English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

C

 

count

ha-ni-de (hande) - count [AG]

 

ha-naⁿ hi-de (han̨hide) - however many or much

 

ha-na i-te (han itte) - however much or many

 

ha-na hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many

 

ha-naⁿ (han̨), ha-noⁿ (han̨) - how much, how many

Dhegiha: ha-noⁿ (h-noⁿ) - how much or how many [FL-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (haną) - how many, how much [CQ-Osage]; ha-naⁿ tsʰe (haną cʰe) - how many are there, how much is there [CQ-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (hnaⁿ) - how many, how much [Kaw]

 

wa-da (wad) - cent, hour, time

cf. wa-da miⁿ-naⁿ-naⁿ (wad m̨nąn̨) - hourly; ma-zhoⁿ wa-da (mą wad) - acre of land; wa-da zhi-ka (wad ka) - acre

Dhegiha: wa-tha-wa (wathawa) - numbers, numerals, counting, census [Omaha]; wa-tha-wa (wa-th-wa) - wa, the act of; tha-wa, to count: counting [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-wa (waawa) - count, say numbers, counting, numbers [CQ-Osage]

 

country

ma-zhaⁿ (maą́), ma-zhoⁿ (maǫ́) - land

ma-zhaⁿ (maą́), ma-zhoⁿ (maǫ́) - land [AB, OM]

cf. ma-zhaⁿ ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (mą kwanįkʰe) - yonder (piece of) land; ma-zhoⁿ wa-da (mą wad) - acre of land; ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi (mą iki) - prewar times, before civil war, lit. "when the land was good"; ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (mą ikąskde mįxti) - one mile; si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (skka tt̨ka mąatti) - wild turkey; taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat

ex: ma-zhaⁿ kʰe (mą kʰe) - the land

ex: ha-zi ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (hzi mą i) - grapes, out in the country [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful (lit. plural are sitting)

Dhegiha: moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿzhoⁿ) - world, country, land [Omaha]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿ-zhoⁿ) - Omaha same, earth, country, farm, world, land [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-zhaⁿ (mą́ą), moⁿ-zhoⁿ (mǫ́ǫ́) - land, country, countryside, earth, world, allotment, farm [CQ-Osage]; mo-zhoⁿ (mozhⁿ), ma-zhaⁿ (mazhⁿ), moⁿ-zhaⁿ (moⁿzhⁿ) - land, earth, country [Kaw]

 

court

o-ki-e (okki) - court a girl o-a-ki-e (okkie) - I, o-da-ki-e (odkkie) - you

cf. o-ki-e (okkie), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation; o-ki-ke-ye (okkkeye) - to have talked to a relation; o-ki-ki-e (o-kk-kki-e) - talk to each other or oneself; i-e (i), i-ye (iy) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; i-ye (ye) - talk, speak

Dhegiha: u-ki-ye (ukiye) - talk with, date, court, talk to [Omaha]; u-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-e) - to speak or talk to one another, to hold an interview [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-e (oʰke), o-ʰki (oʰk) - converse with, interview, talk with or to, call on the phone, get together, meeting of a group of people to converse [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-e (oke) - speak to, talk to, court a woman [Kaw]

 

cousin

See brother, sister, aunt, uncle, niece, nephew, these terms are more appropriate than

cousin.

 

e-ta-ni (ettni) - relation, kinsman e-ta-ni wi-ta (ettni wtta) - my, e-ta-ni di-ta (ettni dtta) - your; e-ta-ni i-ta (ettni itt) - his/her

 

e-ta-niⁿ (ettnį) - to be a relation e-ta-bniⁿ (ettbnį) - I, e-ta-tiⁿ (ettttį) - you

 

ti o-zhaⁿ (tt ǫ) - household, family

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; o-zhaⁿ (ą) - to sleep among

 

ti-kde (tikd) - to set up housekeeping, to live together in same tent, village, collection of lodges

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live in a lodge [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

cover

ba-di-di-te (badditte) - cover in a mass, swarm upon

Dhegiha: ba-thi-de (bathde) - full, swarming or covered with [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ba-ni (bni) - covered with, full of

 

a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

ex: ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: a-ga-bliⁿ (gabliⁿ) - fasten to cover on something [Kaw]

 

a-ka-naⁿ-da (kan̨da) - hide something by covering it up with blowing dust, snow, shoveled dirt, etc. a-a-ka-naⁿ-da (akan̨da) - I, a-da-ka-naⁿ-da (dakan̨da) - you

Dhegiha: a-ga-noⁿ-ya (ganoⁿya) - fill up, knock a cover onto, conceal a hole by hitting the ground with a stick [Kaw]

 

a-ka-ti-ze (kattize) - cover, as with snow; said with snow is blown on top of other snow, logs, the ground, etc.

ex: aⁿ-ka-ti-ze (̨kattize) -  cover, as with snow onto me

ex: a-di-ka-ti-ze (dikattize) - cover, as with snow onto you

 

covered

i-ka-bnaⁿ (kabną) - lid, covered

i-ka-bnaⁿ (kabną) - lid, covered up [MS]

cf. a-di-bda (dibda) - spread out one object on another, as a robe on a horse or a table cloth on a table

Dhegiha: btha (btha) - spread, open, to spread, to open, to spread out or to be opened [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ga-btha (agbtha) - spread out, opened up [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-btha (thi-btha) - to spread, to spread a robe or blanket [FL-Osage]; thi-bra (bra) - spread, spread out, as a cloth [CQ-Osage]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

 

wa-ki-za ni-ke (wakkza nik) - covered thickly with wa-ki-za aⁿ-ni-ke (wakkza ̨nike) - Im

cf. wa-ki-za (wakkza) - space, bare spot; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking

ex: bnaⁿ-se wa-ki-za aⁿ-ni-ke (bn̨se wakkza ̨nike) - Im covered with smallpox pustules.

