English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

M

 

man

ni-ka (nkka) - man, as opposed to a woman

ni-ka (nkka) - man [MR, AG, OM, LQ]

ni-ka (nik-kah) - man, male (homme) [GI]

ni-ka (nkka) - man [FS]

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - male animal; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - husband, her man; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man; ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest; wa-jhi-ni ni-ka (waǰni nkka) - white man [AG, OM]; ni-ka ki-te (nkka kitʔe) - widow, to lose one's husband

Dhegiha: ni-ka (n-ka) - an archaic word, conveying the idea of male of the human race, used in certain compounds [JOD-Omaha]; nu (nu) - man, human male [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ʰka (n-ḳa) - man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka (nʰka) - man, person, husband [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka (nka) - man, human male, husband [Kaw]

 

man-eaters

o-do-tʰe (dotʰe) - man-eaters; talked and looked like Indians, roamed the surface of the earth in olden times

ex: o-do-tʰe aⁿ-di-xe niⁿ e-de, wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (dotʰe ądxe nį ed, wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, the man eater is chasing me, she said to him [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-do-tʰe wa-niⁿ tʰaⁿ, i-ya-we (̨ke dotʰe wnį tʰą, iywe) - the man-eater had the dogs, they say [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ, i-da-xa-zhi, i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa-, iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe o-xde te a-ki-zhaⁿ iⁿ (dotʰe oxd tte akį į) - the man eater would overtake her, she thought to herself' (JOD)]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: te-zhe zhi-ka hi-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we, o-do-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe a-te-zhe naⁿ i-ya-we (te ka hde k̨-nįkʰ iywe, dotʰe nįkʰ tee ną iywe) - as she sat awhile, she urinated a little, she urinated upon the man eater, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-do-tʰe niⁿ de a-taⁿ wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe ki-ha kdi (kįttą odotʰ nį d ttą waxʔ nįkʰ kih kd) - then when the man eater left, the woman came back down (from up in the tree) [JOD]

 

man, black man

i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - negro, lit., dark white man

i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - African American, negro [MS, MR]

i-sta-ge sha (istge ) - African American, negro [OM]

cf. i-shta-xe (itxe) - Frenchman, white man; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-xiⁿ) - yellow eyes, a white man [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (įįtxįį) - white person, French person, Canadian or English person, light eyes, gray, brown, or yellow eyes [CQ-Osage]; i-shta-xe (ishtxe) - white man, Frenchman, eyebrows [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sha-be (shbe) - dark [Omaha/Ponca]; sha-be (sh-be) - dark in color [FL-Osage]; sha-pe (pe) - dark in color, shaded, darkened [CQ-Osage]; sha-be (shbe) - dark, shadowy, distant black, brown [Kaw]

 

man, Dry Man

xe-ka taⁿ (qek͓ taⁿ) - masculine name, father of wa-ti-zhi (watji) [JOD]

xe-ka taⁿ (Krakaton) - Dry Man, Treaty of St. Louis with the Quapaw (1818)

xe-ka taⁿ (Hackatton) - Chief, Treaty with the Quapaw (1833)

xe-ka taⁿ (Hackehton) - Treaty with the Quapaw (1824)

cf. xe-ka (xka) - dry, without sap

Dhegiha: xe-ga (qga) - dried, dead, as a branch or tree [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-ga (x-ga) - dead, as tall grass or tree [FL-Osage]; xe-ka (xka) - dead from drying up, e.g., a vegetable, dried [CQ-Osage]

 

man, her man

ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - husband, her man ni-ka wi-ta (nkka witt) - my, ni-ka di-ta (nkka ditt) - your

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; i-ta (itt) - his, hers, its

ex: ni-ka wi-ta (nkka wtta) - husband, my husband [MS]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband, they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka jhi-ta ha-ki niⁿ-kʰe (nkka ǰtta hki nįkʰ) - where is your man (your husband)? [AG]

Dhegiha: ni-ʰka i-ʰta (nʰka ʰta), i-ni-ʰka (iinʰka) - her husband [CQ-Osage]; i-ni-ʰka (i-n-ḳa) - her man, her husband [FL-Osage]; ni-ka (nka) - man, human male, husband [Kaw]

