English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

C

 

cabbage

a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]

a-be-de-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abedʰnǫʰnǫ), a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ)  - cabbage

a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]

cf. a-pe (ap) - leaf; di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy; kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous

Dhegiha: 'a-be ('be) - leaf, leaves of a plant, leaf, leaves [Omaha/Ponca]; a-be (-be) - foliage, leaves, leaf [FL-Osage]; a-pe (pe) - leaf [CQ-Osage]

 

cache

o-xe (xe) - cache

cf. xe (xe) - bury; mi-xe (mxe) - grave; wa-xe (waxʔ) - grave [MS]

Dhegiha: u-xe (uxe) - cellar, grave, tomb [Omaha]; o-xe (xe) - grave, ditch, burial place [CQ-Osage]; o-xe (xe) - cache, grave in the ground, this is in contrast to burials above ground, such as on a scaffold or in a tree [Kaw]

 

o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache

cf. o-xe (xe) - cache; di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back; di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface; xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab; xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord

 

o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache

cf. di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back

 

wa-ti-he (watthe) - cache dug by mice for food

cf. wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cache, cellar

Dhegiha: ti-he (the) - hole where a field mouse buries its store of beans for the winter [Omaha/Ponca]

 

wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cache, cellar

cf. wa-ti-he (watthe) - cache dug by mice for food

 

cactus

ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd) - cactus plant

ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd)  - cactus [MS]

cf. ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; wa-naⁿ-bdi-ba-xto (waną́bdibaxto), wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (waną́bde baxto) - fork; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - thrust or pierce, to pierce, to perforate, to perforate the ear [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce or impale with an awl or tined instrument [Kaw]

 

cactus fruit

ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo da-siⁿ (ken̨baxd dasʔ̨) - cactus fruit, "what sticks..."

cf. ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd) - cactus plant; ta-ni-ba-he-ta o-da-siⁿ (tanbahtta dasʔį) - elderberries

Dhegiha: u-tha-siⁿ (uthsiⁿ) - connected, joined, in connection with, joined to [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha-ʰtsiⁿ (u-th-ṭsiⁿ) - attached, attachment, as fruit is attached to a vine or tree [FL-Osage];

 

Caddo

so-de (sde), su-de (sde) - Caddo Indians

su-de (sdĕ) - Kwapa name for the Caddo Indians [JOD]

su-de (sŭdeh) - Caddo Indians (cadeau) [GI]

 

cake

wa-ske ski-de (wskeskde) - cake

wa-ske ski-de (wskeskde) - cake [OM]

cf. wa-ske (wske), (wask) - bread, cake or any sort; ski-de (skde) - sweet

Dhegiha: wa-mu-ske ski-the (waḿke kithe) - sweet roll, cake, cookies, cupcake [Omaha]; wa-bo-ski sku-we (wabski skwe) - cake, sweetcakes [Kaw]

 

calendar

zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, when the buds are red

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te hi (̨xda tte hi) - redbud tree; zhoⁿ-xda (ǫxd) - bud; zhi-te (tte) - red

 

zhoⁿ-shti-we da-tʰe (ǫtwe datʰ) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, shti-we (twe) untranslated, not found elsewhere may mean 'straight' or 'soft', may refer to the beaver

cf. da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew

 

mi-wa-she shka (miwe k) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, when the wa-xo-ka taⁿ-ka (waxka tt̨ka), 'dewberries' are ripe in Summer

cf. wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot; ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

 

wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn, precedes sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska)

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; zhoⁿ (ǫ), zhaⁿ (ą) - sleep, lie, recline; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

 

sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter, precedes pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska)

cf. sni-wa-te (snwatte) - winter [FR, OM]; sni-wa-te (snwatte) sni-wa-te - cold weather [MS, AG]; (snwatte) - winter, north; sni-wa-te (sniwtte) - power of winter (male); o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length)

Dhegiha: ʰni-wa-ʰtse (ʰn-wa-ṭse) - cold weather, a cold day [FL-Osage]; ni-wa-ʰtse (nwaʰce) - be cold, an impersonal weather expression, not used for people [CQ-Osage]; hni-wa-tse (hniwace) - cold, as the weather, winter, the cold months, approximately September - February [Kaw]

 

pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar, precedes zhaⁿ-to ti-te (̨tto tttte)

cf. pa-de (pde) - winter; pa-de taⁿ (pdettą) - wintertime, when it is winter; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length)

Dhegiha: ma-the (mthe) - winter, year [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-the (b-the) - winter [FL-Osage]; pa-the (pa) - winter [CQ-Osage]

 

zhaⁿ-to ti-te (̨tto ttte) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, perhaps Spring, precedes pa-shte ti-te (ppat titt)

cf. zhaⁿ to-hi (ą ttohi) - mulberry tree [MS]; ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked

 

pa-shte ti-te (pat titt) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar

cf. pa-shte-ka (patka) - strawberry; ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked

 

calf

te-ska zhi-ka (ttesk ik) - calf

te-ska zhiⁿ-ka (teskah-jinka) - calf (veau) [GI]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; te-ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison + white; zhi-ka (ik), zhi-ka (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: te-ska zhiⁿ-ga (tka  zhiⁿga) - calf [Omaha]; ʰtse-ska zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ka zhiⁿ-ga) - a calf [FL-Osage]; tse-ska zhiⁿ-ga (cesk zhⁿga) - a calf [Kaw]

 

calf, buffalo calf

te zhi-ka (tteka) - buffalo calf

te zhi-ka (tteka) - buffalo calf, also male personal name [MS]

te zhi-ka (te j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Calf [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig) - little, small, young