Dhegiha: ki-za (kza) - open forest, trees without undergrowth, including tall grass, sunflowers, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-ki-za (kkiza) - clear, clear patches, places here and there where one can see distant things, as the fog breaks away [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-xa-zhi (dixi) - highland covered with trees

cf. di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill that ate people from Quapaw mythology [JOD]

 

covertly

na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly

cf. na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someone's sg/ly/in object, i + positional + de 'put away'; na-xnaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (naxn̨ in̨de) - hide a sg/si/in object; na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide sg/st/in or collection; na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ (naxn̨ kikn̨) - hide one's own sg/si/in/ or cloth object; na-xnaⁿ knaⁿ (naxn̨ kn̨) - hide someone else's sg/si/in object

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ-ha (noⁿ-xthⁿ-ha) - privacy, retirement, secrecy, underhand, to have a private consultation, to be secretive [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-loⁿ-ha (nąl̨ǫha) - be sneaky, hide, be sly, secretly scheme against someone, go behind someones back, be cunning, hide, conceal, on the sly, covertly [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ) - hide something [Kaw]

 

covet

a-ka-zhi-kde (kakde) - covet the best of anything a-a-ka-zhi-kde (akakde) - I, a-da-ka-zhi-kde (dakakde) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-zhi-kda-we (̨kakaikdawe) - we

 

cow

te ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison + white

te ska (ttesk) - cow [MS, AG, MR, OM]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; ska (ska) - white; te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. "cow (bison + white) without balls"; te-ska te-zhe-ni (ttesk teni) - beer; te-ska wa-xo (ttesk waxʔ) - cow; te-ska zhi-ka (ttesk ik) - calf; te-ska zho (ttesk o) - beef

ex: te-ska a-shi-oⁿ-he tʰaⁿ a-niⁿ-ki (ttska iǫh tʰą an̨k) - bring the ox standing outside (the fence) here

Dhegiha: te-ska (tka) - cow, ox, cattle [Omaha]; ʰtse-ska (ṭs-ka) - white buffalo, domesticated cattle [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ska (ʰceska) - beef, lit., white buffalo, head of cattle, cow, not necessarily female [CQ-Osage]; tse-ska (cesk) - domestic cow, ox [Kaw]

 

te-ska wa-x'o (ttesk waxʔ) - cow

te-ska wa-x'o (teschkah-ŭahŭ) - cow (vache) [GI]

cf. te ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison + white; wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal, wife

 

cow, buffalo cow

te miⁿ (ttem̨) - buffalo cow

te mi (te m) - female name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; miⁿ (mį), mi (mi) - female

ex: te mi haⁿ-ka (tmi ha′k͓a) - female name [JOD]

ex: te mi zhi-ka (tte m ka) - Little Buffalo Girl [MR]

ex: te mi zhi-ka (t mi-j-k͓a) - fem. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Girl; Myrtle Angell [JOD]

                        ex: te mi ki-ta (te m k͓ită′) - female name [JOD]

ex: te mi-te-xi (te m-t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Female Difficult (to be won or captured) [JOD]

Dhegiha: te miⁿ-ga (temⁿga) - female buffalo, buffalo cow [Omaha/Ponca]; te mi-ga (te miga) - buffalo cow [Omaha]; ʰtse mi-ga (ṭse m-ga) - female buffalo, a cow [FL-Osage]; ʰtse miⁿ-ka (ʰceem̨įka) - buffalo cow [CQ-Osage]; tse miⁿ-ga (ce mⁿga) - buffalo cow [Kaw]

 

coward

noⁿ-te zhi (notteh-hin) - coward (lche) [GI]

cf. naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart; zhi (zhi) - not, negation; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

 

o-na-zhi (nai) - coward, to be a coward oⁿ-na-zhi (̨nai) - I, o-di-na-zhi (dini) - you

cf. o-naⁿ-zhi (nąi) - unsuccessful, be disappointed; o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place

Dhegiha: u-ni-zhiⁿ (u-n-zhiⁿ) - coward, craven, timid, the fear of darkness [FL-Osage]; o-niⁿ-zhiⁿ (on̨į) - be afraid or feel fearful [CQ-Osage]; o-niⁿ-zhe (onⁿzhe) - afraid of danger, shrink from the warpath [Kaw]

 

crack

ba-to-zhe (batte) - crack, make sound pushing pa-to-zhe (ppttoe) - I, shpa-to-zhe (pttoe) - you

 

bi-to-zhe (bitte) - crack, make sound by pressure pi-to-zhe (ppttoe) - I, shpi-to-zhe (pttoe) - you

 

da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth bda-to-zhe (bdttoe) - I, ta-to-zhe (ttttoe) -you

 

naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack one's finger joints

 

ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something a-to-zhe (ttoe) - I, da-to-zhe (dttoe) - you

 

naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - crack, make sound by treading a-naⁿ-to-zhe (an̨ttoe) - I, da-naⁿ-to-zhe (dan̨ttoe) - you

 

pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - cracking sound, make with knife pa-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, pa-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you, pa-oⁿ-to-zha-we (Pǫttawe) - we

 

po-to-zhe (pttoe) - crack, make sound thrusting po-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, po-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you

 

ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

di-xi-xe (dixxe) - crack nuts, nutcracker bdi-xi-xe (bdxixe) - I, ti-xi-xe (ttxixe) - you

Dhegiha: xi-xe (qxe) - broken in hollow object, broken in as any hollow object [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ge i-ga-xi-xe (tage igaxixe) - nut cracker [Omaha]; ga-xi-xe (ga-x-xe) - to break or crack hard substance like corn, nuts, etc., by striking [FL-Osage]; ka-xu-xe (kaaxɣe) - split, split open, crack or splinter by sudden impact [CQ-Osage]

