wa-she-xti zho-ki-kde ti-kde ke naⁿ, i-ya (kį wa-xti kikde ttkde k ną, iy) - and then they lived very prosperously together, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-wa-she-xti (washqti) - to have a great abundance of various kinds of property, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: wa-she (wacĕ́) - rich [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-she (-she) - plenty, plentiful [FL-Osage]; o-she (e) - exist plentifully, lots, abundance, plenty, profusion of something [CQ-Osage]

 

very short

shte-ka hi (tek hi) - short, very short [MS]

cf. shte-ka (tka), (tek) - short; hi (hi) - very

 

very short time

di-o-za hi (diza h) - in a very short time

cf. di-o-za (diza) - just now, a short time ago; in a little while; a little while ago; hi (hi) - very

ex: di-o-za hi (diza h) - in a little while/very [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha di-o-za hi o-xde (n̨a diza h oxd) - then in a very short time he overtook her [JOD]

 

ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - in a very short time

cf. ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago; ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]; ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-zhi hi (ttįi h) - not a long time/very (very soon) [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te (kįttą ttįi h hatʔ) - then in a very short time, he became sick [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

o-di-o-za hi (odiza h) - in a very short time

cf. o-di-o-za (diza) - in a little while; hi (hi) - very

ex: o-di-o-za hi (odiza h) - in a little while/very [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka o-di-o-za hi o-wa-xde (bdok odiza h waxde) - in a very short time, he overtook the entire group [JOD]

 

very sickly

ha-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha (hatʔ tą attah) - very sickly

cf. ha-te (htʔe) - to be sick, ill; shtaⁿ (tą) - habitual; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always

ex: haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha (hątʔ tą attah) - me sickly/very [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

very silent

a-pe-hi (apphi) - very silent

a-pe hi (app hi) - noiseless/very [JOD]

cf. a-pe (ppe) - silent, noiseless, speechless; hi (hi) - very

 

very straight

do-taⁿ hi (dttą h) - very straight

cf. do-taⁿ (dttą), do-toⁿ (dttǫ) - straight; hi (hi) - very

ex: o-zhoⁿ-ke do-taⁿ hi (ǫke dttą h) - a very straight road [JOD]

Dhegiha: thu-tʰoⁿ (thtʰoⁿ) - straight, correct [Omaha/Ponca]; thu-toⁿ (thu tⁿ) - beeline; straight [Omaha]; thu-taⁿ (-taⁿ) - straight, correct [JOD-Omaha]; tho-ʰtoⁿ (th-ṭoⁿ) - in the middle of the heaven [FL-Osage]; yo-taⁿ (yótaⁿ) - straight up [Kaw]

 

very tired of

i-bnaⁿ hi (bną hi) - tired of it, satiated, to have enough, surfeited, satisfied, sufficient

cf. i-bnaⁿ (bną) - tired of it, satiated, to have enough, surfeited, satisfied, sufficient; hi (hi) - very

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ hi miⁿkʰe, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe (ąnąbn̨ hi mįkʰ, iy nįkʰ) - Ive really had enough (of being lonesome), she was saying [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - enough, sufficient; satisfied [Omaha/Ponca]; i-bthaⁿ (-baⁿ) - to have sufficient of, to be satisfied [JOD-Omaha]; i-braⁿ (ibrą) - have enough of, get enough of, have ones fill of, be sated with (either a positive or negative thing); be satiated with; be tired of, be negatively affected by too much of something [CQ-Osage]

 

very well, do well at something precociously

pi-oⁿ (ppį) - very well; know how, knew how [JOD]

pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) - do well, expresses precocity pi-moⁿ (ppmǫ) - I, shpi-zhoⁿ (pǫ) - you

pi-naⁿ (ppną) - do well at something precociously

cf. pi (ppi) - safely, well; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use

ex: wa-pi-naⁿ (wappną), wa-pi-na (wappna) - chief of a gens (clan); one who tells about old ways; while endeavoring to obtain a full list of personal names of the tribe, I met with considerable difficulty on account of the reluctance of the people to communicate to me the information which they regarded as the peculiar right of a class of men whom the called wa-pi-naⁿ. A wa-pi-naⁿ they divined as a ni-ka xo-we or mysterious man [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-di-taⁿ pi-oⁿ (mądttą ppį) - pulling the bow/very well [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to maⁿ-di-taⁿ pi-oⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-da-da naⁿ e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto mądttą ppį tt̨nį tʰidda ną kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like a boy that knows how to pull a bow well and begins to run now and then for short distances, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰpi-oⁿ (p̣i-ⁿ) - expert, skillful [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-oⁿ (ʰpǫ) - know how to do something; learn; be skilled at or expert in [CQ-Osage]; i-e pi-oⁿ (e poⁿ) - talk well, correctly [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi (pi) - good, not used as a separate word; well, anew [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - do, be [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ (̨) - do, engage in an activity [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (̨ǫ) - suffer from, have as an illness, be sick from, perhaps more literally be enveloped by (sickness), (sickness) lies upon someone, wear, use [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (oⁿ), oⁿ (oⁿ) - do; use; stay, live (reside); put in, put into [Kaw]