Dhegiha: te zhiⁿ-ga (tezhiⁿga) - name, Little Buffalo [Omaha]; te zhiⁿ-ga (tezhⁿga) - buffalo calf, young buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse zhiⁿ-ga (ṭse zhi-ga) - little buffalo, unborn calf [FL-Osage]; ʰtse zhiⁿ (ʰceę) - small buffalo, unborn buffalo calf, any unborn calf, a valued food, especially for older people without good teeth, at peyote church the older ones get unborn calf as the best part of the beef at breakfast, along with corn, fruit, and water, these are the four things allowed, PM [CQ-Osage]; tse hiⁿ-ga (cehiⁿga) - buffalo calf [Kaw]

 

calf of the leg

hi-zho (ho), hiⁿ-zho (hį) - calf of the leg

Dhegiha: hi-zhi (hi-zh) - calf of the leg [FL-Osage]

 

calico

wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico

wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico cloth [OM]

cf. wa-hiⁿ (wah̨) - cloth; ska (ska) - white; wa-hi-ska i-ti (wahska tti) - canvas tent; wa-hiⁿ-ska i-ti (wah̨ska tti) - tipi [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-xiⁿ-ha (waxiⁿha) - calico, cloth, fabric [Omaha]; wa-xiⁿ-ha (waqⁿha) - cloth, paper, linen or cotton cloth, calico [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xiⁿ-ha ska (waqⁿha sk) - white cloth, cotton cloth, muslin cloth [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xiⁿ-ha ska (waxiⁿha ka) - muslin [Omaha]

 

            wa-hiⁿ-ska i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wah̨ska kąskde) - yard, lit. "calico measure"

wa-ni i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wan kąskde) - yard, "a calico measure"

cf. wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.

 

call

baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo paⁿ (pp̨) - I, shpaⁿ (p̨) - you, aⁿ-baⁿ-we (ąb̨we) - we

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - scream [Omaha]; poⁿ (poⁿ) - yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [FL-Osage]; paⁿ (p̨) - holler, yell, scream, shout [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, "to call to"

ki-baⁿ (gī boⁿ) - "flute" of cedar, from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

ki-baⁿ (gī boⁿ) - "flute" of cane, used by a lover to signal to his sweetheart, or to play when one "feels lonesome", from George Red Eagle [MH]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

Dhegiha: ki-boⁿ (kiboⁿ) - invite [Omaha]; gi-boⁿ (g-boⁿ) - to call from a distance, to summon, to call to appear [FL-Osage]; ki-ʰpaⁿ (kʰpą) - call, invite ones relative(s) [CQ-Osage]; ki-paⁿ (kpą) - call or visit to ask or summon someone to attend or appear before others, invite someone, not a relative [CQ-Osage]; gi-baⁿ (gibⁿ) - call to ones own children, etc. [Kaw]; gi-baⁿ (gbaⁿ) - call to someone, call to another, call to anothers child, etc. [Kaw]

 

wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I call to them

Dhegiha: wa-paⁿ (wap̨) - call, holler for folks, invite people [CQ-Osage]; wa-paⁿ (wapą) - invite folks to appear before others[CQ-Osage]; wa-baⁿ (wabⁿ) - to call to them (not by their request [Kaw]

 

da-te (dat) - read aloud, call or name something bda-te (bdte) - I, ta-te (ttte) - you

cf. a-da-te (date) - read, say aloud; i-ka-zo-zo da-te (kazzo dat) - school, school house [MS]

ex: maⁿ-te zha-zhe bda-te (mantĕ jaj ptatĕ) - I call (that) a boat [JOD]

ex: de ta-taⁿ zha-zhe ta-te (de tataⁿ jaje tate) - what do you call ____? [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-de (thad) - to call, to name, to speak, utter, pronounce a name [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-dse (tha-ds) - to call as by name, to pronounce [FL-Osage]; tha-tse (aac) - call on someones name, say the name of something or someone, call, define as, assign a name to something or someone, use a name for something or someone, say, pronounce, read [CQ-Osage]; ya-je (yaj) - read, pronounce, to call by name [Kaw]

 

ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar

cf. ho (ho) - voice; ; o-ho (oho) - bark, as a dog [MS]; ga-ho-taⁿ (gahttą) - whirr, roar; ga-ho-taⁿ-de (gahttąde) - whirr, hum, roar; naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on; ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]; ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw]

 

ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; ho toⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ka (htąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago tribe or person "big voice," "loud voice," or "rough voice." [Kaw]

 

callous

di-shi-ka (diok) - roughen, to callous

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling: inner instrumental prefix; sho-ka (ok) - thick; a-ki-sho-ka (kkika) - crowded, thick, dense, plentiful

Dhegiha: shu-ga (shug) - course, thick [Omaha/Ponca]; shu-ga (shuga) - thick [Omaha]; sho-ga (sho-g) - thick, as applied to goods, skin, or any material [FL-Osage]; sho-ka (ook) - thick [CQ-Osage]; sho-ga (shog) - thick, hard [Kaw]; sho-ga (shga) - thick, dense as a forest [Kaw]

 

calm

ta-ti-oⁿ-ha-zhi (ttttįhai) - windless, a calm

cf. ta-ti-oⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind; zhi (zhi) - not, negation; ta-ti oⁿ-he shi-ke (tttti ̨he ik) - storm, wind blowing hard [MS]; ta-ti o-di-bdi (tttti dibd) - whirlwind; ta-ti o-kda-kʰaⁿ (ttttikdakʰ̨) - across the wind, as when a boat tacks; ta-ti o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind; ta-ti o-hi-de (tttti hide) - cardinal points; whence the four winds blow

Dhegiha: ta-de (tad) - wind [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-de (tad) - air, wind [Omaha]; ʰta-dse (ṭa-ds) - wind, the winds, the four quarters of the earth, air [FL-Osage]; ʰta-tse (ʰtaac) - wind, air [CQ-Osage]; ta-je (taj) - wind [Kaw]

