English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

K

 

Kansa, Kanza, Kanze, Kanza, Kaw Tribe

kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; kaⁿ-ze (k̨ze), koⁿ-ze (k̨ze) - pretend, feign, to pretend by being equal to, to pretend by being similar to, to pretend by acting as, to pretend being like; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ekǫkʰde), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; ki-koⁿ-ze (kkǫze), ki-kaⁿ-ze (kkąze) - teach someone something, to teach by being similar to, to teach by acting as, to teach by doing as; wa-kaⁿ-ze (wak̨ze) - teacher, to act as them, to be similar to them, to be like them, to do as them; e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite; e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

ex: The following sentence was recorded from a Kaw man named ni-ghu-je yiⁿ-ge (nighje yiⁿge).  According to this man, this is what a group of Quapaws said upon meeting a group of Kaws.  The example appears to be an explanation of how the Quapaws and Kansa originally separated according to the Quapaws. tsa-kaⁿ o-ne aⁿ-ga-hu-ba-zhe a-be, i-tsi-go aba.  kaⁿ-ze aⁿ-yiⁿ-be a-o (ckⁿ on aⁿgahubzhe be, icgo ab. kaⁿze aⁿyⁿbe ao) - Our ancestors said that we (Quapaws) went after sinew and did not go back (to you).  We (Quapaws) are Kansa (similar/equal/alike/same).

Dhegiha: koⁿ-ze (koⁿe) - Kansa Tribe, Kaw Tribe [Omaha]; kaⁿ-ze (k͓aⁿ́-ze) - The Kansas or Wind people [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-ze (ḳⁿ-e) - Kaw Indians [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-ze (ʰk̨ąze) - Kaw, Kansa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-ze (kaⁿze) - Kansa tribe, clan, the Kaws, a Kaw person [Kaw]

 

Kansas, Baxter Springs

ni-sni toⁿ (nsni ttǫ) - Baxter Springs, Kansas, cold water town, spring town

ni-sni toⁿ (nsni ttǫ) - Baxter Springs, Kansas [OM]

cf. ni-sni (nisn, nsni) - spring, literally cold water; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; sni (sni) - cold, to be cold; toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (ttą́wą)

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

Dhegiha: ni-sni (nni) - cold water, well water [Omaha]; ni-sni (ni-n) - a spring of cold water [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰni (ni-hn) - water cold, a spring or well [FL-Osage]; ni-ni (nini) - spring, well, sources of water [CQ-Osage]; ni-ʰniⁿ (nihnⁿ) - well or a pump [Kaw]

 

katydid

ma-ze-pa wa-da-se (mazppa wadse) - katydid, lit. bites off a teat

cf. ma-ze-pa (mazppa) - nipple of the breast; da (da) - by mouth; pa-se (pse) - cut off with a knife

Dhegiha: ba-ze wa-tha-se (ba--wa-tha-e) - katydid, the Osage women lived in fear of the katydid [FL-Osage]; si-pa wa-tha-se (sip wathse) - stag beetle, toe biter [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze-pa (moⁿpa) - womans nipple [Omaha]; ba-ze-pa (ba--pa) - nipple, teat [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-se (as) - biting off [JOD-Omaha]; ya-se (yas) - bite off [Kaw]

 

keep house

ti-kde (ttikd) - to set up housekeeping, to live together in same tent, village, collection of lodges

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde nikʰ ną) - four women were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kda-wi (ttkdawi) - they dwelt in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kde miⁿ ti kʰi (ttkde m̨-tti kʰ) - he arrived at one lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ka niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke nįkʰ ni kihid-nįkʰtti ttkde nįkʰ) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house (JOD)]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

ex: ti-kde-kde (ttkdekde) - different lodges [JOD]

ex: ti-kde-kde kʰe a-kde (ttkdekde kʰe akd .) - I go home to the (line of standing) lodges

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

keep ones own (relation, property, etc.)

a-kda-niⁿ (akdnį) - keep ones own (relation, property, etc.) a-ka-bniⁿ (akdbnį) - I

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep

ex: a-ka-bniⁿ (akdbnį) - I have my own, I had my own [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then-little girl-this-only-I have my own-I have come home [JOD]

ex: a-kda-bniⁿ pʰi (akdbnį pʰ) - I had my own-I came hither [JOD]

ex: she-mi zhi-ka a-kda-bniⁿ pʰi (mika akdbnį pʰ) - I came here with my little girl [JOD]

ex: a-kda-niⁿ (akdnį) - keeping his own, he having his own, having his own [JOD]

ex: e-da-te naⁿ-hi a-kda-niⁿ o-shte (edtte nąh akdnį ot) - her father-only-keeping his own-remained [JOD]

ex: a-kda-niⁿ de (akdnį de) - take ones own with one; to go with ones own (relatives, etc.)