 

very wild

ma-xi-ka-zhi a-ta-pa (mxiki ttapp) - very wild

cf. ma-xi-ka (mxika) - shy, modest; zhi (i), a-zhi (ai) - negative, not, negation; a-ta-pa (ttapp) - too, great, exceeding; often, always [JOD]

ex: ma-xi-ka-zhi a-ta-pa-we (mxiki ttappwe) - they are very wild [JOD]wild

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xi-ga (mⁿ-xi-ga) - shy, to be shy, modest, diffident [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

very, not very

hi-zhi (hi) - not very

cf. hi (hi) - very; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ (sniwtte h-i ną) - cold/not very/regularly [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ, sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (ttǫtttʰą, sniwtte h-i ną, iy) - therefore, from that time on, it has not been very cold, it is said (before that it was much colder than it is now, now we have the female Winter) [JOD]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

very, speak very plainly

i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (ye dan̨nąi) - speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then [JOD]

cf. da (da) - by mouth; i-e (e), i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; word; da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (dan̨nąi) - eat without dribbling; da-shnaⁿ-zhi (dan̨i) - talk correctly; da-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨da) - slip in eating, talking, etc.

ex: i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa (ye dan̨nąi-pp) - speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ koⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kk̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - Oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-de-tha-zhnoⁿ-e-zhi (edthazhnⁿezhi) - to speak plainly, without missing any words or syllables; to speak like a child that is about two or three years old [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnoⁿ (thazhnⁿ) - miss, misspeak, mispronounce, to miss with the mouth, to slip in putting something in the mouth, speaking, reading, or singing [Omaha/Ponca]

 

very, to not go very far

ko-zhi da-zhi hi (kki di hi) - to not go very far

cf. ko-zhi (kki) - far; de (de) - go; zhi (i), a-zhi (ai) - negative, not, negation; hi (hi) - very

ex: ko-zhi da-zhi hi (kki di hi) - far/went not/very [JOD]

ex: ko-zhi da-zhi hi (kki di hi) - it didnt go very far [JOD]

 

very, what is so very important?

haⁿ-e hi (h̨e hi) - what is so very important?

cf. hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - whats the matter?; what happened?; haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; e (e) - question sign; hi (hi) - very

ex: haⁿ-e hi (h̨e hi) - what is the great trouble [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e hi da-maⁿ-tiⁿ ni-she? i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (h̨e hi dam̨ttį ni? iy iy sniwtte) - on what very important business are you traveling? it is said Winter said (shows that there must have been some great trouble or important business which forced the Rabbit to wander from his home at such a time) [JOD]

 

vessel

de-xe (dγe) - pot, kettle

de-xe (dxe) - kettle [JOD]

ex: de-xe zhi-te (deγ tte) - copper, lit. kettle-red

ex: de-xe zi (deγ zi) - brass, lit. kettle-yellow

ex: ma-ni-ka de-xe (mankka dγe) - pottery, clay pottery; not made after 1840

Dhegiha: the-xe (thxe) - kettle, pot, pail, bucket [Omaha/Ponca]; the-xe (-xe), ne-xe (nxe) - a kettle, pot; pail, bucket [JOD-Omaha]; ne-xe (nexe) - pot [Omaha]; ʰtse-xe (ṭs-xe) - kettle; a pot for cooking; a tin pail [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-xe (ʰcγe), tse-xe (cγe) - bucket, pail; kettle; pot [CQ-Osage]; je-ghe (jghe) - kettle, bucket, pot [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-ni-da-ki (̨nidaki) - bucket

i-ni-da-ki (nidaki) - bucket [MS]

cf. ni (ni) - water

 

ni i-da-taⁿ (ni datt̨) - cup, with which to drink water [MS]

ni-da-taⁿ (ndatt̨) - cup, drinking glass

cf. ni (ni) - water; i () - with which to; da-taⁿ (datt̨) - drink

Dhegiha: ni i-tha-tʰoⁿ (n-i--taⁿ) - a drinking vessel; a tin cup [Omaha/Ponca]; ni i-tha-toⁿ (ni ithatoⁿ) - cup [Omaha]; ni i-tha-ʰtoⁿ (n i-tha-ṭoⁿ) - cup, mug, drinking glass, drinking cup, tankard, dipper [FL-Osage]; ni i-tha-ʰtaⁿ (niaaʰtą) - dipper, ladle, lit., with which to drink water [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni i-ya-taⁿ (zhⁿni iytaⁿ) - dipper, cup made of wood [Kaw]

 

o-zhi (o) - jug, bottle, container; put collection into something, plant, fill

ex: ma-ze ni o-zhi (maz ni o) - milk bottle [MS]

ex: ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle [MS]

ex: zhoⁿ o-zhi (̨ o) - dipper or cup of wood

Dhegiha: u-zhi (uzh) - to fill with water, grain, or any bulky substance, to fill with any quantity of small objects, to plant or sow grain, seed, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - a pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (uzhi) - luggage, packet, suitcase, load, gardener, container, contain [Omaha]; u-zhi (zhi) - cabinet, bin, baggage [Omaha]; u-zhi (-zhi) - to plant [FL-Osage]; u-zhi (u-zhi), o-zhi (-zhi) - a hollow receptacle [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - put stuff in, plant stuff, pocket, bottle, container, vessel [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone, put in, plant or sow, put in, receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder, for pourable dry or liquid substances [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]; o-zhu (ozh) - put or pour something into something, put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]