 

camp, be in a place, be sitting

kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, be sitting a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - I, da-kniⁿ (dakn̨) - you

cf. kniⁿ-ye (kn̨ye) - sat, to have, have dwelt

ex: kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit [OM]

ex: kniⁿ (knį) - sit down! (command) [MS, AB, OM]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wakǫ́ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (kkihi akn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I going to live far away [MS]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ mi-aⁿ-ba a-ki-haⁿ a-kniⁿ (̨čʰǫ mįba m̨ kkihą akn̨) - I have now been (here) over a month

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ) -dwell, live, reside [Kaw]

 

candle

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), a-ta-koⁿ (ttakkǫ) - lantern, light [MS, AB]

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), ha-ta-kaⁿ (hattką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle

cf. a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil; ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: na-koⁿ (nakoⁿ) - when a light is on [Omaha]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ) - a light, artificial light [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ (taʰką) - lamp, light [CQ-Osage]; a-da-kaⁿ (dakaⁿ) - shine on, to give forth a light on an object, candle, light something up, illuminate [Kaw]

 

candy

wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bniⁿ (wąke skde dibbnį), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

cf. wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ni thi-be-bthiⁿ (zhoⁿn thibbthiⁿ) - twisted or plaited candy, twisted sugar, striped stick candy, candy cane, candy of any type [Omaha/Ponca]

 

cane

i-sa-kde (sakd) - cane, walking stick, crutch

i-sa-kde (sakd) - cane [MS]

Dhegiha: i-sa-gthe (sagthe) - forked stick, like those used for hanging kettles over a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; i-sa-gthe (-a-gthe) - a post planted in the ground, a cane or walking stick [FL-Osage]; i-sa (isa) - cane, walking stick, crutch [CQ-Osage]; i-sa-le (sale) - cane, crutch [Kaw]

 

canine teeth

hi o-ta-ho-kde (h ottahokd) - teeth, canine

cf. hi (hi) - tooth; hi o-ta-ho-kde o-ba-taⁿ (h ottahokd obttą) - teeth, bicuspid; hi o-taⁿ-ka (h ott̨ka) - teeth, molars

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - tooth; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tooth or teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Kaw]

 

cannon

ma-ze taⁿ-ka  (maz tt̨ka) - cannon

ma-ze taⁿ-ka (maz ttą́ka) - cannon, big gun [MS]

ma-ze taⁿ-ka (mŏzeh-tunkah) - cannon (canon) [GI]

cf. ma-ze (maze) - iron, gun; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

cannon ball

ma-ze taⁿ-ka we-ki-te (maz tt̨ka wkkitte) - cannon ball

cf. ma-ze taⁿ-ka (maz ttą́ka) - cannon, big gun; we-ki-te (wkkitte) - bullet

 

canoe, boat

maⁿ-te (mątt), (mąt) - boat, canoe

maⁿ-te (mątt) - boat [MS]

maⁿ-te (mont-teh) - small boat or boat (canot ou bateau) [GI]

cf. maⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (mont-teh-tonkah) - large boat (canot grand) [GI]; pe-te maⁿ-te o-he-ki-de (pptte m̨tte hekkde) - steamboat; maⁿ-te iⁿ-kʰe (monnteh-nkĭēh) - oar, paddle (aviron) [GI]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-de (moⁿ-de) - hunting bow, boat, ferry, boat deck, canoe [Omaha]; ba-dse (ba-ds) - any kind of boat [FL-Osage]; pa-tse (pce) - boat [CQ-Osage]; ba-je (baj) - boat, canoe [Kaw]

 

canvas

wa-hi-ska i-ti (wahska tti) - canvas tent

wa-hiⁿ-ska i-ti (wah̨ska tti) - tipi [MS]

cf. wa-hiⁿ (wah̨) - cloth; wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico; wa-hi-ska i-ti ba-za (wahska tti baz) - tent peg; ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

Dhegiha: ha-ska i-ʰtsi (ha-ka -ṭsi) - tent of canvas [FL-Osage]; ha-ska i-ʰtsi (haaskiʰci) - tent, long arbor house, lit., cloth house [CQ-Osage]; ha-ski-tsi (haskci) - tent, canvas lodge [Kaw]

 

cap, hat

o-kdaⁿ-ke (kdąke), o-knaⁿ-ke (okn̨ke) - hat or cap

cf. xi-da o-knaⁿ-ke (xid okn̨ke) - headdress made of eagle skins

Dhegiha: u-gthoⁿ-ge (u-gthoⁿ-ge) - hat [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ-ke (ool̨ke) - wear on the head, put on the head, don as a hat [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ-ke (oląke) - hat, head cover, item worn on the head [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ-ge (laⁿge) - hat, cap [Kaw]

 

pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną), pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną) - hat, cap, "head is put inside"

pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat [MS, OM]

pa-ho-knaⁿ (pah-hughĕnah) - hat, hood (chapeau) [GI]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; wa-xo pa-hi o-knaⁿ (waxʔ pphikną) - bonnet; iⁿ-te o-kdaⁿ (̨tte kdą) - mask, lit. "put the face in it"

ex: pa-hi oknaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (pphi okną-nįkʰe) - the hat

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

Dhegiha: ma-shoⁿ pa-gthoⁿ (mshoⁿpgthoⁿ) - headdress, feather bonnet, eagle feathers [Omaha/Ponca]; te-he pa-gthoⁿ (tehpagthⁿ) - buffalo horn headdress [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xu-pa-gthoⁿ(wqupgthoⁿ) - hat, cap white mans head covering [Omaha/Ponca]

