English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

M

 

 muzzle

a-ka-ha ste-te (kaha sttte) - ramrod for a muzzle loader

cf. ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

Dhegiha: a-ga-ha (-ga-ha) - on, upon; outside of, as an enclosure [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-ha (-ga-ha) - on top of, or on the outside [FL-Osage]; a-ka-ha (kaha) - on top, top, summit [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-ha (gaha) - on, upon, on top [Kaw]

 

di-ba-siⁿ (dbasʔ̨) - hold gun muzzle downward bdi-ba-siⁿ (bdbasʔį) - I, ti-ba-siⁿ (ttbasʔį) - you

Dhegiha: thi-ba-tsiⁿ (thi-b-tsiⁿ) - to turn a thing head downward, upside down [FL-Osage]; yu-ba-tsiⁿ (yubtsiⁿ) - bend or deflect something, force to stoop, to make one stoop or bow the head by pulling him by the hair, neck, or arm; to turn a gun muzzle downward [Kaw]

 

my aunt

wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my aunt, my fathers sister [MS, MR, AG]

cf. i-ti-mi (ittmi) - a mans aunt, fathers sister, older or younger; di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, I'm glad to see you [FR]

Dhegiha: wi-ti-mi (witmi) - my aunt [Omaha]; wi-ʰtsi-mi (wiʰcmi) - my fathers, older or younger sister, my paternal aunt, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-mi (wicmi) - my aunt, my fathers sister [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - my older aunt, older aunt on mothers side; mothers older sister

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]

cf. iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother [MS, MR, OM]; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother

Dhegiha: iⁿ-na-ha (ⁿnaⁿ ha) - my mother [Omaha/Ponca]; i-noⁿ-ha (inoⁿha) - my mother [Omaha]; i-na (i-na) - when addressing the mother, i-noⁿ-hoⁿ (-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - my mother [FL-Osage]; i-naⁿ (iin̨) - my mother, my mother's sister, my maternal aunt, either younger or older than my mother, more precise than English, my aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-na-ye (inay) -  my mother (said by a man addressing his own mother), i-na-ye a (naye ) - my mother (said by a woman addressing her own mother), i-naⁿ (inⁿ) - my mother, my father's brother's wife, my mother's brother's daughter--older than myself (male or female speaking), my mother's brother's daughter-younger than myself (male or female speaking), my mother's brother's son's daughter (male speaking or female), my mother's sister, my mother's mother's brother's son's daughter (female speaking), my mother's mother's brother's son's son's daughter (male  or female speaking), my mother's mother's sister's daugther, my mother's mother's mother's sister's daughter's daughter, my step-mother [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-da zhiⁿ-ka (įdįka) - my youngest aunt, younger aunt on mothers side; mothers younger sister

iⁿ-da zhi-ka (įdika) - youngest aunt [OM]

cf. iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother [MS, MR, OM]; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig), zhiⁿ-ka (įk), (̨ka) - small, little, young; i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother

Dhegiha: i-naⁿ zhiⁿ (iin̨į) - my mothers younger sister, more precise than English, my aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ zhiⁿ (iih̨į) - his, her mother's younger sister, more precise than English, his, her maternal aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ zhiⁿ-a (i-hⁿ-zhiⁿ-a) - little mother, a mother's sister or niece [FL-Osage]

 

my brother (elder)

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder brother (male speaking)

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wi-jindheh) - my older brother (frere an) [GI]

cf. i-zhiⁿ-de (įde), e-zhiⁿ-de (ęde) - a mans elder brother; di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-the (wizhⁿthe) - elder brother [Omaha]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wi-zhⁿ-the) - my elder brother, my brother older than myself [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wįe) - my older brother (used only when speaker is male) [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhi-ye (wizhye) - my elder brother [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my brother, womans elder (female speaking)

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my elder brother (female speaker) [MS]

cf. i-ti-to (itttto) - a womans elder brother; di-ti-to (ditttto) - your brother, womans elder (speaking to a female)

Dhegiha: wi-ti-nu (wit͓nu) - my elder brother (female speaking), t͓nuh (Omaha voc.) [JOD-Omaha]; wi-tsiⁿ-do (wi-tsiⁿ́-do) - brother older than myself, woman speaking [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (wiʰc̨to) - my elder brother, oldest of speaker's brothers, not necessarily older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female, more precise than English, my older brother [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-do (wicdo) - my elder brother, female speaking; my step-brother, female speaking, older; my father's brother's son, older than myself, female speaking; my mother's brother's daughter's son, female speaking; my mother's sister's son, older than myself, female speaking [Kaw]

