English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

C

 

clatter

di-xa-xa-da (dixxada) - clatter, noise of planks bdi-xa-xa-da (bdxaxada) - I, ti-xa-xa-da (ttxaxada) - you

cf. ka-xa-xa-da (kaxxada) - thump, make a dull sound; ka-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

 

clavicle

to-si wa-hi (tos wah) - collar bone, clavicle

cf. to-si (tos) - armpit; wa-hi (wah) - bone

 

claw

sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we sha-ke (wąka xwe ke) - eagle claw [MS]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke (wąka ke) - bird's claw

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ke ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds' claw necklace

ex: naⁿ-pe sha-ke (nąp ke) - fingernails [MS]

ex: si-pa sha-ke (sipp ke) - toe nails [MS]

Dhegiha: sha-ge (shage) - hoof, talon, claws, fingernails [Omaha]; sha-ge (sh-ge) - hands, paws, claws, talons [FL-Osage]; sha-ke (ake) - hand, claw, handprint, footprint, tracks, hands of the body that are touched by the attendees when passing by it at a funeral, finger [CQ-Osage]; sha-ge (shge) - claws, finger [Kaw]

 

sha-ke ste-te (ck͓e sttĕ) - female name [JOD]

cf. sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

 

claw, catch in the claws, scratch

di-xda-te (dixdtte) - catch in the claws, scratch

Dhegiha: thi-xtha-de (thixthde) - claw, animal claw [Omaha]; we-thi-xtha-de (wthiqthde) - grappling irons [Omaha/Ponca]

 

claw, Sharp Claws

sha-ke po-i (ca-k͓ĕ′ p-i), (ca-k͓ĕ′ pw) - masculine name of the wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Sharp Claws (of a bird). Name of the son of wa-zhiⁿ ska (wajiⁿ ska) and wa-zhiⁿ mi te-xi (wa-jiⁿ mi teqi) [JOD]

cf. sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof; po-i (ppo), po-hiⁿ (ppoh̨) - sharp

Dhegiha: sha-ge pa-hi (sh-ge-pa-hi) - Sharp Talons, personal name [FL-Osage]; sha-ge pa-hi (shge pah) - Sharp Claws, male name [Kaw]

 

sha-ke . (ck͓e pi) - female name [JOD]

 

clay pottery

ma-ni-ka de-xe (mankka dγe) - pottery, clay pottery, stopped making 40 or 50 years ago, not made after 1840 [JOD]

cf. ma-ni-ka (mankka) - earth, soil, ground; de-xe (dγe) - pot, kettle

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ-ʰka ʰtse-xe (moⁿ-thⁿ-ḳa ṭse-xe), moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka tse-xe (moⁿ-ⁿ-ḳa tse-xe) - pottery, earthenware [FL-Osage]

 

clean

i-ti-ze (ttize) - clean out the house i-da-ti-ze (idttize) - I, i-da-ti-ze (dattize) - you

cf. kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out one's house; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom

Dhegiha: thi-dsi-ze (thi-ds-e) - remove from office (strictly speaking means remove only, no mention of office [FL-Osage]; thi-tsi-ze (icze) - dust or clean e.g., the house, move, remove, take away [CQ-Osage]

 

di-ki-za (dikkza) - clean up, put things away bdi-ki-za (bdkkiza) - I, ti-ki-za (ttkkiza) - you

cf. wa-ki-za (wakkza) - space, bare spot

Dhegiha: ki-za (kza) - open forest, trees without undergrowth, including tall grass, sunflowers, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-ki-ki-za (dikkkkiza) - clean up, put house in order bdi-ki-ki-za (bdkkikkza) - I, ti-ki-ki-za (ttkkikkza) - you

cf. wa-ki-za (wakkza) - space, bare spot

Dhegiha: ki-ki-za (kkiza) - clear, clear patches, places here and there where one can see distant things, as the fog breaks away [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-wa-hi-ska-ha (diwhiskah) - pick a bone clean bdi-wa-hi-ska-ha (bdwahiskah) - I, ti-wa-hi-ska-ha (ttwahiskah) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; wa-hi (wah) - bone; wa-ska-ha (waskha) - whitened, white

Dhegiha: ska-ha (skha) - bright, clear [CQ-Osage]; wa-ska-ha (waskha) - become white all along a surface, as the light at dawn [Kaw]

 

di-wa-si-taⁿ-hi (diwsittąh) - pluck clean, e.g. of feathers bdi-wa-si-taⁿ-hi (bdwasittąhi) - I, ti-wa-si-taⁿ-hi (ttwasittąhi) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; wa-si-taⁿ-hi (wasttąhi) - neat

Dhegiha: wa-si-hi (wa--hi) - neat, tidy, clean in character, without reproach, free from blame [FL-Osage]; wa-su-hu (washu) - clean, clear, cleanly, clearly [CQ-Osage]; wa-su-hu (washu) - be clean, neat, tidy, above reproach [Kaw]

 

clear

da-wa-ska (dawska) - clearly, plainly

cf. da (da) - by mouth; wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible; haⁿ-ba wa-ska-de (hąb waskde) - daylight; wa-ska-ha (waskha) - whitened, white; i-shta wa-sko-knaⁿ (it waskkną) - glasses, eye glasses [MS]

Dhegiha: tha-wa-ska (tha-w-ka) - to make a clear statement [FL-Osage]

 

i-ye wa-ska (iywaska) - interpreter, lit. "talk clear"

cf. i-ye (ye) - word; i-ye (iy) - say; i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible; i-shta wa-sko-knaⁿ (it waskkną) - glasses, eye glasses, i-shta (it) - eye + wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible + o-knaⁿ (kną) - put on [MS]