 

cap, percussion cap

zhi-ka o-bi-taⁿ (ka bitt̨) - cap, percussion

 

captain

to-taⁿ haⁿ-ka (tot̨hąka) - war captain, war chief

cf. to-taⁿ (tot̨) - war; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens

Dhegiha: nu-doⁿ hoⁿ-ga (nudoⁿ hoⁿga) - master, overseer, captain, colonel, director, emperor, boss, chairman, officer, leader, commander [Omaha]; do-doⁿ hoⁿ-ga (do-dⁿ hoⁿ-ga) - chief commander of the army [FL-Osage]; to-taⁿ-ha (tot̨ ha), to-taⁿ haⁿ-ka (tot̨ hąka) - committeeman, member of war 
dance committee, one with rank of war dance committee, one with rank of 
authority, ranking member [CQ-Osage]; do-daⁿ haⁿ-ga (dodⁿ hⁿga) - leader of a war party, captain of a team [Kaw]

 

cardinal

wa-zhiⁿ zhi-te (wą tte) - cardinal, also tanager

wa-zhiⁿ zhi-te (wą tte) - redbird [MS]

wa-zhiⁿ-ka zhi-te (wąka tte) - redbird [MS]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; zhi-te (tte) - red

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga zhu-dse (wa-zhⁿ-ga zhu-dse) - a red bird [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ zhi-e (wa-zhⁿ-zhi-e) - Red-(bird)-eagle, personal name [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ zhu-e (wa-zhⁿ-zhu-e) - the scarlet tanager [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ zhu-e (wąue) - cardinal, lit., red bird [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ zhu-je (wazhⁿzhuje) - cardinal [Kaw]

 

cardinal points

ta-ti o-hi-de (tttti hide) - cardinal points; whence the four winds blow

cf. ta-ti oⁿ-he (tttti ̨he), ta-ti aⁿ-he (tttti ąhe) - wind; ta-ti oⁿ-he shi-ke (tttti ̨he ik) - storm, wind blowing hard [MS]; ta-ti oⁿ-ha-zhi (ttttįhai) - windless, a calm; ta-ti o-di-bdi (tttti dibd) - whirlwind; ta-ti o-kda-kʰaⁿ (ttttikdakʰ̨) - across the wind, as when a boat tacks; ta-ti o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind

Dhegiha: ta-de (tad) - wind [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-de (tad) - air, wind [Omaha]; ʰta-dse (ṭa-ds) - wind, the winds, the four quarters of the earth, air [FL-Osage]; ʰta-tse (ʰtaac) - wind, air [CQ-Osage]; ta-je (taj) - wind [Kaw]

 

cards

i-ka-zo-zo i-koⁿ (i-kah-zŭzŭ-ikan) - cards, playing cards (cartes jouer) [GI]

cf. i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; i-koⁿ (kǫ), i-kaⁿ (ką) - gamble, bet

Dhegiha: ʰta-noⁿ-ʰka ʰkoⁿ (ṭa-nⁿ-ḳa-ḳoⁿ) - a deck of cards, playing cards, paper - gamble or a game [FL-Osage]; ʰta-naⁿ-ka koⁿ (ʰtan̨kʔa kʔ̨) - deck of cards, card game, play cards, lit., play/gamble with paper [CQ-Osage]; ta-naⁿ-ka koⁿ (tanⁿka koⁿ) - to play cards, gamble at cards [Kaw]

 

care

a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from a-a-ki-toⁿ-we (akkitt̨we) - I, a-da-ki-toⁿ-we (dakkitt̨we) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-toⁿ-wa-we (̨kakkittǫwawe) - we

cf. toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

Dhegiha: a-gi-doⁿ-be (-gi-doⁿ-be) - watches over whatever is his own [FL-Osage]; a-ⁿki-ʰtoⁿ-be (-ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - discreet, to guard ones self against trouble [FL-Osage]; a-ki-toⁿ-pe (kitǫpe) - watch over, tend someone who is not a family member or not close [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰtǫpe) - watch over, look after, look at ones own things or people, watch over, look after, look at ones own [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkiʰtǫpe) - watch over oneself, watch oneself, look at oneself, look after oneself, watch over each other, watch over things for oneself, watch over ones own things [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-doⁿ-be (gidoⁿbe) - look at something, examine something, watchover [Kaw]; a-ki-toⁿ-be (kitoⁿbe) - see for oneself, look at an object closely to understand for oneself, to scrutinize [Kaw]

 

da-xe-ki-de (daxʔekde) - care for one's own da-xe-a-ki-de (daxʔakide) - I, da-xe-da-ki-de (daxʔdakide) - you

cf. da-xe-de (daxʔde) - pity, be kind to someone; da-xe ti-aⁿ (daxʔ tį) - pitiable, miserable; wa-da-xeda-zhi (wadxʔedi) - merciless, pitiless

Dhegiha: tha e-the xti a-ki-hi-de (tha ethexti akihide) - care for [Omaha]; tha-ʰke-ʰki-the (tha-ḳ-ḳi-the) - self-pity, inward hurt [FL-Osage]; tha-ke-ʰki-the (akʔʰkie) - be good to each other, be kind to each other, pity each other, pity oneself, feel sorry for oneself [CQ-Osage]; tha-ke-ki-the (akʔkie) - be good or kind to ones own or to someone close, pity, feel sorry for ones own [CQ-Osage]; ya-ke-gi-ye (yakgiye) - pity or love one's own [Kaw]

 

da-xe-ki-de (daxʔkkide) - care for one for someone else da-xe-a-ki-de (daxʔakkide) - I, da-xe-da-ki-de (daxʔdakkide) - you

 

carefully

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately, think, decide, form an opinion, plan, thoughtfully, deliberately i-bdi-kdaⁿ (bdikdą) - I, i-ti-kdaⁿ (ttikdą) - you

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - wise, be, have sense; di-knaⁿ (dikn̨) - try, make effort, decide; miⁿ di-kdaⁿ (mį dkdą) - consider marriage to a woman

            ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legemd, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - have on ones mind, think about, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately, think, decide, form an opinion, plan, thoughtfully, deliberately; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

