English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

Y

 

yard

wa-hiⁿ-ska i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wah̨ska kąskde) - yard, lit. calico measure

cf. wa-hiⁿ (wah̨) - cloth; wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico, white cloth; wa-hiⁿ zhi-te (wah̨ tte) - broadcloth, lit., cloth red [JOD]; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; i-kaⁿ-ska (kąska) - measure; na-ska (nask) - size

Dhegiha: na-ska (naska), thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿska) - size [Omaha/Ponca]; thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿ-ka) - size [FL-Osage]; yoⁿ-ska (yoⁿska) - size [Kaw]

 

wa-ni i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wan kąskde) - yard, a calico measure

cf. i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; i-kaⁿ-ska (kąska) - measure; na-ska (nask) - size

Dhegiha: na-ska (naska), thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿska) - size [Omaha/Ponca]; thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿ-ka) - size [FL-Osage]; yoⁿ-ska (yoⁿska) - size [Kaw]

 

 

zhoⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de (ǫ kąskde) - a yard (measure); yard stick

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; i-kaⁿ-ska (kąska) - measure

ex: zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (ą ikąskde mįxti) - one yard

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood; a tree; trees [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - a tree; wood; fuel [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - tree, log, wood, lumber; stick, pole; woods, forest [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - wood, a tree or log [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-ska (naska), thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿska) - size [Omaha/Ponca]; thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿ-ka) - size [FL-Osage]; yoⁿ-ska (yoⁿska) - size [Kaw]

 

yarn

te hiⁿ (tte hį) - buffalo fur

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; hiⁿ (hį) - hair of the body, down of bird, fur

Dhegiha: te hiⁿ (thiⁿ) - old hair, shed from a buffalo bull or cow, worn as a necklace by some members of the Buffalo dancing society [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse hiⁿ (ṭse-hⁿ) - buffalo hair; yarn; narrow woven bands of buffalo hair are used for belts and armlets, for straps for tying bundles, and for sacred articles [FL-Osage]; ʰtse hiⁿ (ʰceeh̨į) - womans yarn belt (lit., buffalo hair) [CQ-Osage]; tse hiⁿ (cè híⁿ) - yarn made of buffalo hair; anything made of yarn such as a belt, lit. the hair of the buffalo cow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te-zhiⁿ-hiⁿ-de (tezhⁿhiⁿde) - material made by interweaving yarn threads of various colors [Omaha/Ponca]

 

wa-hi-oⁿ (wahǫ) - string, thread, lariat

Dhegiha: wa-hoⁿ (wahⁿ) - thread: sewing cotton; wa-hoⁿ (wahoⁿ) - satin thread; thread; something spun [Omaha]; wa-hoⁿ (wa-hⁿ) - the cross threads in weaving; the woof; a single thread or strand of worsted yarn; the material used was the soft wool from the buffalo calf [FL-Osage]; wa-haⁿ (wah̨) - yarn [CQ-Osage]; wa-hoⁿ (wahóⁿ), wa-haⁿ (waháⁿ) - thread; clothes [Kaw]

 

yarn, headdress of woven yarn

wa-pa-hi o-knaⁿ (wapphi okn̨) - headdress of woven yarn

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; o-knaⁿ (kną), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put into; pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną), pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat, cap, head is put inside

 

yawn

i-a-da (ida) - yawn, gape i-a-bda (ibda) - I, i-a-ta (itta) - you, i-oⁿ-da-we (įdawe) - we

Dhegiha: i-a-tha (itha) - to yawn or gape, open mouth wide [Omaha/Ponca]

 

year

o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year

ex: o-ma-ni-ka te-ka (omnikka ttka) - new year, new years day

ex: o-ma-ni-ka bdo-ka (omnikka bdok) - year, an entire year

ex: o-ma-ni-ka kde-bdaⁿ-hi (omnikka kdbdąh) - century, a hundred years

ex: o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨) - fifteen years

Dhegiha: u-maⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (u-mⁿ-i-ka) - a season, a year [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (umoⁿ thiⁿka), u-ma-i-ka (umaika) - year [Omaha]; u-moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (u-mⁿ-iⁿ-ḳa) - year [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-iⁿ-ka (om̨įʰka) - year [CQ-Osage]; o-maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka (omⁿyiⁿka) - year [Kaw]

 

year, an entire year

o-ma-ni-ka bdo-ka (omnikka bdok) - year, an entire year

cf. o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; bdo-ka (bdka) - whole, entire, circular, round

Dhegiha: u-maⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (u-mⁿ-i-ka) - a season, a year [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (umoⁿ thiⁿka), u-ma-i-ka (umaika) - year [Omaha]; u-moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (u-mⁿ-iⁿ-ḳa) - year [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-iⁿ-ka (om̨įʰka) - year [CQ-Osage]; o-maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka (omⁿyiⁿka) - year [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bthu-ga (bthga) - round, circular, whole, entire, all [Omaha/Ponca]; bthu-ga (bthuga) - all, round, cylinder, entire, whole [Omaha]; bthu-ga (b-ga) - round; round and long, as a cane circular, as a tribal circle: hence, the extra meaning of entire, all, the whole party or lot [JOD-Omaha]; btho-ga (bth-ga) - round, cylindrical, entire, a whole thing, a whole, a dollar [FL-Osage]; bro-ka (brka) - in bulk, wholesale, in large quantities, overall, undivided, by the yard, in large pieces, not merely pieces of some item but the entire item, in its entirety, fully, whole, entire, complete, dollar [CQ-Osage]; blo-ga (blga) - the whole, the entire thing, all, dollar [Kaw]

 

year, new year

o-ma-ni-ka te-ka (omnikka ttka) - new year

o-ma-ni-ka te-ka (omnikka ttka) - New Years Day (New Year)

cf: o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; te-ka (ttka) - new; o-ma-ni-ka bdo-ka (omnikka bdok) - year, an entire year; o-ma-ni-ka kde-bdaⁿ-hi (omnikka kdbdąh) - century, a hundred years

Dhegiha: o-maⁿ-iⁿ-ka ʰtse-ka (om̨įʰka ʰcka) - new year, January [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-maⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (u-mⁿ-i-ka) - a season, a year [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (umoⁿ thiⁿka), u-ma-i-ka (umaika) - year [Omaha]; u-moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (u-mⁿ-iⁿ-ḳa) - year [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-iⁿ-ka (om̨įʰka) - year [CQ-Osage]; o-maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka (omⁿyiⁿka) - year [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te-ga (ttga) - new; newly, freshly [Omaha/Ponca]; te-ga (tega) - new [Omaha]; ʰtse-ga (ṭs-ga) - new, recently, anew, early [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ka (ʰcka) - new, newly, fresh, recent, recently, just now, just a while ago [CQ-Osage]; tse-ga (cga) - new, first time, anew, right now, just now [Kaw]

 

years, a hundred years

o-ma-ni-ka kde-bdaⁿ-hi (omnikka kdbdąh) - century, a hundred years

cf. o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; kde-bdaⁿ hi (kdbdą h) - hundred, a stock of tens

Dhegiha: u-ma-i-ka ghte-boⁿ hiⁿ-wiⁿ (umika gtheboⁿ hiⁿwiⁿ) - century [Omaha]

 

years, fifteen years

o-ma-ni-ka sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (omnikka sttą knį) - fifteen years

cf. o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (sttą knį) - fifteen

 

o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨) - fifteen years

cf. o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨) - fifteen (long form), same as sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (sttą knį), the contracted and more common form

ex: e-ti o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (et omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age there

 

years, I was fifteen years old

o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years old

cf. o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨) - fifteen (long form), same as sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (sttą knį), the contracted and more common form; e-aⁿ-na-ska (ęnaska) - I that size; a-ni-he (anhe) - 1st person singular continuative moving; maⁿ (m̨) - I used to

ex: o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - year/ten/when/five/sitting on/I that size/I was [JOD]

ex: o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age

 

yell

baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo paⁿ (pp̨) - I, shpaⁿ (p̨) - you, aⁿ-baⁿ-we (ąb̨we) - we

cf. ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry [JOD]; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ (ąb̨) - he called to me [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨͓ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ-wi (ąb̨wi) - they called me [JOD]

ex: di-baⁿ (dib̨) - call to you [JOD]

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I call to them

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - scream [Omaha]; poⁿ (poⁿ) - yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [FL-Osage]; paⁿ (p̨) - holler, yell, scream, shout [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar

ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

cf. ho (ho) - voice; o-ho (oho) - bark, as a dog [MS]; ga-ho-taⁿ (gahttą) - whirr, roar; ga-ho-taⁿ-de (gahttąde) - whirr, hum, roar; naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on

ex: shoⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka za-ni ho-taⁿ xa-naⁿ-we, i-ya (ǫ wąka zan httą xʔną-we, iy) - and all the birds used to make a great noise by crying out, it is said [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰaⁿ wa-naⁿ-ho-taⁿ ną-we i-ya (įtʰ̨ wan̨hott̨ năⁿ-w iy) - he made the owls hoot as he walked, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha/Ponca]; hu-toⁿ (hutoⁿ) - bellow, hoot [Omaha]; hu-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; hu taⁿ-ga (h-t͓a-ga) - a Winnebago, the Winnebagos, a tribe of the Siouan Family [JOD-Omaha]; hu toⁿ-ga (htonga) - Winnebago Indian [Omaha]; ho toⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ka (htąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago tribe or person big voice, loud voice, or rough voice. [Kaw]

 

o-kda-xa (okdxʔa) - whoop

cf. o-kda-xa-xa (okdxʔaxʔ) - whoop, give the scalp yell

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a (ugtha) - to hit the mouth and yell (once) [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gtha-a (ugtha a) - bellow [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a-a (ugtha) - give the scalp yell [JOD-Omaha]; i o-la-ka-ka ( olkaka) - to give the war whoop or scalp yell, lit. to make a succession of arrested sounds come from ones own mouth, war whoop, scalp yell [Kaw]

 

o-kda-xa-xa (okdxʔaxʔ) - whoop, give the scalp yell o-da-kda-xa-xa (odkdaxxa) - you; o-kda-xa-xa-we (okdxʔaxʔwe) - they

cf. o-kda-xa (okdxʔa) - whoop

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔa ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-kda-xa-xa-we (okdxʔaxʔwe) - they whoop, they give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya ni-ka-shi-ka ke (zan hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy nkkaka ke) - all of the people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a-a (ugtha) - give the scalp yell [JOD-Omaha]; i o-la-ka-ka ( olkaka) - to give the war whoop or scalp yell, lit. to make a succession of arrested sounds come from ones own mouth, war whoop, scalp yell [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a (ugtha) - to hit the mouth and yell (once) [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gtha-a (ugtha a) - bellow [Omaha]