Dhegiha: i-e ska (iskă) - interpreter, speak well, interpret, to speak a language plainly, to act as an interpreter [Omaha/Ponca]; i-e wa-ska  (-e-wa-ka) - an interpreter, translator [FL-Osage]; i-e wa-ska (e wask) - clear words, interpreter [CQ-Osage]; i-e ska (eska), i-e wa-ska (ewask) - speak clearly, clear words, clear language [CQ-Osage]; i-e wa-ska (e wask) - talk clearly, intelligibly, plainly, to interpret, interpreter [Kaw]

 

ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

cf. ta (t) - by heat, by extreme temperature; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; di-shta (dit) - smooth, plane, sand; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare

Dhegiha: da-shta (d-shta) - to singe, to scorch [FL-Osage]; dashta ye (dshta ye) - burn off, singe off [Kaw]

 

clear sky

ke-da (kkda) - clear sky

Dhegiha: tu ke-tha e-goⁿ (t ktha egoⁿ) - sky blue, light blue, dark green with an indigo tinge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰke-tha (ḳ-tha) - the sky, the unclouded or clear sky [FL-Osage]; ʰke-tho (ʰko) - clear sky, as after a storm [CQ-Osage]; ke-ya (kya) - be clear, as sky or water [Kaw]

 

ke-da to (k-da t) - masculine name, Blue Sky; killed father of wa-zhiⁿ da-kniⁿ (wajĭⁿ daktiⁿ) and son of miⁿ xaⁿ-sa (miⁿ q′aⁿsa) [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; to (tto) - blue, green, grue

Dhegiha: tu ke-tha e-goⁿ (t ktha egoⁿ) - sky blue, light blue, dark green with an indigo tinge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰke-tha (ḳ-tha) - the sky, the unclouded or clear sky [FL-Osage]; ʰke-tho (ʰko) - clear sky, as after a storm [CQ-Osage]; ke-ya (kya) - be clear, as sky or water [Kaw]

 

ke-da mi (k-d mi) - female name, Clear Sky Female [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female

 

ke-da iⁿ, ke taⁿ-iⁿ (ke taⁿ′iⁿ) - female name, Clear Sky, Visible [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

 

ke-da zhi-ka (ked jk͓a) - masculine name [JOD]

            cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little, young

 

ke-da ka-xe (ked k͓axĕ′) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

ke-da ti haⁿ-ka (ked t hak͓a) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens

 

clench

di-ski-ke (diskke) - clench, pack in the hands bdi-ski-ke (bdskike) - I, ti-ski-ke (ttskike) - you

cf. di-ski-ski-ke (diskskike) - pack, e.g. snowballs, with hands

Dhegiha: thi-ski-ke (iiskke) - wad up, bring the parts of a whole together with pressure, bring components into contact, make a fist, grind together, gather [CQ-Osage]; yu-ski-ge (yuskge) - clench [Kaw]

 

noⁿ-pe di-ski-ke (nǫp diskke) - clench the fist

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; di-ski-ke (diskke) - clench, pack in the hands

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be thi-ski-ge (noⁿ-b thi-ki-ge) - hand folded, the fist [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-pe a-ski-ke (nǫǫp askke) - fist [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-be yu-ski-ge (naⁿb yuskge) - to make a fist, clench the fist [Kaw]

 

clerk

i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe kniⁿ (kazzo kγe knį) - clerk, he who sits writing

cf. i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw; i-ka-zo-zo- (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, be sitting

 

cliff

maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff

cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven; maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit."talks on high"; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, "house to talk above"; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky, said of things that are not connected to or otherwise in contact with the ground [Kaw]

 

ma-zi o-di-ko-te (mzi diktte) - bluff, cliff

cf. maⁿ-zi (m̨azi) - bank, embankment; di-ko-te (diktte) - dig out, probe; ma-zi-ya (mazya) - shore

ex: maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

climb

a-te (tte) - climb a-a-te (atte) - I, a-da-te (datte) - you, oⁿ-ka-ta-we (uk͓atawe) - we

Dhegiha: a-ne (ane) - hug, embrace [Omaha]; a-dse (-dse) - to climb up a tree, to embrace, to clasp in the arms with affection [FL-Osage]; a-tse (ace) - climb, climb onto by using the arms, embrace, wrap ones arms around [CQ-Osage]; a-je (je) - climb, hug a tree when climbing, wrap arms around a tree when climbing it, embrace, hug [Kaw]

 

clingstone peach

kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (kkątt tt̨ka) - peach, clingstone

kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (konteh-tonkah) - peach (pche fruit) [GI]

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka hi (kkątt tt̨ka hi) - peach tree, clingstone

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

 

clock

ma-ze ti-ta (maztttta) - clock, lit. "living iron"

ma-ze ti-ta (mze tttta) - clock [MS]

cf. ma-ze (maz) - iron; ti-ta (tttta) - onomatopoeia, the naming of a thing or action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it, as buzz, hiss, tick tock; ti-ta (titt) - live, be alive

 

ma-ze ti-ta zhi-ka (maztttta ka) - watch

cf. ma-ze (maz) - iron; ti-ta (tttta) - onomatopoeia, the naming of a thing or action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it, as buzz, hiss, tick tock; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little

 

clog

a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

cf. a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt; a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

 

close eye

i-shta to-zhi (it ti), to-zhi (ti) - closed eye, wink, close an eye

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta thi-do-zhe (iⁿ-sht thi-do-zhe) - to wink, to nictitate [FL-Osage]; i-shta-the ti-to-zhe (iite iite) - wink or blink the eyes, lit., mash the eyelids, wink at, blink the eyes at [CQ-Osage]

 

i-shta di-iⁿ-ze (it dįze), di-iⁿ-ze (dįze) - blink, wink, close the eyes bdi-iⁿ-ze (bdįze) - I, ti-iⁿ-ze (ttįze) - you

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta thi-piⁿ-ze (iⁿshta thpiⁿe) - blink [Omaha]; thu-piⁿ-ze (upʔ̨ze) - blink [CQ-Osage]; i-shta yu-piⁿ-ze (isht yupⁿze) - shut the eyes tightly, blink [Kaw]; yu-piⁿ-ze (yupⁿze) - close the eyes [Kaw]

 

close off, stop up

a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

cf. a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt; a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

 

close, as sliding doors

a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors

cf. a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt; a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

 

close, shut

a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in a-a-ka-spe (akaspe) - I, a-da-ka-spe (dakaspe) - you

cf. a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it! (command) [MS]

ex: a-ka-spe (kasp) - shut it!