ex: a-kda-niⁿ de (kdan̨ d) - she carried her own [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttitti ką kdan̨ d) - it was hers-because-she took her own-and-into the house-so-she carried her own [JOD]

ex: a-kda-niⁿ hi (akdnį hi) - to come hither with ones own [JOD]

ex: a-kda-niⁿ kdi (akdnį kd) - to have brought back ones own

ex: i-yo-wi taⁿ a-kda-niⁿ kdi kʰe (yowi-ttą akdnį kd kʰe) - when he was wounded they (his relations) brought him (or his body) home

ex: wa-kda-niⁿ (wkdanį) - he has us, his relations

ex: wa-kda-niⁿ hi (wkdanį h) - she took them, her own, thither [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe shi-zhi-ka zho-wa-ki-kde wa-kda-niⁿ hi taⁿ a-di-xe (kįttą n̨a waxʔ ik nįkʰ ika wakkde wkdanį h tą adiγ) - and then the old woman married him, she took her children along with her [JOD]

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi-ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

ex: a-ki-kda-niⁿ aⁿ-ta de (kikdnį ̨ta d) - she had her own (on) when she went [JOD]

ex: ̨kdanį (̨kdanį) - he has me, his relation

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi-ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: a-di-kda-niⁿ (adkdanį) - he has you, his relation

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi-ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: i-da-kda-niⁿ (idkdan̨) - he had his own [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka wa-xo i-da-kda-niⁿ ta-bde da-we (h̨tʰąh nkka waxʔ idkdan̨ tbde dwe) - once upon a time, a man and his woman went hunting [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gtha-thiⁿ (agththiⁿ) - to have or keep ones own [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gtha-thiⁿ (a-gth-thiⁿ) - keep as ones own, to have or keep ones own; to inherit, inheritance [FL-Osage]; a-la-thiⁿ (alį) - carry ones item, carry along ones items, carry or take ones own, have or take as ones own, inherit [CQ-Osage]; a-la-yiⁿ (alyiⁿ) - have or keep ones own [Kaw]

 

keep or have for someone

a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone a-ki-bniⁿ (akbnį) - I, a-da-ki-tiⁿ (adkittį) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-niⁿ-we (ǫkkinįwe) - we

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; a-ki-niⁿ de (kinį de) - take away something for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property; a-ki-niⁿ kde (kinį kd) - to take from someone and go back [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ kdi (kinį kdi) - take away something for someone and come back to this place [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own [JOD]; ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone; wa-di-ze a-ki-niⁿ (wadze kinį) - owe something to someone

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ (ądkitt̨) - you have it for me [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - have, keep [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (a-thⁿ) - to have, keeper of [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ (ą) - have, own, possess [CQ-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (ayⁿ) - have, keep, get, hold [Kaw]

 

keep, have

a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep a-bniⁿ (abn̨) - I, a-tiⁿ (att̨) - you, a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it

cf. a-niⁿ de (an̨ d) - take away; a-niⁿ hi (an̨ hi) - take it thither [JOD]; a-niⁿ kde (an̨ kde) - to take homeward [JOD]; a-niⁿ kdi (an̨ kdi) - to bring home [JOD]; a-niⁿ ki (an̨ k) - bring back here; a-niⁿ tʰi (an̨ tʰ) - brought here [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; a-kda-niⁿ (akdnį) - keep ones own (relation, property, etc.)

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - have, keep [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (a-thⁿ) - to have, keeper of [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ (ą) - have, own, possess [CQ-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (ayⁿ) - have, keep, get, hold [Kaw]

 

a-bniⁿ (abn̨) - I have, keep

Dhegiha: a-bthiⁿ (abthⁿ) - I have [Omaha]; a-bthiⁿ (abthⁿ) - I have [FL-Osage]; a-briⁿ (abr̨) - I have [CQ-Osage]; a-bliⁿ (ablⁿ) - I have [Kaw]

 

a-tiⁿ (att̨) - you have, keep

ex: ta-taⁿ zha-zhe a-tiⁿ (tttą e att̨) - whats your name? [MS]

ex: jhi-e shi-zhi-ka a-tiⁿ ni-she (jhe ikka att̨ ni) - do you have any children [AG]

ex: jhi-e shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ a-tiⁿ ni-she (ǰe ̨keknį att̨ ni) - have you got a horse? [AG]

Dhegiha: a-niⁿ (a-nⁿ), a-hniⁿ (ahnⁿ) - you have [JOD-Omaha]; a-ni (a-n), a-shni (a-shn), a-stiⁿ (a-stiⁿ) - you have [FL-Osage]; a-shtsiⁿ (ac̨) - you have [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰniⁿ (aʰnⁿ) - you have [Kaw]

 

a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it have, keep

ex: kʰi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ wa-sa shoⁿ-te a-niⁿ a-taⁿ de i-ya (kʰi tą mat̨ke nį was ǫt an̨ attą d iy) - upon returning home, the rabbit had the black bears scrotum and left, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ke taⁿ-ha shoⁿ-zhi-ka miⁿ-xti-naⁿ-naⁿ a-niⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ ha-ze da-we (waxʔ twa ke t̨ha ̨ika m̨xtin̨ną nį ̨tą hze dwe) - the four women, each took a pup when they fled [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ (an̨ nį) - a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it has + niⁿ (nį) - 3sg continuative aux moving