 

ti-ke (ttke) - cup, ladle made of horn; refers to clam shell spoon etymologically

ti-ke (ttke) - dipper [MS]

ti-ke (ttke) - wooden spoon, from Francis Good Eagle [MH]

ex: ma-ze ti-ke (maze ttke) - spoon, metal spoon [MS, OM]

ex: te-he ti-ke (tteh ttke) - buffalo horn spoon, from Louis Angel Tallchief [MH]

Dhegiha: ʰtsiu-ge (ṭsiu-ge) - a spoon, a shell spoon; mussel shell [FL-Osage]; ʰtsu-ke (ʰcke) - spoon, Osage spoons were originally clamshells from creeks, used only for scraping corn, with little ones for children, largers ones for adults; this term is now used for spoons of other materials such as metal, plastic, or wood; abalone shell; shovel [CQ-Osage]

 

wi-o-hoⁿ (wohǫ) - pot, kettle (of metal) [ASG]

cf. wi (w) - with which to; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

Dhegiha: wi-u-hoⁿ (wuhoⁿ) - a boiler [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-u-hoⁿ (wi-u-hoⁿ) - with which to cook [FL-Osage]; wi-o-hoⁿ (wiohǫ) - cooking utensils, lit., with which to cook things [CQ-Osage]; wi-o-haⁿ (wióhaⁿ) - boil things together in a kettle [Kaw]

 

zhe-ka taⁿ (ek ttą) - pot, lit. it has legs [MS]

zhe-ka taⁿ (shȁgtaⁿ) - pot, kettle [ASG]

cf. zhe-ka (ek) - mans leg; hind leg of animal; taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

Dhegiha: zhe-ga (zhga) - upper part of the leg, thigh [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe-ga (zhega) - leg [Omaha]; zhe-ga (zhe-g) - leg, upper part [FL-Osage]; zhe-ka (ek) - leg [CQ-Osage]; zhe-ga (zheg) - leg; thigh, leg above the knee [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - exist, abound, have, possess, to exist, there is/there are; to abound, to have or possess [Omaha/Ponca]; taⁿ (taⁿ) - to abound; there is; to have or possess [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - to possess [FL-Osage]; toⁿ (toⁿ) - have, possess [Kaw]

 

vessel, spill or pull over a vessel

di-shaⁿ (dią) - spill, pull over a vessel bdi-shaⁿ (bdą) - I, ti-shaⁿ (ttą) - you

di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ (bdǫ) - I, ti-shoⁿ (ttǫ) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

Dhegiha: thi-shoⁿ (thi-shⁿ) - to dislocate by pulling [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: shaⁿ (caⁿ) - dislocated; fallen off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - dislocated, fallen, fallen off [Omaha/Ponca]

 

vest

o-ka-sto-te (okstotte) - vest

ta-shiⁿ-ne o-ka-shto-te (tshĭnne ugshtute) - vest [ASG]

 

view, knock into view

ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view pa-wa-di-shta (ppwadita) - I, shpa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

Dhegiha: ba-wa-thi-shna (ba-w-i-c͓na) - to punch at an object under the surface of the water, etc., making it appear [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-shna (wathshna) - bold, visible [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

view, punch or shoot into view

po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view po-a-wa-di-shta (pawdita) - I, po-da-wa-di-shta (pdawdita) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-shna (wathshna) - bold, visible [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

view, push into view

ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view pa-naⁿ-pe (ppnąpe) - I, shpa-naⁿ-pe (pnąpe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

Dhegiha: e-tho-ⁿbe (thoⁿbe) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from the water [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

view, scuff into view with the feet

naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet a-naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (an̨nąpe) - I, da-naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (dan̨nąpe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

Dhegiha: e-tho-ⁿbe (thoⁿbe) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from the water [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

village

toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą)

taⁿ (tt̨), toⁿ (tt̨) - town [MS, OM]

toⁿ (ton) - town or village (ville ou village) [GI]

toⁿ (t́ng) - town; name of all big cities [ASG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ (nsni ttǫ) - Baxter Springs, Kansas, cold water town

ex: toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti (ttǫ nįkʰtti) - village/at the cv. ob. [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

ex: toⁿ ti bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tti bd tta mįkʰ) - Im going to go to town [MS]

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why are you going to town? [MS]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta (t̨ nįkʰett) - village/to the cv. ob. [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (t̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de ta-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi (tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa) - village/where/soever (=anywhere)/there/it sits not [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ) - this direction/village/there/it sits [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti toⁿ ko-zhi taⁿ (kįttą tti tt̨ kko tą) - then/there/village/distant/when [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti toⁿ ko-zhi taⁿ o-zha i-ki-pʰe tʰi-we (kįttą tti tt̨ kko tą a kipʰe tʰwe) - then from a distant village they came to invite them to dance [JOD]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town, cluster of lodges, indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - town, village, city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą)

ex: toⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - Small Town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town, cluster of lodges, indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - town, village, city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

taⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨ ka), taⁿ o-zhi-ka (tt̨-oka) - village [ASG]