 

my brother (younger)

wi-saⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my younger brother

wi-saⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my brother [MS]

wi-soⁿ-ka (wi-sonkah) - younger brother (frere cadet) [GI]

cf. i-saⁿ-ka (isą́ka), i-soⁿ-ka (is̨ka), e-saⁿ-ka (es̨ka) - someones younger brother; di-saⁿ-ka (dis̨ka) - your younger brother

Dhegiha: wi-saⁿ-ga (wisága) - my younger brother (male speaking), voc. masc. kge-sága [JOD-Omaha]; wi-soⁿ-ga (wi-ⁿ-ga) - brother, younger than myself, this is the ordinary use of the kinship term for my younger brother, but the same term is used ceremonially when no blood relationship exists, one member of a tribe may address members of the other gentes of the same division with this term [FL-Osage]; wi-soⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my younger brother, younger than the speaker, used only when speaker is male, also used by both men and women for related or unrelated younger male [CQ-Osage]; wi-soⁿ-ga (wisⁿga) - my younger brother, male or female speaking; my younger step-brother, male or female speaking; my father's brother's son, younger than, myself, male or female speaking; my mother's sister's son, younger than myself, male speaking or female speaking; my father's father's brother's son's son, younger than myself, male speaking; my wife's sister's husband [Kaw]

 

my daughter

wi-zhaⁿ-ke (wįke) - my daughter

wi-zhoⁿ-ke (wįke) - my daughter [MR]

cf. i-zhaⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhaⁿ-ke (ęke) - his/her daughter, someones daughter; di-zhaⁿ-ke (dįke) - your daughter

Dhegiha: wi-zhuⁿ-ge (wizhⁿge) - my daughter, spoken by mother [Omaha]; wi-zhoⁿ-ke (wįke) - my daughter, used when speaker is male or female, my brothers daughter, used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my niece, my sisters daughter, used only when speaker is female, more precise than English my niece [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhoⁿ-ge (wizhⁿge) - my daughter [Kaw]

 

my daughter-in-law

wi-ti-ni (wittni) - my daughter-in-law

cf. i-ti-ni (ittni), e-ti-ni (eTni) - a mans daughter-in-law; di-ti-ni (dittni) - your daughter-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-ti-ni (witni) - my daughter-in-law [Omaha]; wi-ʰtsi-ni (wi-ṭs-ni) - my daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-ni (wiʰcni) - my daughter-in-law (used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-ni (wicni) - my daughter-in-law, JOD gives the masculine form of address, wi-tsi-ni e (wicni ), followed by, (if ever used). He is referring to the fact that a man traditionally avoided speaking directly to his daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

my father

iⁿ-ta-te (įtttte) - my father

iⁿ-ta-te (įtttte) - my father [MS, MR, AB, OM]

iⁿ-ta-te (ihn-ta-tteh) - father, my father (pere) [GI]

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - his or her father; di-a-te (ditte) - your father

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta (įtttte wakką́tta) - God the Father [FR]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakk̨tta mą nįkh) - Father (God) is up in heaven [MS]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, da-knoⁿ-ke koⁿ-bda, she-mi ke a-wa-ki-shka-te kaⁿ-a-ni-he koⁿ-bda (įtttte, dknǫke kk̨bda, mi ke awkiktte k̨-anih kk̨bda) - father, I want you to marry her, I want to play with the girls [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-da-di (iⁿdadi) - my father [Omaha]; iⁿ-ʰta-tsi (įʰtci) - my father, my fathers brother, my paternal uncle, more precise than English, my uncle [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ-da-je (iⁿdje) - my father, my fathers brother [Kaw]

 

my father God

iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta (įtttte wakką́tta) - Father God, my father God

cf. iⁿ-ta-te (įtttte) - my father; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakką́tta) - God, spirit

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta (įtttte wakką́tta) - God the Father [FR]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakką́tta mą nįkʰ) - Father (God) is up in heaven [MS]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta (įtttte wakką́tta) - our father in heaven; bless you [AB]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-ʰta-tsi wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (įʰtci waʰk̨ta) - our heavenly father, lit., Father God [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ-da-je wa-kaⁿ-da (iⁿdje wakⁿda) - Father God [Kaw]

 

my friend

ko-ta wi-ta (kkta wtta) - my friend

cf. ko-ta (kkta) - friend; wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; ko-ta di-ta (kkta dtta) - your friend; ko-ta di-ta-we (kkta dttawe) - your (plural) friend, you alls friend; ko-ta i-ta (kkta itt) - his, hers, its friend; ko-ta i-ta-we (kkta ittwe) - their friend; ko-ta oⁿ-ko-ta (kkta ǫktta) - our (dual) friend, the two of ours friend; ko-ta oⁿ-ko-ta-we (kkta ǫkttawe) - our (plural, more than two) friend

ex: koi ko-ta wi-ta (ki kkta wtta) - thats my friend [MS]