 

wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry wa-te-paⁿ (wattpp̨) - I, wa-te-shpaⁿ (wattp̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: wa-te-paⁿ (wattpp̨) - I give the attacking cry [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - he gave the attacking cry [JOD]

ex: wa-te-baⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wattb̨ iy mat̨ke tʰą) - the rabbit gave the attack signal, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtse-boⁿ (wa-ṭs-boⁿ) - a cry of triumph, given as a victorious war party approaches the village as it returns [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-tʰe (watʰ) - victory; touching the foe [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰtse (wa-ṭs) - a triumph, victory, the touching of a living or fallen foe to win one of the prescribed war honors [FL-Osage]; wa-tse (wac) - count coup, to touch a fallen foe, victory [Kaw]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out once [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ), poⁿ (poⁿ) - scream, yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call to shout [FL-Osage]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal wa-te wa-paⁿ (watt wapp̨) - I, wa-te wa-shpaⁿ (watt wap̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry

Dhegiha: wa-tʰe (watʰ) - victory; touching the foe [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰtse (wa-ṭs) - a triumph, victory, the touching of a living or fallen foe to win one of the prescribed war honors [FL-Osage]; wa-tse (wac) - count coup, to touch a fallen foe, victory [Kaw]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out once [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ), poⁿ (poⁿ) - scream, yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call to shout [FL-Osage]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

yellow

zi (zi) - yellow

zi (zi) - yellow [MS, MR, OM]

zi (zi) - yellow [FS]

zi (z) - yellow [ASG]

ex: de-xe zi (deγ zi) - brass, lit. kettle-yellow

ex: hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

ex: i-ta o-zi (tta oz) - egg yolk

ex: i-zi (iz) - brown [MS]

ex: o-ki zi-zi (okk zzi) - Parula or Dendroica warbler

ex: pi-zi (ppiz), piu-zi (ppz) - gall, lit. liver yellow

ex: siⁿ-ka zi (s̨ka z) - fox squirrel

ex: zi-a-we (zawe) - yellow (plural) [ASG]

Dhegiha: zi (zi) - yellow [Omaha/Ponca]; zi (i) - yellow [Omaha]; zi (i) - [FL-Osage]; zi (zi) - yellow [Kaw]

 

yellow beads

iⁿ-to-ska zi (įttosk zi) - yellow beads

cf. iⁿ-to-ska (įttska) - beads, small white beads; zi (zi) - yellow; wa-naⁿ-ⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads, worn around the neck

Dhegiha: i-iⁿ-ʰtoⁿ (-iⁿ-ṭoⁿ) - an earring [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-ʰtoⁿ ̨įʰtǫ) - earring(s) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-iⁿ ʰtoⁿ thiⁿ (u-iⁿ ṭoⁿ thiⁿ) - to wear earrings [FL-Osage]; tsi-ho-ba ska o-iⁿ to (cíhoba ska óiⁿ tó) - shell earrings, three or four inches long [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-iⁿ ((iⁿ) - an earring or ornament; to wear, as rings, in the ears [Omaha/Ponca]; u-iⁿ (u-iⁿ) - to wear earrings [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-ska (hⁿskǎ) - beads [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿ-k) - hiⁿ (hiⁿ), modification of the word iⁿ (ⁿ), stone; ska (ka), white, this is the word applied to beads of all colors by the Osage and Omaha [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-ska (h̨įska) - beads [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿska) - beads [Kaw]

 

yellow catfish

mi-zhaⁿiⁿ (mįį) - yellow catfish

cf. mi-xe (mix) - the large black catfish; to-ze (ttze) - catfish

 

Yellow Head, Yellow Hair (archaic)

pa-hi zi (ppah zi) - Yellow Head; Yellow Hair (archaic), female name [JOD]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; zi (zi) - yellow

Dhegiha: pa-hi zi (pahzi) - Yellow Hair on Head of Elk, female name [Omaha]

 

Yellow Legs (of a Bird)

zhe-ka zi (ek zi) - Yellow Legs (of a Bird), masculine name [JOD]

cf. zhe-ka (ek) - mans leg; hind leg of animal; zi (zi) - yellow

Dhegiha: zhe-ga (zhga) - upper part of the leg, thigh [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe-ga (zhega) - leg [Omaha]; zhe-ga (zhe-g) - leg, upper part [FL-Osage]; zhe-ka (ek) - leg [CQ-Osage]; zhe-ga (zheg) - leg; thigh, leg above the knee [Kaw]

 

Yellow Mouth (of a Young Bird)

i-ha zi (ha zi) - Yellow Mouth (of a Young Bird), masculine name [JOD]

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth; zi (zi) - yellow

Dhegiha: i-ha (ha) - lip [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha (ha) - lips [Omaha]; i-ha (-ha) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i-ha (haa) - mouth [CQ-Osage]; i-ha (ha) - mouth, or top of the mouth [Kaw]

 

yellow paint

wa-se zi (was zi) - yellow paint [ASG]

cf. wa-se (was) - paint, clay; red paint; zi (zi) - yellow [JOD]; wa-se sa (was sa) - black paint; wa-se to (was tto) - blue paint; wa-se to-hi (wass tthi) - green paint

Dhegiha: wa-se zi (was zi) - yellow clay [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-se tu xu-de (wa-s-t͓u-q-de) - verdigris, gray green clay or light blue clay [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se ʰtoⁿ xo-e (wa- ṭoⁿ-xo-e) - the Verdigris River, green paint was secured here, this was the second camp of the second buffalo trail [FL-Osage]; wa-se ʰtoⁿ xo-dse ga-xa (wa- ṭoⁿ xo-dse ga-xa) - green clay creek, branch of the Verdigris River, Okla [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-se saⁿ (wassaⁿ) - white clay; made of white clay; earthenware; plaster; lime [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-se tu (wae tu) - blue paint [Omaha]; wa-se tu (wa-s t͓u) - green clay or green paint, verdigris [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se to (wasto) - verdigris, patina [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-se zhi-de (wasjide) - red paint; red clay [JOD-Omaha]; wa-se zhu-dse (wa--zhu-dse) - red clay, red paint, rouge [FL-Osage]

 

yellow ringed woodpecker, red shafted flicker

zaⁿ-zi-ka (z̨zikka) - red shafted flicker; yellow winged woodpecker

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zi-ga (zⁿziga) - red-shafted flicker, woodpecker [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-zi-ga (ⁿ-i-ga) - the flicker, yellow hammer, belongs to the woodpecker family [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-zi-ga (thoⁿiga) - flicker bird [Omaha]; zi-zi-ga taⁿ-ga (zziga tⁿga) - the flicker [Kaw]

 

yellow, orange

zi-hi (zhi) - orange; yellow

zi-hi (zhi) - orange [FR]

zi-hi (zhi) - yellow [LQ]

ex: zi-hi o-zhi (zhi i) - jug

Dhegiha: zi-hi (-hi) - yellow; pallor, an unhealthy color; brown; brass [FL-Osage]; zi-hi (zhi) - brown, yellow [CQ-Osage]; zi-hi (zhi) - yellow, light yellow; this is typical among native speakers of many, if not all, Siouan languages where shades of yellow, orange, and even brown, are concerned [Kaw]

 

yellow, reddish yellow

zhi-hi (ih) - reddish yellow

ex: shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ wa-xo xo-te zhi-hi (̨keknį waxʔ xott ih) - roan mare

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi) - a color between red and yellow, perhaps an orange-red [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: zhi-hi (zh-hi) - yellow; reddish; reddish brown; pink [FL-Osage]; zhi-hi (hi) - brown [CQ-Osage]; zhi-hi (zhhi) - brown; orange [Kaw]

 

yellow, reddish yellow buffalo

to-xe (toxe) - reddish yellow buffalo

cf. to-xe ni-ka-shi-ka (tuq nikack͓a) - the Reddish Yellow Buffalo gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]; to-xe ni-ka-shi-ka (tuq nikacka) - Reddish Yellow Buffalo people, obtained from Mrs. Stafford (Haka gentes, Haka side) [JOD]

Dhegiha: nu-xe (nqe) - red buffalo, yellow buffalo; type of buffalo with reddish-yellow hair and long legs [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-xe (nqe) - a kind of bison or buffalo with reddish-yellow hair and long legs, the others have dark hair; the name of a Ponka gens (clan), one of these regulating the buffalo hunt [JOD-Omaha]; tho-xe (th-xe) - archaic name for buffalo bull, this is the animal that gave the people the corn and the squash, it is the name of the Buffalo Bull gens [FL-Osage]; tho-xe (xe) - buffalo, Buffalo clan [CQ-Osage]; yo-xe (yxe) - Reddish Yellow Buffalo subgens (clan) [Kaw]

 

yellow, Reddish Yellow Buffalo gens (clan)

to-xe ni-ka-shi-ka (tuq nikack͓a) - the Reddish Yellow Buffalo gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

to-xe ni-ka-shi-ka (tuq nikacka) - Reddish Yellow Buffalo people, obtained from Mrs. Stafford (Haka gentes, Haka side) [JOD]

cf. to-xe (toxe) - reddish yellow buffalo; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - people

Dhegiha: nu-xe (nqe) - red buffalo, yellow buffalo; type of buffalo with reddish-yellow hair and long legs [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-xe (nqe) - a kind of bison or buffalo with reddish-yellow hair and long legs, the others have dark hair; the name of a Ponka gens (clan), one of these regulating the buffalo hunt [JOD-Omaha]; tho-xe (th-xe) - archaic name for buffalo bull, this is the animal that gave the people the corn and the squash, it is the name of the Buffalo Bull gens [FL-Osage]; tho-xe (xe) - buffalo, Buffalo clan [CQ-Osage]; yo-xe (yxe) - Reddish Yellow Buffalo subgens (clan) [Kaw]

 

yellow, small yellow ant

zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka zi zhi-ka (̨h̨k zi ka) - ant, small yellow

cf. zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka (ąh̨ka) - ant; zi (zi) - yellow; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka taⁿ-ka (ąh̨ka tt̨ka) - large black ant; zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka zhi-ka (ąh̨ka ka) - small black ant

Dhegiha: zha-biu-shka zi (zh-biu-ka i) - yellow ant [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-gthi-shka (zhⁿgthshka) - ant, wood insect [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-gthi-shka (zhoⁿgthishka) - ant [Omaha]; zha-biu-shka (zh-biu-ka) - ant [FL-Osage]; zha-pu-shka (puka) - ant [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-je ya-zu-be (shoⁿjé yazúbe) - ant, small biter of the very edge of the scrotum or testicle [Kaw]