 

ka-xi-xe (kaxix), (kaxxe) - crack something, as an egg a-xi-xe (xixe) - I, da-xi-xe (dxixe) - you

Dhegiha: xi-xe (qxe) - broken in hollow object, broken in as any hollow object [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ge i-ga-xi-xe (tage igaxixe) - nut cracker [Omaha]; ga-xi-xe (ga-x-xe) - to break or crack hard substance like corn, nuts, etc., by striking [FL-Osage]; ka-xu-xe (kaaxɣe) - split, split open, crack or splinter by sudden impact [CQ-Osage]

 

di-xnaⁿ-zhe (dixn̨e) - crack something, as an egg bdi-xnaⁿ-zhe (bdxnąe) - I, ti-xnaⁿ-zhe (ttxnąe) - you

cf. xnaⁿ-zha-de (xnąde) - shivered to pieces

Dhegiha: thi-xthoⁿ-zhe (thi-xthⁿ-zhe) - to smash or to squash, as to smash ripe fruit, to pulverize [FL-Osage]; thi-loⁿ-zhe (il̨e) - chop, grind, grind up [CQ-Osage]; yu-xloⁿ-zhe (yuxlⁿzhe) - grind up, mash up, to reduce to small pieces or meal by turning around, as with a millstone, mash something up with your hands [Kaw]

 

ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut as corn

cf. ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

o-ta-na (ottna) - space, crack, interval

Dhegiha: u-taⁿ-na (utaⁿna), u-taⁿ-noⁿ (utaⁿnoⁿ) - between [Omaha]; u-tʰoⁿ-na (utʰⁿna) - between [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰta-noⁿ (u-ṭa-noⁿ) - between [FL-Osage]; o-ʰtaⁿ-naⁿ (oʰt̨ną) - between, in between, the space between things [CQ-Osage]; o-ta-naⁿ (otnaⁿ) - space between two things, e.g. between furrows [Kaw]

 

o-ka-ta-na (okttana) - crack something by handling it

 

o-naⁿ-ta-na (on̨ttana) - crack something by walking on it o-a-naⁿ-ta-na (onąttna) - I, o-da-naⁿ-ta-na (odnąttna) - you, oⁿ-ko-naⁿ-ta-we (ǫknąttwe) - we

 

o-ste (oste) - crack, cracked, split

cf. o-ste-ke (ostke) - crack, split; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; o-di-ste (odste) - split by pulling a knife through; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; o-ka-ste (okste) - split something by striking; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

 

o-ste-ke (ostke) - crack, split

cf. o-ste (oste) - crack, cracked, split; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; o-di-ste (odste) - split by pulling a knife through; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; o-ka-ste (okste) - split something by striking; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

Dhegiha: i u-zne-ge ( uznge) - hare-lipped, cleft lip, to be hare-lipped, have a cleft lip [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ u-stse-ge (ⁿ-u-stse-ge) - a crack in stones or rocks, a crevice [FL-Osage]; stse-ge (scge) - gashed [Kaw]

 

bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed pi-ta-ze (ppttaze) - I, shpi-ta-ze (pttaze) - you

 

da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting bda-ta-ze (bdttaze) - I, ta-ta-ze (ttttaze) - you

 

di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping bdi-ta-ze (bdttaze) - I, ti-ta-ze (ttttaze) - you

cf. naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree lit. cracks across the grain

 

ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks a-ta-ze (ttaze) - I, da-ta-ze (dttaze) - you

 

naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - crack, make noise by stepping a-naⁿ-ta-ze (an̨ttaze) - I, da-naⁿ-ta-ze (dan̨ttaze) - you

Dhegiha: naⁿ-do-ze (naⁿdze) - crack ice by stepping on it [Kaw]

 

ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

Dhegiha: ʰta-ʰta-ze (ṭa-ṭa-e) - ticking [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ʰta-ze (ʰtʰtaze) - tick (e.g., clock or insect making noise), clatter (e.g., typewriter keys), grasshopper, cricket (lit., makes a whizzing noise), ticking, tapping, whizzing, or clicking sound [CQ-Osage]; ta-ta-se (tatse) - ticking, the sound of a clock [Kaw] . da-da-ze (ddaze) - give off sparks [Kaw]; da-da-da-ze (d-da-da-e) - to throw out sparks, throwing out sparks, as do some kinds of wood when burning [FL-Osage]; da-da-da-ze (ddadze) - give off sparks or rays in the shape of a fan [Kaw]

 

cramp

di-ko-ke (dikkke) - cramp in the legs (only) bdi-ko-ke (bdkkoke) - I, ti-ko-ke (ttkkoke) - you

cf. hi di-ko (hi dkko) - lame, springhalt, be lame (horses); hi di-ko (hi dkko) - cripple [OM)]

Dhegiha: thi-ku (thi k) - cramp, convulsion [Omaha]; thi-ʰku-ge (thi-ḳ-ge) - a cramp [FL-Osage]; yu-ko-ge (yukge) - be cramped [Kaw]

 

di-ti-ke (dittke) - have an arm or body cramp aⁿ-di-ti-ke (ądttike) - I, di-di-ti-ke (didttike) - you