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ (an̨ nį) - he was keeping it [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ naⁿ (an̨ nį-n̨) - he is the one who has (had) her [JOD]

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (he/she has a lot of money) [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta-kde-ska a-niⁿ niⁿ (̨ke takdska an̨ nį) - dog got fleas [MS]

ex: wa-kaⁿ-ta e-haⁿ-ko-we-tʰaⁿ, Mary a-niⁿ niⁿ (wakk̨tta eh̨ ǫkwettą, Mary an̨ nį) - Jesuss mother, Mary [MS]

ex: shpoⁿ a-niⁿ ni (pǫ an̨ nį) - when a baby is wet (he/she has a soaked diaper) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (athiⁿ) - he/she/it has/had [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (a-thiⁿ) - he has [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ (ą) - he has/have [CQ-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (ayⁿ) - he/she/it have keep [Kaw]

 

a-niⁿ pa (an̨ pa) - they had it [JOD]

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it have, keep; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - continuative aspect marker, plural of niⁿ (nį)

 

wa-niⁿ (wnį) - he/she/it have them

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: to-wa wa-niⁿ naⁿ i-ya-we, o-zhi-ha zhi-ka e-ti o-wa-zhi naⁿ i-ya-we (twa wnį ną iywe, iha ik tti wai ną iywe) - he had four of them, he put them in he little bag, they say [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-do-tʰe wa-niⁿ tʰaⁿ, i-ya-we (̨ke dotʰe wnį tʰą, iywe) - the man-eater had the dogs, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-thiⁿ (wthiⁿ) - he/she have them [Omaha]; wa-yiⁿ (wyiⁿ) - he/she/it have or keep things [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-ka-niⁿ (ąkan̨) - we have, keep

ex: aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (ąkan̨ įk) - we have [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we got some good leaders here [MS]

ex: o-zha wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (a waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we have good leaders [MS]

ex: ke-ha-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (keh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-thiⁿ (agiⁿ) - we have [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ (oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ), oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ bi (oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ bi), oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ i (oⁿ-g-thiⁿ i) - we have [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ka-thiⁿ pe (ąk̨ pe) - we have [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-yiⁿ (aⁿgyiⁿ) - we keep [Kaw]; aⁿ-ga-yiⁿ-be (aⁿgyimbe) - we have [Kaw]

 

key

i-di-shi-we (diwe) - key

cf. i () - instrumental, with, using, by means of, by which, as a means of or to, through, from, due to; di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open; o-naⁿ-taⁿ di-shi-we (on̨ttą diwe) - door knob; o-shi-we (owe) - slipped off of its own accord; mi-aⁿ-pa di-shi-we (mįpa diwe) - eclipse of the moon

Dhegiha: we-thi-shi-be (wthishbe) - key [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-shi-be (wethishibe) - key; trigger [Omaha]; we-thi-shi-be (w-thi-shi-be), we-i-shi-be (w-i-shi-be) - key, with which to open or unfasten by action of the hand [FL-Osage]; we-thu-shu-pe (wuupe), we-thi-shi-pe (wiipe) - key, lit., with which to open [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-shi-be (thishibe) - open, unlock, uncap, unhitch [Omaha]; thi-shi-be (thi-sh-be), thi-shu-be (thi-sh-be) - to open anything that has a lid or a door, to open a covered box, to open as a door, to open or unfasten a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-pe (iipe), thu-shu-pe (uupe) - open, unlock and open [CQ-Osage]; yu-shu-be (yushbe), yu-shu-we (yushwe) - open, as a door or a sacred bundle, unlock, gate [Kaw]

 

kick

naⁿ-te (nątt) - kick a-naⁿ-te (an̨tte) - I, da-naⁿ-te (dan̨tte) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot

Dhegiha: noⁿ-te (noⁿte) - kick [Omaha]; naⁿ-tse (naⁿc) - kick, as a horse or mule does; cannot be said of a person; to raise the feet, as in dancing; hence, to dance [Kaw]

 

kick a gash in something

naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something aⁿ-naⁿ-ste (̨nąste) - I, di-naⁿ-ste (dnąste) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces; o-ste (oste) - crack, cracked, split; o-ste-ke (ostke) - crack, split; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; o-di-ste (odste) - split by pulling a knife through; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; o-ka-ste (okste) - split something by striking; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

 

kick along, move something with feet

naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet a-naⁿ-ti-ze (an̨ttize) - I, da-naⁿ-ti-ze (dan̨ttize) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing or blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move ones possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; po-ti-ze (pttize), po-tʰi-ze (ptʰize) - move something by punching or shooting

 

kick at and be evaded

 naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded a-naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (an̨knǫda) - I, da-naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (dan̨knǫda) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: naⁿ-gthaⁿ-tha (na-gⁿ-a) - to miss a step in trying to step on a ladder, jump, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; naⁿ-laⁿ-ya (naⁿlⁿya) - miss ones footing, miss a place one jumps for, miss what one kicks at [Kaw]

