English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

M

 

mountain

maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain

maⁿ-shi (mą) - mountain [OM]

cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - heaven, upper, upward, high, above; maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit. talks on high; mo-sho-ki (mokki) - church, contraction of maⁿ-shi (mą) - upward, heaven + o-ki (ok) - speak, talk with one [AG]; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above; maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid; di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high

Dhegiha: pa-he moⁿ-shi (pahe moⁿshi) - mountain, mountainous [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; pa-he moⁿ-shi-a-di (pahe moⁿshiadi) - steep mountain [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi-a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-shi-a-dsi (moⁿ-sh-a-dsi) - high, lofty, as a mountain, tall [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ji (maⁿshji) - high, lofty, as a mountain or building, said of things that touch or sit on the ground [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper [Kaw]

 

mountain lion, puma, cougar

iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ (įtt̨dą), taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion, cougar, similar terms are widespread in North America

iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttnątt̨ka) - panther

iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttną ttą́ka) - mountain lion, panther, cougar, puma [MS]

taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka (tt̨dą tt̨ka) - mountain lion, puma

taⁿ-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (tonon-tunkah) - tiger or panther (tigre ou panthre) [GI]

taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion

taⁿ-daⁿ e-ni-ka-shi-ka (taⁿdⁿ nikacka), taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka e-ni-ka-shi-ka (tⁿdaⁿ tk͓a nikacka) - the Panther or Mountain Lion gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

cf. iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe (įtt̨dą kde) - cat, domestic cat spotted; iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe zhi-ka (įtt̨dą kde ka) - kitten; iⁿ-taⁿ kde-zhe (įttą́ kde) - cat, speckled cat [MS, AG]; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ kde-zhe (įttaną kdze) - bobcat; taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat; taⁿ-ke kde-she (DąGeGaD˙e) - cat, domestic [FS]

 

mouse

iⁿ-chʰaⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ka), iⁿ-chʰoⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ka) - mouse

iⁿ-chaⁿ-ka (įčą́ka) - mouse, rat [MS]

cf. iⁿ-chʰoⁿ bda-ska (̨čʰǫ bdska) - flying squirrel; iⁿ-chʰoⁿ pa-zi-ta-da (įčʰ̨ppazttad) - field mouse; iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ tt̨ka) - rat; iⁿ-chaⁿ-ka taⁿ-ka (inschunka-tunka) - rat (rat) [GI]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-chuⁿ-ga (iⁿchuⁿga) - mouse [Omaha]; iⁿ-choⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (iⁿ-chⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga) - mouse [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tsʰo-ka (įcʰka) - mouse [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ-choⁿ-ga (iⁿchⁿga), i-choⁿ-ga (ichⁿga) - mouse [Kaw]; iⁿ-choⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (iⁿchⁿ zhⁿga) - mouse [Kaw]

 

mouse, field mouse

iⁿ-chʰoⁿ pa-zi-ta-da (įčʰ̨ppazttad) - field mouse

cf. iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ tt̨ka) - rat; iⁿ-chʰoⁿ bda-ska (̨čʰǫ bdska) - flying squirrel; iⁿ-chʰaⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ka), iⁿ-chʰoⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ka) - mouse

Dhegiha: pa-zi-tʰa-tha (pzitʰtha) - mouse, field mouse, ground mouse [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-choⁿ pa-zo-tsa (iⁿchⁿ pazca), iⁿ-choⁿ pa-zo-ta (iⁿchⁿ pazta) - field mouse [Kaw]

 

mouth

i-ha (ha) - mouth

i-ha (ha) - mouth [MS, AB, OM]

i-ha (ih-hah) - mouth (bouche) [GI]

i-ha (˙ha) - mouth [FS]

Dhegiha: i-ha (ha) - lip [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha (ha) - lips [Omaha]; i-ha (-ha) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i-ha (haa) - mouth [CQ-Osage]; i-ha (ha) - mouth, or top of the mouth [Kaw]

 

mouth, draw into mouth

da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth

cf. da (da) - by mouth; di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill that ate people from Quapaw mythology; di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling

Dhegiha: tha-xu-e (tha-x-e) - dragged with his teeth [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-e (thi-x-e) - to drag something on the ground [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-we (thi-x-we) - to drag some dead animal by rope, to lead a horse to water [FL-Osage]; thi-xo-we (iiɣwe), thi-xo-e (iiɣe), thi-xo (iiɣ) - drag [CQ-Osage]; yu-gho-we (yughwe) - drag, pull behind [Kaw]

 

mouth, fail using the mouth or voice

da-iⁿ-zhi (dąi) - fail using the mouth or voice bda-iⁿ-zhi (bdįi) - I, ta-iⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; zhi (-i) - negative, not; ba-iⁿ-zhi (bąi) - fail or miss pushing at something; bi-iⁿ-zhi (bįi) - fail/miss pressing/blowing; di-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - fail in pulling, rowing, etc.; ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking; naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ną̨i) - fail in walking or with machine; pa-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - fail in cutting or sawing; ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough

Dhegiha: ya-iⁿ-ba-zhe (yaⁿbazhe) - fail at something by biting, due to loose or aching teeth, or talking or singing, due to a sore throat [Kaw]

 

mouth, hold in the mouth

da-pʰe (dapʰ) - hold in the mouth bda-pʰe (bdpʰ) - I, ta-pʰe (ttpʰ) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth

Dhegiha: tha-pshe (tha-psh) - to hold an object in the mouth, to bite and carry in the mouth [FL-Osage]; ya-phe (yaph) - hold in the mouth, between the teeth [Kaw]

 

mouth, make a popping sound with mouth

da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth bda-ta-zhe (bdttae) - I, ta-ta-zhe (ttttae) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

mouth, open the mouth

i-ka (ka) - open the mouth i-da-ka (idka) - I, i-da-ka (daka) - you, oⁿ-naⁿ-ka-we (ǫn̨kawe) - we

cf. i-a-da (ida) - yawn, gape

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

 

mouth, put something in the mouth

i-yo-knaⁿ (iykną) - put something in the mouth i-yo-a-knaⁿ (iyakn̨) - I, i-yo-da-knaⁿ (iydakn̨) - you

cf. o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ha (ha) - lip [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha (ha) - lips [Omaha]; i-ha (-ha) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i-ha (haa) - mouth [CQ-Osage]; i-ha (ha) - mouth, or top of the mouth [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-gthoⁿ (u-gthoⁿ) - to put in, putting in, a place of deposit, to inclose, in which to put, to thrust in, to put a stake in a pile when gambling [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (ool̨) - put into, place inside of, pour round items into, add items to cooking, pour liquid into [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ (olⁿ) - put a sitting/inanimate object into something, to put a curvilinear (wide rather than tall) object such as paper, a book, a bandage, cloth, etc. within a receptacle [Kaw]

 

mouth, roof of the mouth

paⁿ-kda-te (ppąkdtte) - palate, roof of the mouth

Dhegiha: ta-gtha-de (tagthde) - roof of the mouth, hard palate [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-btha-de (koⁿbthde) - ridge above the teeth, roof of the mouth [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-btha-dse (ḳoⁿbth-dse) - roof of the mouth [FL-Osage]; paⁿ-la-je (paⁿlje) - palate, roof of the mouth [Kaw]

 

mouth, stretch with the mouth

da-zi-ke (dazke) - stretch with the mouth bda-zi-ke (bdzike) - I, ta-zi-ke (ttzike) -you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; bi-zi-ke (bizke) - stretch from pressure or weight; di-zi-ke (dizke) - stretch by pulling; hi-ni-ke zi-zi-ke (hinke zizke) - stockings, hose; kdi-zi-ke (kdizke) - stretch ones own, pull; ki-di-zi-ke (kdizke) - stretch something for someone; naⁿ-zi-ke (nązke) - stretch something by treading on it

Dhegiha: zi-zi-ge (zzige) - rubber, elastic, any rubber or elastic object [Omaha/Ponca]; zi-zi-ge (z-zi-ge) - India-rubber, any elastic object [JOD-Omaha]; zi-zi-ge (iige) - springy [Omaha]; wa-zi-zi-e (wa--i-e) - rubber, thing elastic [FL-Osage]

 

mouth, to squirt water on something from the mouth

ni a-bi-xoⁿ (ni biγǫ) - to squirt water on something from the mouth ni a-pi-xoⁿ (ni ppiγǫ) - I , ni a-shpi-xoⁿ (ni piγǫ) - you

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid; (biγǫ) - squirt, spit on; bi-xoⁿ (biγ̨) - blow on something; o-bi-xoⁿ (obγǫ) - blow into, inflate

Dhegiha: a-bi-xoⁿ (-bi-xaⁿ) - to blow on with the mouth [JOD-Omaha]; bi-xoⁿ (bixⁿ) - blow, to blow, as at a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-xoⁿ (bi-xⁿ) - to blow with the breath, to make a fire burn by blowing [FL-Osage]; pi-xaⁿ (pɣą) - blow as ones nose, blow on something, blow into a fire, blow dust off a surface, blow a dandelion away in the wind, blow on a burnt finger to relieve pain [CQ-Osage]; bi-ghaⁿ (bighⁿ) - blow on a fire to make it burn [Kaw]

 

mouth, undo with the mouth or teeth

da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth

cf. da (da) - by mouth; naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd), ba-kda (bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push or blow loose; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-gtha (bagth) - untie, unmake, loosen, to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; ga-gtha (ga-gth) - to make ones hair become undone by accident [FL-Osage]

 

move

shkoⁿ (kǫ) - move a-shkoⁿ (ak̨) - I, da-shkoⁿ (dak̨) - you

cf. shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (kǫk̨) - move often; wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de  (wakkaγe kǫ kde) - movie, show, picture show, pictures that cause themselves to move; shkoⁿ-zhi (k̨i) - motionless [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ shkoⁿ-aⁿ-de ni-hoⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą k̨ąd nih̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - how would it be possible for anyone to make me move? said the black bear, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) - do you want to go to the show? [OM]