Dhegiha: i-ʰka-ge (ikʰge) - friend, his male friend [Omaha/Ponca]; ka-ge-ho (kagho) - friend [Omaha]; i-ka-ge (ikage) - friendship, buddy [Omaha]; ʰko-tha (ḳ-tha), ʰku-tha (ḳu-tha) - a friend [FL-Osage]; i-ʰko-tha (i-ḳ-tha) - a friend, fellow [FL-Osage]; ʰko-tha (ʰka) - friend [CQ-Osage]; i-ʰko-wa (iʰkwa) - friend [CQ-Osage]; ko-ya (kya) - friend, confidant [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wi-wi-ta (wiwta) - my, mine, my own [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-wi-ta (wwita) - mine, my own, clain [Omaha]; wi-ʰta (wṭa) - denoting possession, my or mine [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰta (wʰta) - mine, my [CQ-Osage]; wi-ta (wta) - my, mine, used w/ alienable nouns [Kaw]

 

my grandchild

wi-to-shpa (wittpa) - my grandchild

cf. wi-to-shpa she-to (wittpa tto) - my grandson [OM]; wi-to-shpa she-mi (wittpa mi) - my granddaughter; i-to-shpa (ittpa), e-to-shpa (eTpa) - grandchild, his or her grandchild; di-to-shpa (dittpa) - your grandchild

ex: hoⁿ, wi-to-shpa, shoⁿ iⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka tʰaⁿ (h̨, wttop, ǫ į, iy iy waxʔik tʰą) - yes, my grandchild, that will do, the old woman replied  [JOD]

ex: wi-to-shpa (wittpa) - my grandchild [MS]

ex: wi-to-shpa she-mi (wittpa mi) - my granddaughter [MS, OM]

ex: wi-to-shpa she-to (wittpa tto) - my grandson [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-tu-shpa (witcpa) - my grandchild [JOD-Omaha]; wi-tsu-shpa (wi-ts-shpa) - my grandchild [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtso-shpa (wiʰcpa) - my grandchild [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-shpa (wicshpa) - my grandchild [Kaw]

 

my granddaughter

wi-to-shpa she-mi (wittpa mi) - my granddaughter [MS, OM]

cf. wi-to-shpa (wittpa) - my grandchild; she-mi (mi) - girl; wi-to-shpa she-to (wittpa tto) - my grandson [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-tu-shpa (witcpa) - my grandchild [JOD-Omaha]; wi-tsu-shpa (wi-ts-shpa) - my grandchild [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtso-shpa (wiʰcpa) - my grandchild [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-shpa (wicshpa) - my grandchild [Kaw]

 

my grandfather

wi-tʰi-koⁿ (witʰkǫ) - my grandfather [MS, MR, AG, OM]

wi-ti-kaⁿ (wittką) - my grandfather

wi-ti-koⁿ (uittikon) - my grandfather (grandpere) [GI]

cf. i-ti-kaⁿ (ittką), e-ti-kaⁿ (eTką) - grandfather, his or her grandfather; di-ti-kaⁿ (dittką) - your grandfather

ex: aⁿ-da-kni wi-tʰi-koⁿ (̨dakni witʰkǫ) - Im glad its (my) grandpa [MS]

ex: o-do-tʰe aⁿ-di-xe niⁿ e-de, wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (dotʰe ądxe nį ed, wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, the man eater is chasing me, she said to him [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ, i-ke (wittiką naxn̨ kkn̨, ik) - my grandfather hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

ex: na-xnaⁿ da-ki-knaⁿ koⁿ-bda wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (naxn̨ dakikną kkǫbd wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, I want you to hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here?, he said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-ti-goⁿ (witgoⁿ) - my grandfather [Omaha]; wi-ʰtsi-go (wi-ṭs-go), wi-ʰtsi-go-e (wi-ṭsi-g-e) - my grandfather [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-ko (wiʰcko) - my grandfather, my father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-go (wicgo) - my grandfather, my great grandfathers father, my great grandfather, my fathers fathers brother, my mothers mothers brother, my fathers fathers, fathers brother, my mothers mothers mothers brother, my husbands father, my husbands grandfather [Kaw]