 

yellow, Young or Little Yellow Hair

hiⁿ zi zhi-ga (hį zi ka) - Young or Little Yellow Hair, masculine name [JOD]

cf. hiⁿ (hį) - hair of the body, down of bird, fur; zi (zi) - yellow; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: hiⁿ zi zhiⁿ-ga (hiⁿ z zhiⁿga) - Little Yellow Hair, male name [Omaha]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-zi (hiⁿ-zi) - yellow hair [JOD-Omaha]; hiⁿ zi (hiⁿ z) - Yellow Hair, male name [Kaw]

 

yellowed by heat

ta-zi (ttzi) - yellowed by heat

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; zi (zi) - yellow

ex: hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

ex: sho-te ta-zi (tte ttzi) - soot, yellowed by smoke

Dhegiha: na-zi (nzi) - burnt yellow [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: da-zi-hi (d-i-hi) - burned yellow; smoke tanned; to burn a stick until it becomes yellow [FL-Osage]; ta-zi-hi (taazhi) - brown, become brown by application of heat; be browned, fried [CQ-Osage]; da-zi-hi (dázihi) - to become yellow; become grayish-yellow [Kaw]

 

yellowed by smoke, soot

sho-te ta-zi (tte ttzi) - soot, yellowed by smoke

cf. sho-te (tte) - smoke; ta (t) - by extreme temperature; zi (zi) - yellow; hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

Dhegiha: shu-de na-zi (c-de-na-zi) - turned yellow or brown by smoke; soot [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: shu-de (shde) - smoke [Omaha/Ponca]; shu-de (shude) - smoky; smoke, as a fire [Omaha]; shu-de (c-de) - to smoke, as a fire; smoke [JOD-Omaha]; sho-dse (sh-dse) - smoke [FL-Osage]; sho-tse (ce) - smoke, smoky, dingy, gray [CQ-Osage]; sho-je (shóje) - smoke, fog, to smoke [Kaw]

Dhegiha: da-zi-hi (d-i-hi) - burned yellow; smoke tanned; to burn a stick until it becomes yellow [FL-Osage]; ta-zi-hi (taazhi) - brown, become brown by application of heat; be browned, fried [CQ-Osage]; da-zi-hi (dázihi) - to become yellow; become grayish-yellow [Kaw]

 

yes

e (e) - yes, used by children

e (ee) - yes [JOD]

e (eh) - yes (oie) [GI]

e (e) - yes [AG, OM]

ex: e-shoⁿ o-ki-e a-da-shtaⁿ taⁿ, ee! i-yi i-ya wa-pa-iⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, shi-zhi-ka e-koⁿ (ę okki dat̨-tą, ee! iy iy wappą nįkʰ, ika ek̨) - then when he was finished talking to it, it is said the blood (blood boy) said, yes, just like a child [JOD]

ex: ee, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (e, iy iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - yes, it is said the Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: a (ă) - yes [Omaha/Ponca]; a (a) - yes [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ (oⁿ) - yes [Omaha/Ponca]; aⁿ (ⁿ) - yes [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-haⁿ (ⁿhaⁿ) - yes [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - yes [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-haⁿ-iⁿ (ąh̨į), aⁿ-haⁿ (ąh̨), aⁿ (̨ą) - yes (female speaking) [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-e (hąą) - yes (response when listening to a story) [CQ-Osage]; ho-we (ho-w) - yes [FL-Osage]; ho-we (how) - yes (mens speech only) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ha (ahá), oⁿ-ha (ohá) - yes (female speaking) [Kaw]; ho-we (howé) - yes, male speech; also, "Well!", as a sentence launcher or salutation [Kaw]

 

ha-u (hau) - yes; agreed; well; ho

ex: ha-u, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: ha-u, bde te (hau, bd tte) - agreed, I will go [JOD]

ex: ha-u, ha-u, ha-u (hau, hau, hau) - well, well, well [JOD]

ex: ha-u, ka-ni-ke, wi-he, i-ye (ha, kanik, wih, iy) - well, thanks younger sister, he said [JOD]

ex: ha-u, iⁿ-kde wi-ta (hau, įkd wtta) - ho, my feces [JOD]

ex: ha-u, ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-da-ke tʰi i-ye, i-ke-ya-we niⁿ, i-ya (hau, mat̨ke odke tʰ iy, keywe n̨, iy) - ho, rabbit says that he has come to tell us something, they said to one another, it is said [JOD]

ex: ha-u, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-waⁿ niⁿ (hau, mat̨ke wą nį) - ho, the rabbit is the guilty one [JOD]

Dhegiha: ha-u (hau) - in a council, it is often used as a sign of approval, as the English, hear! hear!; sometimes it is eq. to our, well; when it marks the beginning of a paragraph, it need not be translated; thank you; in addressing a white man, it means how are you; used in calling to a distant person [Omaha/Ponca]; ha (ha) - ho; O [FL-Osage]; ha (h) - well (often precedes a statement or command) [CQ-Osage]; ha-o (hao) - interjection of approval (male speech); singular, masculine imperative (short form of nahao); marks a change of idea, as the beginning of a new paragraph in writing [Kaw]

 

hoⁿ (hǫ) - yes

hoⁿ (hǫ) - yes; oh! [JOD]

cf. hoⁿ-zhi (h̨i) - no

ex: hoⁿ, a-tʰi o-wi-ki-bda-ke a-tʰi, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ, atʰ wikibdke atʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - yes, I have come, I have come to tell you something, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ, wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-xi-te di-ni-ke (hǫ, mat̨ke niγtte dinke) - yes, rabbit you have been disobedient [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zhamiⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - yes, I thought so! said the Rabbit [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, e-koⁿ naⁿ o-a-te a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (hǫ, ek̨ n̨ otte anih, iy iy sniwtte) - yes, I have been looking for just that kind, it is said Winter said [JOD]

ex: haⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, ta-taⁿ bda-tʰe niⁿ-haⁿ (hą, n̨ppįhi mįkʰ, tttą bdatʰ nįh̨) - yes, Im hungry, what can I eat? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke (hǫ, wtteke) - yes, my uncle (my mothers brother) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa (h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp) - yes, my uncle (my mothers brother) and also my aunt (my fathers sister), the both of you [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-to-shpa (hǫ, wittpa) - yes, my grandchild [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! wi-shi-ke, ha-ki-de-de e, i-yi i-ya maⁿtʰo wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe (hǫ! wikʔ, hkided e, iy iy mątʰ waxʔ nįkʰ) - yes! my brother-in-law (my husbands brother), in what direction? it is said the wife of Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-zhiⁿ-ke (h̨, wįke) - yes, my son [JOD]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - yes [Omaha/Ponca]; aⁿ (ⁿ) - yes [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-haⁿ (ⁿhaⁿ) - yes [JOD-Omaha]; a (ă) - yes [Omaha/Ponca]; a (a) - yes [JOD-Omaha];

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - yes [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-haⁿ-iⁿ (ąh̨į), aⁿ-haⁿ (ąh̨), aⁿ (̨ą) - yes (female speaking) [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-e (hąą) - yes (response when listening to a story) [CQ-Osage]; ho-we (ho-w) - yes [FL-Osage]; ho-we (how) - yes (mens speech only) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ha (ahá), oⁿ-ha (ohá) - yes (female speaking) [Kaw]; ho-we (howé) - yes, male speech; also, "Well!", as a sentence launcher or salutation [Kaw]

 

yesterday

si-o-ti (sitti) - yesterday

si-o-ti (sitti) - yesterday [MS]

ex: si-o-to a-ka hi-de tʰe (sitti kʔa hde tʰ) - the south wind was blowing yesterday

Dhegiha: si-da-di (sdadi) - yesterday [Omaha/Ponca]; si-da-di (idadi) - yesterday [Omaha]; si-do-dsi (i-d-dsi) - yesterday [FL-Osage]; si-toⁿ-iⁿ (sit̨į) - yesterday [CQ-Osage]; si-do-ji (sidji) - yesterday [Kaw]

 

yesterday, the day before yesterday

si-o-to ko-ti te-ta (sitti kkott ttett) - the day before yesterday

cf. si-o-ti (sitti) - yesterday; ko-ti te-ta (kott ttett) - beyond; ko-ti (ktti) - further away

Dhegiha: si-toⁿ-iⁿ ko-ta-ha tse (sit̨į kootha ce) - (on the) day before yesterday [CQ-Osage]; si-do-ji go-da-ha (sidóji gódaha) - day before yesterday [Kaw]

 

yet

shoⁿ (ǫ) - and, still, yet

e-shoⁿ (ę) e-shaⁿ (ą) - yet, then, at length, and, and then

i-shoⁿ (į) - yet, still

cf. shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

ex: shoⁿ (̨) - yet [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ, pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe da-sniⁿ-zhi, shoⁿ wa-xo niⁿ di-xe, i-ya-we (kįttą, ppah-nįkʰ dasn̨i, ̨ waxʔ nį dix, iywe) - then, he did not swallow the head, he still chased the woman, they say [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ (ę i ek̨) - yet/you reached there/as [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ niⁿ (ǫ-n̨) - still/the moving [JOD]

ex: zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ (akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨) - leaping at intervals/still/sat [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨ ną, i-ya) - Rabbit jumped about continually (jumping as rabbits do), it is said [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ (̨) - and [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka za-ni ho-taⁿ xa-naⁿ-we, i-ya (̨ wąka zan httą xʔną-we, iy) - and, in fact, all of the birds made a great noise by crying out, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - still, yet; at all events, at any rate; and, so; thus [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (̨) - while, as, when; still; continually [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - by and by, after awhile, eventually [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - fit, proper; as it should be; enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop; ready [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

taⁿ-hi (taⁿh) - yet, though [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

 

yolk

i-ta o-zi (tta oz) - egg yolk

cf. i-ta (tta) - egg; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; zi (zi) - yellow

Dhegiha: we-ta u-zi (wta ui) - egg yolk [Omaha]; ʰpa-ʰta zi (p-ṭa i), ʰpa-da zi (p-da i) - egg yolk [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ta zi (ʰpatazi) - egg yolk [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿgita zi-hi (wazhìⁿgitá zíhi) - egg yolk [Kaw]

 

yonder, by yonder things

she-ke-ti (ektti) - by yonder things [JOD]

she-ke-ti (ektti) - by those standing objects

cf. she (sh) - that [JOD]; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered; she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: she-ke-ti (ektti) - by yonder things [JOD]

ex: she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there by those things! [JOD]

 

yonder, further

ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further

ex: ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that singular/standing/invisible, yon

ex: ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived singular/moving/animate; the one who has reached

ex: ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those plural/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular/lying/animate or inanimate, yonder

ex: ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that singular/moving/animate, yon

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

ex: ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder

ex: ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, the further one

ex: ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - yonder pile; that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

 

ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that singular/standing/invisible, yon

