English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

C

 

comfortably

shti-te (ttte) - comfortably warm

cf. di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ta-shti-te-ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm, to warm an object by holding it in the hands [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

 

command

a-ka-zhi (kai) - command, tell someone to do something a-a-ka-zhi (akai) - I, a-da-ka-zhi (dakai) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-zhi-we (̨kakiwe) - we

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

Dhegiha: a-ga-shi (agashi) - persuade, command [Omaha]; a-ga-zhi (-ga-zhi) - to command, dictate, or order [FL-Osage]; a-ka-zhi (kaai) - force over or through something, order, command, or force someone to do a task, make someone do something [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-zhiⁿ (gazhiⁿ) - order, tell someone to do something [Kaw]

 

command, imperative

a (a) - appears at the end of a command, replacing the final e (e) of the verb

 

a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!, command form of a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut, cave in

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it! [MS]

 

a-kda-da (kda d) - go get your own!, command form of a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch one's own

ex: a-shi-niⁿ a-kda da (inį kda d) - go get your coat! [MS]

 

a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!, command form of a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

 

aⁿ-ki-a (ą́kki) - talk to me!, command form of o-ki-e (okkie) - speak, talk with one

ex: aⁿ-ki-a (ą́kki) - talk to me! [MS]

 

da (d) - go!, command form of de (de) - go

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da, a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te  (dttąnį tti d, iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first!, and I will join you later on

ex: di-e e-ti da (de ett d) - you go! (you go there!) [MS]

ex: ki-te da (kktte d) - go shoot him! [MS]

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: ba-shoⁿ de-da (baǫ́ de-d) - throw it out! [MS]

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

ex: a-ba-taⁿ-de da (battąde da) - push away!, push it! [MS]

 

ka-xa (kaγ) - make it!, do it!, command form of ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: ki-ka-xa (kikaγ) - make it for him!

ex: a-ki-di-be-niⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: wa-ske ka-xa hne (wske kγa hn) - you making bread (make bread!) [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe bi-ze ka-xa (nąp biz kaγ) - make dry hands! (dry your hands!) [MS]

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn! (turn on the lantern, make it burn!) [MS]

 

kda (kd) - go home!, start homeward!, command form of kde (kd) - go home, to start homeward

ex: ti-a-di kda (ttadi kd) - go in the house! [MS]

 

kdi-za (kdiz) - take your own!, command form of kdi-ze (kdze) - take one's own

ex: maⁿ-niⁿ kdi-za (mąn̨ kdiz) - go get it! [MS]

 

            toⁿ-wa (t̨w) - look!, command form of toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something

ex: toⁿ-wa (t̨w) - look!' [AG, OM]

 

complete

di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - I, ti-shtaⁿ (tttą) - you

ex: bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - that's all (I'm done, I'm finished) [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ (thishtoⁿ) - finish, complete, release, past [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ (thi-shtⁿ) - to stop, to finish [FL-Osage]; thi-shtaⁿ (iitą́) - finish, stop, already did something, be just finished doing something, be finished, be through [CQ-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ (yushtⁿ) - stop, be finished, let go [Kaw]

 

a-di-shtaⁿ (ditą) - stop work (for the day), cease an activity a-bdi-shtaⁿ (bditą) - I, a-ti-shtaⁿ (ttitą) - you

a-di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - stop [MS]

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete

ex: we-a-kdi-xe a-bdi-shtaⁿ (wekdixe bdit̨) - I ceased to live with them

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ (thishtoⁿ) - finish, complete, release, past [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ (thi-shtⁿ) - to stop, to finish [FL-Osage]; thi-shtaⁿ (iitą́) - finish, stop, already did something, be just finished doing something, be finished, be through [CQ-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ (yushtⁿ) - stop, be finished, let go [Kaw]

 

a-da-shtaⁿ (datą) - stop activity with the mouth, talking, drinking, eating, etc. a-bda-shtaⁿ (bdatą) - I, a-ta-shtaⁿ (ttatą) - you

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete

ex: e-shoⁿ o-kʰe a-da-shtaⁿ-taⁿ (ę okʰ datąttą) - and when he stopped talking to him....

Dhegiha: tha-shtoⁿ (tha-shtⁿ) - to finish doing something with the mouth; to stop talking, eating, drinking, singing, crying, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-shtoⁿ (tha-shtⁿ) - to stop whatever one is doing [FL-Osage]; tha-shtaⁿ (aat̨) - finish eating or drinking, end or stop and activity involving the mouth [CQ-Osage]; ya-shtaⁿ (yashtⁿ) - stop eating, drinking, talking, crying, singing, to be done with any of those activities [Kaw]

 

concern

a-ta (tta) - about, concerning

 

confess

o-kda (okd) - confess, tell of one's own o-a-kda (okda) - I, o-da-kda (odkda) - you, oⁿ-ko-kda-we (ǫkkdaw) - we

cf. kda-shi-ke (kdike) - speak ill of one's own; o-da (od) - tell something; o-ki-da (okda) - tell something to another

Dhegiha: u-gtha (ugtha) - confess [Omaha]

 

confinement

ki-di-ze (kkdize) - escape from confinement

 

confused, drunk

kdaⁿ-ni-ke (kdąnke) - drunk, confused aⁿ-kdaⁿ-ni-ke (ąkdąnik) - I

ex: aⁿ-kdaⁿ-ni-ke (ąkdąnik) - I'm drunk [MS]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ka-wi-a-we ki-zoⁿ (kdąnkawi we kkiz̨) - they said that, they all drunk, some of them [MS]

ex: ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ kdaⁿ-ni-ke wa-x′o di-shi-shi-ke wi-a-we (nikkąs̨ kdąnke waxʔ diike wiwe) - sometime they treat a woman mean, thats the way they, they do, they say, they, all soldiers drunk then [MS]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ-thiⁿ (gthⁿthiⁿ) - foolish, silly [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ-thiⁿ (gthoⁿ́-thiⁿ) - to be drunk [FL-Osage]; loⁿ-thiⁿ (l̨į) - be drunk, inebriated, intoxicated [CQ-Osage]; loⁿ-yiⁿ (lⁿyiⁿ) - foolish, bewildered, distracted [Kaw]