 

a-ka-ze (kaze) - carefully, softly

ex: a-ka-ze hi o-da-tʰiⁿ (kaze h odtʰį) - you hit an object softly or carefully

ex. i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully

 

a-toⁿ-wi-he-de (ttǫwihde) - put horizontal object down carefully

cf. i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someone's sg/ly/in object; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; gaⁿ i-he-de (gą ihde) - prone; so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise; shoⁿ i-he-de (̨ ihde) - bequeath, will, leave something; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

Dhegiha: i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

a-toⁿ-wi-naⁿ-de (ttǫwin̨de) - put down a si/in or cloth object

cf. i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put sg/si/in or cloth/paper; na-xnaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (naxn̨ in̨de) - hide a sg/si/in object; shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (̨ in̨de) - bequeath sg/si/in/ob or cloth; a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick; a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat, curvilinear object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting, curvilinear objects so their edges touch; be-soⁿ-soⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold

Dhegiha: i-noⁿ-the (inoⁿthe) - put away, put it down [Omaha]; i-noⁿ-the (i-nⁿ-the) - to put upon the ground [FL-Osage]

 

a-toⁿ-wi-tʰe-de (ttǫwitʰde) - put st/in object down carefully

cf. i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide sg/st/in or collection; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object, make an upright object lean by pulling it; a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books

Dhegiha: i-te-the (ite the) - set something down, store, deposit [Omaha]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe-keeping [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

carpenter

ti ka-xe (ttkaγ) - carpenter

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: ti ga-xe (tgaxe) - carpenter [Omaha]; ʰtsi gi-ʰka-xe (ṭsi g-ḳa-xe) - to repair or rebuild a house [FL-Osage]; tsi ga-ghe (cigghe) - carpenter, lit., he makes houses [Kaw]

 

carpet, rug

maⁿ-iⁿ-taⁿ (mą́įttą) - rug [MS]

maⁿ-iⁿ-taⁿ (m̨įttą) - robe, blanket

maⁿ-iⁿ-taⁿ (mą́įttą) - blanket [MS, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: wa-iⁿ xthe-xthe (waⁿ qthqthe) - striped carpet, wa-iⁿ (waⁿ) - robe, blanket [Omaha/Ponca]

 

carriage

zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka (ą ditt̨da ka) - carriage

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; zhi-ka (ka) - small; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (ą ditt̨da) - wagon, cart; zhaⁿ di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, "running wood"; pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da (pptte ̨ditt̨da) - locomotive, lit. "fire wagon"

Dhegiha: u-thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-th-ṭoⁿ-tha) - anything propelled by rolling, a wagon, buggy, a carriage, [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ʰtaⁿ (oʰtą) - car, wagon, describes a rolling motion [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-taⁿ-ya (oytaⁿya) - wagon, cart [Kaw]

 

carry

kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back a-kiⁿ (akʔį) - I, da-kiⁿ (dakʔį) - you, kiⁿ (kʔį) - he/she/it, aⁿ-kiⁿ (ąkʔį) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-kiⁿ-we (ąkʔįwe) - we

cf. i-k'iⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders [MS]; maⁿ-o-zhi i-kiⁿ (m̨oi kʔį) - quiver strap

ex: kiⁿ kʰi-taⁿ a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de naⁿ i-ya (kʔ̨ kʰttą itti itʰde ną iy) - when he reached home carrying (the meat) on his back, he piled it outside (the lodge), it is said

Dhegiha: i-iⁿ (iⁿ) - a carrying strap, a strap or cord for carrying something on ones back or for a powder horn [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; kiⁿ (kiⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

kda-kiⁿ (kdakʔį) - carry one's own bundle or pack a-kda-kiⁿ (akdakʔį) - I, da-kda-kiⁿ (dakdakʔį) - you

 

ki-kiⁿ (kikʔ̨) - carry on one's own back, pack a-ki-kiⁿ (akkʔį) - I, da-ki-kiⁿ (dakkʔį) - you

Dhegiha: gi-kiⁿ (gi-kⁿ) - to carry on ones back, pack ones own property on the back [Kaw]

 

ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load

cf. ski-ke (skke) - heavy, heavy weight; kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

Dhegiha: ski-ge (skge) - heavy [Omaha/Ponca]; ski-ge (k-ge) - heavy [FL-Osage]; ski-ke (skke) - heavy, tired, weighted down, heavily laden [CQ-Osage]; skiⁿ-ge (skⁿge) - heavy [Kaw]

 

wa-kiⁿ tʰe (wakʔ̨ tʰe) - the carrying of something

cf. wa-kiⁿ (wakʔ̨) - pack

Dhegiha: wa-ʰkiⁿ (wa-ḳⁿ) - carrying [FL-Osage]

 

we-kiⁿ (wkʔį) - pack, bundle carried on back

 

cart

zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (ą ditt̨da) - wagon, cart

zhoⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (jon-udit-tontah) - cart (char[r]ette) [GI]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka (ą ditt̨da ka) - carriage; zhaⁿ di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, "running wood"; pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da (pptte ̨ditt̨da) - locomotive, lit. "fire wagon"

Dhegiha: u-thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-th-ṭoⁿ-tha) - anything propelled by rolling, a wagon, buggy, a carriage, [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ʰtaⁿ (oʰtą) - car, wagon, describes a rolling motion [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-taⁿ-ya (oytaⁿya) - wagon, cart [Kaw]

 

cartridge

we-ki-te ste-te (wkkitte sttte) - cartridge

cf. we (we) - with which to; ki-te (kkitte) - to shoot; ki-te (kktte) - shoot at something; we-ki-te (wkkitte) - bullet; ste-te (sttte) - long, tall; we-ki-te zhi-ka (wkkitte ka) - bird shot; ma-ze taⁿ-ka we-ki-te (maz tt̨ka wkkitte) - cannon ball

Dhegiha: ki-de (kide) - shoot [Omaha]; kʰi-de (kʰde) - to shoot [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰku-dse (ḳ-dse) - to shoot [FL-Osage]; ʰku-tse (ʰkce) - fire a gun, shoot a bow and arrow, shoot someone, shoot at someone [CQ-Osage]; ku-je (kje) - shoot at something [Kaw]