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ (shkⁿ) - move, act, do; to act, be active, move around, do [Omaha/Ponca]; shkoⁿ (shkoⁿ) - to move, to stir, to be active, motion [FL-Osage]; shkaⁿ (shk̨) - move, change (as weather), go on, continue, start [CQ-Osage]; shkaⁿ (shkaⁿ) - move around, stir [Kaw]

 

move  something

ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing pa-ti-ze (ppttize) - I, shpa-ti-ze (pttize) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing

 

bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing or blowing pi-ti-ze (ppttize) - I, shpi-ti-ze (pttize) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing, blow

 

di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something bdi-ti-ze (bdttize) - I, ti-ti-ze (ttttize) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling

 

ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move ones possession by pushing a-ki-pa-ti-ze (akppattize) - I, da-ki-pa-ti-ze (dakppattize) - you

 

ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit a-ki-kdi-ti-ze (akkkdittze) - I, da-ki-kdi-ti-ze (dakkkdittze) - you

 

naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet a-naⁿ-ti-ze (an̨ttize) - I, da-naⁿ-ti-ze (dan̨ttize) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot

 

po-ti-ze (pttize), po-tʰi-ze (ptʰize) - move something by punching or shooting po-a-ti-ze (pattze) - I, po-da-ti-ze (pdattze) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing

 

move back and forth

ka-i-ze (kize) - wave, move back and forth a-i-ze (ize) - I, da-i-ze (dize) - you, oⁿ-ka-i-za-we (ǫkizawe) - we

cf. a-ka-i-ze (kaze) - brandish a weapon at someone

ex: aⁿ-ka-i-ze (̨kaze) - he brandished it at me

ex: a-di-ka-i-ze (dikaze) - he brandished a weapon at you

Dhegiha: ga-i-za (ga--za) - to wave to and fro, as a flag or blanket [JOD-Omaha]; ga-i-i-za (ga--i-za) - to cause to shake frequently by blowing, as the wind moves the branches of a tree [JOD-Omaha]; si ga-i-i-za (si giza) - to jiggle ones foot [Omaha/Ponca]

 

move often

shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (kǫk̨) - move often a-shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (ak̨kǫ) - I, da-shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (dak̨kǫ) - you

cf. shkoⁿ (kǫ) - move

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ-shkoⁿ (shkⁿshkoⁿ) - motion, move; to be in constant motion, moving back and forth [Omaha/Ponca]; shkaⁿ-shkaⁿ (kąk̨) - keep moving, move again and again [CQ-Osage]

 

move ones household

ti-di-ha (ttidha) - move ones household ti-bdi-ha (ttibdiha) - I, ti-ti-ha (ttittiha) - you

cf. ki-kdi-ha (kkikdha) - move ones lodge a distance

Dhegiha: thi-ha-ʰtsi (thi-h-ṭsi) - to remove a family from one place to another [FL-Osage]

 

move ones lodge a distance

ki-kdi-ha (kkikdha) - move ones lodge a distance

cf. ti-di-ha (ttidha) - move ones household

 

move, not move

shkoⁿ-zhi (k̨i) - motionless [JOD]

cf. shkoⁿ (kǫ) - move; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: tʰi naⁿ te paⁿ-ze shkoⁿ-zhi hi a-zhaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (tʰi ną tʔe pp̨ze k̨i hi ą mįkʰ) - when he arrived, I pretended to be dead, I lay there motionless [JOD]

Dhegiha: shkoⁿ-zhi (shkⁿzhi) - motionless, to be motionless [Omaha/Ponca]; shkoⁿ-a-zhi (shkⁿazhi) - motionless, still, rest, move [Omaha/Ponca]; shkoⁿ-a-zhi (shkoⁿ--zhi) - not active, inactive [FL-Osage]; shkaⁿ-zhi (k̨i), shkaⁿ-a-zhi (k̨ai) - still, lit., not move, quiet, quietly (as not in movement), unable to move or start (as a motor vehicle [CQ-Osage]shkaⁿ-zhi (shkⁿzhi) - be still, to not move [Kaw]

 

movement, bowel movement

zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement a-zhe (a) - I, da-zhe (daze) - you, zhe (zh) - he/she, oⁿ-zha-we (ǫwe) - we

cf. zhe-ki-de (ekde) - bowel movement, defecate; te-zhe (te) - urinate; te-zhe ki-de (te kde) - urinate

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit, penis, male organ [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

 

zhe-ki-de (kide) - defecate, bowel movement

zhe-ki-de (ekde) - defecate, bowel movement [MS]

zhe-ki-de (ekde) - bowel movement [OM]

zhe-ki-de (gek-kideh) - defecate, bowel movement (lacher l'autre) [GI]

cf. zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement; ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself; te-zhe (te) - urinate; te-zhe ki-de (te kde) - urinate

ex: zhe-ki-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (ekde nįkʰ, ̨ke) - dog doo, he is defecating, the dog [MS]