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little; taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - Small Town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

 

o-taⁿ-knaⁿ (ttąkną) - tribe, nation

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into

Dhegiha: o-taⁿ-maⁿ-laⁿ (otⁿmaⁿlaⁿ) - to dwell within village [Kaw]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (tⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - tribe, nation, people, city, town; tribe or nation dwelling in a town or village [Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (toⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - village, town [Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (ṭⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ) - the common name for the gens (clans) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ-la (ʰt̨wąla) - clan [CQ-Osage]

 

o-tti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; o-tti (tti) - camp, dwell, camp in or by, a place to camp; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in

Dhegiha: u-ti (ut) - to remain in camp for one night, as when the people are going on a hunting expedition [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ti (uti) - location [Omaha]; u-ʰtsi (u-ṭs) - dwell; an abode; abiding place; a home; a site suitable for a house or camp [FL-Osage]; o-tsi (ocí) - camp, encamp in (as in a valley) or by (as by a stream); go camping [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - sit, dwell [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ), gliⁿ (glⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside, continue [Kaw]

 

ti-kde (ttikd) - village, collection of lodges; to set up housekeeping, to live together in same tent

ex: ti-kde ke ta (ttikd ke tta) - lodges(=village)/to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke (ttikd ke) - lodge(plural)/the (plural) inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe, i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e, iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the (plural) inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the plural [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

villages, names of the five original Quapaw villages

When the Kwapa were discovered by the French they dwelt in five villages, described by the early chroniclers as the Imaha (Imaham, Imahao), Capaha, Toriman, Tonginga (Doginga, Topinga), and Southois (Atotchasi, Ossouteouez). Three of these village names are known to all the tribe: 1, o-ka-xpa-xti (uʞqpa-qti), Real Kwapa; 2, ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (t-u--di-maⁿ) (Toriman), t-u-a-d maⁿ (of Mrs Stafford); 3, o-zo ti-o-we (u-z-ti--wĕ) (Southois, etc). The fourth was taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (taⁿ́waⁿ jʞa), Small village. Judging from analogy and the fact that the fifth village, i-ma-ha (imaha), was the farthest up Arkansas river, that village name must have meant, as did the term Omaha, the upstream people. [JOD]

 

i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

i-ma-ha (măha) - a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwp, who lived with the Ḱdohad́cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwp were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwp who lived upstream (maha) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. [J. Mooney-Caddo]

ma-ha (maha) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other; i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on the other side

Dhegiha: u-ma-ha (u-m-ha), u-maⁿ-haⁿ (umaⁿ-haⁿ) - those that went upstream, the Omahas, a tribe of the egiha group of the Siouan Family, see Paka, Wajaje, K͓aⁿze, and Ugaqpa [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (u-mⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for Omaha [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-haⁿ (om̨hą) - Omaha (tribe or tribal member) [CQ-Osage]; o-ma-ha (omha), oⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (oⁿmⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha tribe or people, those who went upstream, so called because they (as well as the Ponca, Osage, and Kansa) went up stream when they left the Quapaw [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages; spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.

ga-pa (gappa) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (u-g-qpa) - those who went downstream, the Kwapas or Quapaws, they were known to the Illinois tribes as the Arkansas or Alkansas [JOD-Omaha]; u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, the down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

o-zo ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom

Dhegiha: u-zu (u-) - lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - 1) wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber; oz tⁿga ji ay gⁿyabe che a, pahⁿle ch. They first desired to go to an extensive bottom land, abounding in timber, where Junction City now stands; 2) hilltops JOD uses this term in reference to the noⁿnⁿbahu t, a kind of grape or berry found on the oz (hill tops) but the term more commonly refers to lowlands, as in sense 1. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zu u-gthoⁿ (-u-u-gthoⁿ) - lowland forest in the bend of a stream [FL-Osage]; u-zu i-ha zhiⁿ-ga (u--i-ha zhiⁿ-ga) - at one time there was a large bend in the stream, which was nearly closed; the meaning of the name is small mouth; it is near the u-zu (u-u) or woods, what is known as Bartlesville, Kans. This was the site of the fourth camp in the fisrt trail, also of the third trail [FL-Osage]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber, the name of a village, literally, they live in the timber. JOD identifies this as a proper town, that is, it refers to a specific village, also called cexliⁿ village on a highland or lowland level, destitute of trees. The second name seems to contradict the first name but MRs comments might be intended to clarify: There used to be three branches, like Pawhuska, and some of them lived in that and some of them lived along the creek, Gaxoliⁿ and Zaⁿjliⁿ. Those people lived in the [_?_], why they used to live north of Kaw there, at Washunga there. And those others, they used to [_?_] on top of the hill. And I think they called Waxga-oliⁿ where the cactus grows. Zaⁿjliⁿ is where they live in the timber, zaⁿj. And Gax-oliⁿ, they used to live along the edge of [creek?] over there at Washunga. [Kaw]

