English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

M

 

 machine, fail in walking or with machine

naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ną̨i) - fail in walking or with machine a-naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (an̨įi) - I, da-naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (dan̨įi) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; zhi (-i) - negative, not; ba-iⁿ-zhi (bąi) - fail or miss pushing at something; bi-iⁿ-zhi (bįi) - fail/miss pressing/blowing; da-iⁿ-zhi (dąi) - fail using the mouth, voice; di-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - fail in pulling, rowing, etc.; ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking; pa-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - fail in cutting or sawing; ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough

Dhegiha: naⁿ-iⁿ-ba-zhi (naⁿⁿbazhi), naⁿ-iⁿ-ba-zhe (naⁿⁿbazhe) - fail walking, running, or working machinery due to an imperfection [Kaw]

 

made of beadwork that is sewed on, necklace

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ a-ba-tʰe (wan̨ʔį abtʰe) - necklace made of beadwork that is sewed on

cf. wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads, necklace, necktie, neckerchief, something worn around the neck; a (a) - on, upon; ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-tʰe (ba-tʰ) - sew, to sew [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-tse (ba-ts) - to sew [FL-Osage]; pa-tsʰe (paacʰ) - sew [CQ-Osage]; ba-che (bach) - sew [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-che (bache) - sew something on [Kaw]

 

made of deers tail, headdress/roach

ta siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte kną) - roach (headdress) [MS]

ta siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ta sīⁿte ga na), (ta sīⁿ tē aga na) - head dress of deer hair and turkey beard, with bone standard and tube, from George Red Eagle and John Quapaw [MH]

ta siⁿ-te wa-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte wkną) - roach made of a deers tail

cf. ta (tta) - deer; siⁿ-te (s̨tt), (sįtt) - tail; ta siⁿ-te (ttas̨tte) - deers tail; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put, put on, put a object upon a surface; ta siⁿ-te sha (tta sįtt ) - black tailed deer; ta siⁿ-te ska (tta sįtt ska) - white tailed deer

Dhegiha: ʰta siⁿ-dse a-gthoⁿ (ṭa-ⁿ-dse a-gthoⁿ) - deers tail headdress. a warriors decoration [FL-Osage]; ʰta siⁿ-tse (ʰtaas̨įce) - headdress, lit., deer tail [CQ-Osage]; ta siⁿ-je wa-laⁿ (tasⁿje walⁿ) - roach, deer tail headdress [Kaw]

 

made of deerskin or buckskin, leggings

ta-ha hi-niⁿ-ke (ta ha hǐ nǐ kya) - buckskin leggings, from Louis Angel Tallchief [MH]

cf. ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; hi-niⁿ-ke (hin̨ke), hi-ni-ke (hinke) - leggings

Dhegiha: ta-xti ha (tqtiha) - deer hide, deer skin [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta ha (ṭa-ha) - deer skin [FL-Osage]; ʰta ha (ʰtaaha) - buckskin, deerskin [CQ-Osage]; ta ha (tah) - deerskin [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu-iⁿ-ge (hi-iⁿ-ge) - leggings (mans) [FL-Osage]; hu-iⁿ-ke (huįke), hiⁿ-oⁿ-ke (h̨įǫke) - hosiery, stockings, socks, leggings [CQ-Osage]; hu-yoⁿ-ge (hyoⁿge), hu-yu-yiⁿ-ge (hyuyiⁿge) - leggings [Kaw]

 

made of deerskin or buckskin, shirt

ta-ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - mans shirt, coat, tunic; made of buckskin

cf. ta-ha (ttah) - deerskin; o-ki-kda-xda (okkkdaxda), o-ki-kdi-xda (okkkdixda) - shirt

Dhegiha: ta-xti ha (tqtiha) - deer hide, deer skin [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta ha (ṭa-ha) - deer skin [FL-Osage]; ʰta ha (ʰtaaha) - buckskin, deerskin [CQ-Osage]; ta ha (tah) - deerskin [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰku-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ) - clothes, literally, that which one puts oneself into [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰku-laⁿ (ʰkulą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in a shirt or dress, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-lo-xla (kiloxla), o-ki-laⁿ-xla (kilaⁿxla) - clothes, coat, shirt, tunic [Kaw]

 

made of deerskin or buckskin, shoes

ta ha hoⁿ-pe (ttah hǫp) - moccasins made of deerskin

cf. ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; hoⁿ-be (hǫb), hoⁿ-pe (hǫp) - shoe, moccasin

Dhegiha: ta-xti ha (tqtiha) - deer hide, deer skin [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta ha (ṭa-ha) - deer skin [FL-Osage]; ʰta ha (ʰtaaha) - buckskin, deerskin [CQ-Osage]; ta ha (tah) - deerskin [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-be (hiⁿ-b) - moccasins [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-be (hiⁿbe) - moccasins [Omaha]; hoⁿ-be (hoⁿ-b) - moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-pe (hǫǫp) - moccasins, shoes [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-be (haⁿb), hoⁿ-be (hoⁿb) - shoes, moccasins [Kaw]

 

made of eagle skins, headdress

xi-da o-kdaⁿ-ke (xid okn̨ke) - headdress made of eagle skins

cf. xi-da (xid) - eagle; o-kdaⁿ-ke (kdąke) - hat or cap

Dhegiha: xi-tha u-gthoⁿ-ge (xi-tha--gthoⁿ-ge) - eagle feather headdress [FL-Osage]; xu-tha-laⁿ-ke (xal̨ke) - eagle headdress [CQ-Osage]; xu-ya o-laⁿ-ge (xuy olⁿge), xu-yo-laⁿ-ge  (xuylaⁿge) - war bonnet, a headdress made of eagle feathers or of entire eagles [Kaw]

 

made, cracking sound made by burning

ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting

 

made, done, to have caused

ka-xe-ye (kγeye) - made, done, to have caused pa-xe-ye (ppγeye) - I, shka-xe-ye (kγeye) - you

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; ye (-ye), e (-e) - past suffix, perfective aspect; ye (-ye) - past, incl. all motion verbs

 

maggot, worm

wa-kdi (wakd) - worm, maggot

cf. wa-kdi-shka (wakdka), wa-xti-shka (waxtka) - insect, reptile

Dhegiha: wa-gthi (wagthi) - maggots [Omaha]; wa-gthi (wagthi) - worm [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-gthi (wa-gth) - maggot [FL-Osage]; wa-le (wal) - maggots [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-gthi-shka (wagthshka) - beetle; bug; insect; termite; all worms [Omaha]; wa-gthi-shka (wagthshka) - insect, reptile, snake [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-gthu-shka (wa-gth-shka) - bug; any kind of bug; a worm; an insect [FL-Osage]; wa-lu-shka (walka) - bug, insect, worm, vermin, joker (in a deck of cards) [CQ-Osage]; wa-lu-shka (walshka) - insect, bug, worm [Kaw]