 

kick at and miss

naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by a-naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (an̨kʰįtte) - I, da-naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (dan̨kʰįtte) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte) - miss, slip pushing something; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface; di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface; da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte) - strike at and miss; kiⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (kk̨kkįtt) - slippery; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it; po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting

Dhegiha: noⁿ-kshiⁿ-dse (noⁿ-kshⁿ-dse) - barely missing an object in kicking at it [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-khiⁿ-je (naⁿkhⁿje) - miss kicking at something [Kaw]

 

kick loose

naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose a-naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (an̨ǫdada) - I, da-naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (dan̨ǫdada) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

 

kick off, remove by kicking

o-naⁿ-shto-te (on̨totte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - he pulled it off [JOD]; hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel; kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own

ex: ki-di-ki-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ taⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing and quickly started to run towards the water, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-zhnu-de (naⁿɔnde) - slipped off while running [JOD-Omaha]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe; to kick off moccasins on some object [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off [JOD-Omaha]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]

 

kick or step on and break something

naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something a-naⁿ-to-we (an̨ttowe) - I, da-naⁿ-to-we (dan̨ttowe) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: tu-be (tbe) - fine as flour [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-tu-be (bitbe) - crumble, to make something crumble by weight or pressure, as an old log or stump [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-tu-be (thtube) - crush with the teeth, chew [Omaha]; ga-tu-be (gtube) - crush [Omaha]; ba-ʰto-be (b-ṭo-be) - chopped fine, slice [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]; ba-to-be (batbe) - grind, pound fine [Kaw]; yu-to-be (yutbe), yu-to-we (yutwe) - plow, break virgin ground; to grind, grind up [Kaw]

 

kick or tread to pieces

naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces a-naⁿ-ste-ste (an̨steste) - I, da-naⁿ-ste-ste (dan̨steste) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers, v. split; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; ka-ste-ste-ye (kaststeye) - to have cut to shreds; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

Dhegiha: ba-stse-stse-ge (b-stse-stse-ge) - to gash the skin with a knife [FL-Osage]; ga-stse-stse-ge (ga-sts-stse-ge) - to gash the skin repeatedly [FL-Osage]; thi-stse-stse-ge (thi-sts-stse-ge) - to tear into shreds [FL-Osage]; bu-sce-sce-ge (buscscege) - wear clothing to shreds [Kaw]; ga-stse-stse-ge (gascscege) - gash the skin or split wood repeatedly [Kaw]; yu-sce-sce-ge (yuscscege) - cut into strips, pull to shreds [Kaw]

 

kick over, spill

naⁿ-xtaⁿ (nąxt̨) - kick over, spill a-naⁿ-xtaⁿ (an̨xtą) - I, da-naⁿ-xtaⁿ (dan̨xtą) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; di-xtaⁿ (dixt̨) - pull at, pull over, upset; ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something; a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize

Dhegiha: xtoⁿ (qtoⁿ) - drip, pour [Omaha/Ponca]; pe ni a-ga-xtoⁿ (pni agaxtoⁿ) - baptize, anoint [Omaha]; thi-xtoⁿ (thixtoⁿ) - drain [Omaha]; xtoⁿ (xtoⁿ) - to spill, to slop over [FL-Osage]; ni ga-xtoⁿ (n-ga-xtoⁿ) - to pour water, to spill water [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-xtoⁿ (wagxtoⁿ) - the act of pouring water [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xtaⁿ (okxtą), o-ka-xta (okxta) - pour or dump out [CQ-Osage]; thi-xtaⁿ (ixt̨) - pour, draw water or run water [CQ-Osage]; xtaⁿ (xtⁿ) - leak in, drip out, empty out, spill [Kaw]; ba-xtaⁿ (baxtⁿ) - spill, push over a container; to push or bump against a barrel or other vessel having water in it, forcing it over, and spilling its contents; to push or bump against a vessel and cause some of the liquid contents to be spilled without upsetting the vessel [Kaw]; ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtⁿ) - pour out, empty out, throw out dirt [Kaw]; a-ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtaⁿ) - powder, baby powder, lit. spill it on [Kaw]

 

kick over, topple with the foot

naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot a-naⁿ-xa-da (an̨xada) - I, da-naⁿ-xa-da (dan̨xada) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

 

kick something down

o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down o-a-naⁿ-xpa-de (onąxpade) - I, o-da-naⁿ-xpa-de (odnąxpade) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - fall, cause by pressure/weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-naⁿ-xpa-the (unⁿqpĕ) - to lose as he walks along; to make them fall from a height by kicking; to make fall by breaking from treading on, as from a wagon, bank, or tree, to the ground [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uqpĕ) - to be lost, to lose his place; to fall from a height [JOD-Omaha]; u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - lost, to become lost; to feel around with the hands in the dark, to grope; to fall [FL-Osage]; o-xpa-the (oxpe) - fall from a height; get lost, become lost, lose [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, to fall from a height; get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

kick to pieces or splinters

naⁿ-za-za-te (nązzatte) - kick to pieces, splinters a-naⁿ-za-za-te (an̨zaztte) - I, da-naⁿ-za-za-te (dan̨zaztte) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ba-za-za-te (bazzatte) - cut, stab to shreds; bi-za-za-te (bizzatte) - split from pressure; da-za-za-te (dazzatte) - chew something to slivers; di-za-za-te (dizzatte) - pull to shreds; ka-za-za-te (kazzatte) - chop to pieces, slivers; pa-za-za-te (pzaztte) - split, shred, cut to splinters; po-za-za-te (pzaztte) - punch, shoot apart/to pieces