 

man, old man

ni-ka sha-ke (nkka ʔak) - old man [JOD]

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; te sha-ge (tshage) - old buffalo [Omaha]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke (ʔak) - old, old man [JOD]

sha-ke (jakeh) - old, elderly, aged (vieux) [GI]

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchmans wife

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke niⁿ wa-taⁿ a-ki-de tʰe kdi (kįttą ʔke nį watt̨ akde tʰ kd) - then the old man returned with the goods that he went after [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke hi (ʔak h), (ʔake h) - old man, elder

sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very)

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

man, old or grown man

ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother, uncle; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ-ʰto noⁿ-hoⁿ (shⁿ-ṭo-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - a bachelor, a single man [FL-Osage]; shi-do noⁿ-hoⁿ (shdo noⁿhoⁿ) - a youth, a young man that is nearly grown [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wakʔ n̨h̨) - a woman who has been married, but who is now alone, a widow [JOD-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wak noⁿhⁿ) - grown woman  [Kaw]

 

man, white man

wa-jhi-ni ni-ka (waǰni nkka) - white man [AG, OM]

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - white people, white man, white race [MS, MR, OM]

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - American; derived from Virginia

wa-jhi-ni (ŭatschinni) - American (Amricain) [GI]

wa-tshi-ni (w-tci-ni) - Virginian, white man [LH]

ex: wa-jhi-ni koi (waǰni ki) - hes a white man [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkk̨ik) - white man didnt like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta aⁿ-ba o-zha hne (waǰni kd tta ̨ba a hn) - you white people go home and dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-dsi-ne (w-dsi-ni) - a disease, a malady [FL-Osage]; wa-tsʰi-ni (wcʰini), wa-tsi-ni-e (wcinie) - probably from Virginia which may have been used to mean white man, perhaps venereal disease was later associated with wa-tsʰu (wacʰ) copulate and thus may have substituted tsʰ (ch) for ts (c), giving the variants wa-tsʰi-ni (wcʰini) and wa-tsi-ni-e (wcinie), Robert Rankin, personal communication. Additionally, wa-tsi-ni-e (wcinie) may contain or be influenced by ni-e (ne) hurt [CQ-Osage]; wa-ji-ne (wji ne) - disease, a malady [Kaw]

 

mans aunt, a mans fathers sister

i-ti-mi (ittmi), e-ti-mi (eTmi) - a mans aunt, a mans fathers sister (older or younger) wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my, di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your

cf. i-ti-mi-de (ittmide) - to have as an aunt

Dhegiha: i-ti-mi (itmi) - aunt [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-mi (i-ṭs-mi) - aunt, on father's side, his or her father's sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-mi (iʰcmi) - his/her father's sister, his/her paternal aunt, more precise than English, his aunt or her aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-mi (icmi) - his or her aunt, fathers sister [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my aunt, my father's sister [MS, MR, AG]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, I'm glad to see you [FR]

Dhegiha: wi-ti-mi (witmi) - my aunt (Omaha); wi-ʰtsi-mi (wiʰcmi) - my father's, older or younger sister, my paternal aunt, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-mi (wicmi) - my aunt, my fathers sister [Kaw]

 

di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsi-mi (iʰcmi) - your father's sister, younger or older, your paternal aunt [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-mi (yicmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister [Kaw]

 

mans daughter-in-law

i-ti-ni (ittni), e-ti-ni (eTni) - a mans daughter-in-law, etc. wi-ti-ni (wittni) - my, di-ti-ni (dittni) - your

cf. i-ti-ni-de (ittnide) - to have as a daughter-in-law

Dhegiha: i-ti-ni (itni) - daughter-in-law [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-ni (i-ṭs-ni) - daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-ni (iʰcni) - his/her daughter-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-ni (icni) - his/her daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-ni (wittni) - my daughter-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-ti-ni (witni) - my daughter-in-law [Omaha]; wi-ʰtsi-ni (wi-ṭs-ni) - my daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-ni (wiʰcni) - my daughter-in-law (used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-ni (wicni) - my daughter-in-law, JOD gives the masculine form of address, wi-tsi-ni e (wicni ), followed by, (if ever used). He is referring to the fact that a man traditionally avoided speaking directly to his daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