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - to cover up an object, the falling of something heavy on a person or a thing [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ (tthokką) - smoke hole; a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object; ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

 

close by

o-di-shaⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (odą mąn̨) - stay close by o-bdi-shaⁿ a-maⁿ-bniⁿ (obdią amąbnį) - I, o-ti-shaⁿ da-maⁿ-tiⁿ (ottią damąttį) - you

cf. o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - around, around someone or something, moving circularly like the hands of a clock, go around, circle, to go around in a circle, to go around something  [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - circle, encircle, surround, cycle, round [Omaha]; u-thi-shoⁿ (u-th-shoⁿ) - marching around in a circle [FL-Osage]

 

close together

a-da-ska kniⁿ (daska kn̨) - sit close together a-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (bdaska akn̨) - I, a-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (ttaska dakn̨) - you

cf. a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you

ex: aⁿ-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (̨ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close to me

ex: a-di-da-ska kniⁿ (didaska kn̨) - he sits close to you

 

cloth

wa-hiⁿ (wah̨) - cloth

cf. wa-hiⁿ (wah̨) - cloth; wa-hiⁿ xo-te (ŭahin-hutteh) - wool blanket (couverture de laine) [GI]

wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico; wa-hi-ska i-ti (wahska tti) - canvas tent; wa-hiⁿ-ska i-ti (wah̨ska tti) - tipi [MS]; wa-hiⁿ-ska i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wah̨ska kąskde) - yard, lit. calico measure

Dhegiha: wa-xiⁿ-ha (waxiⁿha) - calico, cloth, fabric [Omaha]; wa-xiⁿ-ha (waqⁿha) - cloth, paper, linen or cotton cloth, calico [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xiⁿ-ha ska (waqⁿha sk) - white cloth, cotton cloth, muslin cloth [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xiⁿ-ha ska (waxiⁿha ka) - muslin [Omaha]

 

cloth, breech cloth

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ  (įttkną) - breech cloth

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ (įttkną) - diaper [MS]

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ (uⁿtsi ga noⁿ) - breechcloth, from John Quapaw [MH]

cf. iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ  (įttkną) - diaper; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear-JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface

Dhegiha: zhe-a-ti-gthoⁿ (zhatigthoⁿ) - breechcloth, diaper [Omaha]; zhe-a-di-gthoⁿ (zhedigthoⁿ), (zhadigthⁿ)  - breech-cloth, penis cover [Omaha/Ponca]

 

clothing, put on

iⁿ (ʔį) - wear miⁿ (mį) - I, zhiⁿ (į) - you, aⁿ-kiⁿ (ąk̨) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-kiⁿ-we (ąk̨we) - we more than two

cf. naⁿiⁿ (nąʔ̨) - wear around the neck; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief

Dhegiha: iⁿ (iⁿ) - wear, use, to wear, as a blanket, robe, or shawl, to use as tobacco [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ (iⁿ) - to wear as a robe or a blanket [FL-Osage]; iⁿ (̨) - wear, e.g., earrings, warm clothes, a coat, a shawl, have something positioned so that it surrounds part of the body, such as the head or arm, carry [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ (iⁿ) - wear about the shoulders, as a blanket or shawl [Kaw]

 

i-niⁿ (in̨) - put on clothing i-bi-niⁿ (ibn̨) - I, i-tiⁿ (itt̨) - you

cf. ashi-niⁿ (inį) - coat

 

i-ni-naⁿ-haⁿ (innąh̨) - wear, put on clothing i-da-bni-naⁿ-haⁿ (idbninąh̨) - I, i-da-bni-naⁿ-haⁿ (daninąh̨) - you

 

we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ (wnįtʰą) - put on, wear clothing we-bniⁿ-tʰaⁿ (wbnįtʰą) - I, we-tiⁿ-tʰaⁿ (wttįtʰą) - you

 

o-tʰaⁿ (otʰ̨), o-tʰoⁿ (otʰ̨) - put on (shoes, leggings), wear o-a-tʰaⁿ (otʰą) - I, o-da-tʰaⁿ (odtʰą) - you

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-bu-toⁿ (hiⁿbtoⁿ) - to put on or wear moccasins [Omaha/Ponca]; se-hiⁿ-be u-tʰⁿ (shiⁿbe utʰⁿ) - to put on snow shoes [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-be u-toⁿ (hoⁿ-b u-toⁿ) - to put on shoes [FL-Osage]; o-txaⁿ (otx̨) - put on, e,g., pants, shoes [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ki-tʰoⁿ (oktʰǫ) - put on, as leggings, moccasins o-a-ki-tʰoⁿ (okitʰǫ) - I, o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ (odkitʰǫ) - you

Dhegiha: o-ki-txaⁿ (oktxą) - put on ones own pants or shoes [CQ-Osage]

 

cloud

ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud

ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud [MS]

ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud, also male personal name [FR]

moⁿ-xpi (mǫxBi) - cloud [FS]

cf. ma-xpi to (maxp tto) - blue, sky blue color

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xpi (moⁿxp) - cloud [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-xpi (moⁿ-xp) - cloud, cloudy [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (mą́xpu) - cloud, cloudy [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (maⁿxp) - cloud [Kaw]