 

kicking aside with the foot

naⁿ-si-ka (nąsik) - lifting or kicking aside with the foot, walk on and kick it, walk on something, kicking [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-si-ka (nąsik) - he knocked it out of the fire by stepping on it [JOD]

ex: ta-iⁿ-xe naⁿ-si-ka (tįγe nąsik) - he knocked the firebrand out of the fire by stepping on it (kicking it) [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-si-ge (noⁿ--ge) - lifting or kicking aside with the foot [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-si-ge (naⁿsge) - walk on gravel and kick it; walk on something, kicking; scuff along [Kaw]

 

kicking, cause to bleed by kicking

naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (nąwappą) - bleed, cause by kicking a-naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (an̨wappaį) - I, da-naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (dan̨wappaį) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; wa-paiⁿ (wappą) - blood; ba-wa-paiⁿ (bawappą) - prick and cause to bleed; da-wa-paiⁿ (dawappą) - bite and draw blood; di-wa-paiⁿ (diwappą) - scratch and draw blood, as a cat; ka-wa-paiⁿ kawappą) - cut, slash and cause to bleed; pa-wa-paiⁿ (pwappaį) - bleed someone with a knife; po-wa-paiⁿ (pwappą) - cause to bleed from a thrust

Dhegiha: wa-mi (wam) - bleed, bloody [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-mi (wami) - blood, bleeding, bleed [Omaha]; wa-biⁿ (wa-bⁿ) - blood, bleeding [FL-Osage]; wa-piⁿ (wa-p̨), wa-peiⁿ (wapį) - bleed, blood [CQ-Osage]; wa-biⁿ (wa-bⁿ) - blood [Kaw]

 

kicking, injure by kicking or trampling

naⁿ-te-ka (nątʔka) - injure by kicking or trampling a-naⁿ-te-ka (an̨tʔeka) - I, da-naⁿ-te-ka (dan̨tʔeka) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; di-te-ka (ditʔkka) - injure, hurt someone; di-te-ka (ditʔka) - weaken an animal or infant

 

kicking, struggle kicking

o-naⁿ-sha-sha (on̨aa) - struggle kicking o-a-naⁿ-sha-sha (onąaa) - I, o-da-naⁿ-sha-sha (odnąaa) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot

 

kill

te-de (tʔede) - kill, cause to die te-a-de (tʔede) - I, te-da-de (tʔdade) - you, te-de (tʔde) - he/she, te-aⁿ-de (tʔęde) - we, I and one other, te-aⁿ-da-we (tʔądwe), te-oⁿ-da-we (tʔǫdwe) - we, te-da-we (tʔdawe), te-da-i (tdai) - they

te-de (tʔede) - kill [MS]

cf. te (tʔe) - die; de (de) - cause to, to cause; te hoⁿ-ke (tʔhǫk) - to be insensible; te ki-ha (tʔ kih) - certain to die, be terminal; te-xti (tʔxti), te-xti hi (tʔexti hi) - stone cold dead; te-ki-de (tʔkkide) - kill someones (relation, etc); ki-te (kitʔ) - die, said of ones kin; ni-ka ki-te (nkka kitʔe) - widow, to lose ones husband; wa-xo ki-te (waxʔ kitʔ) - widower, to lose by death ones woman; become a widower; wa-te (watʔ) - corpse, dead body; ni-ka-shi-ka te (nkkaka tʔ) - corpse of a person

Dhegiha: te-the (t-ĕ) - to cause to die; to kill, as by accident; to slaughter cattle; to wound a foe in battle, to scare nearly to death, slayer [JOD-Omaha]; te-the (t-the) - the kill, fatal [Omaha]; ʰtse-the (ṭse-the) - to kill, to slay, to destroy by killing, to dispatch [FL-Osage]; tse-the (cʔe) - kill, slay assassinate; make die [CQ-Osage]; tse-ye (tsye) - kill a person or animal [Kaw]

 

te-a-de (tʔede) - I kill

ex: te-a-de (tʔede) - I kill [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e te-a-de e-de (įkk-e tʔede ed) - O grandmother, I have really killed him! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-a-the (taĕ) - I cause to die, kill, slaughter [JOD-Omaha]; tse-a-the (ṭs-a-the) - I slay [FL-Osage]; tse-a-ye (tsaye) - I kill a person or animal [Kaw]

 

te-a-wa-de miⁿ-kʰe (tʔawad) - I kill them

ex: te-a-wa-de miⁿ-kʰe (tʔawad mįkʰ) - I was killing them [JOD]