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; further; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-tʰe (g-a-hi--tĕ) - the in. ob. std. or the col. of in. objects at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived singular/moving/animate; the one who has reached

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-thiⁿ (g-a-hi-ⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a short distance and beyond (another place), but not traveling [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those plural/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

 

ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular/lying/animate or inanimate, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: gu-a-kʰe (g-a-kĕ) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. in sight and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that singular/moving/animate, yon

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ), gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ) - the visible an, ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: ma-zhaⁿ ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (mą kwanįkʰe) - yonder (piece of) land

Dhegiha: gu-a-thiⁿ-kʰe ((g-a-i-k) - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place; refers to one sitting [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker;

Dhegiha: gu-a-ma (g-a-ma), gu-da-ma (g-da-ma) - the ones in sight and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, the further one

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-a-tʰaⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - yonder pile [JOD]

ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

ex: ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - yonder pile [JOD]

ex: ko-wa-tʰe toⁿ-wa! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kwatʰe tǫw! iy iy mat̨ke) - look at that pile (of fat meat) over there! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

yonder, in that direction, there, in that place, down below

ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]

ex: ka-ki (kak) - there [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]

ex: ka-ki o-zha da-i (kki a d-i) - there/to dance/they went [JOD]

ex: o-zha ka-ki da-i ke (a kki d-i ke) - to dance/there/they went/the plural [JOD]

ex: ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kda-i ke-ni-te ka-ki niⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kʰi a-taⁿ we-da-niⁿ shi-ke he-naⁿ i-da-ki-kda-niⁿ a-taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ki-we (kįttą ett̨nį kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨nį kʰ ttą wdanį ke hną idkikdnį ttą ką-tʰ̨ tą kwe) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters), and she put on her bad clothes and was there awhile when they (her step-sisters) reached home [JOD]

ex: ka-ki mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (kki mi ttin̨bettadde) - there/yonder/sunrise/towards [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! aⁿnaⁿ-ki-ye (tti kki mi ttin̨bettadde ̨tʰį ded! ąn̨kiye) - there, yonder, towards the sunrise, throw the club/stick! she said to me [JOD]

 

ka-ki-de-de (kkidde) - in that direction, going in that direction [JOD]

cf. ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]; ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]; ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: ka-ki-de-de (kkidde) - in that direction [JOD]

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I will go in this direction [JOD]

ex: di-e ka-ki-de-de da ni-he (de kkidde d nih) - you go in that direction! [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ ka-ki-de-de (deetʰ̨ kkidde) - from this place/going in that direction [JOD]

 

ka-ki de-da (kki ded) - send (throw) it in that direction!

cf. ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]; ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]; ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: ka-ki de-da (kki ded) - send (throw) it in that direction!

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club there, yonder again! she said to me [JOD]

 

yonder, over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, farther off, farther over there, ahead

ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead

ex: ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

Dhegiha: gu-a (ga), gu-da (gda) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-the-thiⁿ (g-da-e-iⁿ), gu-a-the-thiⁿ (g-a-e-iⁿ) - that visible one beyond or on that side of a person or place, who has started and is moving [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-the (gda e), gu-a-the (ga e) - to go beyond [JOD-Omaha]; ko-ta the (kota e) - (in the) future, future months (refers to traveling or going along in age, traveling down the road moving into the future) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta the (kota e) - that one over there (beyond speaker and hearer) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; de (de) - go; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-tʰaⁿ (g-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ko-ta-ha (kőtőhah) - that, which, who (qui) [GI]

cf. ko-ha (kha) - in that direction [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: ko-ta-ha (kootha) - (to/from) farther away (in space); farther back, farther ahead (in space or time); beyond; the next to last, the one before last; the one after next, the one past the next [CQ-Osage]; go-da-ha (gdaha) - over there, thither [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: go (go) - there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; that distant person or object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - termination of direction, used with verbs of motion; in different ways or places; so many in each place [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of; from [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

cf. niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ), gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ) - the visible an. ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ-ke (g-da-i-k), gu-a-thiⁿ-ke (g-a-i-k)  - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-da thiⁿ-shke (g-da thiⁿ-shke) - the one sitting on the opposite side [FL-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-kshe (kotaįk) - that one sitting over there or yonder (beyond speaker or hearer) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-ke (kootįke) - over there, yonder, farther than another thing, way over there, way back in thime or distance [CQ-Osage]; go-da-yiⁿ-khe (gdayiⁿkhe) - over there; yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: go-da toⁿ (g-da toⁿ) - that person standing yonder [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰaⁿ (tⁿ) - the; standing; the standing; the standing object; the standing animate object; the standing one [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ), toⁿ (toⁿ) - to stand; to stand, as a man, woman, or horse [FL-Osage]; txaⁿ (txą), kxaⁿ (kxą) - positional article for a singular animate standing entity; continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd person singular animate standing subject; also may indicate initiation of an activity by subject regardless of position [CQ-Osage]; kha (kha), khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - the; definite article for standing/animate objects; positional continuative [Kaw]

 

ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]; i-di-shaⁿ (idį) - to go around an object [JOD]; e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of; o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle

Dhegiha: gu-da-thi-shaⁿ (g-da-i-caⁿ), gu-a-thi-shaⁿ (g-a-i-caⁿ) - beyond, on that side of [JOD-Omaha]; go-da thi-shoⁿ (g-da thi-shoⁿ) - on the other side [FL-Osage]

  Dhegiha: gu-da-tʰe-ta (g-da-tĕ́-t͓a), gu-a-tʰe-ta (g-a-tĕ́-t͓a) - to the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-tʰe (g-da-tĕ), gu-a-tʰe (g-a-tĕ) - the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-thi-shoⁿ-ha (-thi-shoⁿ-ha) - to detour, to go around [FL-Osage]; i-thi-shaⁿ-ha (iąha) - detour around, go around, avoid [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - around, around someone or something, moving circularly like the hands of a clock, go around, circle, to go around in a circle, to go around something  [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - circle, encircle, surround, cycle, round [Omaha]; u-thi-shoⁿ (u-th-shoⁿ) - marching around in a circle [FL-Osage]

 

yonder, remote

ko-i (ki) - that, there, that distant object

ex: ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual, standing, visible, inanimate

ex: ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

ex: ko-i-ke (kike) - yonder ones; those remote plural, standing, visible, animate

ex: ko-i-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular, lying, visible, animate or inanimate

ex: ko-i-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying, visible

ex: ko-i-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote singular, moving, visible, animate

ex: ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular, sitting, visible, animate or inanimate

ex: ko-i-pa (kipa) - those remote plural, moving, visible, animate

ex: ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote singular, standing, visible, animate

ex: ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular, standing, visible, inanimate

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi (g-a-hi) - the object beyond (another place); yonder [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location;

 

ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual, standing, visible, inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these dual, standing, inanimate; ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual, standing, invisible, inanimate; ko-wa-da-te (kwadatt) - those dual, standing, inanimate or collections; she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual, standing, visible, inanimate objects; to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual, standing or collective, inanimate objects on this side

 

ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ni kihidnįkʰetti) - hill/at yonder distant visible place [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-a-hi--i-ke), gu-da-hi-the-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-da-hi--i-k) - the an. ob. st. or kneeling at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-i-ke (kike) - yonder ones [JOD]

ko-i-ke (kike) - those remote plural, standing, visible, animate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; ke (ke) - the plural, standing, animate or plural, standing, inanimate; de-ke (dke) - these standing, animate; ka-ke (kke) - those plural, standing, invisible, animate; she-ke (ke) - those non-singular, standing, animate or inanimate objects; to-wa-ke (twak) - those plural, standing, animate objects on this side; ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those plural, standing, animate, yonder

ex: ti ko-i-ke (tti kike) - lodge/yonder ones [JOD]

ex: ti ko-i-ke, ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tti kike, niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, those people are disobedient [JOD]

 

ko-i-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular, lying, visible, animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular, lying, animate or inanimate; de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying, inanimate; de-kʰe-koⁿ (dekʰek̨) - this kind [JOD]; ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular, lying, invisible, inanimate; ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular, lying, animate or inanimate, yonder; she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular, lying, visible object; to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular, lying, inanimate object on this side; to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular, lying, inanimate object on this side

ex: ni koi-kʰe (n kikʰe) - water/that lg. ob. [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

 

ko-i-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying, visible

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - 3rd person plural continuative; de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying, animate; ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural sitting or lying, invisible, animate; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder; she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural, sitting or lying, visible; to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying objects on this side

 

ko-i-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote singular, moving, visible, animate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; niⁿ (nį) - the singular, moving, animate; 3rd person continuative aux. moving]; de-niⁿ (dnį) - this moving, animate; ka-niⁿ (knį) - that singular, moving, invisible, animate; ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular, moving, animate, yonder; ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular, moving, animate over there; ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived singular, moving, animate; the one who has reached; ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that singular, moving, animate, yonder; she-niⁿ (nį) - that moving, visible, animate; shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫn̨) - finally, moving, animate, subject; to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that singular, moving, animate object that arrived on this side; to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that singular, moving, animate object arriving on this side; to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that singular, moving, animate object on this side; to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that singular, moving, animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

 

ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular, sitting, visible, animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-a-hi-i-k), gu-da-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-da-hi-i-k) - the an. ob. st. at a short distance and beyond; refers to one unseen but heard [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-i-pa (kipa) - those remote plural, moving, visible, animate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural, moving, animate objects; 3rd person plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving, animate; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural, moving, invisible, animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural, moving, animate, yonder; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving, visible, animate; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural, moving, animate, objects on this side

 

ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote singular, standing, visible, animate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing, animate; 3rd person continuative auxiliary, singular, standing, animate; de-tʰaⁿ (dtʰą) - this standing, animate; ho-wa-tʰe-ta-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what singular, standing, inanimate or collective, inanimate; nearby; ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what singular, standing, inanimate or collective, inanimate; far away; ka-tʰaⁿ (ktʰą) - that singular, standing, invisible, animate; ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular, standing, animate, yonder; ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular, standing, animate, yonder; ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that singular, standing, animate, the further one; shaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - the standing (newly) object; she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that standing, visible, animate; to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that singular, standing, animate object on this side of a place he has reached; to-ta-hi-de-tʰaⁿ (ttahdetʰ̨) - that singular, standing, animate object coming, on this side; to-ta-tʰaⁿ (ttatʰ̨) - that singular, standing, animate object on this side

ex: shoⁿ-ke ko-i-tʰaⁿ (̨ke kitʰą) - that dog [ASG]

 

ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular, standing, visible, inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular, standing, inanimate or collective, inanimate; de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this standing, inanimate; ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing, invisible, inanimate or that collective, invisible, inanimate; she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collective, standing, inanimate; de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these dual, standing, inanimate; ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual, standing, invisible, inanimate; ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual, standing, visible, inanimate; she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual, standing, visible, inanimate objects; ko-wa-da-te (kwadatt) - those dual, standing, inanimate or collections; to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual, standing or collective, inanimate objects on this side; ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that singular, standing, inanimate, yonder; ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular, standing, inanimate or collection; to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular, standing or collective, inanimate object on this side

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te ko-i-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

 

yonder, there

she-do (do) - yonder, there

cf. she-do (ed) - get out of the way!, imperative function; she-do (ed) - get away! [MS]

ex: she-do i-hi ki-ta! (do ih kkitta!) - it goes to you/shoot! [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ta miⁿ she-do i-hi! ki-ta! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wtteke, tta mį do ih! kkitta! iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), there is a deer approaching over there! shoot it! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: she-do i-hi-we (do ihwe) - they go to you [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka de-pa she-do i-hi-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wtteke, nkkaka dpa do ihwe, iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), over there are some Indians who are approaching, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-thu (shthu) - in that place which you see: there near you, or there where you are [Omaha/Ponca]; she-thu (sh-thu) - yonder, there where you are [FL-Osage]; she-tho (eeo), she-thoⁿ (eę) - there where you are, right there where you are, that person there [CQ-Osage]; she-yo (shy) - there in the distance, yonder [Kaw]

 

you

di-e (de) - you

di-e (de) - you [MS]

di-e (di-eh) - you (vous), (toi) [GI]

di-e (de) - thou [ASG]

cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; e (e) - he, she, it, that; oⁿ-ko-we (ǫkwe) - we

ex: di-e e-ti da (de ett d) - you go! (you go there!) [MS]

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: di-e ka-ki-de-de da ni-he (de kkidde d nih) - you go in that direction! [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ-kʰe di-e da-ki-kiⁿ te, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (d nįkʰ de dakkʔį tt, iy iy mątʰ) - you can carry this (piece of meat) for yourself, it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, di-e kiⁿ e-ka! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ, maⁿ-tʰo e wa-kʰe ti (h̨i, de kʔ̨ ek! iy iy mat̨ke ęke tʰą, mątʰ wakʰ tti) - no, carry it yourself! it is said the rabbits son said, referring to him, the Grizzly bear [JOD]

ex: o-bdi-sha-ke! di-e kiⁿ e-ka! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (obdʔake! de kʔ̨ ek! iy iy mat̨ke) - I refuse! You carry it yourself! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: di-e wi-bda-sniⁿ maⁿ te-a, i-ke (de wbdasn̨ m̨ tta, ik) - I will swallow you, he said to her [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-e (the) - thou, thee, you [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-e (th-e) - you; thou; thee [FL-Osage]; thi-e (e) - you [CQ-Osage]; yi-e (ye) - you [Kaw]

 

you also, you too

di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too

cf. wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me; e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, or she too

ex: di-e-hoⁿ e-ti-koⁿ i-ha pa-zhiⁿ-zhe e-naⁿ-pa o-do-ki-di-shpa-shpa-zhi koⁿ iⁿ (dehǫ ettik̨ ha ppąe en̨p͓a odkkidpapa k̨ į) - you too/that way/mouth/nose/it too/you (are) split in many places/so (=like)/period [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-shti (ictĭ) - you too, you also [JOD-Omaha]; thi-shki (thi-shki) - you also [FL-Osage]; thi-shki (ik) - you too [CQ-Osage]; yi-shki (yíshki) - you, too; you, also [Kaw]

 

you come here!

to-ta hi ka ha-u (tta h-ka ha) - you come hither! [JOD]

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - come, be coming here, not own; ka (k) - imperative, command, male speech; ha-u (hau) - yes; agreed; well; ho

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i (i) - to be coming toward a place, not his home; to be coming hither for the first time [Omaha/Ponca]; hu (hu) - to be coming to this place [FL-Osage]; hu (h), a-hu (ah) - come here (motion underway); initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - come to a place that is not ones own, be coming here [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - male imperative, command, male [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ha-u (hau) - in a council, it is often used as a sign of approval, as the English, hear! hear!; sometimes it is eq. to our, well; when it marks the beginning of a paragraph, it need not be translated; thank you; in addressing a white man, it means how are you; used in calling to a distant person [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-o (hao) - interjection of approval (male speech); singular, masculine imperative (short form of nahao); marks a change of idea, as the beginning of a new paragraph in writing [Kaw]

 

you only

di-naⁿ (dną) - you only

cf. di (di) - you pronoun; naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone; wi-naⁿ (wną), wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - only I, I alone; oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną), aⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ąkną) - only we, only us

Dhegiha: thi-noⁿ (thinⁿ), thi-hnoⁿ (thhnoⁿ) - thou alone, you alone; only thou or you; only thee [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-e noⁿ (thi-e noⁿ) - youself [FL-Osage]; thi-naⁿ (ną), thi-na (na) - you only, it is only you [CQ-Osage]

 

di-e-naⁿ (den̨) - you only

cf. di-e (de) - you; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; wi-naⁿ (wną), wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - only I, I alone; oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną), aⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ąkną) - only we, only us

hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, di-e-naⁿ iⁿ-te da! (hǫ, wttek, den̨ įtte d!) - no, my uncle (my mothers brother), you go alone! [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-noⁿ (thinⁿ), thi-hnoⁿ (thhnoⁿ) - thou alone, you alone; only thou or you; only thee [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-e noⁿ (thi-e noⁿ) - youself [FL-Osage]; thi-naⁿ (ną), thi-na (na) - you only, it is only you [CQ-Osage]

 

you receiving the action, di (di)

di-baⁿ (dib̨) - he/she call to you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - he/she call or halloo; shpaⁿ (p̨) - you call or halloo

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

 

di-da-tʰe (ddatʰ) - he/she eat you

cf. da-tʰe (datʰ) - he/she eat or chew; ta-te (tttʰe) - you eat or chew

ex: di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (ddatʰ taitʰ) - he/she eat you/shall (plural)

ex: iⁿ-da, wi-te-ke, e-ta-we, di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd, wtteke, ettwe, ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, their offspring, they will eat you (men and women, the whole human race, they will eat you) [JOD]

 

di-ki (dikʔ) - he/she give to you

cf. ki (kʔi) - he/she give; da-ki (dakʔ) - you give

ex: di-ki niⁿ-ha (dikʔ nįhą) - give to thee/would (sign of doubt) [JOD]

ex: be ti di-ki niⁿ-ha (be tt dikʔ nįhą) - who would give you a lodge [JOD]

 

te-di-de (tʔdid) - he/she kill you

cf. te-de (tʔde) - he/she kill; te-da-de (tʔdade) - you kill

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed, iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

you verb conjugation, da (da)

a-da-na-xoⁿ (danaxʔǫ) - you listen to, from a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - listen to

cf. a-a-na-xoⁿ (anaxʔǫ) - I listen to

Dhegiha: a-tha-na-aⁿ (anaⁿ) - you listen to, you hear and obey [JOD-Omaha]; a-tha-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (-tha-noⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - you hearken [FL-Osage]; a-tha-naⁿ-koⁿ (anąkʔǫ) - you listen to, you heed [CQ-Osage]; a-ya-no-kaⁿ (yanokaⁿ) - you listen to [Kaw]

 

da-ki (dakʔ) - you give, from ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

cf. a-ki (akʔ) - I give

Dhegiha: tha-i (a) - you give [JOD-Omaha]; tha-ʰki (tha-ḳi) - you give [FL-Osage]; tha-ku (akʔ) - you give [CQ-Osage]; ya-ku (yak) - you give [Kaw]

 

da-kde (dakd) - you go home, you start homeward, from kde (kd) - go home, to start homeward

cf. a-kde (akd) - I go home, start homeward

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe i-niⁿ-ha aⁿ-da-kdi-ze taⁿ ta-xaⁿ-da-ki-de taⁿ aⁿ-da-ki-kiⁿ da-kde te, i-ke naⁿ (ppah nįkʰ inįh ądkdiz tą txʔądkid tą ądkikʔį dakd tte, ik ną) - you take my head and you barbecue it (for me), you carry/pack it (for me) when you go home, he said to her [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-gthe (ag) - you go back, you go homeward [JOD-Omaha]; tha-gthe (th-gthe) - you go home [FL-Osage]; tha-le (ale) - you return there [CQ-Osage]; ya-le (yal) - you go back to a place, go home [Kaw]

 

da-xe-da-de (daxʔdade) - you pity someone, you be kind to someone, from da-xe-de (daxʔde) - pity, be kind to someone

cf. da-xe-a-de (daxʔade) - I pity someone, I be kind to someone

Dhegiha: tha-e-tha-the (aeae) - you consider him miserable, you pity him, you have mercy on him [JOD-Omaha]; tha-ʰke-tha-the (tha-ḳ-tha-the) - you be sympathetic to one who suffers with grief or is in great trouble, you be kindhearted, you relent, you be less harsh, you be merciful [FL-Osage]; tha-ke-tha-the (akʔe) - you pity, you feel sorry for, you bless, you be good to, you be merciful, you take care of [CQ-Osage]; ya-ke-ya-ye (yakyaye) - you pity [Kaw]

 

o-da-hoⁿ (odahǫ) - you cook, from o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

cf. o-a-hoⁿ (oahǫ) - I cook

Dhegiha: u-tha-haⁿ (uhaⁿ) - you cook [JOD-Omaha]; u-tha-haⁿ (u-th-hoⁿ) - you cook [FL-Osage]; o-tha-haⁿ (oohą) - you cook [CQ-Osage]; o-ya-hoⁿ (yahoⁿ) - you cook [Kaw]

 

you verb conjugation, di (di)

di-ni-ke (dinke) - you have none, you are lacking, from ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking

cf. aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I have none, I am lacking

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

ex: ni-xi-te di-ni-ke (niγtte dinke) - inner ear/you had none/=you were disobedient [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-xi-te di-ni-ke (hǫ, mat̨ke niγtte dinke) - yes, rabbit you have been disobedient [JOD]

ex: di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (dinke taitʰ) - you have none/shall (plural) [JOD]

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, mind [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-thiⁿ-ge (ige) - you are destitute of, you have none [JOD-Omaha]; thi-thiⁿ-ge (thi-thiⁿ-ge) - you have nothing [FL-Osage]; thi-thiⁿ-ke (įįke) - you lack it, you have none [CQ-Osage]; yi-yiⁿ-ge (yiyⁿge) - you have none [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-pe-di-hi (nąppdihi) - youre hungry, from naⁿ-pe-hi (nąpphi) - to be hungry

cf. naⁿ-pe-aⁿ-hi (n̨ppęhi) - Im hungry

Dhegiha: naⁿ-pe-thi-hi (naⁿpihi) - you hungry [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰpe-thi-hi (noⁿ-p-thi-hi) - you are hungry [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-pe-yi-hi (noⁿpéyihi) - you are hungry [Kaw]