 

ma-xpi (maqp) - male name, Paul Goodeagle's name [FR]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xpi (moⁿxp) - Clouds Driven by Wind [Omaha]

 

ma-xpi zhi-ka (maqp jik͓) - masculine name, father of Ha′k͓a Nⁿ [JOD]

cf. ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little, young

 

cloud, Cloud Maker

ma-xpi ka-xe (maxp kγe) - Cloud Maker, Making Clouds, personal name [MS]

cf. ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: maⁿ-xpu ga-ghe (maⁿxp gghe) - Cloud Maker, male name [Kaw]

 

cloud, large clouds

ma-xpi wa-sha-ke (maxp waʔke) - large clouds

cf. ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud; wa-sha-ke (waʔke) - large, be large

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xpi (moⁿxp) - cloud [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-xpi (moⁿ-xp) - cloud, cloudy [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (mą́xpu) - cloud, cloudy [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (maⁿxp) - cloud [Kaw]

 

cloud, small puffy clouds

ma-xpi ka-xde-xde (maxp kaxdxde) - small puffy clouds

cf. ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud; ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xpi (moⁿxp) - cloud [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-xpi (moⁿ-xp) - cloud, cloudy [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (mą́xpu) - cloud, cloudy [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (maⁿxp) - cloud [Kaw]

 

cloudless

ke-da (kkda) - clear sky

cf. ke-da to (k-da tu′) - masculine name, Blue Sky; killed father of wa-zhiⁿ da-kniⁿ (wajĭⁿ daktiⁿ) and son of miⁿ xaⁿ-sa (miⁿ q′aⁿsa) [JOD]

Dhegiha: tu ke-tha e-goⁿ (t ktha egoⁿ) - sky blue, light blue, dark green with an indigo tinge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰke-tha (ḳ-tha) - the sky, the unclouded or clear sky [FL-Osage]; ʰke-tho (ʰko) - clear sky, as after a storm [CQ-Osage]; ke-ya (kya) - be clear, as sky or water [Kaw]

 

ma-xe (mxe) - sky, cloudless

cf. ma-xe o-ta-saⁿ-haⁿ (maγe ottasąhą) - aurora

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xe (moⁿxe) - sky [Omaha]; moⁿ-xe (mⁿ-xe) - the sky [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xe (m̨ąɣe) - sky, weather, the upper world [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ghe (mⁿghe) - sky, weather, the upper world [Kaw]

 

clump

zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (ą ott̨ oppa), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. "cedars abound in it"; near Quapaw, OK; o-shpe (op) - fragment; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

Dhegiha: shpa-shpa (shpashpa) - fragment [Omaha]; u-shpa-shpa (ushpshpa) - piece, remnant [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpa-shpa (b-shpa-shpa) - to cut an apple or potato into many pieces with a knife [FL-Osage]; ga-shpa-shpa (gashpshpa) - chip off many pieces [Kaw]

 

zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (ą ott̨ op), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; o-shpe (op) - fragment; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

Dhegiha: u-shpe (u-shp) - a fragment [FL-Osage]; o-shpe zhiⁿ (opį) - fragment, small piece, chip, bit, bits and baubles, ones small things, change left over after a purchase, coins, small change, pennies CQ-Osage]; yu-shpe (yushp) - pinch off, pull off a piece [Kaw]

 

coal

ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal

tʰa-kde (t'kkaDe) - coal, ember [FS]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthe (noⁿxthe) - coal fuel, charcoal [Omaha]; noⁿ-xthe (noⁿ-xth) - charcoal, coal [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xle (naⁿxl) - coals, embers [Kaw]

 

ta-xde sa (txde sa) - coal, black coal [MS]

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; sa (sa) - black

 

iⁿ ta-xde (̨ ttxde) - coal, lit. "stone charcoal"

cf. iⁿ (į) - stone, rock; ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal

 

coal oil

ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil

 

coal oil lamp

ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil; a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ-gthe we-gthi (wnakⁿgthe wgthi) - lamp oil [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ we-gthiⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ we-gthiⁿ) - kerosene oil [FL-Osage]; we-li a-da-kaⁿ (wli dakaⁿ) - coal oil [Kaw]

 

coal, dead coals

ta-xde ki-kde-zhe (taxd kkikde) - dead coals

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; ki-kde-zhe (kkikde) - go out, as a fire

 

coal, live coals

i-ta-na (ttana) - live coals

 

coat

a-shi-niⁿ (inį) - coat

a-shi-niⁿ (inį) - coat [MS, OM]

cf. a-shi (i) - over, on top of; iⁿ (ʔį) - wear; i-niⁿ (in̨) - put on clothing; we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ (wnįtʰą) - put on, wear clothing

ex: a-shi-niⁿ a-kda da (inį kda d) - go get your coat! (command) [MS]

ex: ha-ki a-shi-niⁿ (hki inį) - where's your coat? [MS]

Dhegiha: iⁿ (iⁿ) - wear, to wear as a blanket, robe, or shawl [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ (iⁿ) - to wear as a robe or blanket (FL-Osage); iⁿ (̨) - wear, such as earrings, warm clothes, a coat, a shawl, carry, have something positioned so that it surrounds part of the body, such as the head or arm (CQ-Osage); iⁿ (iⁿ) - wear about the shoulders, as a blanket or shawl [Kaw]

 

ta-ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - man's shirt, coat, tunic; made of buckskin

cf. ta-ha (ttah) - deerskin; o-ki-kda-xda (okkkdaxda), o-ki-kdi-xda (okkkdixda) - shirt