 

taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - Small Town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

taⁿ zhi-ka (tⁿ zhika) - village [ASG]

cf. taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: taⁿ-waⁿ (tⁿ-waⁿ) - a cluster of lodges, a camp, village, or Indian town [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town; cluster of lodges, Indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - a town or city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (ttodimą) - one of the five original Quapaw villages mentioned in early French narratives, often spelled Toriman or Thoriman by the French [JOD]; the village of tourima or Pommes de Terre (potato, apple or fruit of the ground) is a league to the west distant from Ougapa [La Harpe]

 

vine

hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg

hi (hi) - stalk, trunk of tree [FS]

ex: ha-zi kaⁿ-hiⁿ (hzi k̨hį) - grape vine

ex: pa-shte-ka hi (patka hi) - strawberry vine

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - the stock or trunk of a plant or vine; the leg or legs of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

vine, grape vine

ha-zi kaⁿ-hiⁿ (hzi k̨hį) - grape vine

cf. ha-zi (hzi) - grape; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ha-zi hi (h-i hi) - grapevine [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ha-zi (hi) - grape [Omaha]; ha-zi (hi) - grapes [FL-Osage]; ha-zu (hazu) - grape [CQ-Osage]; ha-zu (hzu) - grapes, esp. fox grapes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - the stock or trunk of a plant or vine; the leg or legs of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

vine, strawberry vine

pa-shte-ka hi (patka hi) - strawberry vine

cf. pa-shte-ka (patka) - strawberry; hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg

Dhegiha: ba-stse-ga hiu (ba-sts-ga-hiu) - strawberry vine [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ba-shte (bashte) - strawberry [Omaha]; ba-stse-ga (ba-sts-ga) - strawberry [FL-Osage]; pa-shtse-ka (paaceka), paⁿ-shtse-ka (pąącka) - strawberry [CQ-Osage]; paⁿ-shtse-ga (paⁿshcga) - strawberry [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - the stock or trunk of a plant or vine; the leg or legs of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

vines, crisscrossed or interlaced as vines

a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.

cf. a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - cross roads; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream

ex: a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-thi-te (kʰithte) - to cross each other; to lie across one another [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-thi-tse (-ḳi-thi-tse) - that which lies across the breast [FL-Osage]

 

violin, fiddle

ba-kiⁿ-te (bak̨tte) - play, accordion or violin pa-kiⁿ-te (ppkįtte) - I, shpa-kiⁿ-te (pkįtte) - you

cf. ba-kiⁿ-to-zha (bak̨ttoa), ba-giⁿ-to-zha (bagįttoa) - fiddle dance, whitemans dance; di-kiⁿ-te (dikįtt) - to make creak by pulling; wa-kiⁿ-te (wak̨tte) - accordion

Dhegiha: ba-gi-ze (bagze) - fiddle, creak, squeak, to play the fiddle, to make a creaking or squeaking sound by pushing [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-gi-ze (ba-g-ze) - to make a creaking or squeaking sound by pushing hence, to play a fiddle [JOD-Omaha]; ba-gi-dse (ba-g-dse) - a fiddle, violin; ba (ba), an act of pushing; gi-dse (gi-dse), squeak [FL-Osage]; pa-ki-tse (paakce) - play music on an instrument, musical instrument, piano, music [CQ-Osage]; ba-gi-je (bagje) - fiddle, play the fiddle, music, play the guitar [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gi-ze (gze) - creak, to creak [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-ze (g-ze) - to creak [JOD-Omaha]; gi-dse (gi-dse) - squeak [FL-Osage]; ki-tse (kice) - squeak [CQ-Osage]

 

ba-kiⁿ-to-zha (bak̨ttoa), ba-giⁿ-to-zha (bagįttoa) - fiddle dance, whitemans dance

cf. ba-kiⁿ-te (bak̨tte) - play, accordion or violin; o-zha (a) - dance

 

virgin

wa-di-xa-zhi (wdiγi) - unmarried woman; virgin

wa-di-xa-zhi hi (wdiγi h) - unmarried woman, spinster

cf. a-di-xe (diγe) - marry a man, take a man for a husband

Dhegiha: wa-thi-xe a-zhi (wathixe azhi) - unmarried [Omaha]; wa-thi-xa ba-zhi (wixa-baj) - had not married [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-xa-zhi (w-thi-xa-zhi) - a woman not yet married; a maiden [FL-Osage]; wa-thu-xa-zhi (wuγai) - female who has not married; virgin [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-gha-zhi (wáyughazhi) - maiden, unmarried woman [Kaw]

 

Virginia, Virginian, American

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - white people, white man, white race [MS, MR, OM]