Dhegiha:

(ṭse--wa-the) - I killed them [FL-Osage]

 

te-da-de (tʔdade) - you kill

ex: te-da-de (tʔdade) - you kill [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka miⁿ kʰe te-da-de (wąka mį kʰ tʔdade) - you kill a bird [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te-da-de ni-hoⁿ (hǫn̨ttą tʔdade nih̨) - how would it be possible for you to kill him? [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ tʰe a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tʰe įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-tha-the (taĕ) - you cause to die, kill, slaughter [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse-tha-the (ṭs-tha-the) - you slay [FL-Osage]; tse-ya-ye (tsyaye) - you kill a person or animal [Kaw]

 

te-de (tʔde) - he/she kill

ex: a-shi-ti hi o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke te-de i-ya wa-sa (itti hi otąka hi tą mat̨ke tʔede iy was) - just as soon as the black bear went outside, the rabbit killed him, (shot the black bear, giving him a fatal wound) it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de aⁿ-e niⁿ na (h̨ka ęke, wąka tʔde ̨e n̨ n) - haⁿ-kas son, he is the one who has been killing many birds [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ knoⁿ-ke taⁿ ta-bde naⁿ ta te-de taⁿ a-zho-wa ta da-tʰe-wi (kįttą knǫk tą tbde ną tt tʔde tą owa tta dtʰewi) - then he married her, when he hunted, he killed deer, they often ate deer [JOD]

ex: te-de o-te-xi (tʔde ttexi) - it would be difficult for anyone to kill him [JOD]

ex: shi-o-shta te-de (ita tʔde) - he killed a quail/partridge [JOD]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he hi tʰaⁿ tʰi-da-taⁿ te-de (iǫhe h tʰą tʰidttą tʔde) - the last of the (hunting) party came, passed and killed it (the buffalo)

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-the (t-ĕ) - to cause to die; to kill, as by accident; to slaughter cattle; to wound a foe in battle, to scare nearly to death, slayer [JOD-Omaha]; te-the (t-the) - the kill, fatal [Omaha]; ʰtse-the (ṭse-the) - to kill, to slay, to destroy by killing, to dispatch [FL-Osage]; tse-the (cʔe) - kill, slay assassinate; make die [CQ-Osage]; tse-ye (tsye) - he/she/it kill a person or animal [Kaw]

 

te-di-de (tʔdid) - he/she kill you

ex: te-di-de (tʔdid) - they kill thee [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-thi-the (tiĕ) - he kill you [JOD-Omaha]; tse-thi-the (cʔie) - they kill you [CQ-Osage]

 

te-wa-de (tʔewade) - he/she kill them

ex: te-wa-de (tʔewade) - to kill them [JOD]

ex: te-wa-de (tʔwade) - he/she killed them [JOD]

ex: te-wa-de (tʔewade) - to kill them [JOD]

ex: te-wa-de (tʔwade) - them killed, they were killed [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-koⁿ za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke nkkaka odwakki ek̨ zan-xti tʔewade k̨da ną iy) - therefore the rabbit, who sided with the (Indians) people wanted to kill all of the black bears, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-wa-de (wąka tʔewad) - he killed the birds [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi te-wa-de i-ya (was-ppa zan hi tʔwade iy) - all of the black bears were killed, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-wa-the (t-wa-ĕ) - to kill them, to slaughter them [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse-wa-the (ṭs-wa-the) - to kill them [FL-Osage]

 

te-aⁿ-de (tʔęde) - we, I and one other kill [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-aⁿ-de aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (wąka hi h tʔęde ąkkde tte) - we have killed many birds, lets go home [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-aⁿ-the (tęĕ) - we kill him [JOD-Omaha]

 

te-aⁿ-wa-de (tʔęwade) - we kill them

ex: te-aⁿ-wa-de (tʔęwade) - we kill them [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - let us (lets) kill all the black bears [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-aⁿ-waⁿ-the (taⁿwⁿĕ) - us kill them [JOD-Omaha]

 

te-aⁿ-da-we (tʔądwe), te-oⁿ-da-we (tʔǫdwe) - we plural kill

Dhegiha: te-aⁿ-tha-i (teⁿai) - we cause to die, kill, slaughter [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse-oⁿ-tha-i (ṭs-oⁿ-tha i) - we slay [FL-Osage]; tse-aⁿ-ya-be (tsaⁿybe) - we kill a person or animal [Kaw]

 

te-da-we (tʔdawe), te-da-i (tdai) - they kill

ex: te-da-we (tʔdawe) - they killed him [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: ko-zhi hi taⁿ o-xde naⁿ te-da-we i-ya (kki h-tą oxd ną tʔdaw iy) - they went a long distance, when they overtook him, they killed him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: te-da-wi-a-we (tʔedawiawe) - kill a bunch of them, they say [MS]

ex: te-dai (tʔdai) - they killed him [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te i-ye niⁿ i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte iy nį iy waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-tha-i (tai) - they kill him [JOD-Omaha]; tse-ya-be (tsyabe) - they kill a person or animal [Kaw]