 

o-di-zhe-da (odeda) - youre tired, youre weary, from o-zhe-da (oda) - tired, weary

cf. oⁿ-zhe-da (̨eda) - Im tired, Im weary

Dhegiha: u-thi-zhe-tha (ujea) - you are tired, you are weary [JOD-Omaha]; u-thi-zhe-tha (u-th-zhe-tha) - you are tired, you are weary [FL-Osage]; o-thi-zhe-tha (oea) - you are tired [CQ-Osage]; o-yi-zhe-ya (oyzheya) - you are tired, you are weary [Kaw]

 

sni-di-tʰe (snditʰe) - youre cold, from sni-tʰe (sntʰe) - to be cold

cf. sni-aⁿ-tʰe (snątʰe) - Im cold

Dhegiha: sni-tʰe (s͓nite) - you are cold [JOD-Omaha]; hni-thi-ʰtse (hni-th-ṭse) - you are cold [FL-Osage]; ni-thi-ʰtse (niʰce) - youre cold [CQ-Osage]; hni-yi-tse (hnyice) - you are cold [Kaw]

 

you verb conjugation, i-da (da)

i-da (da) - you talk, you speak (stress placed on in you form), from i-ye (ye), i-e (e) - talk, speak

cf. i-da (id) - I talk, I speak (stress placed on in I form)

Dhegiha: i-tha-e (ae) - you speak of it [JOD-Omaha]; i-tha-e (-tha-e) - you speak [FL-Osage]; i-tha-e (ae) - you speak of it [CQ-Osage]

 

i-da-de (dade) - you see or find (stress placed on in you form), from i-de (de) - to see or find

cf. i-da-de (idde) - I see or find (stress placed on in I form)

Dhegiha: i-tha-the (ae) - you find, you discover [JOD-Omaha]; i-tha-the (-tha-the) - you discern, you discovered [FL-Osage]; i-tha-the (iae) - you see, you find [CQ-Osage]; i-ya-ye (yaye) - you see, you watch, you find, you disciver [Kaw]

 

i-da-tʰiⁿ (datʰį) - you hit or strike with something (stress placed on in you form), from i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something

cf. i-da-tʰiⁿ (idtʰį) - I hit or strike with something (stress placed on in I form)

Dhegiha: i-tha-tʰiⁿ (atiⁿ) - you hit an object with something [JOD-Omaha]; i-tha-tsiⁿ (-tha-tsiⁿ) - you strike with [FL-Osage]; i-tha-tsʰiⁿ (iacʰį) - you hit with [CQ-Osage]; i-ya-chiⁿ (yachiⁿ) - you strike with something [Kaw]

 

i-da-xa (daxa) - you laugh (stress placed on in you form), from i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile

cf. i-da-xa (idxa) - I laugh (stress placed on in I form)

Dhegiha: i-tha-xa (aqa) - you laugh [JOD-Omaha]; i-tha-xa (-tha-xa) - you laugh [FL-Osage]; i-tha-xa (axa) - you laugh [CQ-Osage]; i-ya-xa (yaxa) - you laugh, you smile [Kaw]

 

you verb conjugation, sh ()

i-she (i) - you say, from e (e), i-e (i), i-ye (iy) - say

cf. i-he (ih) - I say

ex: de ta-taⁿ i-she (de tttą i) - what do you say this is?; what do you call this? [JOD]

ex: i-she naⁿ (i ną) - you said/regularly [JOD]

ex: haⁿ i-she naⁿ e (h̨ i ną e) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ i-she (hą i) - what did you say? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ she (h̨ ) - what did you say? [OM]

ex: i-e i-she ni-she (e i ni) - you said it [AG]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ taⁿ (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą tą) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: ko-i-she e (ki i e) - you say that/? [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, i-kaⁿ-e! haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ ko-i-she e, i-yi i-ya (ę, ikk̨-e! hąn̨ttą ki i e, iy iy) - and then he said, grandmother, why do you say that? it is said [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she-sha-zhi (kie-i) - you did not say those [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! ma-shtiⁿ-ke, i-ye tʰe ko-i-she-sha-zhi naⁿ niⁿ-tʰe (hhox! mat̨ke, ye tʰe kie-i n̨ nįtʰ) - really! rabbit, you have never talked in this manner before now [JOD]

ex: i-she (i) - you say it [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke, haⁿ! haⁿ! haⁿ! i-she na-ha! i-yi i-ya (ę mat̨ke, h̨! h̨! h̨! i nah! iy iy) - then rabbit said, beware lest you say, haⁿ! haⁿ! haⁿ! it is said [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ i-ta-tʰe i-she naⁿ e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (tttą ttatʰe i ną ek̨ ppγe tt) - whatever you say you want to eat, I will make it like that [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-she (ec) - you say [JOD-Omaha]; e-she (e-she) - you say [FL-Osage]; e-she (e) - you say [CQ-Osage]; e-she (esh) - you say [Kaw]

 

shka-xe (kγe) - you make, from ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

cf. pa-xe (ppγe) - I make

ex: shka-xe (kγe) - you made (you make) [OM]

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe shpoⁿ hi shka-xe (nąp pǫ hi kγe) - you made (make) hand wet [MS]

ex: do-taⁿ shka-xe (dttą kγe) - you straighten, you pull straight, from do-taⁿ ka-xe (dttą kγe) - straighten, pull straight

ex: shka-xe ta-we (kγe ttaw) - you make him/will (pl.) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke shka-xe ta-we iywe e-de (mat̨ke kahke kγe ttaw iywe ed) - they say, youall will surely make Rabbit chief! [JOD]

Dhegiha: shka-xe (ckxe) - you make, you do [JOD-Omaha]; shka-xe (shk-xe) - you make [FL-Osage]; shka-xe (kaγe) - you make [CQ-Osage]; shka-ghe (shkghe) - you make [Kaw]

 

shtaⁿ-we (t̨we) - you look, from toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something

cf. taⁿ-we (tt̨we) - I look

Dhegiha: shtaⁿ-be (ctⁿbe) - you look at; you perceive; you see it [JOD-Omaha]; shtoⁿ-be (shtⁿ-be) - you see; you look; you view [FL-Osage]; shtoⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - you watch it [CQ-Osage]; shtoⁿ-be (shtóⁿbe) - you see, you look at [Kaw]

 

shi (i) - you have been, you reach or arrive there, from hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been

cf. pʰi (pʰi) - I have been, I reach or arrive there

ex: ha-ki shi e (hki i e) - where have you been? [MS]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ, te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya (ę i ek̨, tʔdidawe, iy nį, iy) - then you went and thus, they killed you, she was saying, it is said [JOD]

ex: he-be wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (hbe wdakitt̨ ąm̨) - I think that you took a piece for someone [JOD]

Dhegiha: shi (c) - you reach there; you arrive [JOD-Omaha]; shi (shi) - you went [FL-Osage]; shi (), shi-e (e) - you go there (motion accomplished, come there, arrive there [CQ-Osage]; shi (shi) - you arrive, you reach there [Kaw]

 

you verb conjugation, shp (p)

a-shpa-zo (pazo) - you point at, from a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at

cf. a-pa-zo (ppazo) - I point at

Dhegiha: a-shpa-zu (cpazu) - you point at with the finger [JOD-Omaha]; a-shpa-zu (-shpa-u) - you point at; you select; you indicate [FL-Osage]; a-shpa-zo (pazo) - you point at, you point to; you select by pointing [CQ-Osage]; a-shpa-zo (shpazo) - you point at with the finger [Kaw]

 

i-shpa-haⁿ (pahą) - you know, from i-ba-haⁿ (bahą), i-ba-haⁿ (bahǫ) - know, recognize

cf. i-pa-haⁿ (ppahą) - I know

ex: i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (zan pahǫ nkʰe) - youall that understand [AG]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we (pahąw) - you (plural) know it [JOD]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we a, e-te-te (pahąw a, tte tte) - do youall know? I wonder. [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-shpa-haⁿ (icpahaⁿ) - you know, you have knowledge of a person or object [JOD-Omaha]; i-shpa-hoⁿ (-shpa-hoⁿ) - you know [FL-Osage]; i-shpa-hoⁿ pahǫ) - you know; you understand; you recognize [CQ-Osage]; i-shpa-hoⁿ (ishpahoⁿ) - you know, you understand [Kaw]

 

o-shpe-tʰaⁿ (optʰą) - you wrap something around an object, from o-be-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - wrap something around an object

cf. o-pe-tʰaⁿ (opptʰą) - I wrap something around an object

Dhegiha: u-shpe-tʰaⁿ (ucpetaⁿ) - you wrap something, as a blanket, around an object; you wrap a bandage around a limb; you bandage; you make up or wrap up a bundle [JOD-Omaha]; u-shpe-ʰtoⁿ (u-shp-ṭoⁿ) - you wrap or envelop [FL-Osage]; o-shpe-txaⁿ (optxaⁿ), o-shpe-tkxaⁿ (optkxaⁿ) - you wrap or tie up stuff as a bundle [CQ-Osage]; o-shpe-khaⁿ (oshpékhaⁿ) - you wrap up, you wrap something around an object, you bandage [Kaw]

 

shpi-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - you break or crush, from bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break, crush

cf. pi-xoⁿ (ppxǫ) - I break or crush

Dhegiha: shpi-xaⁿ (cpiqaⁿ) - you cause to break, but not in two, as a chair, by sitting on it [JOD-Omaha]; shpi-xoⁿ (shp-xoⁿ) - you break down; you crease [FL-Osage]; shpi-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - you break down [CQ-Osage]; shpu-xoⁿ (shpúxoⁿ) - you break something by sitting on it; you break, but not in two, as a chair, by weight or pressure [Kaw]

 

you verb conjugation, t (tt)

ta-taⁿ (ttttą) - you drink, from da-taⁿ (datt̨) - drink

cf. bda-taⁿ (bdttą) - I drink

ex: ta-taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ttatt̨ nįkʰ) - you are drinking

ex: ta-taⁿ naⁿ (ttatt̨ ną) - you drink, youre a drunkard

Dhegiha: shna-tʰaⁿ (c͓nataⁿ), hna-tʰaⁿ (hnataⁿ) - you drink [JOD-Omaha]; shta-ʰtoⁿ (shta-ṭoⁿ), shna-ʰtoⁿ (shn-ṭoⁿ), hna-ʰtoⁿ (hn-ṭoⁿ) - you drink [FL-Osage]; shta-ʰtaⁿ (taʰtą) - you drink [CQ-Osage]; hna-taⁿ (hntaⁿ) - you drink [Kaw]