 

congress

ki-sto kniⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka (kist kn̨ nkkaka) - U.S. Congress

cf. ki-sto (kist) - council of a gens (clans), assemble, gather; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; ki-sto kniⁿ (kist knį) - to sit in council; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kiist) - assemble as for a council, gather for a council, meet and talk things over [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]

 

conscious

ni (ni) - alive, conscious

cf. ni-de (nde) - save a life, cause to live; ni tʰaⁿ, ni toⁿ (ni-ton) - life, existence (vie) [GI]; ni o-kniⁿ (ni-unkani) - live, exist (vivre) [GI]

Dhegiha: ni (ni) - to exist, to live [FL-Osage]; ni (n) - live, be alive, be living, be well or all right, be in good health [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - live, to be alive [Kaw]

 

consecrate

di-xo-we (dixwe) - consecrate, make holy bdi-xo-we (bdxowe) - I, ti-xo-we (ttxowe) - you

cf. xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy; ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest; ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe; wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle, "holy bird"; zhoⁿ xo-we (ǫ xwe) - sassafras, lit. "holy wood"

            Dhegiha: thi-xu-be (thiqbe) - to consecrate, to make holy [Omaha/Ponca]

 

consider

miⁿ di-kdaⁿ (mį dkdą) - consider marriage to a woman miⁿ bdi-kdaⁿ (mį bdikd̨) - I, miⁿ ti-kdaⁿ (mį ttikd̨) - you

cf. miⁿ (mį) - female; di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide

 

constellation

mi zhi-ka (mika o) - girls dancing, a constellation with a circle of stars with one in the middle

cf. mi zhi-ka (mika) - girl, young, unmarried female; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; o-zha (a) - dance

 

consult

i-ho-de (hode) - ask, consult about something i-da-ho-de (idhode) - I, i-da-ho-de (dahode) - you

Dhegiha: wa-hu-the (wahthe) - syn., i-hu-the (huĕ) to consult someone before acting, treat with respect, to respect or honor someone [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-hu-the (wahu the) - permission [Omaha]; i-hu-the (huthe) - excuse [Omaha]; i-hu-tha-bi (-hu-tha-bi) - From Whom Permission is Obtained, personal name, refers to the authority vested to give orders to go on a buffalo hunt [FL-Osage]; i-hoⁿ (ihǫ), i-ho-e (iihe) - ask permission from someone for something, ask or request someone to do something [CQ-Osage]

 

container

o-zhi  (i) - bowl, dish

o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill o-a-zhi (oi) - I, o-da-zhi (odi) - you, oⁿ-ko-zhi-we (ǫkiwe) - we

cf. ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle [MS]; ma-ze-ni o-zhi (mazni o) - milk bottle [MS]; ma-ze o-zhi (mze i) - tin plate; maⁿ o-zhi (m̨ o) - quiver for arrows; zi-hi o-zhi (zhi i) - jug; zhoⁿ o-zhi (̨ o) - dipper or cup of wood; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill something for someone

Dhegiha: u-zhi (zhi) - pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - cabinet, bin, baggage [Omaha]; u-zhi (uzhi) - container, contain, packet, suitcase, luggage, gardener, load [Omaha]; u-zhi zhi (uzhi zhi) - storage locker, shed, cache, luggage, plant [Omaha]; u-zhi (-zhi) - to plant [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder (for pourable dry of liquid substances), put in, plant or sow (e.g., seed in the ground), put in plants, pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - pocket, bottle, container, vessel, put stuff in, plant stuff [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (ozh) - put or pour something into something, put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]

 

o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka o-zhi-ha (wąka oha) - bird's nest; te-zhe-ni o-zhi-ha (teni iha) - bladder; shi-o-zhi-ha (oha) - uterus; ta-shi-o-zhi-ha (ttaoha) - doe's womb

Dhegiha: u-zhi-ha (zhiha) - bag, sack [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi-ha (zhi ha) - bag, gunny sack, burlap bag [Omaha]; u-zhu-ha (-zhu-ha) - a sack or bag [FL-Osage]; o-zhu-ha (ouhaa) - bag, sack, pouch made of hide or leather (lit., skin into which to put stuff) [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-nu o-zhu-ha (naⁿn ozhuha) - tobacco pouch [Kaw]

zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]

Dhegiha: u-zhi thi-znu (uzhthinu) - chest of drawers [Omaha]

 

o-ki-pi (okppi), (kkipp) - be full, as a container oⁿ-ki-pi (̨kippi) - I, di-ki-pi (dkippi) - you

cf. naⁿ-pe o-ki-pi (nąp kkipp) - handful; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away si/in/, a part/cloth; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard

Dhegiha: u-ki-pi (kipi) - full, brim full [Omaha]; u-gi-pi (u-g-pi) - full, will contain no more, replete [FL-Osage]; o-kiu-ʰpiu (okʰp), o-ku-ʰpi (kuʰpi) - be full of, have a fullness of, be filled with, be full, be flooded, full amount, housefull [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-pi (ogpi) - be full, filled [Kaw]

 

contents

di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out bdi-kdo-xa (bdkdoxʔa) - I, ti-kdo-xa (ttkdoxʔa) - you

cf. xdo-xa (xdoxʔa), kdo-xa (kdoxʔa) - empty; maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa) - cave, lit. "hollow earth"; maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - hollow; o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal

Dhegiha: xthu-xa (qthqa) - empty, emptied of its contents [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xth-a) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

continuative

niⁿ-kʰe de (nįkʰe d) - impermissive, done without permission, also continuative

 

niⁿ-kʰe-naⁿ (nįkʰną) - continuative habitual

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative sitting; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect, usually, always, generally [Kaw]

 

niⁿ-naⁿ (nįn̨) - continuative habitual a-ni-he-naⁿ (anihną) - I, ni-she-naⁿ (niną) - you

cf. niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving; niⁿ (nį) - the sg/mv/an; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect, usually, always, generally [Kaw]

 

niⁿ-tʰe (nįtʰ) - continuative perfective

 

wi-ke (wik) - continuative plural

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ke ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful (lit. plural are sitting)