 

crane

pe-tʰaⁿ (pptʰą) - crane, greyish-blue

Dhegiha: pe-toⁿ (ptoⁿ) - crane bird [Omaha]; pe-ʰtoⁿ (p̣e-ṭoⁿ) - crane, long-legged and long-necked bird [FL-Osage]; be-khaⁿ (bkhaⁿ) - crane [Kaw]; ʰpe-ʰtoⁿ ska (p̣-ṭoⁿ ka) - the white crane [FL-Osage]; pe-kʰaⁿ ska (p̣kʰaⁿ ska),  be-kʰaⁿ ska (bkʰaⁿ ska) - whooping crane [Kaw]; ʰpe-ʰtoⁿ xo-dse (p̣-ṭoⁿ xo-dse) - the gray crane [FL-Osage]; pe-kʰaⁿ xo-je (pkʰaⁿ xje) - gray crane [Kaw]; ʰpe-ʰtoⁿ hiu stse-dse (p̣-ṭoⁿ hiu-stse-dse) - long legged crane, sandhill crane [FL-Osage]; pe-kʰaⁿ ta-hu yu-shiⁿ-zhe (pkʰaⁿ thu yushⁿzhe) - crooked necked crane [Kaw]

 

pe-tʰaⁿ zhi-ka (p-taⁿ j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa pe-tʰaⁿ (petaⁿ) or Crane gens; Young Crane. This name is borne by Amos New-House [JOD]

cf. pe-tʰaⁿ (pptʰą) - crane, greyish-blue; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little, young

 

pe-tʰaⁿ e-ni-ka-shi-ka (ptaⁿ nikack͓a) - the Crane gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

 

ho-ka-xe-ka (hokkγekka) - a type of crane

 

crank

di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill bdi-taⁿ-ha (bdttąha) - I, ti-taⁿ-ha (ttttąha) - you

cf. wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal from di-taⁿ-ha (dittąha) - to crank; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

 

crawfish

maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shka (moⁿshka) - shrimp, crab, lobster, crayfish [Omaha]; moⁿ-shkoⁿ (mⁿ-shkoⁿ) - crawfish [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shka (mⁿshka) - crawfish, crawdad [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-shka haⁿ-ka (maⁿcka hak͓a) - masculine name, Ancestral or First Crawfish [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens

 

maⁿ-shka mi te-xi (man′cka mi tqi) - female name, Crawfish Female Difficult (to be won or captured?) [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; te-xi (ttexi) - difficult, hard to do, sacred, precious

 

maⁿ-shka taⁿ-ka (man′cka taka) - female name, Large/Big Crawfish [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

maⁿ-shka xo-we (maⁿ′cka quwĕ) - masculine name, husband of old Mrs. Crawfish; Crawfish [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

 

maⁿ-shka zhi-ka (man′cka jik͓) - masculine name, Young/Little Crawfish [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little, young

 

maⁿ-shka-iⁿ (ma-ckaⁿ′-iⁿ), (maⁿckiⁿ) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Crawfish. Sister of kde-taⁿ sa (ktet͓aⁿ sa), married a Modoc [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish

 

crawl

miⁿ-te (mįtt) - crawl, creep a-miⁿ-te (am̨tte) - I, da-miⁿ-te (dam̨tte) - you

Dhegiha: mi-de (mide) - creep, crawl, crawling [Omaha]; miⁿ-de (miⁿd) - crawl [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ-dse (miⁿ-ds) - to creep, to crawl on the hands and knees [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-je (mⁿje) - crawl, creep on the hands and knees [Kaw]

 

ki-kdi-sto-we (kkikdstowe) - crawl on one's stomach a-ki-kdi-sto-we (akkkdistwe) - I, da-ki-kdi-sto-we (dakkkdistwe) - you

cf. a-sto-we (stowe) - slide; di-sto-we (distwe) - lead, pull along

 

crazy

wa-haⁿ-ka zhi  (whǫki) - wild, crazy, ill behaved aⁿ-wa-hoⁿ-ka zhi (ąwhǫki) - I, di-wa-hoⁿ-ka zhi (diwhǫki) - you

wa-haⁿ-ka zhi (whąk i) - crazy, wild [MS, AG, MW]

cf. wa-hoⁿ-ka (whǫk) - to be well behaved

ex: wa-x'o wa-haⁿ-ka zhi (uahŭ-uahunkajih) - whore, hooker (putain) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-hoⁿ-ga zhi (whoⁿgazhi) - fearless, unafraid of the cold, not to be afraid of the cold, as said of one who does not seek a shelter, but continues traveling on foot or horseback [Kaw]

 

na-xe-ska zhi (nγeskai) - crazy

naⁿ-she-ska zhi (ną́eska i) - crazy [OM]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ghe-ska zhi (nⁿgheskzhi) - stupefied from fright after talking with or dreaming of the spirits, lit. "not wise; not of clear of mind" [Kaw]

 

creak

di-kiⁿ-te (dikįtt) - creak, to make creak by pulling bdi-kiⁿ-te (bdkįtte) - I, ti-kiⁿ-te (ttkįtte) - you

cf. ba-kiⁿ-te (bak̨tte) - play, accordion or violin; ba-kiⁿ-to-zha (bak̨ttoa) - fiddle dance, whiteman's dance; wa-kiⁿ-te (wak̨tte) - accordion, fiddle

Dhegiha: thi-gi-dse (thi-g-dse) - to creak, a sharp squeaking sound, as a loose board [FL-Osage]

 

credit

ni-zhi (ni) - credit, a debt

cf. ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone

 

ni-zhi di-ze (ni diz) - buy on credit ni-zhi bdi-ze (ni bdze) - I, ni-zhi ti-ze (ni ttze) - you

cf. ni-zhi (ni) - credit, a debt; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive

 

wa-di-ze (wadze) - credit, debt

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ze (wa-th-e) - to seize, to default, or failure to catch up with ones debts [FL-Osage]

 

wa-di-ze a-ki-niⁿ (wadze kinį) - owe something to someone wa-di-ze a-ki-bniⁿ (wadze kibnį) - I, wa-di-ze a-ki-tiⁿ (wadze dakittį) - you

cf. wa-di-ze (wadze) - credit, debt; a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ze a-thi ⁿ(wa-th-e a-thiⁿ) - indebted [FL-Osage]

 

wa-di-ze di-ze (wadze diz) - to get goods on credit

cf. wa-di-ze (wadze) - credit, debt; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive

 

creek

wa-tʰi-shka (watʰka) - creek

wa-tʰi-shka (watʰka) - river [MS]

wa-tʰi-shka (ŭāhtĭschkā) - bayou or creek (baou ou crik, crique) [GI]

wa-tʰi-shka (wat'Ga) - river [FV]

ex: wa-tʰi-shka wa-sh'a-ke hi (watʰka waʔke hi) - big river [MS]

ex: ni-sni wa-tʰishka (nsni watʰka) - Spring River, I.T.