di-ti-ni (dittni) - your daughter-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsi-ni (thi-ṭs-ni) - your daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; thi-tsi-ni (iʰcni) - your daughter-in-law, your sons wife [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-ni (yicni) - your daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

mans elder brother

i-zhiⁿ-de (įde), e-zhiⁿ-de (ęde) - a mans elder brother wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your

cf. i-zhiⁿ-de-de (įdede) - to have as an elder brother

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-the (izhⁿthe) - elder brother [Omaha]; i-zhiⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - his elder brother, brother older than himself [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - his older brother (more precise than English his brother) [CQ-Osage]; i-zhi-ye (izhye) - mans elder brother [Kaw]

 

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder brother (male speaking)

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wi-jindheh) - my older brother (frere an) [GI]

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-the (wizhⁿthe) - my elder brother [Omaha]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wi-zhⁿ-the) - my elder brother, my brother older than myself [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wįe) - my older brother (used only when speaker is male) [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhi-ye (wizhye) - my elder brother [Kaw]

 

di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - your older brother (used only when speaking to a man) [CQ-Osage]; yi-zhi-ye (yizhye) - your elder brother [Kaw]

 

mans elder sister

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), e-taⁿ-ke (eT̨ke) - a mans elder sister wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my, di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke) - sister [OM]

cf. i-taⁿ-ke-de (itt̨kede) - sister, to have as an elder

ex: wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: i-ʰtoⁿ-ge (-ṭⁿ-ge) - sister, his elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtaⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - his/her older sister, i.e., the oldest among a group of sisters; not necessarily older than the person referred to by his or her [CQ-Osage]; i-taⁿ-ge (itⁿge) - mans or womans younger sister [Kaw]

 

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-ge (wiʇa′ge) - my sister [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtaⁿ-ke (wiʰt̨ke) - my older sister, used when speaker is male or female, my sister, loosely used mutually among unrelated younger and older female speakers to show respect, my wife, lit., "my sister", used to refer to speaker's wife when they have no children and possibly to address her [CQ-Osage]; wi-taⁿ-ge (witⁿge) - my younger sister [Kaw]

 

di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your older sister

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-ge (thi-ṭⁿ-ge) - your sister [FL-Osage]; thi-taⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - your older sister, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman, referring both to a sister older than the addressee and to the oldest of the addressees sisters, who may not be older than the addressee [CQ-Osage]; yi-taⁿ-ge (yitⁿge) - your younger sister [Kaw]

 

mans fathers older brother, uncle

i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother, uncle iⁿ-ta-e naⁿ-haⁿ (įtttte nąh̨) - my, di-a-te naⁿ-haⁿ (ditte nąh̨) - your

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - his or her father; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

mans fathers younger brother, uncle

i-da-te zhi-ka (idtteka), e-da-te zhi-ka (edtteka) - a mans fathers younger brother, uncle iⁿ-ta-te zhi-ka (įtttteka) - my, di-a-te zhi-ka (ditteka) - your

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - father; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young; iⁿ-da zhiⁿ-ka (įdįka) - youngest aunt

Dhegiha: iⁿ-ʰta-tsi-zhį (įʰtciį) - my fathers brother, my paternal uncle [CQ-Osage]

 

mans mothers brother, uncle

i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (eTke) - a mans mothers brother, uncle wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my; di-te-ke (dtteke) - your

Dhegiha: i-ne-gi (ingi) - uncle [Omaha]; i-dse-gi (i-ds-gi) - uncle on mothers side [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tse-ki (įcki) - his/her mothers brother, his/her maternal uncle, more precise than English his/her uncle [CQ-Osage]; i-je-gi (ijgi) - uncle, mans mothers brother [Kaw]

 

wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my uncle, my mothers brother

wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my uncle (mothers side) [MS, MR, OM]

ex: iⁿ-da, wi-te-ke, e-ta-we, di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd, wittke, ettwe, ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed, iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke (h̨, wttek) - yes, my uncle [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-ne-gi (wingi) - my uncle [Omaha]; wiⁿ-dse-gi (wiⁿ-dse-gi) - my uncle [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-tse-ki (w̨cki) - my mothers brother, my maternal uncle, more precise than English my uncle [CQ-Osage]; wi-je-gi (wijgi) - my uncle, my mothers brother [Kaw]