 

maize, corn

wa-tʰaⁿ-zi (watʰ̨zi) - corn, maize, squaw corn

wa-tʰaⁿ-ze (watʰą́ze), wa-tʰo-zi (watʰzi) - corn [MS, AB, FR, OM]

wa-tʰoⁿ-ze (ŭah-tonseh) - corn (mas) [GI]

wa-tʰaⁿ-zi (wa˙t'̨zi) - corn, maize [FV]

wa-tʰoⁿ-ze (wa˙t'̨ze) - corn, maize [VG]

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ-zi hi (watʰ̨zi h) - cornstalk; wa-tʰaⁿ-zi si (wtʰąz si) - corn, grains of corn; wa-tʰaⁿ-ze a-hoⁿ di-shiⁿ (watʰ̨ze hǫ dį) - bread of corn [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-taⁿ-zi (wa-tⁿ-zi) - corn [JOD-Omaha]; wa-toⁿ-zi (watoⁿi) - corn [Omaha]; wa-toⁿ-zi (wa-tⁿ-i) - corn [FL-Osage]; wa-txa-zu (watxzu) - dried corn, preparation of dried corn soup [CQ-Osage]; wa-kho-zu (wakhzu) - corn of any kind [Kaw]

 

make

ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause pa-xe (ppγe) - I, shka-xe (kγe) - you, ka-xe (kγe) - he/she, ka-xa-we (kγawe) - they, aⁿ-ka-xe (ąkγe) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-ka-xa-we (ąkγawe) - we

cf. ka-xa (kaγ) - command form of make, do, cause; ka-xe-ye (kγeye) - to have made, done, caused; ki-ka-xe (kikγe) - fix, repair; ki-ka-xe (kkaγe) - make something for someone; ki-ka-xe (kkikkγe) - make for oneself; i-ka-zo i-ka-xe (kazzo ikγe) - pen, writing instrument

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - I will make it like that [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-xe (gxe) - make [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xe (gaxe) - made, make, creator, consume, construct, brew, build, erect, distill, develop, commit, create, dance [Omaha]; ga-xe (g-xe) - to make, to perform [FL-Osage]; ka-xe (kaγe) - make, fix, prepare, bake, build, force someone to do something, cause something to be a certain way, turn on, do, perform, engage in, make it [CQ-Osage]; ga-ghe (gghe) - make, do, pretend, cause [Kaw]

 

pa-xe (ppγe) - I make, do , cause

ex: a-pʰe a-taⁿ wa-ske pa-xa-taⁿ bda-tʰe e-shoⁿ a-ni-he (pʰe ttą wske ppaγ-ttą bdatʰ ę anhe) - I pounded and made bread and I ate it [JOD]

ex: e-zhi o-do-hi pa-xe te (i odhi ppγe tte) - Ill come up (make) with something different [JOD]

ex: wa-pa-xe (wappγe) - I make them [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde shiⁿ wa-pa-xe naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde ̨ wappγe ną) - the four women that live together, I made them fat [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

Dhegiha: pa-xe (p͓xe) - I make, do [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xe (p̩-xe) - I make [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-xe (ʰpaγe) - I make [CQ-Osage]; pa-ghe (pghe) - I make [Kaw]

 

shka-xe (kγe) - you make, do, cause

ex: shka-xe (kγe) - you made (you make) [OM]

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe shpoⁿ hi shka-xe (nąp pǫ hi kγe) - you made (make) hand wet [MS]

Dhegiha: shka-xe (ckxe) - you make, do [JOD-Omaha]; shka-xe (shk-xe) - you make [FL-Osage]; shka-xe (kaγe) - you make [CQ-Osage]; shka-ghe (shkghe) - you make [Kaw]

 

ka-xe (kγe) - he/she make, do, cause

ex: ka-xe (kγe) - he made it [JOD]

ex: ka-xe di-sha (kax diʔ) - he failed to make it [JOD]

ex: ma-kaⁿ ka-xe (makk̨ kγe) - doctor, makes medicine [MS]

ex: hu-wa ka-xe (hwa kγe) - who done that? [MS]

ex: ma-xpi ka-xe (maxp kγe) - Cloud Maker, Making Clouds, personal name [MS]

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

ex: wa-hi-ka zhi-ka ta-sha-knaⁿ o-do-hi ka-xe (wahkka ka takn̨ odhi kxe) - he made her into a small pin [JOD]

ex: hu-wa ka-xe (hwa kγe) - who done that? [MS]

Dhegiha: ga-xe (gxe) - he/she make, do [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xe (g-xe) - he/she make [FL-Osage]; ka-xe (kaγe) - he/she make, do [CQ-Osage]; ga-ghe (gghe) - he/she/it make [Kaw]

 

ka-xa-we (kγawe) - they make, do, cause

ex: zho-hi hi ka-xa-we (oh hi kγawe) - they made many [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-gha-be (gghabe) - they make [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-ka-xe (ąkγe) - we dual, I and one other make, do, cause

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-xe (agxe) - we make [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-ka-xe (ąkaγe) - we make [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-ghe (aⁿgghabe) - we make [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-ka-xa-we (ąkγawe) - we make, do, cause

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-xa i (angxa i) - we make do [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ga-xa i (oⁿ-g-xa i) - we make [FL-Osage]

 

make a bang, discharge

di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang bdi-to-xi (bdttoxi) - I, ti-to-xi (ttttoxi) - you

cf. di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, exploding water; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - to cause burst by burning

 

make a crack noise by stepping

naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - make crack noise by stepping a-naⁿ-ta-ze (an̨ttaze) - I, da-naⁿ-ta-ze (dan̨ttaze) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting; di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks; ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

Dhegiha: naⁿ-do-ze (naⁿdze) - crack ice by stepping on it [Kaw]

 

make a crack sound by pressure

bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure pi-to-zhe (ppttoe) - I, shpi-to-zhe (pttoe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing, blow; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

make a crack sound by pushing

ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing pa-to-zhe (ppttoe) - I, shpa-to-zhe (pttoe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

make a crack sound by thrusting

po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting po-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, po-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

make a crack sound by treading

naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading a-naⁿ-to-zhe (an̨ttoe) - I, da-naⁿ-to-zhe (dan̨ttoe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

make a cracking sound with a knife

pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife pa-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, pa-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you, pa-oⁿ-to-zha-we (Pǫttawe) - we

cf. pa (p)  - by cutting with a knife; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

make a dull sound

ka-xa-xa-da (kaxxada) - thump, make a dull sound a-xa-xa-da (xaxada) - I, da-xa-xa-da (dxaxada) - you

cf. di-xa-xa-da (dixxada) - clatter, noise of planks; ka-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

 

make a face

iⁿ-te da-shi-ke (įtt dake) - screw up the face, make a face iⁿ-te bda-shi-ke (įtt bdike) - I, iⁿ-te ta-shi-ke (įtt ttike) - you

cf. iⁿ-te (įtt) - face; da (da) - by mouth; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly

Dhegiha: iⁿ-dse thi-ʰpi-zhi (iⁿ-ds thi-p̣i-zhi) - grimace [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tse thu-ʰpi-zhi (įc uuʰpii) - make faces, grimace, lit., make a bad face [CQ-Osage]

 

make a gnawing sound

da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound

cf. da (da) - by mouth; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: tha-ka-xe (thakxe) - grating sound, gnaw, to make a grating noise by gnawing as a rat does [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳ-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

make a grating sound

da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound

cf. da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

make a grating sound with feet

naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet a-naⁿ-ka-xe (an̨kʔaxe) - I, da-naⁿ-ka-xe (dan̨kʔaxe) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

make a heap

a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up

sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather; ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place

Dhegiha: sto-the shu (to-th shu) - gathered them together [FL-Osage]; thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka stu-e (n-ḳa-tu-e) - gathering of men, personal name [FL-Osage]; ni-ka stu-wa-the (nkastuwathe) - the gatherer, personal name [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]; gu-sto (gust) - assemble, meet together [Kaw]

 

make a horse prance

zha-koi-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance

cf. zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-koi-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - unsteady, ungainly; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; zha-koi-de (akkide), (akoide) - jump; zha-ka i-de (kka de), zha-koi-de (akide) - jump a rope

ex: o-za taⁿ maⁿ-shi zha-koi-de taⁿ (a tą m̨i akide tą) - when he danced, he leaped high [JOD]

 

make a place, make way

ki-di-ki-ze (kidikze) - give room, make way, clear out [JOD]

ex: ni-a-ta de-de aⁿ-di-ki-za-we (nitta-dde ̨dikizaw) - youall make a place for me towards the water [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ti-ki-za-wa-zhi (ąttkizawi) - youall do not give room to me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-di-ki-za-we (ądkizaw) - youall make a way for me [JOD]

ex: ki-di-ki-ze (kidikze-nįhe) - you make way for him! [JOD]

ex: ni-a-ta de-de ki-di-ki-za-we (nitta-dde kdikizwe) - they made a way for him towards the water [JOD]

ex: ki-di-ki-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ taⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing and quickly started to run towards the water, they said [JOD]

 

make a popping sound from pushing

ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing pa-ta-zhe (ppttae) - I, shpa-ta-zhe (pttae) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

make a popping sound with mouth

da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth bda-ta-zhe (bdttae) - I, ta-ta-zhe (ttttae) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound

 

make a rattling noise

di-sha-sha-da (diada) - rattle, make a rattling noise

cf. a-na-sha-da (nada) - bell, rattle [MS]; di-sha-da (dida) - rattle; ka-sha-da (kaad) - rattle by striking something

 

make a rut or groove by pulling

o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - make a rut or groove by pulling o-bdi-xo-we (obdxowe) - I, o-ti-xo-we (ottxowe) - you

cf. di-xo (diγ) - mark, scratch, draw line; di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth

Dhegiha: thi-xu (thix) - draw, mark, to make marks on paper, to make marks such as are made on arrows [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xu (thixu) - sketch, mark [Omaha]; thi-xu (thi-x) - to scratch marks on rocks or draw lines on paper [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-e (thi-x-e) - to drag something on the ground [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-we (thi-x-we) - to drag some dead animal by rope, to lead a horse to water [FL-Osage]; thi-xo-we (iiɣwe), thi-xo-e (iiɣe), thi-xo (iiɣ) - drag [CQ-Osage]; yu-gho-we (yughwe) - drag, pull behind [Kaw]

 

make a scraping sound

ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound a-ka-xe (kʔaxe) - I, da-ka-xe (dkʔaxe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

make a scratching sound

ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound pa-ka-xe (ppkʔaxe) - I, shpa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

make a step, stride

si di-ze de-de (si dze dde) - stride, make a step

cf. si di-ze (si dze) - raise the foot as in walking; si (si) - foot; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: si thi-ze (si -zĕ) - to take up his feet, to raise the feet, as in walking [JOD-Omaha]; si thi-ze (si thze) - lift ones feet, as in walking [Omaha/Ponca]; si thi-ze (i thize) - step [Omaha]; si thu-ze stse-dse (-thu-e stse-dse) - to stride [FL-Osage]; si yu-ze (syuze) - to take a step, advance step by step [Kaw]

 

make a tearing sound

di-so-wa-de (disowde) - make tearing sound bdi-so-wa-de (bdsowde) - I, ti-so-wa-de (ttsowde) -you

 

make a whooshing sound

ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte), ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound

cf. ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet

 

make an upright object lean by pulling it

a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (dikʰą itʰdade), a-ti-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (ttikʰą itʰdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

Dhegiha: a-thi-ʰkoⁿ (-thi-ḳoⁿ) - lay on either side; to recline as when attacking [FL-Osage]; a-thi-kxaⁿ (iikxą) - lie down against; lean up against, recline, rest [CQ-Osage]; a-yu-khaⁿ (yukhaⁿ) - lean on something, as a door [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-koⁿ (-koⁿ) - to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lean up against; lie against; lie down, as to sleep or rest [CQ-Osage]; a-khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]

 

make angry or cross

o-xnaⁿ ka-xe (xną kγe) - to make angry, cross

cf. o-xnaⁿ (xną) - angry, irritated, cross, mean; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - mean dog [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

Dhegiha: u-xthoⁿ shtoⁿ (-xthoⁿ-shtoⁿ) - to be cross, disagreeable [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (lą), (olą), o-loⁿ (ol̨ǫ), o-dla (dla) - pout, sulk, sulky [CQ-Osage]; xthoⁿ (xthoⁿ) - to sulk, pout, peeved [FL-Osage]; loⁿ (l̨), laⁿ (l̨) - mad, angry [CQ-Osage]

 

make creak by pulling

di-kiⁿ-te (dikįtt) - creak, to make creak by pulling bdi-kiⁿ-te (bdkįtte) - I, ti-kiⁿ-te (ttkįtte) - you

cf. ba-kiⁿ-te (bak̨tte) - play, accordion or violin; ba-kiⁿ-to-zha (bak̨ttoa) - fiddle dance, whitemans dance; wa-kiⁿ-te (wak̨tte) - accordion, fiddle

Dhegiha: thi-gi-ze (thigie) - squeak [Omaha]; thi-gi-dse (thi-g-dse) - to creak, a sharp squeaking sound, as a loose board [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: gi-ze (gze) - creak, to creak [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-dse (gi-dse) - squeak [FL-Osage]

ki-tse (kce) - squeak [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ba-gi-ze (bagze) - fiddle, creak, squeak; to play the fiddle, to make aa creaking or squeaking sound by pushing [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-gi-dse (ba-g-dse) - a fiddle; ba (ba) - an act of pushing; gi-dse (gi-dse) - squeak [FL-Osage]; pa-ki-tse (paakce) - play music on an instrument, musical instrument, piano, music [CQ-Osage]; ba-gi-je (bagje) - fiddle, play the fiddle; play the guitar; music [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bi-gi-ze (bigize) - creak [Omaha]; bi-gi-gi-ze (bigigie) - squeak [Omaha]; ga-gi-ze (gagize) - creak [Omaha]