Dhegiha: o-ʰku-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ) - clothes, literally, that which one puts oneself into [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰku-laⁿ (ʰkulą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in a shirt or dress, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-lo-xla (kiloxla), o-ki-laⁿ-xla (kilaⁿxla) - clothes, coat, shirt, tunic [Kaw]

 

cock

ma-ze di-zha-ke (mze dike) - cock a gun

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron, gun; di-zha-ke (dike) - pick, pull open, peel

 

cocklebur

to-di-xa-ta hi (ttdixtta hi) - cockleburs

 

to-di-xa-ta taⁿ-ka hi (ttdixtta tt̨ka hi) - cocklebur, the large; Jimpson weed

 

coffee

ma-kaⁿ sha (makk̨a) - coffee, lit. "dark medicine"

ma-kaⁿ sha (makk̨a) - coffee [MS, AB, MR, AG, OM]

cf. ma-kaⁿ (makką́) - medicine; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

ex: ma-kaⁿ sha shkoⁿ-ta (makką́a kǫtt) - do you want coffee? [AG]

ex: jhi-e ma-kaⁿ sha shkoⁿ-ta niⁿ-kʰe (jhe makką́a kǫtt nikʰ) - do you want coffee? [AG]

Dhegiha: ma-kʰoⁿ sa-be (makʰⁿ sbe) - coffee, black medicine [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ʰkoⁿ sa-be (moⁿ-ḳⁿ a-be) - medicine-black, coffee [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ʰka sa (mąʰksa) - coffee, literally, black medicine [CQ-Osage]; mo-kaⁿ sa-be (mokⁿ sbe) - coffee [Kaw]

 

coil

di-ki-be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (dikkbęǫ) - coil something, as a rope bdi-ki-be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bdkkibeǫǫ) - I, ti-ki-be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (ttkkibeǫǫ) - you

cf. be-shoⁿ (bes̨) - wrinkle, fold; be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bes̨sǫ) - wrinkled, in folds; be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold

 

di-ki-ki-zhe (dikkie) - coils, in

cf. a-ka-ki-zhe (kake) - wind, as a road or stream; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ka-ki-zhe (ǫke kakie) - a winding road

 

coinage

ska-di (skdi), ska-ti (skti) - coinage, amount, measure, from iskali in Muskogean, French escalin

ex: ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents [AG]

ex: de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali 'money', French escalin 'shilling'

ex: de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents

ex: de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp), de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits

ex: de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, fifty cents, four bits

ex: de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

 

cold

sni-tʰe (sntʰe) - cold, to be cold sni-aⁿ-tʰe (snątʰe) - I, sni-di-tʰe (snditʰe) - you

cf. sni-tʰe zho-ka-te (sntʰe kkatte) - to have chills and fever

Dhegiha: zni-te (nte) - chill; zni-tʰe (zntʰe) - cold, to be cold, said of humans [Omaha/Ponca]; hni-ʰtse (hn-ṭse) - to be cold [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰtse (nʰce) - be cold, feel cold [CQ-Osage]; hni-tse (hnce) - to be cold, as a person or animal [Kaw]

 

sni (sni) - cold, to be cold aⁿ-sni (̨sni) - I, di-sni (dsni) - you

sni (sni) - cold [AG, OM]

sni hi (sn hi) - cold (very cold) [MS, OM]

cf. ka-sni-sni (kasnsni) - autumn, "blows cold on and off"

ex: aⁿ-sni (ą́sni) - cold (I'm cold) [MS]

ex: jhi-e sni hi (ǰe sn hi) - are you cold? [AG]; would expect di-sni (dsni) - you cold

Dhegiha: zni (zni) - cool cold [Omaha/Ponca]

 

cold water

ni-sni(nisn), ni-sni (nsni) - spring, lit. "cold water"

ni-sni (nsni) - cold water [OM]

cf. ni (ni) - water; sni (sni) - cold

ex: ni-sni tʰe (nisn tʰe) - the spring

ex: ni-sni wa-tʰi-shka (nsni watʰka) - Spring River, I.T.

ex: ni-sni toⁿ (nsni ttǫ) - Baxter Springs, Kansas

ex: ni-sni ta-shi (nsni tta) - Tulsa, Oklahoma [OM]

Dhegiha: ni-zni (nni) - cold water, well water [Omaha]; ni-zni (ni-ni) - a spring of cold water [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰni (ni-hn) - water cold, a spring or well [FL-Osage]; ni-ni (nini) - spring, well, sources of water [CQ-Osage]; ni-ʰniⁿ (nihnⁿ) - well water [Kaw]

 

cold weather

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - cold, cold weather [MS, AG]

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - north, winter

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - north [MS]

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - winter [FR, OM]

sni-wa-te (sniwtte) - power of winter (male)

cf. sni (sni) - cold; sni-tʰe (sntʰe) - cold, to be cold

ex: sni-wa-te hi (snwatte hi) - cold [MS]

ex: sni-wa-te hi pa-de taⁿ (snwatte hi pde ttą) - cold, winter time [MS]

ex: a-shi sni-wa-te (i snwatt) - cold outside [AG]

ex: sni-wa-te kdi ta (snwatte kdi tta) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]

ex: sni-wa-te kdi ta tʰe (snwatte kdi tta tʰe) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]

Dhegiha: ʰni-wa-tse (ʰn-wa-tse) - to be cold [FL-Osage]; ʰni-wa-tse (ʰn-wa-ṭse) - cold weather, a cold day [FL-Osage]; ni-wa-tse (n-wa-tse) - it is cold [FL-Osage]; ni-wa-ʰtse (nwaʰce) - be cold, an impersonal weather expression, not used for people [CQ-Osage]; ʰni-wa-tse (ʰniwace) - cold, as the weather, winter months [Kaw]