Dhegiha: wa-chʰi-shka (wachʰshka) - creek, stream [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-chi-shka (wachshka) - creek, brook [Omaha]; wa-ʰtsi-shka (wa-ṭsi-shka) - a brook, obsolete among the Osage, but still used by the Omaha [FL-Osage]; wa-chiⁿ-shka (wachⁿshka) - river, small, a stream or creek, archaic [Kaw]

 

creek, Five Mile Creek

i-kaⁿ-ska-de sa-taⁿ wa-tʰi-shka (kąskde sattą watʰika) - Five Mile Creek, I.T.

cf. i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five; wa-tʰi-shka (watʰka) - creek

 

creek, Sweet Potato Creek

to ski-de ni (to skde ni) - sweet potato creek, home of the Quapaws before 1861 according to JOD

cf. to ski-de (to skde) - sweet potato; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

 

Creek Indians

ma-shko-ki (makki) - Creek Indians [MS]

ma-shko-ki (mo-ck-k͓i) - Creek Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shko-ge (moⁿ-shk-ge) - the Osage name for the Creek Tribe of Indians [FL-Osage]; mu-sko-ke (muskke) - Creek Indians [CQ-Osage]; moⁿ-shko-ge (moⁿshkge) - Creek tribe, Muskogee [Kaw]

 

creep

miⁿ-te (mįtt) - crawl, creep a-miⁿ-te (am̨tte) - I, da-miⁿ-te (dam̨tte) - you

Dhegiha: mi-de (mide) - creep, crawl, crawling [Omaha]; miⁿ-de (miⁿd) - crawl [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ-dse (miⁿ-ds) - to creep, to crawl on the hands and knees [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-je (mⁿje) - crawl, creep on the hands and knees [Kaw]

 

crest

shiⁿ-te hi (įtthi) - hip, crest of the ilium

cf. shiⁿ-te hi ka-xa-kde (įtthi kxakd) - pelvis, hips

Dhegiha: siⁿ-de hi (siⁿdhi) - hip bone [Omaha/Ponca]; siⁿ-ne hi (iⁿ-ne hi) - hips [Omaha]; siⁿ-dse hi (iⁿ-dse hi) - hip bone [FL-Osage]

 

cricket

to-zi-zi-ta  (ttziztta) - cricket

to-zi-zi-ta (ttziztta) - cricket [MS] 

 

cripple

hi di-ko (hi dkko) - cripple [OM]

hi di-ko (hi dkko) - lame, springhalt, be lame (horses)

cf. hi (hi) - leg, stalk, tree, bush, vine

 

crisscrossed

a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.

cf. a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - cross roads; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream

ex: a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-thi-te u-ga-doⁿ (kʰithte ugdoⁿ) - to nail on crosswise, to crucify [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-thi-tse (-ḳi-thi-tse) - that which lies across the breast [FL-Osage]

 

criticize

            da-zho-zhi (dai) - insult, criticize bda-zho-zhi (bdoi) - I, ta-zho-zhi (ttoi) - you

Dhegiha: tha-zhu-zhi (tha-zh-zhi) - to insult by word, to speak of one with contempt [FL-Osage]; tha-zho-zhi (aai) - insult by word, speak ill, slander, malign, belittle [CQ-Osage]

crooked

kaⁿ-ka (kkąkk) - crooked

 

pa kaⁿ-ka (pp kkąkk) - crooked nose, a trader's nickname

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; kaⁿ-ka (kkąkk) - crooked

 

koiⁿ-xe (kįγe) - crooked, curved, misaligned

 

ko-zhe (ke) - crooked

cf. di-ko-zhe (dike) - bend something; a di-ko-zhe ( dike) - bend the arm; di-ko-ko-zhe (dikkoe) - zigzag

            Dhegiha: thi-hu-zhe (thguzhe) - crooked [Omaha]

 

crop short

ni-zhi-ha a-di-ski (niha diski) - shave the head, crop short

cf. ni-zhi-ha (niha) - hair of the human head; a-di-ski (diski) - cut off all the hair, shave; we-da-di-ski (wdadski) - scissors

 

cross, angry

o-xnaⁿ (xną) - angry, irritated, cross

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - mean dog [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

Dhegiha: u-xthoⁿ shtoⁿ (-xthoⁿ-shtoⁿ) - to be cross, disagreeable [FL-Osage]; xthoⁿ (xthoⁿ) - to sulk, pout, peeved [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (lą, olą), o-loⁿ (ol̨ǫ), o-dla (dla) - pout, sulk, sulky [CQ-Osage]; loⁿ (l̨), laⁿ (l̨) - mad, angry [CQ-Osage]

 

o-xnaⁿ ka-xe (xną kγe) - to make angry, cross

cf. o-xnaⁿ (xną) - angry, irritated, cross; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

cross a stream

di-te (ditt) - cross a stream bdi-te (bdtte) - I, ti-te (tttte) - you

cf. ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfishs name [MS]; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other

Dhegiha: ni u-thi-ʰtse (ni--thi-ṭse) - to cross a ford [FL-Osage]; yu-tse (yuc) - cross, as a stream [Kaw]

 

ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream ni bdi-te bde (ni bdtte bd) - I, ni ti-te te (ni tttte tt) - you

cf. ni (ni) - water; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; de (de) - go

 

wa-di-te (wadtte) - Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfishs name [MS]

wa-di-te (wadtĕ) - masculine name, Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish [JOD]

wa-jhi (waǰ) - Harry Crawfish's name [AG]

cf. di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other

 

a-ni-zho-he (nihe) - ford a stream a-ni-zho-he (nihe) - I, a-da-ni-zho-he (danihe) - you

cf. ni (ni) - water; zho-he (ohe) - ford, wade

Dhegiha: ni-zhu-he (nzhuhe) - wade [Omaha]; zhu-he (zhhe) - to ford a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-he (zh-he) - to ford or wade a stream [FL-Osage]; zho-pshe (pe) - wade [CQ-Osage]; ni zho-pʰe (ni zhphe) - to ford, to wade in

shallow water [Kaw]

 

crossing each other

a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other

cf. di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - masculine name, Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish [MS]; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - crossroads; a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.

 

a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.

cf. di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - masculine name, Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish [MS]; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - crossroads;

ex: a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

 

crossroad

o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - crossroads

cf. o-zhoⁿ-ke (ǫke) - road; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - masculine name, Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish [MS]

 

crosswise

kda-kaⁿ (kdkką), kda-kʰaⁿ (kdkʰą) - crosswise, across

cf. ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ (ttttikdakʰ̨) - across the wind, as when a boat tacks; ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind;

Dhegiha: ta-de gtha-kʰoⁿ (tad gthkʰoⁿ) - across the wind, perpendicular to the wind direction [Omaha/Ponca]

 

cross timbers

sa-ti o-kdaⁿ oⁿ-he (stti kdą ǫh) - joists, cross timbers of house

cf. sa-ti o-kdaⁿ (stti kdą) - ceiling of a house; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ʰtsiu-he (zhⁿ ṭsiu-he) - the ridgepole of a house of tent [FL-Osage]

 

crow

ma (ma), maⁿ (mą) - crow, corvus brachyrynchos

ma (m) - crow [MS]

 

crow blackbird

maⁿ kdi-xtaⁿ taⁿ-ka (mąkdxtą tt̨ka) - crow blackbird

cf. maⁿ-kdi-xtaⁿ a-hi zhi-te (mąkdxtą hi tte) - redwinged blackbird; maⁿ-kdi-xtaⁿ xo-te (mąkdxtą xtte) - starling

Dhegiha: moⁿ-gthi-xta (moⁿgthixta) - blackbird, grackle bird, starling bird [Omaha]; maⁿ-li-xta (maⁿlxta) - blackbird [Kaw]; maⁿ-li-xta a-hu ska (maⁿlxta hu sk) - the white winged blackbird [Kaw]; maⁿ-li-xta a-hu zhu-je (maⁿlxta hu zhje) - the red winged blackbird [Kaw]; maⁿ-li-xta a-hu zi-hi (maⁿlxta hu zhi) - the yellow winged or headed blackbird [Kaw]; maⁿ-li-xta pa-zi (maⁿlxta pzi) - yellow winged and headed blackbird [Kaw]; maⁿ-li-xta sa-be (maⁿlxta sbe) - blackbird, the crow, blackbird [Kaw]; maⁿ-ga e-go (mⁿga go) - blackbird with black and white markings [Kaw]

 

crow, raven

ka-xe (kkγe) - raven

ka-xe (chah-cheh) - crow, raven (corbeau) [GI]

Dhegiha: ka-xe (kxe) - crow [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳ-xe) - crow [FL-Osage]; ʰka-xe (ʰkɣe) - crow [CQ-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - crow [Kaw]

 

ka-xe (ka-xe) - masculine name of the Kwapa pe-tʰaⁿ (petaⁿ) or Crane gens; Raven

            Dhegiha: ka-ghe (kagh) - Crow, male name [Kaw]

 

ka-xe haⁿ-ka (kqe ha′k͓a) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens

 

ka-xe ki-aⁿ (kqe kaⁿ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; ki-aⁿ (kį), ki-oⁿ (kį) - fly, as birds

 

ka-xe kwa-niⁿ (kqe kwniⁿ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven

 

ka-xe noⁿ-ba (kqe naⁿp͓) - masculine name, 2 crows [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Dhegiha: ʰka-xe thoⁿ-ba (ḳ-xe-thoⁿ-ba) - Two Crows, personal name, refers to the feathers used in making the staff of authority in buffalo hunting [FL-Osage]

 

ka-xe noⁿ-ba niⁿ (k-xe nŭⁿ′-p͓a nyiⁿ′), (kqe naⁿp͓ niⁿ) - masculine name of the (Kwapa) hu-inikaciga or Fish gens: Two Ravens in Motion [ JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; niⁿ (nį) - 3sg continuative aux moving

 

ka-xe sa (kaqĕ′ să) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; sa (sa) - black

Dhegiha: ka-xe sa-be (kax sabe) - Black Crow [Omaha]

 

ka-xe taⁿ-ka (kqe tak͓) - masculine name, Large Raven [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

ka-xe tʰi-de (kqe tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by

            Dhegiha: ka-xe ka-ti-the (kaxkatithe) - Crow Sound Passing, male name [Omaha]

 

ka-xe to-ha niⁿ (k-xe t-ha niⁿ′) - masculine name of the (Kwapa) oⁿpaⁿ gens; Raven that ____, the head man of the gens [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven;

 

ka-xe wa-kaⁿ-ta (kqe wakata) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wakǫ́ta) - spirit, God

 

ka-xe zhi-ka (k-xe j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa pe-tʰaⁿ or Crane gens, Young Raven

ka-xe zhi-ka (kaqĕ jik͓a), (kxe jk͓a) - masculine name Little Crow, younger bro of Mrs. S [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