 

make cry in a weak voice

di-xda-xda-zhe (dixdxdae) - make cry in weak voice bdi-xda-xda-zhe (bdxdaxdae)  -I, ti-xda-xda-zhe (ttxdaxdae) - you

Dhegiha: xtha-zhe (qthazh) - to scream out, like a young animal calling its mother [Omaha/Ponca]; xtha-xtha-zhe (qthaqthzhe) - to scream out often, like a young animal calling its mother [Omaha/Ponca]

 

make dirty

o-ki-shi-ke ka-xe (kkike kγe) - soil, make dirty

cf. o-ki-shi-ke (kkike) - dirty, soiled; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

make distinction

o-we-taⁿ-iⁿ ka-xe (owttąį kγe) - distinguish, make distinction

cf. o-we-tiⁿ (owttį) - to leave a mark; taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: u-we-ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ-iⁿ) - a mark of some kind by which a thing may be found; a sign, something placed to aid in the memory of a place; identification mark; a register, a token, a keepsake; to register [FL-Osage]; we-toⁿ-iⁿ (wtoⁿiⁿ) - distinction, difference [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (w-ṭoⁿ-iⁿ) - mark of identification [FL-Osage]; we-tiⁿ (wtiⁿ) - difference, distinction [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

make effort, decide, try

di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide bdi-knaⁿ (bdkną) - I, ti-knaⁿ (ttkną) - you

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - wise, be, have sense

ex: wa-bdi-knaⁿ (wbdikn̨) - I am planning something [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ (ttikną) - you plan [JOD]

ex: ta-bde kaⁿ-a-tʰaⁿ-he si-ka i-ta da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-da-ki-ho-shi (tbde k̨-atʰ̨he skka itt datʰ dikn̨ tą idkiho) - while I was hunting, she decided to eat a chicken egg, which I had forbidden her to do [JOD]

ex: da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-ki-ho-shi (datʰ dikn̨ tą k͓iho) - she decided to eat it, he (her man/husband) forbid her (from eating it) [JOD]

ex: shiⁿ-wa-de di-knaⁿ niⁿ (įwde dikn̨ nį) - he planned/decided to fatten them [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ kde di-knaⁿ (an̨ kde dikn̨) - he decided/planned to take it home [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-ska ki-kiⁿ di-knaⁿ, aⁿ-ka-de te (k̨ska kikʔ̨ dikn̨, ąkde tt) - quickly decide what you will pack, lets go [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi naⁿ pi-ki-zhi di-knaⁿ (dasn̨wa ną ppkii dikn̨) -  they had not devoured it all, she decided to put her scraps away [JOD]

ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

ex: i-di-knaⁿ ni-kʰa (dikn̨ nikʰ) - they were deciding [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell, slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legend, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about, have on ones mind, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

make elliptical

di-sto-ka (distkka) - round, make elliptical bdi-sto-ka (bdstokka) - I, ti-sto-ka (ttstokka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; sto-ka (stokk) - oblong, elliptical

Dhegiha: snu-ʰka (n-ḳa) - oval, egg-shaped [FL-Osage]

 

make for oneself

ki-ka-xe (kkikkγe) - make for oneself a-ki-pa-xe (akkppaγe) - I, da-ki-shka-xe (dakkkaγe) - you

cf. ki-ka-xe (kkaγe) - make something for someone; ki-ka-xe (kikγe) - fix, repair; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: aⁿ-ki-ka-xa-we (ąkkkkaγawe) - we made it for ourselves

Dhegiha: gi-ka-xe (gi-k͓-xe) - to make his or her own [JOD-Omaha]; ki-ka-xe (k͓i-k͓-xe) - to act or make for himself [JOD-Omaha]; gi-ʰka-xe (gi-ḳ-xe) - to repair a house or some implement [FL-Osage]; gi-ga-xe (gi-g-xe) - vamp, repair, mend [FL-Osage]; ki-ka-xe (kikaγe) - make of produce for someone; make over, do over, repair of fix something, repair, redo, reform  [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-ʰka-xe (ʰkiʰkaγe) - make, build, or make up for oneself, do for oneself [CQ-Osage]

 

make fun of, laugh often

i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe: dissike hnįh ʔ̨w) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were very cruel to mankind [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xa-xa (-qa-qa) - to laugh at, ridicule, make fun of; to get a laugh on one, as by playing a trick on him; to abuse, or maltreat a person [JOD-Omaha]; i-xa-xa (ixaxa) - humiliate, ridicule, harass [Omaha]; i-xa-xa (i-x-xa) - to ridicule [FL-Osage]

 

make gooey

i-di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - mix, mess with, make gooey i-bdi-xdi-we (bdixdwe) - I, i-ti-xdi-we (ttixdwe) - you

cf. di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - dip hand into something; di-xdi-xdi-we (dixdxdiwe) - sticky, make from handling; ma-xti-xti-we (mxtixtwe) - mud, shallow

 

make grating sound by gnawing on

a-da-xi (daxʔi) - make grating sound by gnawing on, as a rat gnawing on wood or metal

cf. a-pa-xi (paxʔi) - cut meat from the bone; ka-xi (kaxʔ) - scrape, as hair from a hide

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta wa-hi a-da-xi (̨ke ttawhi daxʔ) - the dog gnawed the deer bone

 

make growl

di-xdiⁿ-ke (dixd̨ke), di-xniⁿ-ke (dixn̨ke) - to make growl bdi-xdi-ke (bdxdįke) - I, ti-xdiⁿ-ke (ttxdįke) - you

cf. xniⁿ-ke (xnįk), xdiⁿ-ke (xdįk) - growl, snarl as a dog or wolf

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ (qthiⁿ) - to snarl or growl, like a dog or wolf [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl [Omaha]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl of an animal [FL-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - growl, as a dog or wolf [Kaw]

 

make holy, consecrate

di-xo-we (dixwe) - consecrate, make holy bdi-xo-we (bdxowe) - I, ti-xo-we (ttxowe) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy; wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle, holy bird; ni xo-we (ni xwe) - mysterious water, holy or sacred water; ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest, holy man; ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe; zhoⁿ xo-we (ǫ xwe) - sassafras, S. albidum, lit. holy wood