 

cold, Cold Thunder Being

sni-hi wa-kaⁿ-ta (snhi wakan′ta) - masculine name "Cold Thunder being", father of o-ka-shaⁿ (uk͓acaⁿ) [JOD]

cf. sni hi (sn hi) - cold (very cold) [MS, OM]; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wakǫ́ta) - spirit, God; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakan′ta) - Thunder Beings [JOD]

 

sni-hi taⁿ-ka (snhi tak͓a) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. sni hi (sn hi) - cold (very cold) [MS, OM]; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

sni-hi zhi-ka (snhi jik͓) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. sni hi (sn hi) - cold (very cold) [MS, OM]; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little, young

 

cold, north, northwind

o-sni (osn) - cold, north, northwind

cf. o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, "whence the cold comes"

Dhegiha: u-zni (ni) - cold [Omaha]

 

cold, wintertime

sni-wa-te hi pa-de taⁿ (snwatte hi pde ttą) - cold, winter time [MS]

cf. sni-wa-te (snwatte) - cold, cold weather, winter, north; pa-de (pde) - winter; pa-de taⁿ (pdettą) - wintertime, when it is winter [MS]; pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar

Dhegiha: ma-the doⁿ (mthedoⁿ) - winter [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-the doⁿ (b-the doⁿ) - in winter [FL-Osage]; ba-the (b-the) - winter [FL-Osage]; pa-the (pa) - winter [CQ-Osage]

 

collar bone

to-si wa-hi (tos wah) - collar bone, clavicle

cf. to-si (tos) - armpit; wa-hi (wah) - bone

 

collect

sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather sto-a-de (stade) - I, sto-da-de (stdade) - you

cf. ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place pl/an objects in one place; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather

 

sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped

cf. sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group

 

sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group

cf. a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

 

sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap sto-de-a-zhi (stoda) - I, sto-de-da-zhi (stodda) - you, sto-de-oⁿ-zhi-we (stodǫwe) - we

cf. sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place

 

collection

ti-kde (ttikd) - village, collection of lodges

ex: ti-kde-kde kʰe a-kde . (ttkdekde kʰe akd .) - I go home to the (line of standing) lodges

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - I'm going to my house [OM)]

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live in a lodge, dwell [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-wa-da-te (kwadatt) - those dual/standing/inanimate or collections

cf. ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those pl/st/an, yon; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those pl/si or ly, yon; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those pl/mv/an, yon

ex: zhoⁿ ko-wa-da-te (ǫ kwadatt) - yon two trees

 

ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

cf. ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that sg/st/in, yon; ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived sg/mv/an, the one who has reached; ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that sg/ly/an or in, yon; ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that sg/mv/an, yon; ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that sg/si/an or in, yon; ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that sg/st/an, the further one

 

na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide singular/standing/inanimate or collection

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someone's sg/ly/in object; na-xnaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (naxn̨ in̨de) - hide a sg/si/in object; na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ (naxn̨ kikn̨) - hide one's own sg/si/in/ or cloth object; na-xnaⁿ knaⁿ (naxn̨ kn̨) - hide someone else's sg/si/in object

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ i-noⁿ-the (noⁿ-xthⁿ i-noⁿ-the) - to hide something, secrete [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-loⁿ-ha (nąl̨ǫha) - be sneaky, hide, be sly, secretly scheme against someone, go behind someones back, be cunning, hide, conceal, covertly [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ) - hide something [Kaw]

 

collide

a-ki-pa-i-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt a-a-ki-pa-bnaⁿ (akkippbną) - I, a-da-ki-pa-taⁿ (dakkipptt̨) - you

cf. a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-pa (-ḳi-pa) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

 

colt

shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ zhi-ka (̨keknį ik) - colt

cf. shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ (̨keknį) - horse sit upon dog; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: shoⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (shⁿzhiⁿga) - colt [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-wa zhiⁿ-ga (ḳ-wa zhiⁿ-ga) - little horse, a colt, a pony [FL-Osage]; ka-wa zhiⁿ-ga (kwa zhⁿga) - colt [Kaw]

 

Comanche

pa to-ka (p-tu-kă) - Kwapa name for the Comanche Indians [JOD]

cf. pa (ppa) - nose; to-ka (tkka) - wet

Dhegiha: pa doⁿ-ka (pdoⁿka) - Comanche, Paducah [Omaha/Ponca]; pa duⁿ-ka (pduⁿka) - Comanche Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa doⁿ-ʰka (p̣-doⁿ-ḳa) - the Osage name for the Comanche Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpa to-ʰka (ʰp toʰka) - Comanche tribe or tribal member, Kiowa tribe or tribal member, lit., wet noses, dew on the head [CQ-Osage]; pa do-ka (pdoka) - Comanches or Padocah, Paducah Indians, tribe or people [Kaw]

 

comb

ka-pʰe (kapʰ) - to comb a-pʰe (pʰe) - I, da-pʰe (dpʰe) - you

Dhegiha: ga-he (gah) - comb, untangle [Omaha/Ponca]; ka-pshe (kaape) - brush or comb, one's hair, curry an animal's coat [CQ-Osage]; ga-phe (gaph) - to comb [Kaw]

 

i-ka-pʰe (kapʰe) - a comb

i-ka-pʰe (kapʰe) - comb [OM]

cf. i (i) - with which to; ka-pʰe (kapʰ) - to comb

ex: i-ka-pʰe o-a-te miⁿ-kʰe (kapʰe otte mįkʰ) - looking for old comb (I'm looking for a comb) [MS]

Dhegiha: mi-ka-he (mikhe) - comb, originally a wisp made of grass that served as comb and brush for the Omaha and Ponka [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-wa i-ga-pshe (ḳ-wa i-ga-pshe) - curry comb [FL-Osage]; mi-ʰka-pshe (mi-ḳ-pshe) - grass hairbrush [FL-Osage]; we-ga-pshe (w-ga-pshe) - a comb [FL-Osage]; we-ka-pshe (wkaape) - brush or comb for the hair, hairbrush [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka-pʰe (nikpʰe) - comb [Kaw]