 

cat

iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe (įtt̨dą kde) - cat, domestic cat "spotted"

iⁿ-taⁿ kde-zhe (įttą́ kde) - cat, speckled cat [MS, AG]

taⁿ-ke kde-she (DąGeGaD˙e) - cat, domestic [FS]

cf. iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe zhi-ka (įtt̨dą kde ka) - kitten; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ kde-zhe (įttaną kdze) - bobcat; taⁿ-daⁿ (ttądą́) - panther, puma, mountain lion, iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ (įTą́dą) similar terms are widespread in North America; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttną ttą́ka) - panther; taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka (ttą́dą ttą́ka) - mountain lion, puma

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ gthe-zhe (iⁿ-gthoⁿ́-gthe-zhe) - the lynx [FL-Osage]; i-loⁿ le-zhe (ilⁿlezh) - cat, domestic cat [Kaw]

 

catch

a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on, hold down, e.g., on his back, lie on something a-pi-saⁿ-te (ppisątte) - I, a-shpi-saⁿ-te (pisątte) - you, oⁿ-ka-pi-saⁿ-ta-we (ǫkpisąttawe) - we

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down; a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something, throw oneself down on

ex: maⁿ-da a-bi-saⁿ-te naⁿ i-ya (m̨da bisątte ną iy) - he held him down on his back, it is said

ex: ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe aⁿ-bi-saⁿ-te kakkkdattie ̨bisątt) - he tumbled over and lay on me

ex: wa-bi-saⁿ-ta-we (wbisąttawe) - he or they lay on us

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-bi-saⁿ-je (bisaⁿje), a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on, wrestle [Kaw]

 

a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something, throw oneself down on

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on, hold down, e.g., on his back, lie on something; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (mat̨ke bisątte ̨) - to throw himself down on a rabbit to catch it

Dhegiha: a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-bi-saⁿ-je (bisaⁿje), a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on, wrestle [Kaw]

 

di-xda-te (dixdtte) - catch in the claws, scratch

Dhegiha: thi-xtha-de (thixthde) - claw, animal claw [Omaha]; we-thi-xtha-de (wthiqthde) - grappling irons [Omaha/Ponca]

 

catfish

to-ze  (ttze) - catfish, mud catfish

to-ze (ttze) - catfish [MS]

Dhegiha: tu-ze (tze) - dark catfish, found in the Missouri River [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-ze (te) - catfish [Omaha]; ʰto-ze (ṭ-e) - catfish, the catfish is used by both the Osage and Omaha for good [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ze (ʰtze) - catfish [CQ-Osage]

 

mi-xe (mix) - the large black catfish

 

mi-xe ha sa-ki (mix ha ski) - smallest catfish, six to twelve inches

 

mi-zhaⁿiⁿ (mįį) - yellow catfish

 

ho taⁿ-ka (hŭh-tunkah) - catfish (catfish, angl) [GI]

cf. ho (ho) - fish; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

cattle

te ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison + white

te ska (ttesk) - cow [MS, AG, MR, OM]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; ska (ska) - white; te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. "cow (bison + white) without balls"; te-ska te-zhe-ni (ttesk teni) - beer; te-ska wa-xo (ttesk waxʔ) - cow; te-ska zhi-ka (ttesk ik) - calf; te-ska zho (ttesk o) - beef

ex: te-ska a-shi-oⁿ-he tʰaⁿ a-niⁿ-ki (ttska iǫh tʰą an̨k) - bring the ox standing outside (the fence) here

Dhegiha: te-ska (tka) - cow, ox, cattle [Omaha]; ʰtse-ska (ṭs-ka) - white buffalo, domesticated cattle [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ska (ʰceska) - beef, lit., white buffalo, head of cattle, cow, not necessarily female [CQ-Osage]; tse-ska (cesk) - domestic cow, ox [Kaw]

 

causative

de (de) - cause to, to cause

cf. sa-de (sde) - blacken, cause to be black; we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, "whiten with it"; ni-de (nde) - save a life, cause to live; o-na-xoⁿ-de (onxʔǫde) - tell, lit. cause to hear something; ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove [MS]

Dhegiha: the (the) - to cause [Omaha/Ponca]; the (the) - to cause [FL-Osage]; the (e) - make, have or make someone do something, cause something to happen to someone or something [CQ-Osage]; ye (ye) - causative, make happen, to cause, to make, to persuade one to do something [Kaw]

 

de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go de-a-de (dad) - I, de-da-de (ddad) - you, de-oⁿ-da-we (dędawe) - we

cf. a-ka-ta de-de (katta dde) - knock splinter(s) off causing them to fall on someone; we-ki-no-taⁿ de-de (wkihttą dde) - medicine, "make you get better"

Dhegiha: the-the (ee) - cause to go [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

kʰi-de (kʰide), (kʰde) - cause to

ki-de (kde) - cause one's own; reflexive-possessive causative

ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself

ex: o-tse-kʰi-de (otsʔkʰide) - cause to drip

ex: hi-kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there

ex: i-ba-haⁿ-kʰi-de (bahąkʰde) - inform, cause to know

ex: i-ba-hoⁿ-ki-de (bahǫkde) - teach me (to cause to know) [OM]

ex: ta-shti-te-ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire

ex: o-ka-xpa-ki-de (okxpakkde) - be adopted as a Quapaw

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de (wakkaγe kǫ kde) - movie, show, picture show