 

continuative auxiliary moving

a-ni-he (anih) - I, 1sg continuative moving

cf. a-ni-he naⁿ (anihną) - I, continuative habitual; shoⁿ a-ni-he (̨anih) - I, finally, mv/an/sb

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kįttą eki bd tt[a]nih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: bde ta-ni-he (bd tt[a]nih) - I will be going

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

ex: wi-e a-ni-he (we nih), (wiĭ a-ne-hĕ) - I was [LH]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kįttą eki bd tt[a]nih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: e-ti o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (et omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age there

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ-he (a-thⁿ-he) - in my life movements, as I go forth [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-thiⁿ-he (ąįh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 1st sg. subject, moving here means changing location [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-he (ayih) - continuative, I, while moving [Kaw]

 

ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - you, 2sg continuative moving

cf. ni-she-naⁿ (niną) - you, continuative habitual; shoⁿ-ni-she (̨ni) - you, finally, mv/an/sb

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: i-e i-she ni-she (e i ni) - you said it [AG]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (haǫ ni) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (ǰe hǫ n) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e shi-zhi-ka a-tiⁿ ni-she (jhe ikka att̨ ni) - do you have any children? [AG]

ex: jhi-e shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ a-tiⁿ ni-she (ǰe ̨keknį att̨ ni) - have you got a horse? [AG]

ex: ha-ki te ni-she (hak͓ te nicĕ) - where are you going? [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thiⁿ-she) - 2sg aux, in motion [JOD-Omaha]; tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thⁿ-she) - you who are going [FL-Osage]; thaiⁿ-she (aį), thaⁿ-she (ąą) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 2nd sg. subject (action or state may continue from past to present, corresponding to English perfect have/had been [CQ-Osage]; ya-yi-she (yayish) - continuative, you (sg), while moving (or not visible) [Kaw]

 

niⁿ (nį) - he/she/it, 3sg continuative moving

cf. niⁿ (nį) - the sg/mv/an; niⁿ-kʰe-naⁿ (nįkʰną) - continuative habitual; niⁿ-naⁿ (nįn̨) - continuative habitual; niⁿ-tʰe (nįtʰ) - continuative perfective

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (they have a lot of money) [MS]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy ain't got no milk [MS]

ex: xa-ke niⁿ (γak nį) - crying (he/she is crying) [MS]

ex: mi-ka niⁿ (mikk nį) - the (moving) raccoon

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį) - we, 1pl continuative moving

ex: oⁿ-ko-we oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (uⁿ-go-we e-n-ga-ni) - we were [LH]

 

a-pa-she (ape) - you all, 2pl continuative moving

Dhegiha: pa-she (paa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting/moving/lying down subject, you are characterized by the preceding expression, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; pa-she (pash), ba-she (baash) - continuative you (plural), while moving [Kaw]

 

a-pa (apa) - they, 3pl continuative aspect marker, plural of niⁿ (nį)

cf. a-pa (ap) - they, 3pl continuative moving; a-pa (apa) - the, definite article for pl/mv/an objects; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those mv/vi/an; de-pa (dpa) - these mv/an; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those pl/mv/iv/an; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those pl/mv/an, yon; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those pl/mv/an objects on this side

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-pa (nkkaikapa) - the (moving) people

Dhegiha: a-ma (am) - the plural moving [JOD - Omaha]; a-pa (apa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person sg. or pl. moving or absent subject [CQ-Osage]; a-ba (ab) - continuative he/she/it (animate), while moving or not within sight [Kaw]

 

continuative auxiliary sitting

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1sg continuative sitting

ex: bda-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ mįkʰ) - I am drinking

ex: to-zhoⁿ-ke bda-tʰe miⁿ-kʰe (to̜ke bdtʰe mįkʰ) - I'm eating a banana [MS]

ex: ma-kaⁿ koi to-te da-kdi-zha miⁿ-kʰe (makką́ ki ttte dakdi mįkʰ) - gargle my throat, rinsing, washing [MS]

ex: i-ka-pʰe o-a-te miⁿ-kʰe (kapʰe otte mįkʰ) - looking for old comb (I'm looking for a comb) [MS]

ex: ta-bde bde koⁿ-bda miⁿ-kʰe (tbde bd kkǫbd mįkʰ) - I want to go hunting [MS]

ex: ha-t'e miⁿ-kʰe (htʔe mįkʰ) - I'm sick [MS]

ex: a-ho-xpe miⁿ-kʰe (ahxpe mįkʰ) - I cough, winter time (I'm coughing) [MS]

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - I've got a headache [AG]

ex: wi-e e-miⁿ-kʰe-ti (we mįkʰtti) - I, as for me

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: i-shta a-toⁿ-we miⁿ-kʰe (it t̨we mįkʰ) - I'm looking at it [MS]

ex: wi-e bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we bd tta mįkʰ) - I'm going [MS]

ex: toⁿ ti bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tti bd tta mįkʰ) - I go to town (I'm going to town) [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (kki hi bd tta mįkʰ) - I go a long ways (I will be going very far away) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-niⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (mąn̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - I'm walking (I'm going to go walking, I will be walking) [MS]

ex: wi-e maⁿ-niⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (we mąn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I am going to go walking [AG]; would expect conjugated form of verb, maⁿ-bdiⁿ (am̨bdį) or a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ (am̨bdį) - I walk

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe (owikki tta mįkʰ) - I'm going to talk to you [MS]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, uh, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, uh, semi tto ąnke) - I'm going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki mįkʰ) - that's all I have to say to you [MS]

ex: a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta mįkʰ) - I'm going home [MS]

ex: a-kde ta ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta tta mįkʰ) - I'm going home [OM)]

ex: wi-e a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we akd tta mįkʰ) - I want to go home (I will be going home) [AG)]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG)]

ex: wi-e a-wa-naⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we awaną́bde ta mįkʰ) - I'm going to eat [AG)]

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de ta miⁿ-kʰe (̨kkid  tta mįkʰ) - I want to lay down (I am going to lie down to sleep) [MS]