 

my grandmother

iⁿ-kaⁿ (įkk̨) - my grandmother

iⁿ-koⁿ (įkk̨) - my grandmother [MS, MR, OM]

cf. i-kaⁿ (ikk̨), e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - his or her grandmother, mother-in-law; di-kaⁿ (dikk̨) - your grandmother

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da i-ye naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨ dtteke was niⁿkʰe tta tti d iy ną ąn̨hos naⁿ) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to the black bear, your uncle [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e te-a-de e-de (įkk-e tʔede ed) - O grandmother, I have really killed him! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e į iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - there he is, grandmother, said the rabbit [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi iⁿ-kaⁿ, i-ke (awkda atʰ įkk̨, ik) - he said to her, I have come for you (my own), grandmother [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-kaⁿ (wk͓aⁿ) - my grandmother, mother-in-law [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-kaⁿ (wik̨) - my grandmother [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰko-e (-ḳo-e) - my grandmother, used when addressing her [FL-Osage]; i-ʰko (iiʰk) - my/his/her grandmother, fathers mother or mothers mother [CQ-Osage]

i-koⁿ (ikoⁿ), wi-koⁿ (wikⁿ) - my grandmother, grandmothers mother, great grandmother [Kaw]; i-koⁿ-e (koⁿ-e) - Oh Grandmother! [Kaw]; wi-ko e (wko ) - my grandmother (male speaking) [Kaw]; wi-ko a (wko ) - my grandmother (female speaking) [Kaw]

 

my grandson

wi-to-shpa she-to (wittpa tto) - my grandson [OM]

cf. wi-to-shpa (wittpa) - my grandchild; she-to (tto) - boy; wi-to-shpa she-mi (wittpa mi) - my granddaughter [MS, OM]

Dhegiha: wi-tu-shpa (witcpa) - my grandchild [JOD-Omaha]; wi-tsu-shpa (wi-ts-shpa) - my grandchild [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtso-shpa (wiʰcpa) - my grandchild [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-shpa (wicshpa) - my grandchild [Kaw]

 

my house

ti wi-ta (tti wtta) - my house

ti wi-ta (tti wtta) - my house [MS]

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; ti di-ta (tti dtta) - your house; ti di-ta-we (tti dttawe) - your (plural) house, you alls house; ti i-ta (tti itt) - his, hers, its house; ti i-ta-we (tti ittwe) - their house; ti oⁿ-ko-ta (tti ǫktta) - our (dual) house, the two of ours house; ti oⁿ-ko-ta-we (tti ǫkttawe) - our (plural, more than two) house

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I dont want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde taⁿ, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tą, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

Dhegiha: ti (ti) - house, lodge, tent, tipi, dwelling [Omaha/Ponca]; ti (ti) - house, coop, building, shelter, cottage, barracks [Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - house, dwelling, hovel [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi (ʰc) - house, nest, camp, make camp [CQ-Osage]; tsi (ci) - tent, lodge, house [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wi-wi-ta (wiwta) - my, mine, my own [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-wi-ta (wwita) - mine, my own, clain [Omaha]; wi-ʰta (wṭa) - denoting possession, my or mine [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰta (wʰta) - mine, my [CQ-Osage]; wi-ta (wta) - my, mine, used w/ alienable nouns [Kaw]

 

my husband

ni-ka wi-ta (nkka witt) - my husband, my man

ni-ka wi-ta (nkka wtta) - my husband [MS]

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; ni-ka di-ta (nkka dtta) - your husband; ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - her husband

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

Dhegiha: nu (nu) - man, human male [Omaha/Ponca]; nu (nu) - man [Omaha]; ni-ka (n-ka) - an archaic word, conveying the idea of male of the human race, used in certain compounds [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ʰka (n-ḳa) - man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka (nʰka) - man, person, husband [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka (nka) - man, human male, husband [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wi-wi-ta (wiwta) - my, mine, my own [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-wi-ta (wwita) - mine, my own, clain [Omaha]; wi-ʰta (wṭa) - denoting possession, my or mine [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰta (wʰta) - mine, my [CQ-Osage]; wi-ta (wta) - my, mine, used w/ alienable nouns [Kaw]

 

my mother

iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother

iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother [MS, MR, OM]

iⁿ-da (indah) - my mother (mere) [GI]

cf. i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother, his or her mother; di-haⁿ (dih̨) - your mother; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - my older aunt, older aunt on mothers side; mothers older sister; iⁿ-da zhiⁿ-ka (įdįka) - my youngest aunt, younger aunt on mothers side; mothers younger sister