 

te-aⁿ-da-we (tʔędaw) - they kill me

ex: te-aⁿ-da-we (tʔędaw) - they killed me [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde iy tʰą iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

te-di-da-we (tʔdidawe) - they killed you

ex: te-di-da-we (tʔdidawe) - they killed you [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

te-a-wa-da-i (tʔewada) - they kill us

ex: te-a-wa-dai (tʔewada) - they kill us [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ za-ni te-a-wa-dai ni-hoⁿ, i-ya-we i-ya wa-sa ke (hǫn̨ttą zan tʔewada nih̨ iywe iy was ke) - the black bears said, how could anyone kill all of us? they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-a-wa-tha-i (tawaa) - they kill us [JOD-Omaha]; te-a-wa-the (tawae) - to kill us [JOD-Omaha]

 

te-a-wa-da-we (tʔewadawe) - we were killed

ex: te-a-wa-da-we (tʔewadawe) - we were killed [JOD]

ex: za-ni-xti te-a-wa-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde (zanxti tʔewadawe idhǫbd) - every single one, they killed us all, I dreamed that [JOD]

 

kill someones relation, etc.

te-ki-de (tʔkkide) - kill someones (relation, etc)

cf. te-de (tʔede) - kill, cause to die

ex: te-wa-ki-da-we (tʔwakidwe) - they have killed our

ex: ka-hi-ke oⁿ-ko-ta-we, te-wa-ki-da-we i-ya, i-ya-we, i-ya wa-sa ke (kahke ǫkttawe, tʔwakidwe iy, iywe, iy was ke) - our chief, they have killed our relation, he (rabbit) said, the black bears said, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: te-di-ki-de (tʔdikid) - was killed for you plural [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-gi-the (t-gi-ĕ) - to kill or slaughter his own [JOD-Omaha]; te-ki-the (t-k͓i-ĕ) - to kill himself, to commit suicide [JOD-Omaha]; te-ki-the (t-ki-ĕ) - to kill an ox, etc., intending to give it to another (not the owner); to kill anothers horse, etc., in revenger, etc., for his disadvantage; to kill a man purposely, to murder [JOD-Omaha]; te-gi-the (tgithe) - suicide [Omaha]; ʰtse-ʰki-the (ṭs-ḳi-the) - the killing of ones self, suicide [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-gi-the (ṭse-gi-the) - killing ones own [FL-Osage]; tse-ʰki-the (cʔʰkie) - kill onself, commit suicide [CQ-Osage]; tse-ki-ye (tskiye) - to kill oneself, commit suicide; kill one another, each other [Kaw]

 

kill vegetation by punching

po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching po-a-ta-te (pottatʔe) - I, po-da-ta-te (pdattatʔe) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

Dhegiha: tha-na-te-ga (thantega) - kill, bite, to kill plants by biting around the roots, as rabbits do [Omaha/Ponca]; da-ʰtse-ga (d-ṭse-ga) - wilted, withered [FL-Osage]; thi-da-tse-ga (thi-d-tse-ga) - to cause green plants to wither by rough handling [FL-Osage]; ba-da-tse-ga (bdatsega) - cause a tree or bush to wilt by cutting [Kaw]; ba-da-tse-ga (badtsega) - cause vegetation to wilt punching or by rooting up the ground [Kaw]; da-tse-ga (dtsega) - be withered, killed, or injured by heat [Kaw]; ga-da-tse-ga (gadtsega) - wind to dry something a little, especially fresh meat which is hung up, by blowing on it [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ga (naⁿdtsega) - trample, make vegetation wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ye (naⁿdtsye) - trample, make wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; ya-tse-ga (yatsga) - wither from being gnawed on, as a plant [Kaw]; ya-da-tse-ga (yadtsega) - kill plants by gnawing on them, as rabbits, to make vegetation wither by gnawing on the bark or at the roots, as rabbits do in winter [Kaw]; yu-da-tse-ga (yudtsega) - wilt from being pulled up, as plants, wood [Kaw]

 

kill with something

i-te-de (itʔde) - kill with something i-te-a-de (tʔede) - I, i-te-da-de (tʔedde) - you

cf. i () - by means of, with which to, with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to; te (tʔe) - die; de (de) - cause to, to cause; te-de (tʔede) - kill, cause to die

ex: to-te i-te-de (ttte itʔde) - strangle someone, to kill by means of the throat

Dhegiha: i-ʰtse-the (i-ṭse-the) - to kill with, with which to kill [FL-Osage]; i-tse-ye (itsye) - poison [Kaw]; i-tse-ye (tseye) - kill using an instrument [Kaw]

 

kill, cause to wither

ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither pa-ta-te (ppttatʔe) - I, shpa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