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit, penis, male organ [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ki-the (kithe) - to cause oneself [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰki-the (ḳi-the) - to cause, to cause one, to cause oneself; to cause another, to cause themselves [FL-Osage]; ki-the (ke) - make or have someone engage voluntarily in some act, let or allow someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-the (ʰke) - cause, make oneself to be or do [CQ-Osage]

 

movie

wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de (wakkaγe kǫ kde) - movie, show, picture show

cf. wa-ka-ka-xe (wakkaγe) - picture; shkoⁿ (kǫ) - move; ki-de (kde) - cause itself

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) - do you want to go to the show? [OM]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-de wa-ga-xe shkoⁿ shkoⁿ (iⁿde wagaxe shkoⁿshkoⁿ) - movie [Omaha]; wa-ga-xe (wa-g-xe) - a picture of, a symbol of [FL-Osage]; ʰke-da-xe shkoⁿ (ḳ-da-xe-shkoⁿ) - moving pictures, moving shadows [FL-Osage]

 

moving, continuative moving

niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving a-ni-he (anih) - I, ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - you, niⁿ (nį) - he/she/it, oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį) - we, a-pa-she (ape) - you all, a-pa (apa) - they

cf. niⁿ (nį) - the sg/mv/an; de-niⁿ (dnį) - this mv/an; ka-niⁿ (knį) - that sg/mv/iv/an; kaⁿ-niⁿ (ką-n̨) - so he moved awhile [JOD]; koi-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote sg/mv/vi/an; she-niⁿ (nį) - that mv/vi/an; shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫn̨) - finally, mv/an/sb; ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed sg/mv/an, yon; ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that sg/mv/an over there; ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived sg/mv/an; to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that sg/mv/an object that arrived on this side; to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that sg/mv/an object arriving on this side; to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that sg/mv/an object on this side; to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that sg/mv/an object on this side or the nearer of two objects

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

a-ni-he (anih) - I, 1sg continuative moving

cf. a-ni-he naⁿ (anihną) - I, continuative habitual; shoⁿ a-ni-he (̨anih) - I, finally, mv/an/sb; kaⁿ-a-ni-he (k̨-anih) - so I move awhile [JOD]; koi-sha-ni-he (kinihe) - so I moved [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kįttą eki bd tt[a]nih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: bde ta-ni-he (bd tt[a]nih) - I will be going

ex: shi-naⁿ shka-te bde ta-ni-he (ną ktte bde tta[a]nhe) - again I will go play [JOD]

ex: she-he a-ni-he (he nihe) - I say that-I who move = I have been saying that [JOD]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

ex: wi-e a-ni-he (we nih), (wiĭ a-ne-hĕ) - I was [LH]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kįttą eki bd tt[a]nih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: e-ti o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (et omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age there

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, da-knoⁿ-ke koⁿ-bda, she-mi ke a-wa-ki-shka-te kaⁿ-a-ni-he koⁿ-bda (įtttte, dknǫke kk̨bda, mi ke awkiktte k̨-anih kk̨bda) - father, I want you to marry her, I want to play with the girls [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-niⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi- i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (pʰi nih, iy iy mat̨ke) - so I have been coming here, replied the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-pʰe a-taⁿ wa-ske pa-xa-taⁿ bda-tʰe e-shoⁿ a-ni-he (pʰe ttą wske ppaγ-ttą bdatʰ ę anhe) - I pounded and made bread and I ate it [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ-he (iⁿh) - I who move [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ-he (a-thⁿ-he) - in my life movements, as I go forth [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-thiⁿ-he (ąįh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 1st sg. subject, moving here means changing location [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-he (ayih) - continuative, I, while moving [Kaw]

 

ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - you, 2sg continuative moving

cf. ni-she-naⁿ (niną) - you, continuative habitual; shoⁿ-ni-she (̨ni) - you, finally, mv/an/sb

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: i-e i-she ni-she (e i ni) - you said it [AG]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (haǫ ni) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (ǰe hǫ n) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e shi-zhi-ka a-tiⁿ ni-she (jhe ikka att̨ ni) - do you have any children? [AG]

ex: jhi-e shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ a-tiⁿ ni-she (ǰe ̨keknį att̨ ni) - have you got a horse? [AG]

ex: ha-ki te ni-she (hak͓ te nicĕ) - where are you going? [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-thiⁿ-she (th-thiⁿ-sh) - 2sg aux, in motion; you who move [JOD-Omaha]; tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thⁿ-she) - you who are going [FL-Osage]; thaiⁿ-she (aį), thaⁿ-she (ąą) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 2nd sg. subject (action or state may continue from past to present, corresponding to English perfect have/had been [CQ-Osage]; ya-yi-she (yayish) - continuative, you (sg), while moving (or not visible) [Kaw]