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) - do you want to go to the show? [OM]

ex: zhe-ki-de (kide) - defecate, bowel movement

ex: zhe-ki-de (gek-kideh) - defecate, bowel movement (lacher l'autre) [GI]

ex: zhe-ki-de (ekde) - bowel movement [OM]

ex: zhe-ki-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (ekde nįkʰ, ̨ke) - dog doo (he is defecating, the dog [MS]

ex: te-zhe ki-de (tegek-kideh) - urinate (lacher l'eau) [GI]

ex: te-zhe ki-de bde (te kde bd) - I want to go pee (I am going to pee) [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke te-zhe ki-de niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke te kde nįkʰ) - dog pees (the dog is urinating) [MS]

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de (̨kkid) - lie down to sleep

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de ta miⁿkʰe (̨kkid tta mįkʰ) - I want to lay down (I am going to lie down to sleep) [MS]

ex: aⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de aⁿ-ki-wi-taⁿ (ą̨kkid ąkiwittą́) - let's go to bed [MS]

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

Dhegiha: ki-the (kithe) - to cause oneself [Omaha/Ponca]; kʰi-the (kʰthe) - to cause someone [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰki-the (ḳi-the) - to cause, to cause one, to cause oneself; to cause another, to cause themselves [FL-Osage]; kshi-the (kshi-the) - to cause to do a thing [FL-Osage]; ki-the (ke) - make or have someone engage voluntarily in some act, let or allow someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-the (ʰke) - cause, make oneself to be or do [CQ-Osage]; kshi-the (ke) - let or allow someone to do something, have someone do something for his/her own benefit [CQ-Osage]; khi-ye (khye) - cause to do, let, allow to do (dative causative auxiliary) [Kaw]

 

wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them, make one

ex. noⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade) - dangerous = naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something + wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them

ex: koi-he-wa-de (kohewde) - fearful, inspiring fear = koi-he (kohe) - fearful, insecure + wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them

Dhegiha: wa-the (wthe) - to make them, to cause them, to make someone [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-the (wa-the) - makes them, causes [FL-Osage]; wa-the (wae) - make one, make people make folks [CQ-Osage]; wa-ye (wye) - to cause, to make [Kaw]

 

ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: ga-xe (gxe) - make [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xe (gaxe) - made, make, creator, consume, construct, brew, build, erect, distill, develop, commit, create, dance [Omaha]; ga-xe (ga-xe) - to cause to, to make, to perform [FL-Osage]; ka-xe (kaγe) - make, fix, prepare, bake, build, force someone to do something, cause something to be a certain way, turn on, do, perform, engage in, make it [CQ-Osage]; ga-ghe (gghe) - causative when following another verb, make, do [Kaw]

 

cave

maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, lit. "hollow earth"

cf. kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out

Dhegiha: xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, baggy [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a(xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-xa (qthqa) - empty, emptied of its contents [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xth-a), xthu-ʰka (xthu-ḳa) - hollow, any kind of hollow in a tree or log [FL-Osage]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

wa-ma-shoⁿ-te (wamǫtte) - cave, den

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shoⁿ-de (moⁿshoⁿde) - deep hole, abyss, pit, deep beyond thinking, den, burrow [Omaha]; moⁿ-shoⁿ-dse (moⁿ-shⁿ-dse) - a hole in the ground, as a gopher, badger, or squirrel makes [FL-Osage]; ma-sho-je (mashje) - hole in the ground, pit, den, cave [Kaw]

 

cave in, shut, close

a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in a-a-ka-spe (akaspe) - I, a-da-ka-spe (dakaspe) - you

cf. a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it! (command) [MS]

ex: a-ka-spe (kasp) - shut it!

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - to cover up an object, the falling of something heavy on a person or a thing [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

o-de-a-a-ze (deaze) - cave in

 

o-shto-te (ottte) - broken in, caved in

cf. di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel

 

Cayuga, Seneca

si ni-ke (si n-k͓e) - Kwapa name for the Senecas and Cayugas in Indian Terr. [JOD]

 

cease

di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - I, ti-shtaⁿ (tttą) - you

ex: bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - that's all (I'm done, I'm finished) [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ (thishtoⁿ) - finish, complete, release, past [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ (thi-shtⁿ) - to stop, to finish [FL-Osage]; thi-shtaⁿ (iitą́) - finish, stop, already did something, be just finished doing something, be finished, be through [CQ-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ (yushtⁿ) - stop, be finished, let go [Kaw]

 

a-di-shtaⁿ (ditą) - stop work (for the day), cease an activity a-bdi-shtaⁿ (bditą) - I, a-ti-shtaⁿ (ttitą) - you

a-di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - stop [MS]

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete

ex: we-a-kdi-xe a-bdi-shtaⁿ (wekdixe bdit̨) - I ceased to live with them

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ (thishtoⁿ) - finish, complete, release, past [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ (thi-shtⁿ) - to stop, to finish [FL-Osage]; thi-shtaⁿ (iitą́) - finish, stop, already did something, be just finished doing something, be finished, be through [CQ-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ (yushtⁿ) - stop, be finished, let go [Kaw]

 

a-da-shtaⁿ (datą) - stop activity with the mouth, talking, drinking, eating, etc. a-bda-shtaⁿ (bdatą) - I, a-ta-shtaⁿ (ttatą) - you

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete

ex: e-shoⁿ o-kʰe a-da-shtaⁿ-taⁿ (ę okʰ datąttą) - and when he stopped talking to him....