 

crowd

ba-ki-ki-za (bakkkkiza) - push through a crowd pa-ki-ki-za (ppkkikkza) - I, shpa-ki-ki-za (pkkikkza) - you

cf. wa-ki-za (wakkza) - space, bare spot; di-ki-ki-za (dikkkkiza) - clean up, put house in order; di-ki-za (dikkza) - clean up, put things away

Dhegiha: ki-ki-za (kkiza) - clear, clear patches, places here and there where one can see distanct things, as the fog breaks away [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-za (kza) - open forest, trees without undergrowth, including tall grass, sunflowers, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

 

crowded

a-ki-sho-ka (kkika) - crowded, thick, dense, plentiful

cf. sho-ka (ok) - thick; di-sho-ka (diok) - roughen, to callous

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

Dhegiha: a-ki-shu-ga (aki shuga) - dense [Omaha]; a-kʰi-shu-ga (kʰishga) - thick, dense, crowded, plentiful, as leaves on the ground or houses close together [Omaha/Ponca]; a-kʰi-sho-ga (-ḳi-sho-ga) - dense, density, dense crowd, a dense forest [FL-Osage]

 

crown of the head

ta-xpi (ttaxp) - top or crown of head

ex: ta-xpi niⁿ-kʰe (ttaxp-nįkʰe) - the top of the head

Dhegiha: ta-xpi (taqp) - top of the head, crown [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xpi (taxp) - top of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-xpi (ṭa-xp) - crown of the head FL-Osage]; ta-xpu (taxp) - crown of the head, top of the head [Kaw]

 

crumble

bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces pi-to-we (ppttowe) - I, shpi-to-we (pttowe) - you

cf. ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of it's own accord

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu-be (batube) - crush, to crush on something by punching, pounding, or ramming [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-tu-be (bitbe) - crumble, to make something crumble by weight or pressure, as an old log or stump [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-tu-be (gtube) - crumble [Omaha]; tha-tu-be (thtube) - crush with the teeth, chew [Omaha]; ba-ʰto-be (b-ṭo-be) - to slice, to cut up [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]; ba-to-be (batbe) - grind, pound fine [Kaw]; yu-to-we (yutwe), yu-to-be (yutbe) - plow, break virgin ground, to grind, grind up [Kaw]; i-yu-to-we (yutowe), i-yu-to-be (yutobe) - tear something up [Kaw]

 

to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of it's own accord

cf. ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu-be (batube) - crush, to crush on something by punching, pounding, or ramming [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-tu-be (bitbe) - crumble, to make something crumble by weight or pressure, as an old log or stump [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-tu-be (gtube) - crumble [Omaha]; tha-tu-be (thtube) - crush with the teeth, chew [Omaha]; ba-ʰto-be (b-ṭo-be) - to slice, to cut up [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]; ba-to-be (batbe) - grind, pound fine [Kaw]; yu-to-we (yutwe), yu-to-be (yutbe) - plow, break virgin ground, to grind, grind up [Kaw]; i-yu-to-we (yutowe), i-yu-to-be (yutobe) - tear something up [Kaw]

 

crunch

da-bna-bna-xe (dabnbnaγe) - crunch food when eating

Dhegiha: u-tha-bthoⁿ-xe (u-th-bthoⁿ-xe) - to crunch, crunched within [FL-Osage]; ya-bloⁿ-bkoⁿ-ghe (yablⁿbloⁿghe) - crunch while eating, as in eating ice [Kaw]

 

da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth bda-to-zhe (bdttoe) - I, ta-to-zhe (ttttoe) -you

cf. ba-to-zhe (batte) - crack, make sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - crack, make sound by pressure; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack one's finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - crack, make sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - cracking sound, make with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - crack, make sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

crupper

siⁿ-ti-oⁿ-he (sįttįhe) - crupper, saddle strap, a piece of tack used on horses to keep a saddle, harness or other equipment from sliding forward

cf. siⁿ-te (s̨tte) - tail; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

Dhegiha: siⁿ-dse oⁿ-he (iⁿ-dse oⁿ-he), siⁿ-dse u-oⁿ-he (ⁿ-dse u-oⁿ-he) - crupper, tail - lay [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-je o-he (sⁿje oh) - crupper of a saddle/harness [Kaw]

 

crush

bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize pi-taⁿ-ha (ppttąha) - I, shpi-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - you

cf. ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

 

naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits a-naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (an̨ttąha) - I, da-naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (dan̨ttąha) - you

cf. ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

 

bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break, crush pi-xoⁿ (ppxǫ) - I, shpi-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - you

bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break [MS]

cf. da-xoⁿ (dax̨) - break by biting; di-xoⁿ (dix̨) - break, as a stick with the hands; ka-xoⁿ (kax̨) - break something by hitting it; a-ka-xoⁿ (kaxǫ) - break something by striking another object; pa-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - cut apart, disjoint; po-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - shoot in two, break punching

Dhegiha: bi-xoⁿ (bixoⁿ) - fracture [Omaha]; bi-xoⁿ (bi-xⁿ) - to break down, to crease [FL-Osage]; pi-xoⁿ (pix̜) - break down, presumably by blowing upon [CQ-Osage]; bi-xoⁿ (bixⁿ) - break something by sitting on it [Kaw]

 

crutch

i-sa-kde (sakd) - cane, walking stick, crutch

i-sa-kde (sakd) - cane [MS]

Dhegiha: i-sa-gthe (sagthe) - forked stick, like those used for hanging kettles over a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; i-sa-gthe (-a-gthe) - a post planted in the ground, a cane or walking stick [FL-Osage]; i-sa (isa) - cane, walking stick, crutch [CQ-Osage]; i-sa-le (sale) - cane, crutch [Kaw]