Dhegiha: iⁿ-na-ha (ⁿnaⁿ ha) - my mother [Omaha/Ponca]; i-noⁿ-ha (inoⁿha) - my mother [Omaha]; i-na (i-na) - when addressing the mother, i-noⁿ-hoⁿ (-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - my mother [FL-Osage]; i-naⁿ (iin̨) - my mother, my mother's sister, my maternal aunt, either younger or older than my mother, more precise than English, my aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-na-ye (inay) -  my mother (said by a man addressing his own mother), i-na-ye a (naye ) - my mother (said by a woman addressing her own mother), i-naⁿ (inⁿ) - my mother, my father's brother's wife, my mother's brother's daughter--older than myself (male or female speaking), my mother's brother's daughter-younger than myself (male or female speaking), my mother's brother's son's daughter (male speaking or female), my mother's sister, my mother's mother's brother's son's daughter (female speaking), my mother's mother's brother's son's son's daughter (male  or female speaking), my mother's mother's sister's daugther, my mother's mother's mother's sister's daughter's daughter, my step-mother [Kaw]

 

my nephew

wi-taⁿ-shka (witt̨ka) - my nephew (son of womans brother or mans sister)

cf. i-taⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), i-toⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), e-taⁿ-shka (eT̨ka) - nephew, son of womans brother or mans sister; di-taⁿ-shka (ditt̨ka) - your nephew

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-shka (wit͓aⁿcka) - my nephew, mans sisters son, mans fathers sisters son [JOD-Omaha]; wi-tu-shka (wit͓cka) - my nephew, womans brothers son [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtso-shka (wiʰcka) - my sisters son, my wifes brothers son, used only when speaker is male, more precise than  English my nephew [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-shka (wicshka) - my nephew, mans sisters son [Kaw]

 

my niece

wi-ti-zhoⁿ (wittǫ) - my niece (mans sisters daughter)

cf. i-ti-zhoⁿ (ittǫ), e-ti-zhoⁿ (eTǫ) - niece (mans sisters daughter); di-ti-zhoⁿ (dittǫ) - your niece

Dhegiha: wi-ti-zhoⁿ (wit͓jaⁿ) - my niece, (mans sisters daughter, mans fathers sisters daughter) [JOD-Omaha]; wi-tsi-zhoⁿ (wi-ts-zhoⁿ) - my niece, daughter of a sister or a fathers sister [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-zho (wiʰco) - my sisters daughter, used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my niece; my fathers sisters daughter, used when speaker is male or female, more precise than English my cousin [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-zho (wiczho) - my niece, mans sisters daughter [Kaw]

 

wi-to-zhaⁿ-ke (wittąke) - my niece (womans elder brothers daughter)

cf. i-to-zhaⁿ-ke (ittąke), e-to-zhaⁿ-ke (eTąke) - niece (womans elder brothers daughter); di-ti-zhaⁿ-ke (dittąke) - your niece

Dhegiha: wi-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (wit͓jage) - my niece, (womans brothers daughter) [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ke (wiʰcąke) - my brothers daughter, used only when speaker is female, more precise than English my niece [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (wiczhoⁿge) - my niece, womans brothers daughter [Kaw]

 

my sister (elder)

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my elder sister (man speaking)

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

cf. i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), e-taⁿ-ke (eT̨ke) - a mans elder sister; di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your elder sister

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-ge (wit͓age) - my sister, my younger sister [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtaⁿ-ke (wiʰt̨ke) - my older sister, used when speaker is male or female, my sister, loosely used mutually among unrelated younger and older female speakers to show respect [CQ-Osage]; wi-taⁿ-ge (witⁿge) - my younger sister (a mans or womans) [Kaw]

 

wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder sister (female speaking)

cf. i-zhoⁿ-de (įde), e-zhoⁿ-de (ęde) - a womans elder sister; di-zhoⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder sister

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-zhoⁿ-the (wijaⁿ́ĕ) - my elder sister, my fathers brothers daughter, my mothers sisters daughter (female speaker) [JOD-Omaha]; wi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (wįą) - my elder sister, older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female [CQ-Osage]; wi-zho-we (wizhwe) - my elder sister (a mans or womans) [Kaw]