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - American; derived from Virginia

wa-jhi-ni (ŭatschinni) - American (Amricain) [GI]

wa-tshi-ni (w-tci-ni) - Virginian, white man [LH]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ni-ka (waǰni nkka) - white man [AG, OM]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ko-i (waǰni ki) - hes a white man [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkk̨ik) - white man didnt like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta aⁿ-ba o-zha hne (waǰni kd tta ̨ba a hn) - you white people go home and dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-dsi-ne (w-dsi-ni) - a disease, a malady [FL-Osage]; wa-tsʰi-ni (wcʰini), wa-tsi-ni-e (wcinie) - venereal disease, sexually transmitted disease [probably from Virginia (which may have been used to mean white man) [CQ-Osage]

wa-ji-ne (wji ne) - disease, a malady [Kaw]

 

viscous, slimy, muddy, ropy

kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous

cf. o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - become mired, stuck in mud; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]

ex: we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy

ex: we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy [LQ, AG, OM]

ex: di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy

ex: a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]

ex: a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]

 

visible, in sight

taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

cf. taⁿ-hi-de (ttąhde) - to have passed by in sight

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa (tt̨į-hi-pp) - in sight/were coming/the moving ones [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka a-na-hi-te-xti taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa i-ya, kaxn̨ (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka anhittxti tt̨į-hi-pp iy, kaxn̨) - then a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa (tt̨į-hi-pp) - in sight/were coming/the moving ones [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-xnaⁿ a-na-hi-te taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa-naⁿ, i-ya (in̨ kaxn̨ anhitte tt̨į-hi-pp-ną, iy) - again a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight, it is said [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha a-shi o-a-te naⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ tʰi (n̨a i oatt ną tt̨̨ tʰi) - then when I looked back, he appeared in sight, he had come [JOD]

ex: mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mitt̨į) - sun sure up [MS]

ex: mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mi taⁿ́-iⁿ) - female name of the Kwapa Sun gens, Visible Moon, mother of ka-hi-ke ste-te (k͓ahk͓e stĕ́tĕ) [JOD]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-iⁿ (tⁿiⁿ) - visible, plain [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿiⁿ), tiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; toiⁿ (t̨į), toⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - pronounced ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į), ʰtiⁿ-e (ʰt̨e) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

visible, plain

wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain aⁿ-wa-di-shta (ąwdit) - I, di-wa-di-shta (diwdit) - you, wa-wa-di-shta-we (wawditawe) - we

ex: ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view

ex: da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something

ex: ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up

ex: naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet

ex: pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal

ex: po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view

ex: ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-shna (wathshna) - bold, visible [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

visible, that distant visible object

ko-i (ki) - that, there, that distant object

ko-i (ki) - that [JOD]

ko-i (ko), ko-e (ko) - he, she, it, that [ASG]

ex: si-ka ko-i (skka ko) - that chicken [ASG]

ex: si-ka ko-i te-a-de (skka ko tʔede) - I kill that chicken [ASG]

ex: pe-te ko-i (pptte koi) - that fire [MS]

ex: ko-i ko-ta wi-ta (ki kkta wtta) - thats my friend [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ko-i (waǰni ki) - hes a white man [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni miⁿ ko-i (waǰni mį ki) - shes a white woman [MS]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo ko-i (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it [MS]

ex: ko-i ta-taⁿ (ki tttą) - that/what [JOD]

ex: ko-i ta-taⁿ te-zha-i ke, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zha-i ke e-te te (ki tttą tai k, mikkxʔe ąteai ke tte tt) - what is that urinating, I wonder if the stars are urinating on me [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi (g-a-hi) - the object beyond (another place); yonder [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gu-a (ga), gu-da (gda) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ni kihidnįkʰetti) - hill/at yonder distant visible place [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-a-hi--i-ke), gu-da-hi-the-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-da-hi--i-k) - the an. ob. st. or kneeling at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-i-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular, lying, animate or inanimate; de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying, inanimate; de-kʰe-koⁿ (dekʰek̨) - this kind [JOD]; ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular, lying, invisible, inanimate; ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular, lying, animate or inanimate, yonder; she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular, lying, visible object; to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular, lying, inanimate object on this side; to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular, lying, inanimate object on this side

ex: ni koi-kʰe (n kikʰe) - water/that lying object [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-kʰe (g-a-kĕ) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. in sight and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-kʰe (g-a-hi-kĕ́) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. at a short distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-the-kʰe (ga-hi--kĕ) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. at a great distance and beyond (another place); it lies yonder [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-i-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote singular/moving/visible/animate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ), gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ) - the visible an, ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-thiⁿ (g-a-hi-ⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a short distance and beyond (another place), but not traveling [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-the-thiⁿ (g-a-hi--iⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-a-hi-i-k), gu-da-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-da-hi-i-k) - the an. ob. st. at a short distance and beyond; refers to one unseen but heard [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote singular/standing/visible/animate

ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that [ASG]

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, it, there; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: shoⁿ-ke ko-i-tʰaⁿ (̨ke kitʰą) - that dog [ASG]