 

niⁿ (nį) - he/she/it, 3sg continuative moving

cf. niⁿ (nį) - the sg/mv/an; niⁿ-naⁿ (nįn̨) - continuative habitual

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (they have a lot of money) [MS]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

ex: xa-ke niⁿ (γak nį) - crying (he/she is crying) [MS]

ex: mi-ka niⁿ (mikk nį) - the (moving) raccoon

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe ki-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (waxʔik nį wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kikʔ̨ kd iy) - the old woman carried her sewing bag upon her back and went homeward, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe, iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke tʰi ed mat̨ke tʰi ed keywe n̨ iy) - the rabbit has come!, the rabbit has come! they (black bears) said to one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hau ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-da-ke tʰi i-ye i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (hau mat̨ke odke tʰ iy keywe n̨ iy) - ho, the rabbit says that he has come to tell us something, they (black bears) said to one another, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį) - we, 1pl continuative moving

ex: oⁿ-ko-we oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (uⁿ-go-we e-n-ga-ni) - we were [LH]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-thiⁿ (ágaiⁿ) - we who move [JOD-Omaha]

 

a-pa-she (ape) - you all, 2pl continuative moving

Dhegiha: pa-she (paa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting/moving/lying down subject, you are characterized by the preceding expression, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; pa-she (pash), ba-she (baash) - continuative you (plural), while moving [Kaw]

 

a-pa (apa) - they, 3pl continuative aspect marker, plural of niⁿ (nį)

cf. a-pa (ap) - they, 3pl continuative moving; a-pa (apa) - the, definite article for pl/mv/an objects; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those mv/vi/an; de-pa (dpa) - these mv/an; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those pl/mv/iv/an; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote pl/mv/vi/an; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those pl/mv/an, yon; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those pl/mv/an objects on this side

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-pa (nkkaikapa) - the (moving) people

ex: kde pa (kde p) - they were going homeward [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka she-mi-zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kde pa i-ya-we (kįttą nkka mika enąp kde p iywe) - then both the man and little girl were going homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: koⁿ pa (kǫ p) - so-3d.pl. classifier, so they were so [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

ex: xa-ke a-pa (γak pa) - they were crying [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke mi-zhi-ka ke xa-ke a-pa (kak ke miik ke γak pa) - those girls were crying [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa (was-ppa) - the moving black bears [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi te-wa-de i-ya (was-pa zan hi tʔwade iy) - all of the black bears were killed, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ma (am) - the plural moving [JOD - Omaha]; a-pa (apa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person sg. or pl. moving or absent subject [CQ-Osage]; a-ba (ab) - continuative he/she/it (animate), while moving or not within sight [Kaw]

 

moving, motion, traveling

ka-xe noⁿ-ba niⁿ (k-xe nŭⁿ́-p͓a nyiⁿ́), (kqe naⁿp͓ niⁿ) - masculine name of the (Kwapa) ho i-ni-ka-shi-ka (hu-inikaciga) or Fish gens: Two Ravens in Motion [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

mi o-ka-shaⁿ niⁿ (mi -k͓a-caⁿ́ niⁿ) - female name of the Kwapa Sun gens; Traveling Sun (or Moon) [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun, moon, orb; niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving

Dhegiha: mi ga-shoⁿ thiⁿ (mgashoⁿthiⁿ) - The Traveling Moon; Traveling or Moving Moon; The Moon That Travels; The Moon Moving, female name [Omaha]; mi ga-shoⁿ-iⁿ (m-ga-shoⁿ-iⁿ) - Sun That Travels, female personal name [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

mower, grass cutter

we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter

cf. we (we) - with which to; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibγe) - to break by pulling; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: ga-ba-xe (ga-b-xe) - to break a string by striking with a stick [FL-Osage]

 

much

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very, often, always

ex: a-ta-ha (attah) - often, always [JOD]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha (nkkaka bn̨ attah) - sure enough smells like a human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-si-si a-ta-ha (ąssi attah) - me very active [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: e-ti-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttą ttįi h htʔe kkatte ttaha) - then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o-ki-hoⁿ a-ta-ha ti-te-ki-da-zhi (kihǫ attah tttekidi) - cooking-much-she had not caused it to be done [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha-wi (nąpphi attahwi) - they were very hungry [JOD]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

Dhegiha: a-ta (-ta) - beyond, more than, extreme, excessive [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta shoⁿ (ata shoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

a-na-hi-te (anhitte) - much

e-na-hi-ke (enhike) - much [OM]

cf. ha-na-i-te (han itte) - however much or many; ha-na-hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many; ha-naⁿ-hi-de (han̨hide) - however many/much

Dhegiha: a-na (-na) - how much; how many [JOD-Omaha]

 

much, how much or many

ha-naⁿ (han̨), ha-noⁿ (han̨) - how much, how many

ho-noⁿ (honǫ́) - how many, how much [OM]

Dhegiha: ha-noⁿ (h-noⁿ) - how much or how many [FL-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (haną) - how many, how much [CQ-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (hnaⁿ) - how many, how much [Kaw]