Dhegiha: thi-xu-be (thiqbe) - consecrate, to consecrate, to make holy [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: xu-be (xube) - hallowed, holy, wizard [Omaha]; xu-be (xbe) - holy, supernatural power, sanctity [FL-Osage]; xo-pe (xpe) - sacred, consecrated, holy [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-xu-be (waqbe) - mysterious, holy, sacred [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xu-be (waxube) - holy [Omaha]; wa-xo-be (wa-x-be) - a talisman or something worn about the person to ward off evil, anything consecrated for ceremonial use [FL-Osage]; wa-xo-pe (waxpe) - medicine bundle, sacred object, things consecrated or honored [CQ-Osage]; wa-xo-we (waxwe), wa-xo-be (waxbe) - sacred, holy, mysterious, any sacred or mysterious object, as a sacred bundle [Kaw]

 

make hot, heat something

ta-ka-te ka-xe (tkkatte kγe) - heat something, make hot

cf. ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; ta (t-) - by extreme temperature; ka-te (kktte) - hot, to be hot; zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever; ni-xo-te ta-ka-te (nixtte tkkatte) - hot ashes [JOD]; ta-ka-te hi (tkkatte h) - hot, really hot [MS]

Dhegiha: ta-ʰka-tse ka-xe (taʰkace kaγe) - heat, lit., make it hot, cause it to heat up [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: na-ka-de (nkade) - heat [Omaha]; da-ʰka-dse (d-ḳa-dse) - hot [FL-Osage]; ta-ʰka-tse (taʰkace) - be hot to the touch, be warm, an object or a substance, or a person only in special circumstances, such as with fever, does not apply to weather [CQ-Osage]; da-ka-je (dkaje) - hot, as a person, stove [Kaw]

 

make in abundance

ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

cf. wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot; o-she-xti (exti) - full

Dhegiha: wa-she (wacĕ′) - rich [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-she (-she) - plenty, plentiful [FL-Osage]; o-she (e) - exist plentifully, lots, abundance, plenty, profusion of something [CQ-Osage]

 

make it stick, in order to make it stick

a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick a-ta-ska i-naⁿ-da-de (ttaska in̨dade) - you

cf. a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth/paper

Dhegiha: we-a-tha-ska ba-the (weatha ka bathe) - paste, glue, adhesive tape [Omaha]; ska-be (skabe) - sticky, miry, mushy [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha-ska-be (uthskabe) - stick, adhere, to stick fast, as flat object which is glued to another [Omaha/Ponca]; ska-ska-be (k-ka-be) - sticky or miry; muddy [FL-Osage]; ska-be (skbe) - sticky, miry [Kaw]

 

make laugh by tickling

di-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨da) - tickle and make laugh bdi-shiⁿ-da (bdʔįda) - I, ti-shiⁿ-da (ttʔįda) - you

cf. shi-we di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (we diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs; di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs repeatedly; di-xi-xi-da (dixʔxʔida) - scratch an itch

Dhegiha: thi-i-i-tha (thiitha) - tickle, to tickle someone [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be thi-i-tha (shbe thi tha) - tickle [Omaha]; thi-ʰki-tha (thi-ḳ-tha) - to tickle [FL-Osage]; thi-ki-the (ikʔe) - scratch, tickle [CQ-Osage]; yu-ki-ki-ya (yukkiya) - scratch an itch repeatedly, to tickle [Kaw]; yu-ki-ya (yukya) - scratch an itch once [Kaw]

 

make mellow, pulverize

di-shoⁿ-ke (diǫk) - pulverize, make mellow bdi-shoⁿ-ke (bdǫke) - I, ti-shoⁿ-ke (ttǫke) - you

cf. wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

 

make mushy, mash

di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy bdi-kdo-kdo (bdkdokdo) - I, ti-kdo-kdo (ttkdokdo) - you

cf. kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]; we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]; o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - mired, become, stuck in mud; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

 

make noise

xa-naⁿ (xʔną) - to make talking noise or any noise, etc. a-xa-naⁿ (axʔną) - I, da-xa-naⁿ (daxʔną) - you

cf. xa-naⁿ e-hi (xʔną hi) - make a lot of noise

 

xa-naⁿ e-hi (xʔną hi) - make a lot of noise

cf. xa-naⁿ (xʔną) - to make talking noise or any noise, etc.; hi (hi) - very

ex: xa-naⁿ e-hi-we i-ya (xʔną hiw iy) - they made a lot of noise, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

make noise with the feet

naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe (nątatxe kγe) - to make noise with the feet [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; naⁿ-ta-xe (nąttxe) - stomp, trample, thump with feet

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-da-da-xe (ga-d-da-xe) - to knock at a door [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ga-da-da-xe (p̣a-g-da-da-xe) - woodpecker [FL-Osage]; ga-ta-xe (gatxe), ga-ta-xi (gatxi) - tap, make a tapping noise [Kaw]; ga-da-ghe (gadghe) - to knock (once) [Kaw]; ga-da-da-ghe (gaddaghe), ga-da-da-xe (gaddaxe) - knock repeatedly on something; To tap the bark of a tree and make a quick sound: said of the woodpecker and other birds; woodpecker [Kaw]

 

make offering or sacrifice

o-ki (kʔi) - make offering or sacrifice o-a-ki (okʔi) - I, o-da-ki (odkʔi) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-we (ǫkkʔiwe) - we

cf. o-ki (okʔ) - lend something; give food to someone; ki (kʔi) - give something to someone; ki-ki (kkʔi) - give back, return; ki-ki (kikʔ) - give to ones own (kin)

Dhegiha: u-i (i) - to give food to another [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki (-ḳ) - to feed [FL-Osage]; o-ku (kʔu) - give, provide, furnish, give stuff to someone, feed, giving, giveaway, event of giving or giving away [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-i (u) - to lend anything, to lend something [Omaha/Ponca]; u-i (ui) - loan, lend, treat [Omaha]; u-ʰki (u-ḳ) - to lend [FL-Osage]; o-ku (okʔ) - lend, give, provide, furnish, supply [CQ-Osage]

 

make offering, share, divide with, part with

a-da ka-xe (da kγe) - share, divide with, part with, make offering a-da pa-xe (da ppγe) - I, a-da shka-xe (da kγe) - you

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

make one active or lively

i-ki-si-si (kissi) - to make one active or lively aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-si-si (ąn̨kissi) - I, i-di-ki-si-si (dikissi) - you

cf. si-si (sis) - active; wa-si-si-ke (wassike) - to be brave; a warrior; po-si-si (psis) - pulse; wa-pa-iⁿ kaⁿ po-si-si (wappą kką psis) - pulse

Dhegiha: si-si (-i) - active; brave, stalwart [FL-Osage]; wa-si-si-e (wa--i-e) - rubber; elastic thing [FL-Osage]; wa-si-si (wassi) - strong, energetic, elastic [CQ-Osage]; wa-si-si-ge (waige) - clever, tough, lively, emotion, popular [Omaha]; wa-si-si-ge (wa--i-ge) - brave, valiant, valorous, active, prowess [FL-Osage]; wa-si-si-ge (wassige) - active, as a warrior [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zi-zi-ge (iige) - springy [Omaha]; zi-zi-ge (zzige) - rubber, elastic [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-zi-zi-ge (gaiige) - springy [Omaha]; ha-si-si-ge (haiige) - rubber, elastic skin, elastic [Omaha]