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG)]

ex: hi-da ta miⁿ-kʰe (hid ta mįkʰ) - I'm going swimming [AG, OM)]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I'll come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: bda-taⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ tta mįkʰ) - I will be drinking

ex: bda-taⁿ-zhi ta miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ i tta mįkʰ) - I won't go on drinking

ex: pa-hi-o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: a-pa-zhi bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ppai bd tta mįkʰ) - I am going hunting (for large game)

ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

ex: a-wi-ki-bda ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkibda tt mįkʰ) - I will attack you in return

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (wittąwe ątta mįkʰe) - I will lie watching you

Dhegiha: miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkʰe) - singular first person [JOD-Omaha]; miⁿ-kshe (miⁿ-kshe) - I, who sit here [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-kshe (mįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 1st sg. sitting or lying down subject [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkh) - continuative I, while sitting [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰe (nikʰ), niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - you, 2sg continuative sitting

ex: hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (hǫ nįkʰ) - how are you? [OM]

ex: hoⁿ ni-kʰe (ho-ni-k) - what ails you [LH]

ex: ta-taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ttatt̨ nįkʰ) - you are drinking

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going?, why are you going? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town? [MS]

ex: ha-ki te ta ni-kʰe (h-ge-i ti-to-ni-k), (hgegi titonik) - whither are you going? [LH]

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te ni-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

ex: jhi-e ma-kaⁿ sha shkoⁿ-ta ni-kʰe (jhe makką́a kǫtt nikʰ) - do you want coffee? [AG]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-kʰe (niⁿkʰe) - second person singular [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ-kshe (nįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd sg. sitting object [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-khe (hniⁿkh) - continuative you, while sitting [Kaw]

 

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe), (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3sg continuative sitting

ex: ha-t'e niⁿ-kʰe (htʔe nįkʰ) - he's/she's sick [MS]

ex: pa-hi ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ppah kąǫ nįkʰ) - he's (dog) shaking his head, hes (dog) shaking the fleas [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke naⁿ-ta ni-ke niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke nątt nik nįkʰ) - the dog didn't have no ear [MS]

ex: ki-naⁿ-x'i-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (kinąxʔide nįkʰ ̨ke) - scratching himself, the dog [MS]

ex: zhe-ki-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (ekde nįkʰ, ̨ke) - dog doo (he is defecating, the dog [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke te-zhe ki-de niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke te kde nįkʰ) - Dog pees (the dog is urinating) [MS]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakką́tta mą nįkʰ) - Father God is up in heaven [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wakǫ́ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki niⁿ-kʰe (mą́i okk nįkʰ) - pray (he/she is praying) [MS]

ex: ni-zhi koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe (ni kǫd nįkʰ) - they want rain [MS]

ex: ni-ka jhi-ta ha-ki niⁿ-kʰe (nkka ǰtta hki nįkʰ) - where is your man? (your husband) [AG]

ex: jhi-taⁿ-ke wi-ta kjhi ta niⁿ-kʰe (ǰttą́ke wtta kǰi tta nįkʰ) - my sister is coming pretty soon', should be wi-taⁿ-ke (wittą́ke) - my sister, not jhi-taⁿ-ke (ǰttą́ke) - your sister [AG]

            Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿ-kʰe) - third person singular [JOD-Omaha]

 

oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - I and one other, 1du continuative sitting

Dhegiha: aⁿ-thiⁿ-kshe (ąįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for sitting or lying down 1st dual subject, we two [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-niⁿ-khe (aⁿniⁿkh) - continuative, we while sitting [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - you all, 2pl continuative sitting

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand [AG]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-kxa-she (nąkxe) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting object, often heard in the greeting to the participants and the audience at the war dance gathering as most are seated [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ-kha-she (hnaⁿkhshe) - you plural, while sitting, while standing, positional continuative [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3pl continuative sitting

 

continuative auxiliary standing

a-tʰaⁿ-he (atʰąh) - I, 1sg continuative auxiliary standing

ex: wi-e a-tʰaⁿ-he (wiĭ atohe (ataⁿhe) - I am [LH]

Dhegiha: a-toⁿ-he (a-toⁿ-he) - I stand [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-txaⁿ-he (ątxąh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for standing 1st sg. subject [CQ-Osage]; a-kha-he (akhhe) - continuative I, while standing [Kaw]

 

da-tʰaⁿ-she (dtʰą) - you, 2sg continuative auxiliary standing

ex: di-e da-tʰaⁿ-she (diĭ -to-toⁿ-ci) - thou art [LH]

Dhegiha: tha-toⁿ-she (thtoⁿsh) - second person singular [JOD-Osage]; tha-toⁿ-she (tha-toⁿ-she) - standing [FL-Osage]; tha-txaⁿ-she (atx̨e) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past) for standing 2nd sg. or 2nd pl. subject, may also be used for imminent future action or state [CQ-Osage]; ya-kha-she (yakhshe) - continuative you (sg), while standing [Kaw]

 

tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - he/she, 3sg continuative auxiliary, sg/st/an

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the st/an

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

ex: shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ a-ni a-shi tʰaⁿ, i-bniⁿ-aⁿ (̨keaknį ni i tʰ̨, bnį̨) - I think the horse is standing on the hill

ex: ni tʰaⁿ, ni toⁿ (ni-ton) - life, existence (vie) [GI]

 

oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (̨katʰą), aⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (̨katʰą) - I and one other, 1du continuative auxiliary standing

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi tta ǫkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ą́kakd tta ̨katʰą) - we are going home (me and you are going home) [MS]

ex: mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi oⁿ-kniⁿ oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ naⁿ (mixpettaddedi ǫkn̨ ̨katʰ̨ ną) - west on that side, we dwelt

ex: e oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (e-ong-go-toⁿ) - we did [LH]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ga-tʰoⁿ (oⁿgatʰoⁿ) - we [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ga-ʰtoⁿ (ⁿ-ga-ṭoⁿ) - we who are here [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ka-txaⁿ (ąkatx̨) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for standing (sometimes lying down) 1st pl. subject [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-kha (aⁿgakh), aⁿ-ga-khaⁿ (aⁿgkhaⁿ) - continuative we, while standing [Kaw]