 

ha-noⁿ-mu-shte (hnǫmute) - how much, how many, -mu- is unexplained, possibly ha-noⁿ o-shte (han̨ ot) how many remain, how many are left

cf. ha-naⁿ (han̨), ha-noⁿ (han̨) - how much, how many; o-shte (ot) - remain, be left over

 

much, however much or many

ha-na-i-te (han itte) - however much or many

ha-na-hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many

ha-naⁿ-hi-de (han̨hide) - however many/much

cf. ha-naⁿ (han̨), ha-noⁿ (han̨) - how much, how many; hi-te (hitt) - indefinite prn., (what)-ever; i-te (-itt) - indefinite prn. marker, -ever

Dhegiha: ha-noⁿ (h-noⁿ) - how much or how many [FL-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (haną) - how many, how much [CQ-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (hnaⁿ) - how many, how much [Kaw]

 

much, laugh much

i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much i-da-xa de-a-de (idxa dade) - I, i-da-xa de-da-de (daxa ddade) - you

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

Dhegiha: i-xa wa-the-the (xa wathethe) - comical [Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-xa (qa) - laugh, laugh at, to laugh, to laugh at someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-xa (xa) - chuckle, giggle, laugh, smile [Omaha]; i-xa (-xa) - to laugh, to titter [FL-Osage]; i-xa (ixa) - laugh, laugh at [CQ-Osage]; i-xa (xa) - laugh; smile [Kaw]

Dhegiha: the-the (th-the) - to send to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - cause to go [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

 

much, many

zho-hi (hi) - much, many

cf. zho-hi hi (hi hi) - very many, very much

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi (nkkaka oh) - many people [JOD]

 

much, so much as

ke-hi-te (khitte) - even, so much as

cf. e-hi-te (hitte) - so ever [JOD]

 

much, this much

de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - this much, this quantity, this many

cf. de (de) - this; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

 

de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - this (much) deep

cf. de (de) - this; a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

 

de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - this (much) tall

cf. de (de) - this; a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - this (much) long

cf. de (de) - this; ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length

 

much, too much

wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

cf. o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

Dhegiha: wa-te-xi (watxi) - difficult action with a purpose, male name [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse-xi (wa-ṭs-xi) - difficult to destroy, to be tenacious of life, stingy, ungenerous, not liberal, penurious [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtse-xi (waʰcxi) - be difficult, hard, challenging, not easy to do [CQ-Osage]; wa-tse-xi (wacxi) - be hard, difficult to endure, something difficult, be difficult [Kaw]

 

much, very much

zho-hi hi (hi hi) - very many, very much

cf. zho-hi (hi) - much, many; hi (hi) - very

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi (skka tt̨ka hi hi) - many turkeys [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-aⁿ-de aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (wąka hi h tʔęde ąkkde tte) - we have killed many birds, lets go home [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

ex: zho-hi hi ka-xa-we (oh hi kγawe) - they made many [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

mucous, pus, corruption

xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption

cf. xdi-xdi (xdxdi), xti-xti (xtxti) - boil; a sore on the body

Dhegiha: xthi (xthi) - sore, opus [Omaha]; xthi (qthi) - ooze, break out; to ooze out as pus from a boil or pimple that has burst; to break out in sores; xthi (xthi) - fester, suppurate [FL-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - mucus, pus [Kaw]

 

mucus, nasal mucus

pa-xni (ppaxn) - snot, nasal mucus

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption

Dhegiha: pa-xthiⁿ (paqthⁿ) - nasal mucus, nasal excretion, snot [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-xthiⁿ (paxthiⁿ) - snot [Omaha]; ʰpa-xthiⁿ (p̣a-xthⁿ) - mucus from the nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-liⁿ (ʰpal̨), ʰpa-ʰliⁿ (ʰpaʰlį), ʰpa-li (ʰpali) - mucus from the nose, runny nose, snot [CQ-Osage]; pa-xliⁿ (paxlⁿ) - nasal mucus, snot [Kaw]

 

mud catfish

to-ze (ttze) - catfish, mud catfish

to-ze (ttze) - catfish [MS]

cf. wa-to-ze (wattze) - catfish

Dhegiha: tu-ze (tze) - dark catfish, found in the Missouri River [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-ze (te) - catfish [Omaha]; ʰto-ze (ṭ-e) - catfish, the catfish is used by both the Osage and Omaha for good [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ze (ʰtze) - catfish [CQ-Osage]

 

mud hen

ni ta-zhe naⁿ-pe (ni tte n̨ppe) - mud hen, mud hens are called, ni ta-zhe naⁿ-pe (ni tte n̨ppe), fear to see waves [JOD]

cf. ni ta-zhe (ni tte) - wave (in a body of water); naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-pe (wanoⁿpe) - fear [Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰpe (nⁿ-p̣e) - to fear, to dread, to have a horror, to be afraid, to be timid [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpe (n̨ǫʰpe) - be afraid or scared, fear [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-pe (nⁿpe) - be afraid of what is visible [Kaw]