 

make ones hair stand on end

ki-kdi-sha-ka (kkikdakʔa) - make ones hair stand on end a-ki-kdi-sha-ka (akkkdiakʔa) - I, da-ki-kdi-sha-ka (dakkkdiakʔa) - you

cf. di-sha-ka (diakʔ) - bristle up, cause by handling

 

make popping or snapping sound

di-to-pe-de (dittpped) - make popping, snapping sound bdi-to-pe-de (bdttopped) - I, ti-to-pe-de (ttttopped) - you

 

make revolve

ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around pa-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ppkkowįγe) - I, shpa-ko-wiⁿ-xe (pkkowįγe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bakkwįγγa) - push round and round; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bikkwįγγa) - push or blow something in circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle; ka-koiⁿ-xa-xa (kakįγγa) - go around and around; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around

Dhegiha: ba-ʰku-wiⁿ-xe (ba-ḳu-wiⁿ-xe) - to turn by pushing [FL-Osage]; ba-ko-mi-ghe (bakmighe) - turn, spin, cause to revolve in a horizontal or vertical plane by pushing [Kaw]

 

make rustling sounds

di-sa-sa-da (dissada) - rustle, make such sounds bdi-sa-sa-da (bdsasada) - I, ti-sa-sa-da (ttsasada) - you

 

di-xo-xo-wa-de (dixxowde) - rustle, make rustling sound bdi-xo-xo-wa-de (bdxoxowde) - I, ti-xo-xo-wa-de (ttxoxowde) - you

cf. ka-xo-wa-de (kaxwade) - pattering sound; ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet; ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

 

make small

di-zhiⁿ-ka (dįka) - lessen, diminish, make small bdi-zhiⁿ-ka (bdįka) - I, ti-zhiⁿ-ka (ttįka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig), zhiⁿ-ka (įk, ̨ka) - small, little, young; o-zhiⁿ-ka (įk) - smaller part, something small

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-ga (thizhiⁿga) - condense, make small [Omaha]

Dhegiha: zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿga) - small, little, a child, the young of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿga) - small, little [Omaha]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿ-ga) - small, little, young, little children [FL-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ka (įk, ̨ka) - (be) little small, child(ren), little one(s), kid(s) [CQ-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿga) - small, the young of an animal, a child [Kaw]

 

make something for someone

ki-ka-xe (kkaγe) - make something for someone a-pa-xe (ppaγe) - I, da-shka-xe (dkaγe) - you

cf. ki-ka-xe (kikγe) - fix, repair; ki-ka-xe (kkikkγe) - make for oneself; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: ki-ka-xa (kikaγ) - make it for him!

Dhegiha: gi-ka-xe (gi-k͓-xe) - to make his or her own [JOD-Omaha]; ki-ka-xe (k͓i-k͓-xe) - to act or make for himself [JOD-Omaha]; gi-ʰka-xe (gi-ḳ-xe) - to repair a house or some implement [FL-Osage]; gi-ga-xe (gi-g-xe) - vamp, repair, mend [FL-Osage]; ki-ka-xe (kikaγe) - make of produce for someone; make over, do over, repair of fix something, repair, redo, reform  [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-ʰka-xe (ʰkiʰkaγe) - make, build, or make up for oneself, do for oneself [CQ-Osage]

 

make sparks from poking a fire

di-xni-zhe (dixne) - make sparks from poking fire bdi-xni-zhe (bdxnie) - I, ti-xni-zhe (ttxnie) - you

ex: pe-te a-ki-ba-xniⁿ-xniⁿ-zhe (pptte akbaxnįxn̨e) - I pushed at the fire often [JOD]

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ-zhe (qthⁿzhe) - spark, sparkle, sparkling, sending out sparks [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ-zha (xthiⁿ-zh) - sparks of a fire, sparks that fly upward from the sticks or fire drills used for starting a fire [FL-Osage]; liⁿ-zhe (l̨įe) - sparks that fly from a fire [CQ-Osage]

 

make spray fall on one accidentally by hitting the water

a-ka-ta (katta) - splash, make spray fall on one accidentally by hitting the water

cf. a-ka-ta de-de (katta dde) - knock splinter(s) off causing them to fall on someone; a-ka-kaⁿ (kakką) - powder, sprinkle on; a-ka-sti (kasti) - sprinkle once on; a-ka-che-che (kačʔčʔe) - drip onto an object, drop by drop; a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize

a-ka-xtaⁿ-xtaⁿ (kaxtąxtą) - sprinkle repeatedly

 

make sticky from handling

di-xdi-xdi-we (dixdxdiwe) - make sticky from handling bdi-xdi-xdi-we (bdxdixdiwe) - I, ti-xdi-xdi-we (ttxdixdiwe) - you

cf. i-di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - mix, mess with, make gooey

 

make strong, strengthen

wa-shkaⁿ-hi ka-xe (wak̨hi kγe) - strengthen, make strong

cf. wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong; wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort; wa-shkoⁿ-hi a-ki-di-taⁿ (wak̨hi kkiditt̨) - to pull hard on; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wak̨ttąka) - powerful, all-powerful; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wa-ckⁿ t-k͓a) - a nickname of te zhi-ka (tejik͓a) of the Buffalo gens; All Powerful [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-shkoⁿ-hi (washkⁿhi) - Strength (of Thunder), name [Omaha]; wa-shkaⁿ (wa-ckaⁿ) - to make an effort or attempt; to persevere; an effort, attempt [JOD-Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do one's best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

make sudden leaps

zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps

cf. zha-ko-i-de (akkide), (akoide) - jump; zha-ka i-de (kka de), zha-ko-i-de (akide) - jump a rope; a-zha-ki i-de (akki de) - jump rope; a-zha-ko-i-de (akkid) - jump over something; jump and go over a stream, log, etc.; i-naⁿ (in̨) - sign of sudden effect; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - suddenly and often [JOD]; i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - unsteady, ungainly

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną) - he leaped often, or each time [JOD]

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance

 

make top heavy by thrusting at

po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at po-a-shoⁿ-da-da (poǫdad) - I, po-da-shoⁿ-da-da (pdaǫdad) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching: outer instrumental prefix; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

 

make unsteady by pressing

bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing]1sg[ppǫdada]2sg[pǫdada]

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing, blow; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

make way, make a place

ki-di-ki-ze (kidikze) - give room, make way, clear out [JOD]

ex: ni-a-ta de-de aⁿ-di-ki-za-we (nitta-dde ̨dikizaw) - youall make a place for me towards the water [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ti-ki-za-wa-zhi (ąttkizawi) - youall do not give room to me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-di-ki-za-we (ądkizaw) - youall make a way for me [JOD]

ex: ki-di-ki-ze (kidikze-nįhe) - you make way for him! [JOD]

ex: ni-a-ta de-de ki-di-ki-za-we (nitta-dde kdikizwe) - they made a way for him towards the water [JOD]

ex: ki-di-ki-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ taⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing and quickly started to run towards the water, they said [JOD]