Dhegiha: tha-na-te-ga (thantega) - kill, bite, to kill plants by biting around the roots, as rabbits do [Omaha/Ponca]; da-ʰtse-ga (d-ṭse-ga) - wilted, withered [FL-Osage]; thi-da-tse-ga (thi-d-tse-ga) - to cause green plants to wither by rough handling [FL-Osage]; ba-da-tse-ga (bdatsega) - cause a tree or bush to wilt by cutting [Kaw]; ba-da-tse-ga (badtsega) - cause vegetation to wilt punching or by rooting up the ground [Kaw]; da-tse-ga (dtsega) - be withered, killed, or injured by heat [Kaw]; ga-da-tse-ga (gadtsega) - wind to dry something a little, especially fresh meat which is hung up, by blowing on it [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ga (naⁿdtsega) - trample, make vegetation wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ye (naⁿdtsye) - trample, make wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; ya-tse-ga (yatsga) - wither from being gnawed on, as a plant [Kaw]; ya-da-tse-ga (yadtsega) - kill plants by gnawing on them, as rabbits, to make vegetation wither by gnawing on the bark or at the roots, as rabbits do in winter [Kaw]; yu-da-tse-ga (yudtsega) - wilt from being pulled up, as plants, wood [Kaw]

 

kill, cut off, cause to wither

ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither a-ta-te (ttatʔe) - I, da-ta-te (dttatʔe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

Dhegiha: tha-na-te-ga (thantega) - kill, bite, to kill plants by biting around the roots, as rabbits do [Omaha/Ponca]; da-ʰtse-ga (d-ṭse-ga) - wilted, withered [FL-Osage]; thi-da-tse-ga (thi-d-tse-ga) - to cause green plants to wither by rough handling [FL-Osage]; ba-da-tse-ga (bdatsega) - cause a tree or bush to wilt by cutting [Kaw]; ba-da-tse-ga (badtsega) - cause vegetation to wilt punching or by rooting up the ground [Kaw]; da-tse-ga (dtsega) - be withered, killed, or injured by heat [Kaw]; ga-da-tse-ga (gadtsega) - wind to dry something a little, especially fresh meat which is hung up, by blowing on it [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ga (naⁿdtsega) - trample, make vegetation wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; naⁿ-da-tse-ye (naⁿdtsye) - trample, make wither by treading on, as grass [Kaw]; ya-tse-ga (yatsga) - wither from being gnawed on, as a plant [Kaw]; ya-da-tse-ga (yadtsega) - kill plants by gnawing on them, as rabbits, to make vegetation wither by gnawing on the bark or at the roots, as rabbits do in winter [Kaw]; yu-da-tse-ga (yudtsega) - wilt from being pulled up, as plants, wood [Kaw]

 

kill, to kill by biting

da-sa (das) - to kill by biting

cf. da (da) - by mouth

ex: da-sa (das) - he killed her by biting [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe da-sa taⁿ da-sniⁿ (̨ waxʔ-ik nįkʰ das-tą dasn̨) - he killed the old female dog, then swallowed her [JOD]

ex: da-sa-we (daswe) - they bit him to death [JOD]

ex: a-ki-da taⁿ da-sa-we i-ya-we, te-da-we i-ya-we (kkida tą daswe iywe, tʔdawe iywe) - attacked him-when-they bit him to death-they say-they killed him-they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ya-sa-gi (yasgi) - stun or kill by biting, as a dog might kill a rabbit [Kaw]

 

kill, to kill with a blow

ka-xdi (kaxd) - to kill with a blow [JOD] a-xdi (axdi) - I, da-xdi (dxdi) - you

ka-xdi (kaxd) - strike down, knock senseless

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water

ex: da-xdi (dxdi) - you kill him with a blow [JOD]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ u-da-ki-de ki-ha taⁿ ka-xdi (koittą udkide kih tą kaxd) - when he (haⁿ-kas son) finally finished telling him (rabbit), he (rabbit) struck and killed him (haⁿ-kas son) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-xdi (̨xdi) - I have been struck down, knocked senseless

ex: di-a-xdi (dixdi) - you have been atruck down, knocked senseless

Dhegiha: ga-xthi (gaxthi) - to assault, beaten [Omaha]; ga-xthi (gaq) - to stun or kill by striking with an ax or club, to beat severely [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xthi (ga-xth) - to kill an enemy, the killing of an enemy by a war party, the striking of an enemy by a warrior, an act which entitles him to a military honor [FL-Osage]; ga-xli (gaxl) - slay, strike down and stun, kill by striking with an instrument such as a club or ax [Kaw]

 

killing frost

xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke (x̨įke) - frost, killing frost

xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke (qaⁿ́iⁿk͓ĕ) - masculine name, Frost [JOD]

cf. xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke zhi-ka (x̨įke ka) - frost, light frost

Dhegiha: xe-woⁿ-ge (qewⁿge) - frost on the ground, but not on vegetation, be frost on the ground, but not on any vegetation that can be damaged [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-woⁿ-ge (xwoⁿge) - frost [Omaha]; xe-moⁿ-ge (x-moⁿ-ge) - frost, hoarfrost [FL-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ke (xmąke) - dew, frost [CQ-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ge (xmaⁿge) - frost [Kaw]

 

 

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