 

mud, mire

ka-ta-te (katttte), (kattte) - mud, mire

ex: ka-ta-te de di-sha-i niⁿ (katttte de diai nį) - he became mired and was unable (failed) to go [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ni-tʰe ka-ta-te ka-xdo de (h̨nitʰ katttte kaxd d) - somehow he got through (pierced) the mud/mire [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-na-de (gande) - mire, stuck, to get stuck, said of horses or oxen [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-da-dse (ga-d-dse) - miry, boggy, marsh mire [FL-Osage]; ka-ta-tse (kataace) - stick, get stuck [CQ-Osage]; ga-da-je (gadje) - stuck in the mud, to get mired; mud, mire, muck, a slough, quicksand [Kaw]

 

mud, shallow mud

ma-xdi-xdi-we (mxdixdwe), ma-xti-xti-we (mxtixtwe) - shallow mud

Dhegiha: qthi-be (qthbe) - swampy, muddy [Omaha/Ponca]; qthi-qthi-be (qthiqthbe) - swampy, muddy, miry [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ-xthi-xthi-be (maⁿ-q-qi-be) - deep mud, extending below the surface, as after a thaw or frequent raines [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-xthi-xthi-be (moⁿxthi xthibe) - mud, muddy [Omaha]; maⁿ-xli-xli (maⁿxlxli) - earth that is springy, swampy, squishy and oozing [Kaw]; xli-xli (xlxli) - miry, mud and water oozing up [Kaw]

 

mud, stuck in mud

o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - become mired, stuck in mud

cf. ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand; kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy; di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]

ex: o-ka-kdo niⁿ (okkdo n̨) - he sank in the hole [JOD]

 

muddy, slimy, ropy, viscous

kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous

cf. o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - become mired, stuck in mud; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]

ex: we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy

ex: we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy [LQ, AG, OM]

ex: di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy

ex: a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]

ex: a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]

 

mulberry tree

zhaⁿ to-hi (ą ttohi) - mulberry tree [MS]

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zi u-kʰe-thiⁿ (zoⁿz ukʰthiⁿ) - mulberry, common mulberry [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-zi (zoⁿz) - Moraceae, Osage Orange, mulberry [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-zi (zhoⁿi) - Osage Orange Tree, Mulberry Tree [Omaha]; zho ʰtoⁿ hi (zh-ṭoⁿ hi) - mulberry tree (Morus), known as Indian mulberry [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ da-da-ze (zhⁿ-da-da-e) - the mulberry tree (Morus), when this wood is used for fuel it makes a crackling sound [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ da-da-ze (zhⁿ dadze) - mulberry tree, used for making pipe stems [Kaw]

 

mule

naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ka (nątt tt̨ka) - mule, lit. big ears

naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ka (nottah-tunkah) - mule (mulet) [GI]

naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ka (nątt tt̨ka) - donkey [MS]

cf. naⁿ-ta (nątt) - ear, the external ear; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: ni-ta taⁿ-ga (ni-t͓ t͓a-ga) - big ears, a mule, donkey [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ta toⁿ-ga (nita toⁿga) - mule [Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰta ʰtoⁿ-ga (noⁿ-ṭ ṭoⁿ-ga) - mule, big ears [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-taⁿ ʰtaⁿ (nąąʰt̨ʰtąą), naⁿ-taⁿ ʰtaⁿ-ka (nąąʰt̨ʰtąka) - mule, jack mule, donkey, burro, ass, lit., big ears [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ga (naⁿt tⁿga) - mule [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-ta ste-te (nątt sttte) - mule, long ears

cf. naⁿ-ta (nątt) - ear, the external ear; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

Dhegiha: ʰta noⁿ-ta stse-e (ṭ-noⁿ-t-stse-e) - mule deer, long eared deer [FL-Osage]

 

multiply

zho-hi ka-xe (hi kγe) - to multiply, to make much or many

cf. zho-hi (hi) - much, many; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

mush

wa-ti-te (wattte) - mush, boiled until done

cf. ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked; ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something

Dhegiha: wa-niⁿ-de (wanⁿde) - mush [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-niⁿ-de (waniⁿde) - mush [Omaha]; wa-dsu-dse (wa-dsu-dse) - mush [FL-Osage]; wa-ju-je (wajje) - mush, corn mush; rice; can also refer to corn; gravy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-de (niⁿ́-de) - cooked till done, as food; burnt or frozen, as parts of the body or the face, by exposure to heat or cold; blistered, as by a mustard plaster or fly-blister [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ-de (niⁿde) - ripe [Omaha]; dsu-dse (ds-dse) - cooked well done [FL-Osage]; tsu-tse (cuce) - done, cooked, ripe, mellow, mature, cook well done [CQ-Osage]; ju-je (jje) - cooked, done, as when fully cooked; burned, blistered [Kaw]