 

oⁿ-ka-ke (ǫkke) - we, 1pl continuative auxiliary standing

 

da-ke-she (dake) - you all, 2pl continuative auxiliary standing

 

continuative auxiliary lying

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1sg continuative auxiliary lying

 

zhaⁿ-kʰe (ąkʰ) - you, 2sg continuative auxiliary lying

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zho ⁿ(ǫ) - lie, recline; zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-kshe (zhⁿ-kshe) - term used in speaking of a log lying on the ground [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kshe (̨ke) - continuative postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd sg. lying down subject [CQ-Osage]

 

kʰe (kʰ) - he/she, 3sg continuative auxiliary lying

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

 

iⁿ-ke (įk) - we 1pl continuative auxiliary lying, you all, 2pl continuative auxiliary lying

cf. iⁿ-ke (įk) - lying objects, pl/ly/an

ex: aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (ąkan̨ įk) - we have [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we got some good leaders here [MS]

ex: o-zha wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (a waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we have good leaders [MS]

ex: ke-ha-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (keh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: a-zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke (̨ įk) - go to sleep [MS]

 

convalesce

ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - convalesce, improve aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (̨hottą) - I, di-ho-taⁿ (dhottą) - you

cf. we-ki-ho-taⁿ de-de (wkihttą dde) - medicine, make you get better; di-ho-taⁿ (dihttą) - do well, do; to excel; ho-taⁿ (httą) - good

 

cook

o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil o-a-hoⁿ (oahǫ) - I, o-da-hoⁿ (odahǫ) - you, oⁿ-ko-hoⁿ-we (ǫkohǫwe) - we

o-hoⁿ (o-hon) - boil (bouillir) [GI]

ex: ta-niu-hoⁿ (ttanǘhǫ), ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ) - soup, lit., meat + water + cook, boil

ex: ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde), ta-ni-o-hoⁿ-de (ttanihǫde) - soup, lit., meat + water + cook, boil + cause to

Dhegiha: u-hoⁿ (uhoⁿ) - broil, cook, a cook [Omaha]; u-hoⁿ (-hoⁿ) - the act of cooking, to cook by boiling or stewing [FL-Osage]; o-hoⁿ (ooh̜) - cook, prepare food, person who cooks [CQ-Osage]; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook things, cook stuff [CQ-Osage]; o-hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - cook something [Kaw]

 

o-ki-hoⁿ (kihǫ) - boil food for someone

o-ki-hoⁿ (kihǫ) - cook [OM] 

o-ki-o-hoⁿ (kiohǫ) - cook [AG]

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-hoⁿ (u-ḳ-hoⁿ) - to cook something for one's self [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-hoⁿ (oʰkihǫǫ) - cook for oneself, take care of a meal when asked to do so, put on a feast, boss oversee an event [CQ-Osage]

 

ti-te (ttte) - cooked, ripe

cf. wa-ti-te (wattte) - mush, boiled until done

Dhegiha: ni-de (nde) - cooked [Omaha]; niⁿ-de (niⁿde) - ripe [Omaha]; dsu-dse (ds-dse) - cooked, well done [FL-Osage]; dsiu-dse (dsiu-dse) - ripe, mature, as applied to fruit and grain [FL-Osage]; tsu-tse (cuce) - done (e.g., in cooking), cooked, cook well done, ripe, mellow, mature (e.g., fruit and grain) [CQ-Osage]; niⁿ-je (nⁿje) - cooked [Kaw]; ju-je (jje) - cooked, done, as when fully cooked, burned, blistered [Kaw]

 

ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something ti-te-a-de (ttteade) - I, ti-te-da-de (tttedade) - you

cf. ti-te (ttte) - cooked, ripe; wa-ti-te (wattte) - mush, "boiled until done"

 

we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, lit., oil, lard + to be cooked by heat, fried

ex: ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease, lit., meat + oil, lard + to be cooked by heat, fried [MS]

ex: wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread, lit., bread + oil, lard + to be cooked by heat, fried [MS, MR, FR]

 

ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature

Dhegiha: da-iⁿ-a-zhe (d-iⁿ-a-zhe) - the failure to cook food properly because the fire is not hot enough [FL-Osage]; da-iⁿ-ba-zhe (diⁿbazhe) - fail due to heat, as in cooking if the fire is not hot enough [Kaw]

 

copper

de-xe zhi-te (deγ tte) - copper, lit. kettle-red

cf. de-xe (dγe) - pot, kettle; zhi-te (tte), (itt) - red; de-xe zi (deγ zi) - brass, lit. kettle-yellow

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze zhu-dse (mⁿ-e zhu-dse) - copper, red metal [FL-Osage]

 

de-ha zhi-te (dha tte) - penny, one cent

de-ha zhi-te (dha tte) - penny, one cent [MS, OM]

 

copy

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ ai) - I, koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-da-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ dai) - you

cf. koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-koⁿ (kǫ), (ek̨), e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; a-zhi (i) - put small scattered, inanimate objects onto something; a-shi (i) - over, on top of; koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką), koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

 

cord

wa-so-so (wasso) - cord

cf. so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise

ex: wa-so-so ta-ba-xe e (wasso ttbaγe e) - did you bite the cord in two?

Dhegiha: su (su) - to cut in strips [Omaha/Ponca]; su (u) - to cut or make a slit in a hide [FL-Osage]; so (so) - cut a strip, as making in making a thong [Kaw]

 

da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two bda-ba-xe (bdbaγe) - I, ta-ba-xe (ttbaγe) - you

ex: wa-so-so ta-ba-xe e (wasso ttbaγe e) - did you bite the cord in two?