 

my size, of my size

e-aⁿ-na-ska (ęnask) - of my size [JOD]

cf. e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; de-na-ska (denask) - of this size; ka-na-ska (kanask) - of that size; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; she-na-ska (enask) - big enough size, of that size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big/small, what size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each, distributive; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big is each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka wi e-aⁿ-na-ska ke, e-hoⁿ we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ pa naⁿ, wa-xo zhi-ka ke wa-hiⁿ zhi-te i-niⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ o-zha pa naⁿ (waxʔ ik wi ęnask ke, eh̨ wnįtʰą pp ną, waxʔ ik ke wah̨ tte nį ̨ttą a pp ną) - the old women of my size, they also wore clothing, the old women wore red broad cloth when they danced [JOD]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-thoⁿ-ska (wiⁿdthoⁿska), wiⁿ-de-na-ska (wiⁿdnaska) - half the size, half as big, half [Omaha/Ponca]; a-thoⁿ-ska (athoⁿka) - size [Omaha]; ha-thoⁿ-ska (h-thoⁿ-ka) - size, as measurement; measurable, the size of a coat or of anything that is measurable [FL-Osage]; the-thoⁿ-ska (th-thoⁿ-ka) - this size [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze-thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ--thoⁿ-ka) - equal in size, same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; ga-she-yaⁿ-ska (gashyaⁿska), ga-she-yoⁿ-ska (gashyoⁿska) - of a certain size; be that size; be that big, be big enough [Kaw]; ga-yaⁿ-ska (gyaⁿska), ga-yoⁿ-ska (gyoⁿska) - that size, be that big [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]; ha-yoⁿ-ska (hyoⁿska), ha-yaⁿ-ska (hyaⁿska) - how big, what size [Kaw]; she-yoⁿ-ska (shyoⁿska) - that size, that big; the size of the visible object [Kaw]; ye-yaⁿ-ska (yyaⁿska) - size, this size, this large [Kaw]

 

my son

wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - my son

wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - son, my son [MS]

cf. i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhiⁿ-ke (ęke) - someones son, his/her son; di-zhiⁿ-ke (dįke) - your son

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-ge (wi-jí-ge) - my son [JOD-Omaha]; wi-zhiⁿ-ge (wi-zhiⁿ-ge) - my son [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - my son, any of my sons, including a first son, in this meaning, used regardless of whether speaker is male or female; my brother's son, used only when speaker is male, more precise than English, my nephew; Sonny, as a nickname, used by either male or female speakers for a son or a friend [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-ge (wizhⁿge) - my son [Kaw]

 

my son-in-law

wi-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my son-in-law

cf. i-toⁿ-te (itt̨tte), e-toⁿ-te (eT̨Te) - a mans son-in-law; di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your son-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-de (witⁿde) - my son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-dse (wi ṭⁿ-dse) - my son-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (wiʰt̨ce) - my son-in-law, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-toⁿ-je (witⁿje) - my son-in-law [Kaw]

 

my uncle

wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my uncle, my mothers brother

wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my uncle (mothers side) [MS, MR, OM]

cf. i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (eTke) - uncle, a mans mothers brother; di-te-ke (dtteke) - your uncle, your mothers brother

ex: iⁿ-da, wi-te-ke, e-ta-we, di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd, wittke, ettwe, ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed, iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke (h̨, wttek) - yes, my uncle [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-ne-gi (wingi) - my uncle [Omaha]; wiⁿ-dse-gi (wiⁿ-dse-gi) - my uncle [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-tse-ki (w̨cki) - my mothers brother, my maternal uncle, more precise than English my uncle [CQ-Osage]; wi-je-gi (wijgi) - my uncle, my mothers brother [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-ta-e naⁿ-haⁿ (įtttte nąh̨) - my uncle, a mans fathers older brother

cf. iⁿ-ta-te (įtttte) - my father; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother; di-a-te naⁿ-haⁿ (ditte nąh̨) - your fathers older brother

Dhegiha: iⁿ-da-di (iⁿdadi) - my father [Omaha]; iⁿ-ʰta-tsi (įʰtci) - my father, my father' brother, my paternal uncle, more precise than English, my uncle [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ-da-je (iⁿdje) - my father, my fathers brother [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-ta-te zhi-ka (įtttteka) - my fathers younger brother

cf. iⁿ-ta-te (įtttte) - my father; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young; i-da-te zhi-ka (idtteka), e-da-te zhi-ka (edtteka) - a mans fathers younger brother; di-a-te zhi-ka (ditteka) - your fathers younger brother

Dhegiha: iⁿ-ʰta-tsi-zhiⁿ (įʰtciį) - my fathers brother, my paternal uncle [CQ-Osage]

 

my wife

wa-xo wi-ta (waxʔ wtta) - my wife [MS]

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman; wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; wa-xo di-ta (waxʔ dtta) - your wife; wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - his wife