 

mushmelon

wa-tʰaⁿ si-ta (watʰą stta) - muskmelon, mushmelon

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ (watʰ̨) - watermelon [MS, OM]; wa-tʰaⁿ o-ha (watʰą ha) - pumpkin; wa-tʰoⁿ to (watʰ̨ tto) - pumpkin; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon deau) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ (watoⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, melon [Omaha]; wa-ʰtoⁿ (waṭⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, or any of the vegetables of that family [FL-Osage]; wa-txaⁿ (watx̨), wa-kxaⁿ (wakx̨) - pumpkin, squash [CQ-Osage]; wa-khaⁿ (wakhⁿ) - pumpkin (generic term) [Kaw]

 

mushy, make mushy

di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy bdi-kdo-kdo (bdkdokdo) - I, ti-kdo-kdo (ttkdokdo) - you

cf. kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]; we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]; o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - mired, become, stuck in mud; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

 

musket

ma-ze . ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (moseheschtih-nikkonson) - musket (mousquet) [GI]

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron or gun; ?; ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (nikkąs̨) - police

 

muskmelon

wa-tʰaⁿ si-ta (watʰą stta) - muskmelon, mushmelon

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ (watʰ̨) - watermelon [MS, OM]; wa-tʰaⁿ o-ha (watʰą ha) - pumpkin; wa-tʰoⁿ to (watʰ̨ tto) - pumpkin; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon deau) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ (watoⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, melon [Omaha]; wa-ʰtoⁿ (waṭⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, or any of the vegetables of that family [FL-Osage]; wa-txaⁿ (watx̨), wa-kxaⁿ (wakx̨) - pumpkin, squash [CQ-Osage]; wa-khaⁿ (wakhⁿ) - pumpkin (generic term) [Kaw]

 

muskrat

ta-si (ttsi) - muskrat

ta-si (ttsi) - muskrat [MS]

Dhegiha: ta-si (ṭa-) - muskrat [FL-Osage]; ʰta-tsʰi (ʰtacʰ) - muskrat [CQ-Osage]; ta-si zhiⁿ-ga (tsi zhiⁿga) - muskrat [Kaw]

 

muskrat, to hunt muskrat

ta-si di-xe (ttsi dix) - to hunt muskrat ta-si bdi-xe (ttsi bdxe) - I, ta-si ti-xe (ttsi ttxe) - you

cf. ta-si (ttsi) - muskrat; di-xe (dix) - chase, pursue, hunt

Dhegiha: ta-si (ṭa-) - muskrat [FL-Osage]; ʰta-tsʰi (ʰtacʰ) - muskrat [CQ-Osage]; ta-si zhiⁿ-ga (tsi zhiⁿga) - muskrat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-xe (thxe) - chasing, chase after [Omaha]; thi-xe (thi-x) - to pursue, to chase [FL-Osage]; thu-xi (ux) - chase [CQ-Osage]; yu-xe (yux) - chase, pursue [Kaw]

 

mustache

i-ha-hiⁿ (hah̨) - mustache, mouth hair

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth; hiⁿ (hį) - fur, hair of the body, down of bird; da-ka-hiⁿ (dakhį) - whiskers, sideburns; di-ba-hiⁿ (dibhį) - beard; ta-te-hiⁿ (ttatthį) - hair on the sides of the head, hair on the temples; ma-shtiⁿ-ke hiⁿ (mat̨ke h̨) - rabbit fur; ta hiⁿ (ttah̨) - deers hair

Dhegiha: i-ha (iha) - mouth [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha (-ha) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i-ha (haa) - mouth [CQ-Osage]; i-ha (ha) - mouth, or top of the mouth; lips [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ (hⁿ) - hair [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair on body, fur [Omaha]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair or fur, hair of the human body, also the hair of an animal [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ (h̨į) - hair, whiskers, fur, fuzz as on a peach [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - fur, body hair, feathers [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - moustache, mouth hair [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ki-hiⁿ (kihiⁿ) - beard [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ki-hiⁿ (iki hiⁿ) - mustache, beard, whiskers [Omaha]; i-hiⁿ (-hiⁿ), iⁿ-hiⁿ (ⁿ-hiⁿ) - mustache, beard [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-hiⁿ (̨hį) - beard [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ-hiⁿ (ⁿhiⁿ) - whiskers [Kaw]

 

mutch-hotch

wa-zhiⁿ zha ma-ni (waį mni) - nuthatch, lit. walks upside down; mutch-hotch; Sittidae

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka), wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - bird; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ xa-tha a-he (zhoⁿ qtha he) - nuthatch or Nuttalls woodpecker; bird that goes back again down the tree [Omaha/Ponca]

 

mute

i-a-zhi (a) - mute

cf. i-e (ie), i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

Dhegiha: i-a-zhi (azhi) - not to speak, to be silent, negation of i-e (e) [Omaha/Ponca]; i-a-zhi (-a-zhi) - a mute, reticent, speak not [FL-Osage]; i-a-zhi (ai) - to say nothing [CQ-Osage]

 

mutter

zhi-zhi-we (iwe) - mutter a-zhi-zhi-we (aiwe) - I, da-zhi-zhi-we (daiwe) - you

Dhegiha: zhi-zhi (zhizh) - in a whisper [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi-zhi i-e (jiji e) - to talk in a whisper [JOD-Omaha]

 

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