 

ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two

 

naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet a-naⁿ-ba-xe (an̨baγe) - I, da-naⁿ-ba-xe (dan̨baγe) - you

 

pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord pa-a-ba-xe (pabγe) - I, pa-da-ba-xe (pdabγe) - you

 

po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two po-a-ba-xe (poabaγe) - I, po-da-ba-xe (pdabγe) - you

 

corn

wa-tʰaⁿ-zi (watʰ̨zi) - corn, maize, squaw corn

wa-tʰaⁿ-ze (watʰą́ze), wa-tʰo-zi (watʰzi) - corn [MS, AB, FR, OM]

wa-tʰoⁿ-ze (ŭah-tonseh) - corn (mas) [GI]

wa-tʰaⁿ-zi (wa˙t'̨zi) - corn, maize [FV]

wa-tʰoⁿ-ze (wa˙t'̨ze) - corn, maize [VG]

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ-zi (watoⁿi) - corn [Omaha]; wa-toⁿ-zi (wa-tⁿ-i) - corn [FL-Osage]; wa-txa-zu (watxzu) - dried corn, preparation of dried corn soup [CQ-Osage]; wa-kho-zu (wakhzu) - corn of any kind [Kaw]

 

corn blade

o-we a-pe (we pe) - corn blade(s)

cf. a-pe (ap) - leaf; o-we sa-ki (owsak) - dried corn [MS]; o-we wa-hi (we wah) - corn stalk; o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom; o-we (we) - field, corn field

Dhegiha: a-be ('be) - leaf, leaves of a plant, leaf, leaves [Omaha/Ponca]; a-be (-be) - foliage, leaves, leaf [FL-Osage]; a-pe (pe) - leaf [CQ-Osage]

 

corn blossom

o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom

cf. o-we a-pe (we pe) - corn blade(s); o-we wa-hi (we wah) - corn stalk; o-we sa-ki (owsak) - dried corn [MS]; o-we (we) - field, corn field

Dhegiha: xtha (xtha) - blossom [Omaha]; xtha (xtha) - blossoms of any kind [FL-Osage]; xla (xla) - flower, bud on a tree [Kaw]

 

corn dumplings

wa-ske di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (wske dįǫ) - corn dumplings

cf. wa-ske (wske) - bread; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (dįǫ) - mold spherical with hands; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical

Dhegiha: wa-mu-ske (wamke) - bread, barley [Omaha]; wa-mu-ske (wamske) - wheat, bread, wheat bread [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-bo-ske (wa-b-ke) - wheat, flour [FL-Osage]; wa-bo-ski (wabski) - bread, wheat flour [Kaw]

 

corn field

o-we (we) - field, corn field

o-we (we) - field [MS]

cf. o-we a-pe (we pe) - corn blade(s); o-we sa-ki (owsak) - dried corn [MS]; o-we wa-hi (we wah) - corn stalk; o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom

Dhegiha: u-we (uwe) - field, cornfield [Omaha]; u-we (-we) - field [FL-Osage]; o-we (we) - greens, vegetables, produce, groceries, garden, cultivated area, field planted for harvest [CQ-Osage]; o-we (ow) - food carried in bags for travel, lunch, snack, corn and squashes in bags, such as the warriors carried when they started on the war path [Kaw]

 

corn grains, corn kernels

wa-tʰaⁿ-zi si (wtʰąz si) - grains of corn

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ-ze (watʰą́ze), wa-tʰo-zi (watʰzi) - corn; si (si) - seed, pit, grain, kernel

Dhegiha: si (si) - seed [Omaha/Ponca]; si-a-zhi (i--zhi) - kernel of corn [FL-Osage]; su (su) - seed, pit, kernel [CQ-Osage]; o-su (os) - grain, a grain of something [Kaw]

 

corn silk

wa-hi-da-pe-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (wahdappęǫ) - corn silk

Dhegiha: wa-tha-pshe-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (wa-th-pshe-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ) - corn silk or tassel [FL-Osage]; wa-yu-pu-zhaⁿ-zhe (waypuzhⁿzhe) - cornsilk [Kaw]

 

corn stalk

o-we wa-hi (we wah) - corn stalk

cf. o-we a-pe (we pe) - corn blade(s); o-we sa-ki (owsak) - dried corn [MS]; o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom; o-we (we) - field, corn field

 

wa-hi (wah) - cornstalk

cf. hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk of a plant, tree, or vine, leg of a person or animal, tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - stalks of plants, trunk of a tree or vine, legs, tooth or teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi), hu (h) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - leg, limb, trunk of a tree [Kaw]

 

wa-tʰaⁿ-zi hi (watʰ̨zi h) - cornstalk

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ-ze (watʰą́ze), wa-tʰo-zi (watʰzi) - corn [MS, AB, FR, OM]; hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ-zi (watoⁿi) - corn [Omaha]; wa-toⁿ-zi (wa-tⁿ-i) - corn [FL-Osage]; wa-txa-zu (watxzu) - dried corn, preparation of dried corn soup [CQ-Osage]; wa-kho-zu (wakhzu) - corn of any kind [Kaw]

 

pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk pa-a-ta-xe (pattaxe) - I, pa-da-ta-xe (pdattaxe) - you

cf. ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

corn, dried corn

o-we sa-ki (owsak) - dried corn [MS]

cf. o-we wa-hi (we wah) - corn stalk; o-we a-pe (we pe) - corn blade(s); o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom; o-we (we) - field, corn field

Dhegiha: sa-gi (sag) - hard, as sweet corn before it is boiled [Omaha/Ponca]; u-hoⁿ sa-gi (-hoⁿ-a-gi) - sweet corn, this corn is prepared in large quantities for winter use [FL-Osage]; u-hoⁿ sa-ki (ohǫ saak) - dried corn, dehydrated corn made by boiling ears of corn lightly then drying the kernels in the sun for approximately three days [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-he sa-ge (ⁿhe sge) - dried corn [Kaw]

 

corn, ear of corn

wa-zhiⁿ-aⁿ-he (wąąh) - ear of corn

Dhegiha: wa-ha-ba (whaba) - corn [Omaha]; wa-ha-ba (wahba) - corn, ear of corn, corn on the cob [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-ba (h-ba) - corn on the cob [FL-Osage]; ha-pa (hpa) - corn, fresh corn [CQ-Osage]; ha-ba (hba) - ear of corn [Kaw]

 

corn, green corn

wa-shtaⁿ-ka (wat̨ka) - green corn

cf. shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk) - soft; di-shtoⁿ-ka (dit̨ka) - hold a soft object; a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, "soft part"; naⁿ-ta o-shtaⁿ-ka (nątt otąk) - ear lobe