 

ta-tʰe (tttʰe) - you eat, you chew, from da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew

cf. bda-tʰe (bdtʰe) - I eat, I chew

Dhegiha: shna-tʰe (c͓nate), hna-tʰe (hnate) - you eat [JOD-Omaha]; stsa-tse (stsa-tse), sta-tse (st-tse), na-tse (na-tse) - you eat [FL-Osage]; shta-tsʰe (tacʰe) - you eat [CQ-Osage]; hna-che (hnche) - you eat [Kaw]

 

te (tt) - you go, from de (de) - go

cf. bde (bd) - I go

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

ex: ha-ki te (hki tt) - where you going? [MS, OM]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te (hǫn̨ttą tt) - why you going? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going? why are you going? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) - do you want to go to the show? [OM]

Dhegiha: shne (c͓n), hne (hn) - you go [JOD-Omaha]; stse (stse) - you go [FL-Osage]; shtse (ce) - you go [CQ-Osage]; hne (hne) - you go [Kaw]

 

wa-da-naⁿ-bde (wadnąbd) - you eat a meal, you dine, from wadnąbd (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine

cf. a-wa-naⁿ-bde (awnąbd) - I eat a meal, I dine

Dhegiha: wa-tha-noⁿ-bthe (wa-th-noⁿ-bthe) - you eat, you dine [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-noⁿ-bre (wanǫbre) - you dine, you eat [CQ-Osage]; wa-ya-noⁿ-ble (waynoⁿble) - you eat a meal, you dine [Kaw]

 

you verb conjugation, zh ()

zhiⁿ (į) - you wear, from iⁿ (ʔį) - wear

cf. miⁿ (mį) - I wear

Dhegiha: zhiⁿ (jiⁿ) - you wear [JOD-Omaha]; zhiⁿ ̨) - you wear, you are wearing [CQ-Osage]; zhiⁿ (zhⁿ) - you wear about the shoulders [Kaw]

 

zhoⁿ (ǫ) - you do, be, use, or have, from oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use, have

cf. moⁿ (mǫ) - I do

ex: ha-zhoⁿ (hą) - what or how are you doing? [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - you do [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - you do, engage in [CQ-Osage]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - you do [Kaw]

 

you verb double conjugation, da (d) + sh ()

da-ki-shka-xe (dakkaγe) - you fix, you repair, from ki-ka-xe (kikγe) - fix, repair

cf. a-ki-pa-xe (akppaγe) - I fix, I repair

Dhegiha: tha-gi-shka-xe (tha-g-shka-xe) - you mended [FL-Osage]; tha-ki-shka-xe (kikaγe) - you make it over, you do over, you repair or fix [CQ-Osage]

 

you verb double conjugation, da (d) + t (tt)

da-maⁿ-tiⁿ (dam̨ttį) - you walk, maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

cf. a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ (am̨bdį) - I walk

ex: haⁿ-e hi da-maⁿ-tiⁿ ni-she? i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (h̨e hi dam̨ttį ni? iy iy sniwtte) - on what very important business are you traveling? it is said Winter said [JOD]

ex: a-di-ka-sho-te da-maⁿ-tiⁿ (dikatte dam̨tį) - you walk while dust is blowing on you

Dhegiha: a-tha-maⁿ-shniⁿ (amⁿc͓niⁿ), a-tha-maⁿ-hniⁿ (aamaⁿhniⁿ) - you walk on or over [JOD-Omaha]; a-tha-moⁿ-ni (-tha-moⁿ-ni) - you walk on [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-shniⁿ (maⁿcnⁿ), maⁿ-hniⁿ (maⁿhnⁿ), maⁿ-niⁿ (maⁿnⁿ) - you walk [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-stsiⁿ (moⁿ-stsiⁿ), moⁿ-shni (moⁿ-shni), moⁿ-ni (moⁿ-ni) - you walk [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hniⁿ (maⁿhnⁿ) - you walk [Kaw]

 

you verb double conjugation, sh () + t (tt)

shkoⁿ-ta (k̨tta) - you want, from koⁿ-da (kǫd) - want, desire, wish

cf. koⁿ-bda (kk̨bda) - I want

ex: shkoⁿ-ta zhi (k̨tta i) - you dont want

ex: ha-zhoⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (hǫ kǫtt) - what do you want with it? [MS]

ex: ma-hiⁿ shkoⁿ-ta e (mhį kǫtta e) - do you want a knife?

ex: ma-kaⁿ-sha shkoⁿ-ta (makką́a kǫtt) - do you want coffee? [AG]

ex: ni shkoⁿ-ta (ni kǫtt) - do you want water? [MS]

ex: ta-toⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (tttǫ kǫtt) - what do you want? [OM]

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) -do you want to go to the show? [OM]

ex: wa-tʰe shkoⁿ-ta (watʰ kǫtt) - do you want a dress? [OM]

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ-shna (ckⁿc͓na), shkoⁿ-na (ckⁿna), shkoⁿ-hna (ckⁿhna) - you desire, you wish, you want [JOD-Omaha]; shkoⁿ-shda (shkⁿ-shda), shkoⁿ-shta (shkⁿ-shta), shkoⁿ-sda (shkoⁿ-sda) - you desire, you want [FL-Osage]; shkoⁿ-shta (k̨ta) - you want, you desire [CQ-Osage]; shkoⁿ-hna (shkⁿhna) - you want, you wish, you hope [Kaw]

 

you verb double conjugation, sh () + zh ()

shpi-zhoⁿ (pǫ) - you do well, you are an expert, from pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) - do well, expresses precocity

cf. pi-moⁿ (ppmǫ) - I do well, I am an expert

Dhegiha: shpi-zhoⁿ (shpi-zhoⁿ) - you are expert, you are skillfull [FL-Osage]; shpi-zhoⁿ (pǫ) - you know how to dod something, you are skilled at or expert in [CQ-Osage]

 

you, 2nd person singular continuative moving

ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - you, 2sg continuative moving

ex: ni-she-naⁿ (niną) - you, continuative habitual

ex: shoⁿ-ni-she (̨ni) - you, finally, mv/an/sb

ex: e haⁿ-te a-shi-aⁿ-he ni-she (e h̨tte įhe nie) - why are you following behind? [JOD]

ex: ha-ki te ni-she (hak tt nie) - where are you going? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e hi da-maⁿ-tiⁿ ni-she? i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (h̨e hi dam̨ttį ni? iy iy sniwtte) - on what very important business are you traveling? it is said Winter said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: i-e i-she ni-she (e i ni) - you said it [AG]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (haǫ ni) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (ǰe hǫ n) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e shi-zhi-ka a-tiⁿ ni-she (jhe ikka att̨ ni) - do you have any children? [AG]

ex: jhi-e shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ a-tiⁿ ni-she (ǰe ̨keknį att̨ ni) - have you got a horse? [AG]

Dhegiha: tha-thiⁿ-she (th-thiⁿ-sh) - 2sg aux, in motion; you who move [JOD-Omaha]; tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thⁿ-she) - you who are going [FL-Osage]; thaiⁿ-she (aį), thaⁿ-she (ąą) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 2nd sg. subject (action or state may continue from past to present, corresponding to English perfect have/had been [CQ-Osage]; ya-yi-she (yayish) - continuative, you (sg), while moving (or not visible) [Kaw]

 

you, 2nd person singular continuative sitting

ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - you, 2nd person singular continuative sitting

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going?, why are you going? [MS]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we ni-kʰe (dixi wadxow nikʰ) - hill/draws people into its mouth/you who are [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we ni-kʰe, aⁿ-da-xo-wa! (dixi wadxow nikʰ, ądxow!) - you are the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth, draw me in! [JOD]

ex: o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ ni-kʰe (odkitʰǫ nikʰ) - you who are putting on your (moccasins) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ ni-kʰe (hǫp odkitʰǫ nikʰ) - moccasins/you who are putting on your [JOD]

ex: o-ti-ti! hoⁿ-pe o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ ni-kʰe! (ttitti! hǫp odkitʰǫ nikʰ!) - hurry! you putter on of moccasins! [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ i-di-bnaⁿ ni-kʰe (hąn̨ttą idbną nikʰ) - why are you satiated? [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, ha-zhoⁿ ni-kʰe, i-ke (įkn̨, hą nikʰ, ik) - first son, what are you doing? she said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: hniⁿ-kʰe (hniⁿkʰ) - you who are, you who sit, second person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; niⁿ-kshe (nįk), ni-kshe (ni-kshe) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd sg. sitting object [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-khe (hniⁿkhé) - continuative you (singular), while sitting [Kaw]

 

you, 2nd person singular, continuative standing

da-tʰaⁿ-she (dtʰą) - you, 2nd person singular, continuative auxiliary standing

ex: di-e da-tʰaⁿ-she (diĭ -to-toⁿ-ci) - thou art [LH]

ex: da-tʰaⁿ-she (dtʰą) - you stand awhile [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we, i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe, iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-toⁿ-she (thtoⁿsh) - second person singular [JOD-Osage]; tha-toⁿ-she (tha-toⁿ-she) - standing [FL-Osage]; tha-txaⁿ-she (atx̨e) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past) for standing 2nd sg. or 2nd pl. subject, may also be used for imminent future action or state [CQ-Osage]; ya-kha-she (yakhshe) - continuative you (sg), while standing [Kaw]

 

you, contrastive

di-e-zha (dea) - you, contrastive

cf. wi-e-zha (wea) - I, but I, whereas I; oⁿ-ko-we-zha (ǫkwea) - we (contrastive), we, on the one hand

Dhegiha: wi-e-zha (wezha) - marks a contrast between the speaker and someone else; I in contrast to others; I on one hand; I on the other hand [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-e-zha (thezha) - marks a contrast between the one addressed and another or others; you on the one hand; you on the other [Omaha/Ponca]; aⁿ-gu-e-zha (ageja) - we on the one hand [JOD-Omaha]

 

you, I to you

wi (wi) - I to you, first person singular acting on second person

ex: i-wi-ki-de (wkide) - I see you; from i-ki-de (kide) - to see ones own

ex: i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wkide ą́dakn) - Im glad to see you [AB, OM]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, Im glad to see you [FR]