 

make, cause to

de (de) - cause to, to cause a-de (-de) - I, da-de (-dde) - you

Dhegiha: the (the) - to cause [Omaha/Ponca]; the (the) - to cause [FL-Osage]; the (e) - make, have or make someone do something, cause something to happen to someone or something [CQ-Osage]; ye (ye) - causative, make happen, to cause, to make, to persuade one to do something [Kaw]

 

kʰi-de (kʰide), (kʰde) - cause to a-kʰi-de (-kʰide) - I, da-kʰi-de (-dkʰide) - you

ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself a-ki-de (-kkide) - I, da-ki-de (-dkkide) - you

ki-de (kde) - cause ones own; reflexive-possessive causative

Dhegiha: ki-the (kithe) - to cause oneself [Omaha/Ponca]; kʰi-the (kʰthe) - to cause someone [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰki-the (ḳi-the) - to cause, to cause one, to cause oneself; to cause another, to cause themselves [FL-Osage]; kshi-the (kshi-the) - to cause to do a thing [FL-Osage]; ki-the (ke) - make or have someone engage voluntarily in some act, let or allow someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-the (ʰke) - cause, make oneself to be or do [CQ-Osage]; kshi-the (ke) - let or allow someone to do something, have someone do something for his/her own benefit [CQ-Osage]; khi-ye (khye) - cause to do, let, allow to do (dative causative auxiliary) [Kaw]

 

wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them, make one

ex. noⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade) - dangerous, naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something + wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them

ex: koi-he-wa-de (kohewde) - fearful, inspiring fear, koi-he (kohe) - fearful, insecure + wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them

ex: shiⁿ-wa-de (iⁿwde) - to fatten them, to cause them to be fat [JOD], shiⁿ (į) - fat, as a person or animal + wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them

Dhegiha: wa-the (wthe) - to make them, to cause them, to make someone [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-the (wa-the) - makes them, causes [FL-Osage]; wa-the (wae) - make one, make people make folks [CQ-Osage]; wa-ye (wye) - to cause, to make [Kaw]

 

make!, command form

ka-xa (kaγ) - command form of ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: ki-ka-xa (kikaγ) - make it for him!

ex: a-ki-di-be-niⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: wa-ske ka-xa hne (wske kγa hn) - you making bread (make bread!) [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe bi-ze ka-xa (nąp biz kaγ) - make dry hands (dry your hands!) [MS]

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: ga-xa (gxa) - make!, do! imperative [JOD-Omaha]; ka-xa (kaγa) - make, command [CQ-Osage]

 

Maker, Clear Sky Maker

ke-da ka-xe (ked k͓axĕ́) - [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; ke-da to (k-da t) - masculine name, Blue Sky; ke-da mi (k-d mi) - female name, Clear Sky Female [JOD]

Dhegiha: tu ke-tha e-goⁿ (t ktha egoⁿ) - sky blue, light blue, dark green with an indigo tinge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰke-tha (ḳ-tha) - the sky, the unclouded or clear sky [FL-Osage]; ʰke-tho (ʰko) - clear sky, as after a storm [CQ-Osage]; ke-ya (kya) - be clear, as sky or water [Kaw]

 

Maker, Cloud Maker

ma-xpi ka-xe (maxp kγe) - Cloud Maker, Making Clouds, personal name [MS]

cf. ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: maⁿ-xpu ga-ghe (maⁿxp gghe) - Cloud Maker, male name [Kaw]

 

Maker, Day Maker

hoⁿ-pa ka-xe (hŭⁿ́p͓a k͓axĕ́) - masculine name, Joe Lane [JOD]

hoⁿ-pa ka-xe (hŭⁿ́p͓a k͓axĕ́) - masculine name, Jos. Lane [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

Maker, Village Maker

toⁿ ka-xe (taⁿ́ k͓aqĕ́) - masculine name, Village Maker [JOD]

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ ga-xe (tⁿwoⁿ gaxe) - Village Maker, personal name [Omaha]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ ga-xe (ṭⁿ-woⁿ ga-xe) - Village Maker, male personal name [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ ka-xe (ʰt̨wąkaγe) - Town Builder, personal name [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ ga-ghe (tⁿmaⁿ gghe) - male name, Village Maker [Kaw]

 

Maker, Water Maker

ni ka-xe (n k͓a-xĕ́) - masculine name, Water Maker, father of zhaⁿ a-pe (ąap͓e) [JOD]

cf. ni (ni) - water; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

makes, fire makes him/her/it go around and around

ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa), (tkowįγγa) - fire makes him/her/it go around and around, around in circles

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bakkwįγγa) - push round and round; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bikkwįγγa) - push or blow something in circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ka-koiⁿ-xa-xa (kakįγγa) - go around and around; po-koiⁿ-xa-xa (pkoįγγa) - knock spinning, punch and spin

 

male animal

ni-ka (nkka) - male animal

cf. shoⁿ ni-ka (ǫ nkka) - stallion, male horse; ni-ka shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ (nikkah-schundaghenih) - stallion, stud (talon) [GI]; ta ni-ka (tta nkka) - male deer, a buck

ex: ni-ka miⁿ-xti (nkka m̨xti) - only one male [JOD]

Dhegiha: In Kwapa, ni-ka is sometimes used to denote a male animal, but in Omaha and Ponka it means, a male of the human race [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka (n-ka) - an archaic word, conveying the idea of male of the human race, used in certain compounds [JOD-Omaha]; nu (nu) - man, human male [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ʰka (n-ḳa) - man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka (nʰka) - man, person, husband [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka (nka) - man, human male, husband [Kaw]

 

to-ka (tka) - male animal

ex: te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull, domestic bull

ex: te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull, male buffalo [MS, OM]

ex: te to-ka maⁿ-niⁿ (ttetka mąn̨) - Walking Bull Buffalo, male personal name [MS]

ex: te to-ka ma-ni (te t-k͓a m-ni) - masculine name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Walking Buffalo bull [JOD]

ex: te to-ka na-zhiⁿ (te t-k͓a n-jiⁿ) - masculine name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Standing Buffalo Bull [JOD]

ex: te to-ka noⁿ-ba (tetk͓a naⁿp͓) - masculine name, Two Buffalo Bulls [JOD]

ex: zha-we to-ka (we tka) - male beavers [JOD]

ex: ni-ti naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

Dhegiha: nu-ga (nga) - male animal, applied to animals and birds, not humans [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-ga (nuga) - male animal [Omaha]; do-ga (do-g) - male [FL-Osage]; to-ka (took) - male [CQ-Osage]; doⁿ-ga (doⁿg), do-ga (dog) - male [Kaw]