Dhegiha: shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - soft, puffy, bunched [Omaha/Ponca]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿga) - soft [Omaha]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿ-ga) - soft [FL-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ka (t̨ka) - soft [CQ-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - be soft [Kaw]

 

corn, grind corn

wa-pʰe (wapʰ) - pound, grind corn in a mortar a-wa-pʰe (awpʰe) - I, wa-da-pʰe (wadpʰe) - you

cf. pʰe (pʰe) - pound something in a mortar

Dhegiha: pshe (pshe) - to pound corn into fine meal [FL-Osage]; pʰe (ph) - pound in a mortar, as corn or wheat [Kaw]

 

corn, harvest or pick corn

di-se (dis) - pick, harvest corn bdi-se (bdse) - I, ti-se (ttse) - you

cf. pa-se (pse) - cut off with a knife

Dhegiha: lu-se (lus) - pull off, pick corn off the stalk [Kaw]

 

corn, shell corn

di-shpi (dip) - shell corn bdi-shpi (bdpi) - I, ti-shpi (ttpi) - you

cf. di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering

Dhegiha: a-ba-shpi (bashpi) - shell corn, to shell corn on [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-ha-ba i-noⁿ-shpi (wahba inoⁿshpi) - corn sheller [Omaha]; thi-shpi (thi-shp) - to shell corn [FL-Osage]; thu-shpu (up) - shell, as corn, shelled, as corn [CQ-Osage]; yu-shpu (yushp) - shell dried corn with the hand [Kaw]

 

cornbread

wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread

cf. wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal, from di-taⁿ-ha (dittąha) to crank; wa-ske (wske) - bread; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

 

cornmeal

wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal, from di-taⁿ-ha (dittąha) to crank

cf. wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

cornea

i-shto-ska (itska) - cornea, i-shta (ita) + o-ska (oska)

cf. i-shta (it) - eye(s); ska (ska) - white

Dhegiha: i-shtu-ska (ishtskă) - cornea, white of the eye [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta o-ska (iⁿ-shta--ka) - the white of the eyes [FL-Osage]; i-shto-ska (ishtska) - cornea of the eye, white of the eye [Kaw]

 

corpse

ni-ka-shi-ka te (nkkaka tʔ) - corpse of a person

cf. ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man; te (tʔe) - die

Dhegiha: te (te) - to die, to be dead [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse (ṭse) - to die, decease, demise, defunct, to swoon, to faint [FL-Osage]; tse (cʔ) - die, death, the dead, dead person [CQ-Osage]; tse (tse) - dead, to die, be dead [Kaw]

 

wa-te (watʔ) - corpse, dead body

cf. te (tʔe) - die; te-de (tʔede) - kill; i-te-de (itʔde) - kill with something; te ki-ha (tʔ kih) - certain to die, be terminal; te-xti (tʔxti) - dead, stone cold; ki-te (kitʔ) - die, said of one's kin

Dhegiha: wa-te (w-te) - death, carcass, corpse, carrion [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse (wa-ṭse) - dead [FL-Osage]

 

correct

o-do-taⁿ (dott̨) - right, to be right

cf. di-do-taⁿ (didott̨) - straighten; i-do-taⁿ (dottą) - short cut, the shortest way

Dhegiha: thu-tʰoⁿ (thtʰoⁿ) - straight, correct [Omaha/Ponca]; o-tho-ʰtoⁿ (-tho-ṭoⁿ)- rectitude, moral integrity, good behavior [FL-Osage]; u-thu-ʰtoⁿ (u-thu-ṭoⁿ) - straight as character, honest, good character, straight, upright, [FL-Osage]; o-tho-ʰtaⁿ (oʰtą) - behave, straight, virtuous, good behavior, acting with rectitude [CQ-Osage]; o-tho-ʰta (oʰta) - straight up [CQ-Osage]; o-yo-taⁿ (yotaⁿ) - right, correctly, properly [Kaw]

 

o-ta-za (ttaza) - right, straight, honest oⁿ-ta-za (̨ttaza), (ąttaza) - I, o-di-ta-za (dittaza) - you

cf. o-ta-za-zhi (ttazi) - be wrong

ex: o-ta-za (ttaza) - pretty [OM]

ex: o-la-zo-zhi (lazi) - ugly [OM]

Dhegiha: u-ʰta-za (u-ṭ-a) - handsome, showy, stateliness, pretty, comely, pleasing to the sight, satisfying to the sense of beauty [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za (oʰtza) - be good looking, handsome, beautiful, very pretty [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ta-za ka-xe (ttaza kγe) - right, correct, act honestly

cf. o-ta-za (ttaza) - right, straight, honest; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; o-ta-za-zhi (ttazi) - be wrong

Dhegiha: u-ʰta-za (u-ṭ-a) - handsome, showy, stateliness, pretty, comely, pleasing to the sight, satisfying to the sense of beauty [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za (oʰtza) - be good looking, handsome, beautiful, very pretty [CQ-Osage]

 

da-shnaⁿ-zhi (dan̨i) - talk correctly bda-shnaⁿ-zhi (bdnąi) - I, ta-shnaⁿ-zhi (ttnąi) - you

cf. da-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨da) - slip in eating, talking, etc.; zhi (-i) - negation, not; da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (dan̨nąi) - eat without dribbling; ba-shnoⁿ-da (ban̨da) - push at and fail or miss; bi-shnoⁿ-da (bin̨da) - fail, miss applying pressure; di-shnoⁿ-da (din̨da) - let slip, fumble something; ka-shnoⁿ-da (kan̨da) - miss the mark striking at something; naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (nąn̨da) - lose one's footing, slip; pa-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - fail to cut something with a knife; po-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - miss a target shooting

Dhegiha: tha-zhnoⁿ (thazhnⁿ) - misspeak, mispronounce, to miss with the mouth, to slip in putting something in the mouth, speaking, reading, or singing [Omaha/Ponca]; zhnoⁿ (zhnoⁿ) - to miss, let fall [Omaha/Ponca]

 

corruption

xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption

cf. pa xni (ppaxn) - snot, nasal mucus; xdi-xdi (xdxdi), xti-xti (xtxti) - boil; a sore on the body; i-di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - mix, mess with, make gooey; di-xdi-xdi-we (dixdxdiwe) - sticky, make from handling; ma-xti-xti-we (mxtixtwe) - mud, shallow