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ (winaxʔǫ) - I heard you; from na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ zhi (winaxʔ̨ i) - I didnt hear you [MS]

ex: wi-toⁿ-we (wit̨we) - Im looking at you; from toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something [MR]

ex: a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ-ta miⁿ-kʰe (wittąwe ątta mįkʰe) - I will lie watching you; from a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), a-taⁿ-we (ttąwe) - look upon

ex: o-wi-bda (owbda) - I tell you; from o-bda (obd) - I tell something

ex: wi-ki (wikʔ) - I give to you; from ki (kʔi) - to give something to someone

ex: ti de wi-ki (tti d wikʔ) - I give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkitt̨ dakd ną tti d wikʔ tte) - when you have taken her (have her) for me and return here I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her, my own, back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: wi-bda-xta (wibdaxt) - I bite you; from bda-xta (bdxta) - I bite something [MS]

ex: wi-ki-kaⁿ ta (wi-gi-kun-t) - I will help you; from o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone  [LH]

ex: o-wi-kaⁿ-shi-ka (owkkąik) - I hate you; from o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik) - hate

ex: o-wi-tʰiⁿ (owtʰį) - I hit you; from o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

ex: a-wi-aⁿ-bde (wįbde) - I give it (illness) to you; from a-aⁿ-de (ąde) - to give an illness; communicate a disease

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you; from a-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (bdaska akn̨) - I sit close

ex: a-wi-bdi-xe (wibdiγe) - I take you for my husband; from a-bdi-xe (bdiγe) - I take a man for a husband, I marry a man

ex: a-wi-ka-zhi (wikai) - I command you, I tell you to do something; from a-ka-zhi (kai) - command, tell someone to do something

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

ex: wa-wi-ka-zhiⁿ (wwikaį) - I tell you to do something [JOD]

ex: a-wi-ki-bda (wikkibda) - I attack you in return, blow for blow; from a-a-ki-bda (akkbda) - I attack in return, I return blow for blow

ex: a-wi-ki-bda ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkibda tt mįkʰ) - I will attack you in return

ex: a-wi-ki-pa (wikkipp) - I meet you; from a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal

ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

ex: xta-wi-de (xtawid) - I love you, from xta-de (xtad) - love

ex: o-wi-ki (owikki) - I say/talk to you; from o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okki) - speak, talk with one

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe (owikki tta mįkʰ) - Im going to talk to you [MS]

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, emi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: a-wi-ki-bde (wikbde) - I go for/fetch for you; from a-ki-bde (akbd) - I go for/fetch something, not my own [JOD]

ex: a-wi-ki-bde te (wikbde tt) - I will go after it for you

ex: a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wikbnį akd) - I have brought back your, I have brought for you; from a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kibnį akd) - I brought it back to him/her

ex: we-da-niⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wdanį wikbnį akd) - I have brought back for you (my relation) clothing [JOD]

ex: a-wi-zha-miⁿ (wiam̨) - I honor you; from a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąmį) - I think, regard; I treat as

ex: o-wi-ki-bda-ke (wikibdke) - I tell you; from o-ki-da-ke (kibdake) - I tell it to my own [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe (wikibdke ta mįkʰ) - I will tell youall the news [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ wikibdke ta mįkʰ iwke iy mat̨ke) - yes, I have come, I have come to tell you something, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ (wikkdakʔ̨) - I carry you, my own (around) on my back; from ki-kda-kiⁿ (kikdakʔį) - carry ones own bundle or pack on ones own back [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a (wikkdakʔ̨ tte) - I will carry you on my back [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a, i-ke (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tte, ik) - all right! I will carry you (on my back), she said to him [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te iⁿ, i-yi (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tt ̨, iy) - all right! I will carry you (on my back), he said [JOD]

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi (awkda atʰ) - I have come for you, my own; from a-kda a-tʰi (kda atʰ) - I arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not my home) to get my own object (horse, child, gun, etc.)

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi, iⁿ-kaⁿ, i-ke (awkda atʰ, įkk̨, ik) - he said to her, I have come for you (my own), grandmother [JOD]

ex: wi-bdi-ze (wibdze) - I get for you [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka wa-da-ki-te naⁿ maⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ tʰe a-shi-aⁿ-he a-ni-he (wąka wadkkitt n̨ m̨ wibdze am̨bdį tʰe įhe anih) - when you shoot the birds, Ill walk behind you getting the arrows for you [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ tʰe a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tʰe įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi (wi) - a pr. fragment, including both sub. and ob.; I--you(s) [JOD-Omaha]; wi (wi) - combined marker of 1st person sg. Subject and 2nd person object, I you [CQ-Osage]; wi (wi) - I/you, where 'I' is the subject and 'you' is the object [Kaw]

 

you, if or had it been you

di-e-taⁿ (dettą) - if it were you; had it been you

cf. wi-e-taⁿ (wettą) - I, if it were I; oⁿ-ko-we-taⁿ (ǫkwettą) - we, rather than others

ex: di-e-taⁿ di-o-za te-da-de tʰe ho-taⁿ ni-tʰe (dettą diza tʔdad tʰe httą nitʰ) - it would be good if it had been you that had recently killed it [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-e-daⁿ (-edaⁿ) - you rather (than I) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: e-daⁿ (-daⁿ) - he rather (than any one else), he to exclusion of others [JOD-Omaha]

 

youall

di-a-we (dawe) - youall

cf. di-e (de) - you; we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

 

2nd person singular + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: di-ta-we (dttawe) - youalls, from di-ta (dtta) - your, yours + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we (pahąw) - youall know, from i-shpa-haⁿ (pahą) - you know + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: di-shi-ka-we (dikwe) - youall are bad, from di-shi-ke (dike) - youre bad + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka e-naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in the future [JOD]

ex: ta-ta-we (ttatwe) - you (plural) eat it [JOD], from ta-tʰe (tttʰe) - you eat + a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: te-naⁿ-te de niⁿ-kʰe shiⁿ-xti ta-ta-we ho-taⁿ ni-tʰe (tten̨tte d-nįkʰ įxt ttatwe httą nitʰ) - it would have been good for youall to eat this very fat buffalo heart [JOD]

ex: ta-ta-wa-zhi (ttatwai) - you (plural) do not eat [JOD], from ta-tʰe (tttʰe) - you eat + a-we (awe) - pluralizer + a-zhi (ai) - negation, not

ex: hoⁿ-tʰe ta-ta-wa-zhi e (h̨tʰe ttatwai e) - why do youall not eat? [JOD]

Dhegiha: Kansa uses be (-be) or bi (-bi), and the Osage, pe (-pe) or pi (-pi), as a plural ending, where the Omaha and Ponka employ i (-i) [JOD-Omaha]; a-pi (-api), pi (-pi), a-pe (-ape), pe (-pe) - pluralizer of 1st or 2nd persons (we, us, you); pluralizer of imperative; pluralizer of 3rd person; noncontinuative marjer for 3rd person (sg. or pl.); marker of predicative noun-plus-adjective phrases [CQ-Osage]; be (-be) - plural marker; 3rd singular non-continuative marker; completed action (usually translated into English as past tense) [Kaw]; bi (-bi) - plural and 3rd singular marker used after [Kaw]

 

command form + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: e-ti da-we (tti daw) - there/go ye! [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo i-shta zhi-te e-ti da-we! te da-kiⁿ da-kdi ta-i! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mątʰ it itt tti daw! tt dakʔį dakd ttai! iwke iy mat̨ke) - youall go there, to the red-eyed Grizzly bear! youall will pack the buffalo back here! Rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

 

command form + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer + ka (ka) - imperative, command

ex: e-ti kda-we-ka! (ett kdaw-ka!) - there/go ye again/imperative [JOD]

ex: ha-ki-de-de-tʰaⁿ da-tʰi-ke-we i-te e-ti kda-we-ka! (hkidedtʰą datʰ-k-we itt ett kdaw-ka!) - from wherever youall may have come from, go there to your respective homes! [JOD]

ex: da-we-ka! (d-wek!) - go ye! [JOD]

ex: da-we-ka! (d-wek!) - youall begone! [JOD]

ex: o-kda-xa-xa-we ka (okdxʔaxʔ-we k) - give ye the scalp yell often! [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ, etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k, iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, at that time youall must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

 

youall usually

2nd person singular + naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - regularly, usually, often + we (we), a-we (awe) - pluralizer

ex: da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we (daxʔąkkid nąw) - you (plural) used to be kind to him for me [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ho-wa ni-kʰa-she da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we e (mat̨ke hwa nikʰe daxʔąkkid nąw e) - which of youall were kind to Rabbit for me? [JOD]

 

youall will or shall

2nd person singular + ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic + we (we), a-we (awe), wi (-wi), a-wi (-awi), a-i (-ai) - pluralizer

ex: shka-xe ta-we (kγe ttaw) - you make/will (plural)

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke shka-xe ta-we iywe e-de (mat̨ke kahke kγe ttaw iywe ed) - they say, youall will surely make Rabbit chief! [JOD]

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔ ta) - you give the scalp yell often/will (plural)

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: da-kiⁿ da-kdi ta-i (tt dakʔį dakd ttai) - you carry on the back/you return here/will (plural)

ex: maⁿ-tʰo i-shta zhi-te e-ti da-we! te da-kiⁿ da-kdi ta-i! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mątʰ it itt tti daw! tt dakʔį dakd ttai! iwke iy mat̨ke) - youall go there, to the red-eyed Grizzly bear! youall will pack the buffalo back here! Rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i (tai) - will, plural; shall [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i (ta-i) - we shall, lets [Omaha]; ʰtai (ʰtai) - lets, clause final element conveying an extortion or suggestion for a group including the speaker and at least two other persons [CQ-Osage]

 

youall, 2nd person plural continuative auxiliary

da-ke-she (dake) - youall, 2nd person plural continuative auxiliary standing

 

a-pa-she (ape) - youall, 2nd person plural continuative moving

Dhegiha: pa-she (paa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting/moving/lying down subject, you are characterized by the preceding expression, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; pa-she (pash), ba-she (baash) - continuative you (plural), while moving [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - youall, 2nd person plural continuative sitting

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ho-wa ni-kʰa-she da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we e (mat̨ke hwa nikʰe daxʔąkkid nąw e) - which of youall were kind to Rabbit for me? [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, youall that understand [AG]

Dhegiha: hnoⁿ-kʰa-she (hnoⁿkʰshe) - you who are, you who sit, stand, recline, etc. (pl.) [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-ka-she (nⁿ-ka-she) - you who are sitting there [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-kxa-she (nąkxe) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting object, often heard in the greeting to the participants and the audience at the war dance gathering as most are seated [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ-kha-she (hnaⁿkhshe) - you plural, while sitting, while standing, positional continuative [Kaw]

 

youalls, yours (plural)

di-ta-we (dttawe) - your (plural), yours (plural), yalls (alienable)

cf. di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, (alienable); we (-we), a-we (-awe), wi (-wi), a-wi (-awi), a-i (-ai) - pluralizer

Dhegiha: thi-thi-ta-i (thithtai) - yours, your own (pl) [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ta-pi (ʰtaapi) - your (two or more of you) [CQ-Osage]

 

Back to Top