Dhegiha: wa-u (wa) - woman [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-u (wau) - woman [Omaha]; wa-ʰko (wa-ḳ) - woman or women [FL-Osage]; wa-ko (wakʔ) - woman, wife, my wife, queen in a deck of cards [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko (wak) - woman, female, wife [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wi-wi-ta (wiwta) - my, mine, my own [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-wi-ta (wwita) - mine, my own, clain [Omaha]; wi-ʰta (wṭa) - denoting possession, my or mine [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰta (wʰta) - mine, my [CQ-Osage]; wi-ta (wta) - my, mine, used w/ alienable nouns [Kaw]

 

wi-ka-xnaⁿ (wikxną) - my wife

cf. i-ka-xnaⁿ (ikxną), i-ka-xnoⁿ (ikxnǫ), e-ka-xnaⁿ (ekxną) - a mans wife; di-ka-xnaⁿ (dikxną) - your wife

Dhegiha: wi-ga-xthaⁿ (wigqaⁿ) - my wife [JOD-Omaha]

 

my, mine

wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine (alienable)

cf. di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, (alienable); di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, you alls (alienable); i-ta (itt) - his, hers, its (alienable); i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our (dual), the two of ours; oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta (̨ke wtta) - my dog

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-pe wi-ta (hǫp wtta) - my shoes [MS]

ex: koi ko-ta wi-ta (ki kkta wtta) - thats my friend [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta (tti wtta) - my house [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I dont want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde taⁿ, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tą, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

ex: ni-ka wi-ta (nkka wtta) - my husband [MS]

ex: ni-ka wi-ta  (nkka wtta) - my husband, my man [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: wa-xo wi-ta (waxʔ wtta) - my wife [MS]

ex: wi-ta i-pe-hiⁿ (wtta pehį) - my pillow [MS]

Dhegiha: wi-wi-ta (wiwta) - my, mine, my own [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-wi-ta (wwita) - mine, my own, clain [Omaha]; wi-ʰta (wṭa) - denoting possession, my or mine [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰta (wʰta) - mine, my [CQ-Osage]; wi-ta (wta) - my, mine, used w/alienable nouns [Kaw]

 

myself

mi-xti (mxti) - myself, I indeed, emphatic pronoun

cf. xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wi-xti (wqti) - I myself [JOD-Omaha]; zhu-ga wi-xti (zhga wqti) - I myself [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-e-xtsi (wexci) - I myself, more emphatic form of wi-e (we) [CQ-Osage]

 

wi-e-hi-taⁿ (wihitt̨) - I myself, even I

 

mysterious man

ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - mysterious man [JOD]

ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy; di-xo-we (dixwe) - consecrate, make holy; ni xo-we (ni xwe) - mysterious water, holy or sacred water; ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe; wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle, holy bird; zhoⁿ xo-we (ǫ xwe) - sassafras, S. albidum, lit. holy wood

Dhegiha: ni-ʰka xo-be (n-ḳa xo-be) - the holy man [FL-Osage]; ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga xu-be (n-ka-ciⁿ-ga qu-b) - a mysterious person, probably answering to the popular medicine man of white writers [JOD-Omaha]

 

Mysterious Trail

si-kde wa-kaⁿ-ta (si-ktĕ́ wa-kań-t͓ă) - masculine name of the Kwapa oⁿpʰŭⁿ or Elk gens; Mysterious Trail (rather than Trail of a Wakant͓a or Mysterious being, wakant͓ă siktĕ) [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wak̨ta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprint, track, trail, the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (igthe) - footprint, animal track, foot path [Omaha]; si-gthe (i-gth) - footprint, track, trail [FL-Osage]

[CQ-Osage]; si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, tracks, a trail [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God, the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisable, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind, they believe that this great power resides in the air, the blue sky, the clouds, the stars, the sun, the moon, and the earth, and keeps them in motion [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god, the Mysterious One, the Deity, the Powerful One; any of several mysterious beings; JOD attempted on several occasions to understand what was meant by wakaⁿda. He records several examples in the footnotes to CT.12, given here, and records the (conflicting) explanations by Omaha, Ponca, Osage, and Kaw people in an article published in Annual Report 11 of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1889-1890, pp.372-387). From his accounts, taken from members of the various tribes, it is clear that the traditional belief of all of the Dhegiha tribes was that there were many wakⁿdas.  Even now (1882) offerings are made to every wakaⁿda by the Kansas, to the power or powers above, to those under the hills, to the winds, the thunder-being, the morning star, etc. [Kaw]

 

mysterious water, holy or sacred water

ni xo-we (ni xwe) - mysterious water, holy or sacred water, the name for two sulpher springs, one on each side of Tar Creek, Indian Terr. [JOD]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy; di-xo-we (dixwe) - consecrate, make holy; ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest, holy man; ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - mysterious man [JOD]; ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe; wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle, holy bird; zhoⁿ xo-we (ǫ xwe) - sassafras, S. albidum, lit. holy wood