Dhegiha: xthi (xthi) - sore, pus [Omaha]; xthi (xthi) - fester, suppurate [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-liⁿ (ʰpal̨) - mucus from the nose, snot, runny nose [CQ-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - mucus, pus [Kaw]

 

cottontail

            ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat̨ke), (matįk) - rabbit, hare

ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat̨ke) - rabbit [MS, MR, OM]

ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat'įGe) - rabbit, cottontail [FS]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (mat̨ke bisątte ̨) - to throw himself down on a rabbit to catch it

Dhegiha: ma-shtiⁿ-ge (mashtⁿge), ma-shchiⁿ-ge (mashchⁿge) - rabbit [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shtiⁿ-ge (moⁿ-shtiⁿ́-ge) - the cottontail rabbit, this little animal figures in the myths of the Osage [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shtsiⁿ-ka (mąc̨ka) - rabbit, hare [CQ-Osage]; ma-shtsiⁿ-ge (mashcⁿge) - rabbit [Kaw]

 

cottonwood

pa-xa (pxʔa) - cottonwood tree

pa-x'a (pγʔa) - cottonwood tree [MS]

Dhegiha: ma-a (ma) - cottonwood, cottonwood tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ma-a (mahah) - cottonwood tree [Omaha]; ba-ʰka hi (b-ḳa hi) - cottonwood tree [FL-Osage]; pa-ka (pakʔa), pa-xa (paxa) - cottonwood [CQ-Osage]; bla-ka (blak) - cottonwood tree [Kaw]

 

couch

o-miⁿ-zhe (mįe) - bed, couch

ex: o-miⁿ-zhe kʰe (mįe kʰe) - the bed

Dhegiha: u-mi-zhe (umzhe) - bedding [Omaha]; u-mi-zhe (u-m-zhe) - mattress, bedding, pallet, carpet, refers to the buffalo hide used for bedding [FL-Osage]; o-mi-zhe (ome) - mattress, pallet, blanket, quilt, bedclothes, bedding, rug, carpet [CQ-Osage]; o-miⁿ-zhe (omⁿzhe) - to spread bedding, quilt, mattress, bedding, something spread on the ground or floor to serve as a couch, seat, etc. [Kaw]

 

cougar

iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ (įtt̨dą), taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion, similar terms are widespread in North America, Quapaw may represent a borrowing from Biloxi or Ofo

iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttnątt̨ka) - panther

iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttną ttą́ka) - mountain lion, panther, cougar, puma [MS]

taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka (tt̨dą tt̨ka) - mountain lion, puma

taⁿ-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (tonon-tunkah) - tiger or panther (tigre ou panthre) [GI]

cf. iⁿ-ta-naⁿ kde-zhe (įttanąkdze) - bobcat; iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe (įtt̨dą kde) - cat, domestic cat "spotted"; iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe zhi-ka (įtt̨dą kde ka) - kitten; iⁿ-taⁿ kde-zhe (įttą́ kde) - cat, speckled cat [MS, AG]; taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat

 

cough

ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough a-ho-xpe (ahxpe) - I, da-ho-xpe (dahxpe) - you

ex: a-ho-xpe miⁿ-kʰe (ahxpe mįkʰ) - I cough, winter time (I'm coughing) [MS]

Dhegiha: hu-xpe (huxpe) - cough, coughing [Omaha]; hu-xpe (hqpe) - cough, to cough [Omaha/Ponca]; hu-xpe (h-xpe) - to cough [FL-Osage]; ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough, cold with sniffles and fever [CQ-Osage]; ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough [Kaw]

 

ho-xpa-xpa (hoxpxpa) - cough often, tuberculosis a-ho-xpa-xpa (ahxpaxpa) - I, da-ho-xpa-xpa (dahxpaxpa) - you

cf. ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough

Dhegiha: hu-xpa-xpa (hqpaqpa) - to cough often [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ho-xpe shi-ke (hxpe ke) - tuberculosis, a bad cough

cf. ho-xpe (hxpe) - cough; shi-ke (ke) - bad

Dhegiha: hu-xpe pi-zhi (h-xpe-pi-zhi) - bad cough, grippe, influenza [FL-Osage]; ho-xpe ʰpi-zhi (hxpe ʰpii) - whooping cough, tuberculosis, influenza, flu, bad cough, bad cold [CQ-Osage]

 

council

ki-sto (kist) - council of a gens (clans), assemble, gather oⁿ-ki-sto-we (ǫkstowe) - we

cf. a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural animate objects in one place; sto-de zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap

ex: ki-sto ta (kist tt) - tipi [MS]

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kiist) - assemble as for a council, gather for a council, meet and talk things over [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]

 

council, to sit in council

ki-sto kniⁿ (kist knį) - to sit in council

cf. ki-sto (kist) - council of a gens (clans), assemble, gather; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

 

ki-sto kniⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka (kist kn̨ nkkaka) - U.S. Congress

cf. ki-sto (kist) - council of a gens (clans), assemble, gather; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man

 

council, tribal council

ki-sto taⁿ-ka (kist tt̨ka) - tribal council

cf. ki-sto (kist) - council of a gens (clans), assemble, gather; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

council house

wa-pi-na o-ti (wappna tti), wa-pi-no-ti (wappntti) - council house of a gens

cf. wa-pi-na (wappna) - chief of a gens (clan); wa-pi-na (wapna) - one who tells about old ways; ka-hi-ke ste-te (kahike stete), naⁿ-ka to (nanka tu), ka-ni zhi-ka (kani jika) only ones now [JOD]; custom, give up name when sick, someone else takes (adopts) the sick person as his (or her) child & gives a new name. If patient gets well, he must do some work for his (or her) adoptive parent. When Isabel was sick, she was told she must become sister to Geo R. who got her the name mi-ska ti-naⁿ (mi ska tinaⁿ) for her. This .... Geo R. .... who he had to pay the wa-pi-naⁿ (wapnaⁿ) [JOD]

 

 

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