Dhegiha: tha-shtoⁿ (tha-shtⁿ) - to finish doing something with the mouth; to stop talking, eating, drinking, singing, crying, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-shtoⁿ (tha-shtⁿ) - to stop whatever one is doing [FL-Osage]; tha-shtaⁿ (aat̨) - finish eating or drinking, end or stop and activity involving the mouth [CQ-Osage]; ya-shtaⁿ (yashtⁿ) - stop eating, drinking, talking, crying, singing, to be done with any of those activities [Kaw]

 

ki-ha (kih) - finish, quit, divorce

ki-ha (kih) - quit [MS]

cf. ki-ha-we (kihwe) - they quit, they quit being married, divorced [MS]; ki-ha oⁿ-pa (kih ̨ppa) - Monday; te ki-ha (tʔ kih) - certain to die, be terminal; ki-ha zhi (kihi) - fail to finish

 

o-hoⁿ-ke (oh̨ke) - end

Dhegiha: u-hoⁿ-ge (uhoⁿge) - end [Omaha]; u-hoⁿ-ge (u-hⁿ-ge) - the end of anything, as a month, year, or stick [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-hoⁿ-ge (oⁿhⁿge) - end of something [Kaw]

 

shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki[e] mįkʰ) - that's all I have to say to you [MS]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit, stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough, that will do, fit, proper, as it should be [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete, perfect, it is done [FL-Osage]

 

ga-she-ʰnaⁿ na-ha (gashʰn̨ nah) - dont do that! [AB]

cf. na-ha (nah) - prohibitive, beware lest

Dhegiha: ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - be ended, finished, that's all, something is finished, closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashhnaⁿ) - thats all, just this much, that is enough [Kaw]

 

cedar

xoⁿ-te (xǫtt) - cedar wood

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-dse (xoⁿ́-dse) - the red cedar [FL-Osage]; xoⁿ-tse (xǫ́ǫce) - cedar [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-je (xⁿje) - cedar, the red [Kaw]

 

cedar chest

xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest cedar-wood-to put away/fill-container [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer; o-ki-pi (okppi) - be full, as a container; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away si/in/, a part/cloth

 

cedar smoke

xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

cf. xoⁿ-te (xǫtt) - cedar; o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-tso-thi-bra (xǫǫcibra) - xoⁿ-tse (xǫ́ǫce) + o-thi-braⁿ (obrą), smoke cedar, cause cedar to smoke, smell cedar, smoke a house with cedar or use in a peyote meeting to smoke a person [CQ-Osage]

 

cedar tree

xoⁿ-te hi (xǫtthi) - cedar tree

xoⁿ-te hi (xǫtthi) - cedar tree [MS]

ex: xoⁿ-te hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. "cedars abound in it"; near Quapaw, OK

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-dse hi (xoⁿ́-dse hi) - the cedar tree [FL-Osage]; xoⁿ-tse hu (xǫǫchu) - cedar tree [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-je hu (xⁿje hu) - cedar tree, the red [Kaw]

 

cellar

wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cache, cellar

cf. wa-ti-he (watthe) - cache dug by mice for food; o-xe (xe) - cache; xe (xe) - bury; mi-xe (mxe) - grave; wa-xe (waxʔ) - grave [MS]

 

cement

hi-pa (hipp) - glue, cement

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-pa (hⁿpa) - arrow cement [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-pa (hiⁿ-p) - glue, the Indians made glue of turtle shells [FL-Osage]; hi-pa (hip) - glue for arrows, cement for arrows [Kaw]

 

cent

wa-da (wad) - cent, hour, time

cf. wa-da miⁿ-naⁿ-naⁿ (wad m̨nąn̨) - hourly; ma-zhoⁿ wa-da (mą wad) - acre of land; wa-da zhi-ka (wad ka) - acre

Dhegiha: wa-tha-wa (wathawa) - numbers, numerals, counting, census [Omaha]; wa-tha-wa (wa-th-wa) - wa, the act of; tha-wa, to count: counting [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-wa (waawa) - count, say numbers, counting, numbers [CQ-Osage]

 

cent, one cent, penny

de-ha zhi-te (dha tte) - penny, one cent [MS, OM]

cf. zhi-te (tte) - red

 

 

cent, five cents

pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - nickel, five cents [MS, OM]

pi-kai-oⁿ (ppikkaǫ) - 5 cents, from French or Mobilian jargon

pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - picayune, 5 or 15 cents, depending on the time

Dhegiha: pi-kiu (píkiu) - the Picayune or Nickel Band, named after the French coin [Kaw]; pi-kiu (píkiu) - Kanza borrowing of the name of a French coin [Kaw]; Kanza Picayune (or Nickel) Band [Kaw]

 

cent, fifteen cents

            pe-ta-yoⁿ (petyǫ) - picayune, 15 cents

pe-ta-yoⁿ (ppetyǫ) - picayune, approximately 15 cents

cf. pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - picayune, 5 or 15 cents, depending on the time

Dhegiha: pi-kiu (píkiu) - the Picayune or Nickel Band, named after the French coin [Kaw]; pi-kiu (píkiu) - Kanza borrowing of the name of a French coin [Kaw]; Kanza Picayune (or Nickel) Band [Kaw]

 

ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents

ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents [AG]

cf. ska-di (skdi), ska-ti (skti) - coinage, amount, measure, from iskali in Muskogean, French escalin 'shilling'; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one; pe-ta-yoⁿ (petyǫ) - picayune, 15 cents

 

cent, twelve and a half cents, bit

de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali 'money', French escalin 'shilling'

 

cent, ten cents, dime

de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents

de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime [MS, OM]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one

 

cent, twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits

de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp), de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits

de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter [OM]

de-ska-da noⁿ-ba (dskada nǫb) - quarter, twenty-five cents [LQ]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

 

cent, fifty cents, four bits

de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, fifty cents, four bits

de-ska-da to-wa (dskada tow) - half dollar, fifty cents [LQ)]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents; to-wa (twa) - four

 

cent, seventy-five cents

de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

de-ska-de sha-pe  (dskade app) - seventy-five cents [FR, OM]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents; sha-pe (app) - six

 

century

o-ma-ni-ka kde-bdaⁿ-hi (omnikka kdbdąh) - century, a hundred years

cf. o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; kde-bdaⁿ hi (kdbdą h) - hundred, a stock of tens

Dhegiha: u-mai-ka ghte-boⁿ hiⁿ-wiⁿ (umika gtheboⁿ hiⁿwiⁿ) - century [Omaha]

 

 

Back to Top