 

ba-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (baz̨zą) - comb, run fingers through hair pa-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (ppzązą) - I, shpa-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (pzązą) - you

 

comb of a rooster

bde-bde (bdbde) - comb of a rooster

 

combat

            niⁿ-aⁿ (n̨ą) - fight [MS]

niⁿ-aⁿ (niah) - fight, beat, hit (battre) [GI]

Dhegiha: ni-uⁿ (niuⁿ) - fight [Omaha]; ni-oⁿ shtoⁿ (nioⁿshtoⁿ) - fighter [Omaha]; ni-oⁿ a-tha (nioⁿ atha) - warpath [Omaha]

 

niⁿ-aⁿ-wi (niah-wi) - battle, fight, combat (battaille) [GI]

cf. niⁿ-aⁿ (n̨ą) - fight; we (-we), a-we (-awe) - pluralizer for verbs and noun phrases, wi (-wi), a-wi (-awi) - pluralizer in relative clauses

 

ki-ki-te (kkikktte) - battle, "shoot one another"

ki-ki-te (kkikktte) - war [MS]

cf. ki-ki-te (kkkitte) - shoot (at) something for someone; ki-te (kktte) - shoot at something; ki-te (kkitte) - to shoot

Dhegiha: kʰi-de (kʰde) - shoot [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-de (kide) - shoot [Omaha]; ʰku-dse (ḳ-dse) - to shoot [FL-Osage]; ʰku-tse (ʰkce) - fire a gun, shoot a bow and arrow, shoot someone, shoot at someone [CQ-Osage]; ku-je (kje) - shoot at something [Kaw]

 

to-taⁿ (tot̨) - war

cf. to-taⁿ haⁿ-ka (tot̨hąka) - war captain, war chief

Dhegiha: nu-doⁿ (nudoⁿ) - warrior [Omaha]; do-doⁿ (do-dⁿ) - to go to war [FL-Osage]; to-taⁿ (tot̨) - war, warpath, scouting, scouting alone, looking for enemies [CQ-Osage]; do-daⁿ (dodⁿ) - warpath, war, go to war [Kaw]

 

come

ki-we (kiw) - come, come in (invitation)

ex: ki-we (kiw) - come [AG]

ex: ki-we (kiw) - come in [AB]

ex: ki-we (kiw) - come back [AB]

ex: ki-we (kiw) - come here [OM]

ex: ki-we (kiw) - come on [MR]

ex: za-ni o-zha ki-we (zan a kiw) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: o-zha za-ni ki-wa-we (a zan kiwawe) - everybody come dance [MS]

cf. ki (ki) - be returning to here; kʰi (kʰi) - arrive back at one's own

Dhegiha: gi (gi) - to come back, return home, to come home [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-ah (giah) - beckon, come here, command (female) [Omaha]; gi-ga (giga) - beckon, come here, command (male) [Omaha]; gi (gi) - he approaches, he comes [FL-Osage]; gi -o (gi-o) - to come [FL-Osage]; ʰki (ḳi) - to reach home [FL-Osage]; kiu (k) - come, come on [CQ-Osage]; gi (gi) - motion back to somewhere, go back, return [Kaw]; gu (gu) - to be coming back [Kaw]; khi (khi) - arrive home over there, reach a place again, go back to ones own place [Kaw]

 

come, be coming here

hi (hi) - come, be coming here, not own pʰi (pʰi) - I, shi (i) - you, hi (h) - he/she, aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi), oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-ka-hi-we (ąkhiwe) - we

hi-we (hiweh) - come (viens) [GI]

hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been pʰi (pʰi) - I, shi (i) - you, hi (h) - he/she, aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi), oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-ka-hi-we (ąkhiwe) - we

cf. i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place hi-de (hide) - go, to have gone somewhere; taⁿ-hi-de (ttąhde) - to have passed by in sight; hi-kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there

ex: a-shi-ti hi (itti hi) - he arrived outside

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi tta ǫkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said']

ex: ha-ki shi e (hki i e) - where have you been? [MS]

Dhegiha: hu (hu) - to be coming to this place [FL-Osage]; hu (h), a-hu (ah) - come here (motion underway) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - be coming to a place that is not ones own, be coming here [Kaw] . hi (hi) - arrive [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; hi (hi) - to arrive at a place [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there, motion accomplished, come there, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, become, begin to, start to [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

 

come, to have come back here

kdi (kdi) - to have come back here a-kdi (akd) - I, da-kdi (dakd) - you, oⁿ-ka-kdi (ǫkkdi) - we dual, I and one other; kdi-we (kdiw) - they

cf. a-kda-niⁿ kdi (akdnį kd) - to have brought back one's own

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi-ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi-ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi-ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

ex: i-yo-wi taⁿ a-kda-niⁿ kdi kʰe (yowi-ttą akdnį kd kʰe) - when he was wounded they (his relations) brought him (or his body) home

ex: sni-wa-te kdi ta (snwatte kdi tta) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]

ex: sni-wa-te kdi ta tʰe (snwatte kdi tta tʰe) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ kdi hne (ną kdi hn) - come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I'll come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: shi-noⁿ kjhi (nǫ kǰi) - comeback again [AG]

ex: jhi-e shi-noⁿ kjhi (ǰe nǫ kǰ) - you come back again [AG]

ex: jhi-taⁿ-ke wi-ta kjhi ta niⁿ-kʰe (ǰttą́ke wtta kǰi tta nįkʰ) - my sister is coming pretty soon', should be wi-taⁿ-ke (wittą́ke) - my sister [AG]