Dhegiha: xu-be (xube) - hallowed, holy, wizard [Omaha]; xu-be (xbe) - holy, supernatural power, sanctity [FL-Osage]; xo-pe (xpe) - sacred, consecrated, holy [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-xu-be (waqbe) - mysterious, holy, sacred [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xu-be (waxube) - holy [Omaha]; wa-xo-be (wa-x-be) - a talisman or something worn about the person to ward off evil, anything consecrated for ceremonial use [FL-Osage]; wa-xo-pe (waxpe) - medicine bundle, sacred object, things consecrated or honored [CQ-Osage]; wa-xo-we (waxwe), wa-xo-be (waxbe) - sacred, holy, mysterious, any sacred or mysterious object, as a sacred bundle [Kaw]

 

mysterious, small mysterious ones

wa-kaⁿ-ta-ke zhi-ka (wakk̨ttke ka) - dwarfs, not often seen, small mysterious ones

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta-ki (wakk̨ttak) - spirit, God, the supreme ruler, the white mans God [JOD]; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; pa-hi-ska zhi-ka (ppahska ka) - dwarfs, not often seen, small ones with white hair

Dhegiha: wa-ʰkoⁿ-da-gi (wa-ḳoⁿ-da-gi) - sacred, mysterious, holy, anything held sacred; a person who has knowledge of medicine, a doctor, a physician; one who pretends to communicate with the dead, a necromancer, occult, magic [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta-ki (waʰk̨taki) - doctor, physician, healer, minister of a religious group, preacher [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da-gi (wakⁿdagi) - sacred, mysterious; doctor, medicine man; wonderful, mysterious; sacred; sometimes translated as mysterious but on the whole, it corresponds to the English concept of sacred [Kaw]

 

mythology

miⁿ-xo-ke (mįxke) - folkloric figures in Quapaw mythology

Dhegiha: mi-xu-ga (mixuga) - lewd man, refers homosexual behavior [Omaha]; te miⁿ-xu-ga (temⁿquga) - freemartin, hermaphrodite buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-xo-ke (miixke) - homosexual, lesbian, gay person [CQ-Osage]; ʰtse miⁿ-xu-ga (ṭse-mⁿ-xu-ga) - a hermaphrodite buffalo [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-xo-ge (miⁿxge) - catamite, male or femal, between a man and a woman, homosexual, gay, lesbian, hermaphrodite; JOD regarding the m-a-lo-shka: a mythical race of beings, with large heads, and long hair, dwelling in solitary places, to which they are supposed to entice unwary Indians. Their victims become crazy, and live as miⁿ-x-ge - hermaphrodites [Kaw]

 

we-sa pa-kdaⁿ-ka-haⁿ (wsʔa pkdąkkah̨) - snake with a head at each end about 18 inches long; rarely seen, Quapaw mythology

cf. we-sa (wsʔa) - snake; pa (pa) - head; a-kdaⁿ-ka-haⁿ (kdąkkah̨) - both sides

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ-ga-hoⁿ (agthoⁿgahoⁿ) - both sides [Omaha]; a-loⁿ-ka-ha (alⁿkaha) - on both sides [Kaw]

 

di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill that ate people from Quapaw mythology

cf. di-xa-zhi (dixi) - highland covered with trees, also hill; da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth; di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling

Dhegiha: tha-xu-e (tha-x-e) - dragged with his teeth [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-e (thi-x-e) - to drag something on the ground [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-we (thi-x-we) - to drag some dead animal by rope, to lead a horse to water [FL-Osage]; thi-xo-we (iiɣwe), thi-xo-e (iiɣe), thi-xo (iiɣ) - drag [CQ-Osage]; yu-gho-we (yughwe) - drag, pull behind [Kaw]

 

myths, it is said, he/she said in myths

i-yi i-ya (iy iy) - quotative embedded, it is said, he/she said in myths

i-yi i-ya-we (iy iywe) - they said, he/she said

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ, te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we, i-yi iya (nąp̨, tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe, iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed, iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi- i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (pʰi nih, iy iy mat̨ke) - so I have been coming here, replied the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ da-xa-ke e, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke hǫn̨ttą daγke e, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - rabbit, why are you crying? said the bear, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was nįkʰ) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-tʰe te-a, i-yi i-ya-we (ądtʰe tta, iy iywe) - she said, lets eat it, they say [JOD]

ex: a-ki-kde te-a, i-yi i-ya-we (ak kde tte, iy iywe) - she said, I will go again after it (to get it), they say [JOD]

 

 

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