Dhegiha: gu-a-tʰaⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-tʰaⁿ (g-a-hi-tⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a short distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-the-tʰaⁿ (g-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te ko-i-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your (that) dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-tʰe (g-a-hi-tĕ́) - the std. in. ob. or the col. of in. objects at a short distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

visible, that visible object nearby

she () - that, that visible, that visible thing [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - that/last (one)/indeed [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ (įkk̨-e į) - o grandmother/that visible thing/period [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e į, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, thats him, it is said that the rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (ǫt nįkʰe į) - scrotum/the part/that visible/period [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she, shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe, ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here is his scrotum [JOD]

Dhegiha: she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - that one; there [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

 

she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: she-kʰe (shkʰe) - that visible recl. an. ob., lg. in. ob., or rectilinear col. of in. objects, near the speaker or the one addressed [Omaha/Ponca]; she-kshe (sh-kshe) - that long object [FL-Osage]; she-kshe (e ke) - that one near you lying down [CQ-Osage]

 

she-niⁿ (nį) - that moving/visible/animate

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: she-thiⁿ (shthiⁿ) - that moving animate object not going on a journey; that collection of growing (i.e. moving) inanimate objects, as grasses, refers to what is visible and near [Omaha/Ponca]

 

she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: wi-te-ke, she-niⁿ-kʰe ta-ska pa-hi miⁿ (wttek, nįkʰ ttask ppah mį) - mothers brother/that cv. ob./rocky mountain sheep/head/one [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, she-niⁿ-kʰe ta-ska pa-hi miⁿ, i-yi- i-ya (wttek, nįkʰ ttask ppah mį, iy iy) - my uncle (my mothers brother), that object by you is the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said that he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-thiⁿ-kʰe (shthiⁿkʰe) - that visible and near sitting animate object; that visible and near sitting subject of an action at the request of another (not a free action); that curved inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; she-iⁿ-kshe (e įk), she-thiⁿ-kshe (e įk) - that one sitting (animate or inanimate), that one over there, closer to the hearer than to the speaker; that thing there [CQ-Osage]; she-yiⁿ-khe (shéyiⁿkhe) - that (visible/sitting; animate or inanimate; object of verb) [Kaw]

 

she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that standing/visible/animate

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: she-toⁿ (sh-toⁿ) - that one standing [FL-Osage]; she-txaⁿ (e txą), she-kxaⁿ (e kxą), she-tkxaⁿ (e tkxą) - that one standing (animate) [CQ-Osage]

 

visible, those distant visible objects

ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual/standing/visible/inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

 

ko-i-ke (kike) - yonder ones [JOD]

ko-i-ke (kike) - those remote plural/standing/visible/animate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: ti ko-i-ke (tti kike) - lodge/yonder ones [JOD]

ex: ti ko-i-ke, ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tti kike, niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, they are disobedient [JOD]

 

ko-i-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible

cf. koi (ki) - that, there; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

ko-i-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate

cf. koi (ki) - that, there; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

 

visible, those visible objects nearby

she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual/standing /visible/inanimate objects

cf. she () - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: she-a-tʰe (shatʰ) - those two visible std. in. objects or col. of in. objects [Omaha/Ponca]

 

she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

cf. she (sh) - that [JOD]; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate

cf. she () - that; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

Dhegiha: she-ma (shma) - those near the one addressed [Omaha/Ponca]; she-a-ma (sham) - that visible an. ob., coming or going, but not distant; those visible an. objects, coming or going, but not distant; those visible an. objects, the pl. sub. of a voluntary action [Omaha/Ponca]; she apa (e apa) - those ones in motion, there near you [CQ-Osage]; she-ba (shéba) - those yonder (plural/visible/animate) [Kaw]

 

visit

ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkit̨we tʰi) - to visit, to go see ones own

cf. toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; ki-taⁿ-we (kkit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here

ex: aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come see me (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

Dhegiha: gi-doⁿ-be tsi (gidⁿbe c) - visit, go/come to see someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wi-ki-ʰtoⁿ-e a-tsi-e (wikiʰtǫe acʰe) - I have come to see you [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gi-toⁿ-be (gitⁿbe) - to look at or see his own [Omaha/Ponca]; kʰi-toⁿ-be (kʰitⁿbe) - to look at each other (du.) or at one another (pl.); to see each other or one another [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-toⁿ-be (kitⁿbe) - to look at himself [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-doⁿ-be (gi-dⁿ-be) - to view ones own property [FL-Osage]; ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-be (ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - look over ones self [FL-Osage]; ki-toⁿ-pe (kit̨pe) - see someone; look with regard to someone, look down on (benevolently), watch over [CQ-Osage]; ki-toⁿ-pe (ktǫpe) - look at something that belongs to someone [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkʰtǫpe) - look at oneself; look at ones own [CQ-Osage]; ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰt̨pe) - watch ones own things, look at ones own things [CQ-Osage]

 

voice

ho (ho) - voice

ex: ho-ho-wi (hohwi) - barking (plural)

ex: ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar

ex: ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

ex: ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

ex: ga-ho-taⁿ (gahttą) - whirr, roar

ex: ga-ho-taⁿ-de (gahttąde) - whirr, hum, roar

ex: naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on

ex: o-ho (oho) - bark, as a dog [MS]