 

cry

xa-ke (γak) - cry, weep a-xa-ke (aγke) - I, da-xa-ke (daγke) - you

xa-ke (hah-kieh) - cry, weep (pleurer) [GI]

cf. di-xa-ke (diγke) - cry, cause by squeezing; wa-zhiⁿ aⁿ-xa-ke (wą ̨γak) - mocking bird, lit. crying bird

ex: xa-ke niⁿ (γak nį) - crying (he/she is crying) [MS]

Dhegiha: xa-ge (xag) -cry, squeal [Omaha/Ponca]; xa-ge (xa-g) - to weep or to cry, lamentation [FL-Osage]; xa-ke (γaak) - cry [CQ-Osage]; gʰa-ge (gʰag) - cry, weep [Kaw]

 

di-xa-ke (diγke) - cry, cause by squeezing bdi-xa-ke (bdγake) - I, ti-xa-ke (ttγake) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; xa-ke (γak) - cry, weep; wa-zhiⁿ aⁿ-xa-ke (wą ̨γak) - mocking bird, lit. crying bird

 

di-xda-xda-zhe (dixdxdae) - make cry in weak voice bdi-xda-xda-zhe (bdxdaxdae)  -I, ti-xda-xda-zhe (ttxdaxdae) - you

Dhegiha: xtha-zhe (qthazh) - to scream out, like a young animal calling its mother [Omaha/Ponca]; xtha-xtha-zhe (qthaqthzhe) - to scream out often, like a young animal calling its mother [Omaha/Ponca]

 

haⁿ-haⁿ-haⁿ (h̨hąh̨) - oh oh oh, cry of pain

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (hⁿ! hoⁿ! hⁿ!) - ouch, interjection of pain, ow!, ouch! [Omaha/Ponca]

 

cry out

bda-se (bdas) - shout, cry out (human) a-bda-se (abdse) - I, da-bda-se (dabdse) - you, oⁿ-bda-sa-we (ǫbdsawe) - we

cf. bda-se de-de (bdas ded) - shout to one at a distance

 

ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar

ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

cf. ho (ho) - voice; naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on; ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw] . hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person big voice, loud voice, or rough voice. [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on a-naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (an̨hottą) - I, da-naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (dan̨hottą) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ho (ho) - voice; ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar; ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]; ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw] . hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person big voice, loud voice, or rough voice. [Kaw]

 

zi-we (ziw) - scream, cry out as a woman a-zi-we (azwe) - I, da-zi-we (dazwe) - you, oⁿ-zi-wa-we (ǫzwawe) - we

 

cultivate

i-xaⁿ (xʔ̨), i-xoⁿ (ixʔ̨) - hoe, cultivate i-da-xaⁿ (idxʔą) - I, i-da-xaⁿ (daxʔą) - you

cf. we-xaⁿ (wxʔą) - hoe, iron weeding hoe

Dhegiha: i-oⁿ (oⁿ) - cultivate [Omaha]; i-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to cultivate growing corn, beans, and squash [FL-Osage]

 

naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity naⁿ-hoⁿ-a-de (naⁿ-hoⁿ-a-de) - I, naⁿ-hoⁿ-da-de (naⁿ-hoⁿ-da-de) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - girl, young; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - father's older brother, man's; wa-x'o naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

cup

ni i-da-taⁿ (ni dattą́) - cup, with which to drink water [MS]

ni-da-taⁿ (ndatt̨) - cup, drinking glass

cf. ni (ni) - water; i () - with which to; da-taⁿ (dattą́) - drink

Dhegiha: ni i-tha-toⁿ (ni ithatoⁿ) - cup [Omaha]; ni i-tha-ʰtoⁿ (n i-tha-ṭoⁿ) - cup, mug, drinking glass, drinking cup, tankard, dipper [FL-Osage]; ni i-tha-ʰtaⁿ (niaaʰtą) - dipper, lsdle, lit., with which to drink water [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni i-ya-taⁿ (zhⁿni iytaⁿ) - dipper, cup made of wood [Kaw]

 

ni-da-taⁿ-i-yaⁿ ka-tʰe (nidttąiy̨ katʰ) - ladle out with a cup

cf. ni-da-taⁿ (ndatt̨) - cup, drinking glass; i-yaⁿ (iy̨) - i + oⁿ (i + ʔǫ) with, by means of; ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that st/iv/in or that cl/iv/in

 

ti-ke (ttke) - cup, ladle made of horn, refers to clam shell spoon etymologically

ti-ke (ttke) - dipper [MS]

ti-ke (tī gĕ) - wooden spoon, from Francis Good Eagle [MH]

cf. ma-ze ti-ke (maze ttke) - spoon, metal spoon; te-he ti-ke (tteh ttke) - buffalo horn spoon; ti-ke ma-ni (ttke mni) - clam

Dhegiha: ʰtsiu-ge (ṭsiu-ge) - a spoon, a shell spoon, before metal spoons were known to the Indians shells were used for spoons [FL-Osage]; ʰtsu-ke (ʰcke) - spoon, abalone shell, Osage spoons were originally clamshells from creeks, used only for scraping corn, with little ones for children, larger ones for adults, this term is now used for spoons of other materials such as metal, plastic, or wood [CQ-Osage]

 

zhaⁿ o-zhi (ą o), zhoⁿ o-zhi (̨ o) - dipper or cup of wood

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill

 

curl

be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral

cf. be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms candy; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, literally, twisted tobacco; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands; ni-zhi- ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

curly

ni-zhi-ha shi-ke (niha ke) - hair, curly

ni-zhi-ha shi-ke (niha ke) - curly hair [MS]

cf. ni-zhi-ha (niha) - hair of the human head; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly

 

 

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