Dhegiha: gthi (gth) - come back [JOD-Omaha]; gthi (gthi) - to come home, to return home [FL-Osage]; li (l), a-li (al) - arrive back here, arrive home here, return here, come back, get back, motion accomplished [CQ-Osage]; li (li) - to have come home, to have come back [Kaw]

 

come, to have come here, arrive

tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here a-tʰi (atʰ) - I, da-tʰi (datʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-tʰi-we (ǫkTiwe) - we

cf. a-kda tʰi (kda tʰ) - arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not one's home) to get one's own object (horse, child, gun, etc.); a-ki tʰi (ak tʰi) - to have arrived here to get someone's; ki-tʰi (ktʰi) - to have arrived to/for someone

ex: a-tʰi (atʰ) - I came [MR]

ex: a-tʰi (atʰ) - I'm coming, I come [MR]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-ti da-tʰi e (hatʰą́tti datʰ e) - when did you come? [MS]

ex: da-tʰi ta (datʰ tta) - when you come (future) [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I don't want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde ta, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tta, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when I'm gone, don't you come around my house [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ o-ho zhi da-tʰi ta (hǫn̜ttą ho i datʰ tta) - how come he (dog) doesn't bark when you come around? [MS]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (mą́tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

Dhegiha: a-ti (at) - arrive here, came [Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - to come, has come [FL-Osage]; a-tsʰi (acʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place, initial a is sometimes omitted in 3rd person forms and normally omitted in imperatives [CQ-Osage]; chi (chi) - arrive here, arrive over there, arrive at a place not his home for first time [Kaw]

 

come forth, pass by

tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by, come forth a-tʰi-de (atʰibd) - I, da-tʰi-de (datʰitt) - you

cf. tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here; de (de) - go; tʰi-da-da (tʰidda) - start now and then to do something

Dhegiha: tʰi-the (tʰith) - to begin, commence, or start suddenly, to come forth, as an infant at birth [Omaha/Ponca]; tsi-the (tsi-the) - passing by [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-the (ṭsi-th) - he hastened, he began, denoting sudden action [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-the-the (ṭsi-th-the) - to pass along [FL-Osage]

 

ka-xe tʰi-de (kqe tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

            Dhegiha: ka-xe ka-ti-the (kaxkatithe) - Crow Sound Passing, male name [Omaha]

            at birth

 

haⁿ-ka tʰi-de (ha′k͓a tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

Dhegiha: haⁿ-ga tsi-ye-ta (hⁿga ciyta) - the Haga or Gray Eagle Passes (and we see him) [Kaw]

 

ka-hi-ke tʰi-de (k͓ahk͓e tdĕ) - masculine name, father of Louis Angell [JOD]; name translates to Passes Along Chief; called Lame Chief because of being lame, Lame Chief (b. 1800 d. 1874) was father to Tall Chief

ka-hi-ke tʰi-de (Kiahhacketady) - Treaty with the Quapaw (1824)

ka-hi-ke tʰi-de (Kaheketteda) - Chief, Treaty with the Quapaw (1833)

cf. ka-hi-ke (kahke), ga-hi-ge (gahge) - chief; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by, come forth at birth

 

kde-taⁿ tʰi-de (ktqetăⁿ′ tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk, smallest species; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ tsi-e (gthe-dⁿ tsi-e) - Hawk Passing By, personal name, refers to the hawk attacking prey [FL-Osage]

 

maⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-de (maⁿniⁿ′ tdĕ′) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

 

mi tʰi-de (mi tidĕ) - Sun Passes Along, sister of Mrs. Stafford [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun, moon, orb; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

 

shoⁿ-ke tʰi-de (că′k͓e tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. shoⁿ-ke (̨ke) - dog; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-ge ʰtsi-e (shⁿ-ge ṭsi-e) - Dog Passing By, personal name [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-ge tsi-ye (shⁿge cye) - male name [Kaw]

 

wa-koⁿ-ta tʰi-de (wa-kn′-t͓a ti-dĕ) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; The Thunder Being Passed on or Advanced. The first name of Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wakǫ́ta) - spirit, God; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

 

come to see someone

ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkitt̨we tʰi) - visit, go/come to see someone

cf. toiⁿ (toį) - look; contraction of toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from

ex: aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come see me (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

Dhegiha: gi-doⁿ-be tsi (gidⁿbe c) - visit, go/come to see someone [Kaw]; ki-toⁿ-pe (kit̨pe) - see someone, look with regard to someone, look down on (benevolently), watch over [CQ-Osage]; gi-doⁿ-be (gi-dⁿ-be) - to view ones own property [FL-Osage]

 

come near doing something

aⁿ-ni ni-hi (̨ni ... nih) - nearly, come near doing something, verb falls between

Dhegiha: oⁿ-thiⁿ-oⁿ (oⁿthiⁿoⁿ) - almost [Omaha]; hoⁿ-ni (hⁿ-ni) - nearly, almost [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-ni (h̨ni), ho-ni (hni) - almost, nearly, can be used to express fail to [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-niⁿ-daⁿ niⁿ-e (hⁿniⁿdⁿ nⁿ e), haⁿ-ni-daⁿ ni (hⁿnidⁿ n) - almost, to nearly do X (unintentionally) [Kaw]

 

come off

xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab

cf. xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord; di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface; di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back; o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache

Dhegiha: xthu-de (qthde) - peel, slip, to be peeled off, to slip out of [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xtho-dse (thi-xth-dse) - to peel, as peeling a potato, to peel skin off [FL-Osage]; thi-lo-tse (iilce) - peel [CQ-Osage]; yu-xlo-je (yuxlje) - peel something, peel with the hand [Kaw]

 

come undone

naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace a-naⁿ-kda (an̨kda) - I, da-naⁿ-kda (dan̨kda) - you

cf. bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; pa-kda (pkda) - cut along the edge of something

 

 

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