 

male command

ka (k) - imperative, command, male speech [JOD]

ex: da-we ka (d-wek) - youall begone! [JOD]

ex: o-kda-xa-xa-we ka (okdxʔaxʔ-we k) - give ye the scalp yell often! [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ, etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k, iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell! the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - male imperative, command, male [Omaha]

 

male cousin, male brother

i-saⁿ-ke (is̨ke) - male cousin or brother [OM]

i-saⁿ-ka (isą́ka), i-soⁿ-ka (is̨ka), e-saⁿ-ka (es̨ka) - someones younger brother wi-saⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my, di-saⁿ-ka (dis̨ka) - your

Dhegiha: i-saⁿ-ga (i-sá-ga) - his/her younger brother [JOD-Omaha]; i-suⁿ-ga (iⁿga) - younger brother [Omaha]; i-soⁿ-ga (i-ⁿ-ga) - a younger brother [FL-Osage]; i-soⁿ-ka (isⁿka) - his younger brother, more precise than English his brother [CQ-Osage]; i-soⁿ-ga (isⁿga) - mans younger brother [Kaw]

 

wi-saⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my younger brother (male speaking)

wi-saⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my brother [MS]

wi-soⁿ-ka (wi-sonkah) - younger brother (frere cadet) [GI]

wi-saⁿ-ge (wis̨ge) - my brother or male cousin [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-saⁿ-ga (wisága) - my younger briother [JOD-Omaha]; wi-soⁿ-ga (wi-ⁿ-ga) - brother, younger than myself, this is the ordinary use of the kinship term for my younger brother, but the same term is used ceremonially when no blood relationship exists, one member of a tribe may address members of the other gentes of the same division with this term [FL-Osage]; wi-soⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my younger brother, younger than the speaker, used only when speaker is male, also used by both men and women for related or unrelated younger male [CQ-Osage]; wi-soⁿ-ga (wisⁿga) - my younger brother, male or female speaking; my younger step-brother, male or female speaking; my father's brother's son, younger than, myself, male or female speaking; my mother's sister's son, younger than myself, male speaking or female speaking; my father's father's brother's son's son, younger than myself, male speaking; my wife's sister's husband [Kaw]

 

di-saⁿ-ka (disą́ka) - your younger brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: thi-saⁿ-ga (isága) - your younger brother [JOD-Omaha]; thi-soⁿ-ga (thi-ⁿ-ga) - your brother [FL-Osage]; thi-soⁿ-ka (is̨ka) - your younger brother, used when speaking to a man [CQ-Osage]; yi-soⁿ-ga (yisⁿga) - your younger brother [Kaw]

 

i-saⁿ-ka-de (is̨kade), e-saⁿ-ha-de (es̨kade) - have as a younger brother   i-saⁿ-ka-a-de (is̨kaade) - I, i-saⁿ-ka-da-de (is̨kadade) - you

Dhegiha: i-saⁿ-ga-the (i-sá-ga-ĕ) - to have him for a younger brother [JOD-Omaha]; i-soⁿ-ga-ye (isⁿgaye) - man to have someone for a younger brother, to call someone i-soⁿ-ga (isⁿga) [Kaw]

male deer

ta ni-ka (tta nkka) - male deer, a buck

ta ni-ka (tah-nikkah) - male deer, buck deer (daim) [GI]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ni-ka (nkka) - man, male animal

Dhegiha: ta-xti nu-ga (tqti nga) - buck, male deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xti nu-ga (taxti nuga) - buck deer [Omaha]

 

male horse

shoⁿ ni-ka (ǫ nkka) - stallion, male horse

ni-ka shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ (nikkah-schundaghenih) - stallion, stud (talon) [GI]

cf. shoⁿ (ǫ) - contraction of shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ (̨keknį) - horse; ni-ka (nkka) - man, male animal

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-ge shoⁿ-de u-tha-siⁿ (shⁿge shⁿde uthsiⁿ) - stallion, horse with scrotum and testicles [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-ge nu-ga (shoⁿge nuga) - stallion [Omaha]; ʰka-wa do-ga (ḳ-wa do-ga) - stallion [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-ge doⁿ-ga (shⁿgedoⁿga) - stallion [Kaw]

 

male interjection of wonder

ho-ho-xo (hohox) - interjection of wonder, male

cf. ho-hoo (hoho) - interjection of wonder, surprise; hoa (hoʔ) - interjection of surprise; hoⁿ (hǫǫ) - interjection of surprise, female; haⁿ haⁿ haⁿ (h̨hąh̨) - oh! oh! oh!, cry of pain; o (o) - pshaw! [JOD]

 

male ribbon headdress

wa-bde-ka (wabdkka) - male ribbon headdress

cf. wa-bde-ka (wabdkka) - ribbon; bde-ka (bdkka) - thin

Dhegiha: ha-bthe-ka (h-bthe-ka) - ribbon [FL-Osage]; ha-bre-ʰka (habreʰka) - ribbon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: bthe-ka (bthka) - thin [Omaha/Ponca]; bthe-ka (btheka) - thin [Omaha]; bthe-ʰka (bth-ḳa) - thin [FL-Osage]; bre-ʰka (brʰka) - lean, thin [CQ-Osage]; ble-ka (blka) - be thin [Kaw]

 

male, chets of a male

moiⁿ-ke (mǫke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), maⁿ-ke (m̨ke) - chest, chest of a male

ex: moiⁿ-ke wa-hi (mǫke wah) - sternum, breast bone

ex: moiⁿ-ke o-po-xa (mǫke oppγa) - sternum, just above ka-xe i-pe (kkaγe ipe) where knife is inserted in butchering

ex: ke moiⁿ-ke ska (kk mǫke ska) - turtle with white breast, water turtle

ex: ke moiⁿ-ke kde-zhe (kk mǫke kde) - turtle with spotted breast, water turtle

ex: maⁿ-ke o-tʰiⁿ (mą́ke otʰ̨) - Hit in the Breast, male personal name [MS]

ex: maⁿ-ke a-di-ti-aⁿ-he (m̨ke dittąhe), maⁿiⁿ-ke a-di-ti-aⁿ-he (mą̨ke dittąh) - girth, presumably of chest

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ge (moⁿge) - human chest, breast [Omaha]; moⁿ-ge (mⁿ-ge) - breast or chest of a human being [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ke (m̨ąke), moⁿ-ke (m̨ǫke) - chest [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest of a man, breast of an animal [Kaw]

 

mallard or blue neck duck

pa-xoⁿ-te (ppax̨tte) - mallard or blue neck duck

Dhegiha: pa-hiⁿ-tu (phiⁿ tu) - green-necked duck [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-hi-tu (phitu) - green headed duck, mallard duck [Omaha]; ʰpa-hi-tu (p̣-hi-ṭu) - the mallard duck [FL-Osage]

 

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