Dhegiha: hu (hu) - a voice or sound [Omaha/Ponca]; hu (hu) - voice; vocal; howl [Omaha]; hu (hu) - voice [FL-Osage]; ho (ho) - voice; bark, moo, quack, etc., make an animal noise [CQ-Osage]; ho (ho) - voice [Kaw]

 

ta-ta (ttatt) - voice

cf. da-te (dat) - read aloud, call or name something; a-da-te (date) - read, say aloud

ex: a-ta-ta a-tʰaⁿ-he (atttta atʰąh) - I am speaking now [ASG]

ex: ta-ta wa-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ttatt wat̨įi) - hoarse voice, to whisper

Dhegiha: tha-de (thad) - call, name, speak, utter, pronounce [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-de (a-d) - to call; to utter, speak, pronounce [JOD-Omaha]; tha-dse (tha-ds) - to call as by name, to pronounce; uttered or spoken [FL-Osage]; tha-tse (aac) - call on someones name; say the name of something or someone; call, define as; assign a name to something or someone; use a name for something or someone; say; pronounce; read [CQ-Osage]; ya-je (yaj) - read, pronounce; to call by name [Kaw]

 

voice, fail using the mouth or voice

da-iⁿ-zhi (dąi) - fail using the mouth or voice bda-iⁿ-zhi (bdįi) - I, ta-iⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; zhi (i) - negative, not; ba-iⁿ-zhi (bąi) - fail or miss pushing at something; bi-iⁿ-zhi (bįi) - fail/miss pressing/blowing; di-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - fail in pulling, rowing, etc.; ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking; naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ną̨i) - fail in walking or with machine; pa-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - fail in cutting or sawing; po-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - to be unsuccessful shooting or punching; ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough

 

voice, hoarse voice

ta-ta wa-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ttatt wat̨įi) - hoarse voice, to whisper aⁿwa-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ąwtąį) - I, wa-di-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (wadtąį) - you

cf. ta-ta (ttatt) - voice; iⁿ-zhi (įi) - fail, miss, unsuccessful

 

voice, make cry in weak voice

di-xda-xda-zhe (dixdxdae) - make cry in weak voice bdi-xda-xda-zhe (bdxdaxdae) - I, ti-xda-xda-zhe (ttxdaxdae) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xtha-xtha-zhe (thiqthqthazhe) - to make cry out repeatedly with a quavering voice, by holding, pinching, or pulling [Omaha/Ponca]; xtha-xtha-zhe (qthaqthzhe) - to scream out often, like a young animal calling its mother [Omaha/Ponca]; xtha-zhe (qthazh) - to scream out, like a young animal calling its mother [Omaha/Ponca]

 

volition

wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will power, will, mind, idea, volition

ex: wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi (wą ddai) - to lose patience

ex: wa-zhiⁿ kde-taⁿ (wą kdet̨) - masculine name, Disposition of a Hawk; Will Power of a Hawk [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful

ex: wa-zhiⁿ ska (wą ska) - masculine name, White Disposition, Wise [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ (wa-jⁿ) - disposition, temper, mind [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - will power [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - own will, volition [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - will, mind, idea [CQ-Osage]

 

volley, fire a volley

a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events; indirectly, not even second hand; ki-te (kktte) - shoot at something; to shoot; o-ki-kde-kde (kikdkde) - set up in a row [JOD]; a-ki-kde-kde a-na-xoⁿ (kkikdekde anxʔǫ) - I heard it indirectly

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-kʰi-gthe (kʰikʰgthe) - to fire in guns in rapid succession, as when a national salute is fired [Omaha/Ponca]

 

vomit

kde-we (kdwe) - to vomit a-kde-we (akdwe) - I, da-kde-we (dakdwe) - you, oⁿ-kde-wa-we (ǫkdewawe) - we

cf. i-kde-we (kdewe) - vomit up, vomit because of

Dhegiha: gthe-be (gthbe) - to vomit [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-be (gthbe) - vomit; gag; throw up [Omaha]; gthe-be (gth-be) - to vomit; retch; spew [FL-Osage]; le-pe (lpe) - vomit [CQ-Osage]; le-be (lébe) - to vomit [Kaw]

 

i-kde-we (kdewe) - vomit up, vomit because of

cf. kde-we (kdwe) - to vomit

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-kde-we naⁿ (mat̨ke kdewe ną) - rabbit/vomited him up/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-kde-we naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi wadxow nįkʰ mat̨ke kdewe ną, iy) - then the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth vomited Rabbit up, it is said [JOD]

ex: we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ (wkdewa ną) - vomited him not up/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (etthi dixi wadxow nįkʰ wkdewa ną, iy) - at that time the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth did not vomit him up, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-gthe-be (gthebe) - to vomit on account of something [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: we-gthe-be (wgthebe) - to vomit on account of them; to vomit them up [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gthe-be (gthbe) - to vomit [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-be (gthbe) - vomit; gag; throw up [Omaha]; gthe-be (gth-be) - to vomit; retch; spew [FL-Osage]; le-pe (lpe) - vomit [CQ-Osage]; le-be (lébe) - to vomit [Kaw]

 

 

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