 

di-te-ke (dtteke) - your uncle, your mothers brother

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ, di-te-ke, wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da, i-ye naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨, dtteke, was niⁿkʰe tta tti d, iy ną ąn̨hos naⁿ) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to the black bear, your uncle [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-tse-ki (įcki) - your mothers brother, your maternal uncle [CQ-Osage]; yi-je-gi (yijgi) - your uncle, your mothers brother [Kaw]

 

i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (eTke) - his uncle, his mothers brother

Dhegiha: i-ne-gi (ingi) - uncle [Omaha]; i-dse-gi (i-ds-gi) - uncle on mothers side [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tse-ki (įcki) - his/her mothers brother, his/her maternal uncle, more precise than English his/her uncle [CQ-Osage]; i-je-gi (ijgi) - his uncle, his mothers brother [Kaw]

 

mans sister-in-law

i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka), i-ho-ka (ih̨ka), e-haⁿ-ka (eh̨ka), e-hoⁿ-ka (eh̨ka) - a mans sister-in-law wi-haⁿ-ka (wih̨ka) - my, di-haⁿ-ka (dih̨ka) - your

cf. i-haⁿ-ka-de (ih̨kade), e-haⁿ-ka-de (eh̨kade) - to have as a sister-in-law

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ-ga (-hoⁿ-ga) - sister-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka) - his brothers wife or his wifes sister, more precise than English his sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ-ga (ihⁿga) - sister-in-law, mans wifes sister, therefore his potential wife [Kaw]

 

wi-haⁿ-ka (wih̨ka) - my sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-haⁿ-ke (wih̨ka) - my wifes sister, my brothers wife, used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; wi-hoⁿ-ga (wihⁿga) - my sister-in-law, my wifes sister [Kaw]

 

di-haⁿ-ka (dih̨ka) - your sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-haⁿ-ga (ihaga) - your wifes sister [JOD-Omaha]; thi-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka) - your sister-in-law, used only when speaking to a man, referring to his brothers wife or his wifes sister [CQ-Osage]; yi-hoⁿ-ga (yihⁿga) - your sister-in-law, your wifes sister [Kaw]

 

mans sisters daughter, niece

i-ti-zhoⁿ (ittǫ), e-ti-zhoⁿ (eTǫ) - niece, a mans sisters daughter wi-ti-zhoⁿ (wittǫ) - my, di-ti-zhoⁿ (dittǫ) - your

cf. i-ti-zhoⁿ-de (ittǫde), e-ti-zhoⁿ-de (eTǫde) - to have as a niece

Dhegiha: i-ti-zhuⁿ (itzhuⁿ) - niece (speaking in relation to her uncle) [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-zhoⁿ (i-ṭs-zhoⁿ) - niece, daughter of a sister or a fathers sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-zho (iʰco) - his sisters daughter (more precise than English his niece), his fathers sisters daughter (more precise than English his cousin) [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-zho (iczho) - his niece, mans sisters daughter [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-zhoⁿ (wittǫ) - my niece, my sisters daughter

Dhegiha: wi-ti-zhuⁿ (witzhuⁿ) - niece (speaking in relation to her uncle, spoken of by uncle) [Omaha]; wi-tsi-zhoⁿ a (wi-ts-zhoⁿ a) - my niece [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-zho (wiʰco) - my sisters daughter (used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my niece), my fathers sisters daughter (used when speaker is male or female, more precise than English my cousin) [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-zho (wiczho) - my niece, man's sister's daughter [Kaw]

 

di-ti-zhoⁿ (dittǫ) - your niece, your sisters daughter

Dhegiha: thi-tsi-zho (iʰco) - your sisters daughter (used only when speaking to a man, more precise than English niece), your fathers sisters daughter (used when speaking to a man or a woman, more precise than English cousin) [CQ-Osage]; yi-chi-zho (yichzho) - your niece, mans sisters daughter [Kaw]

 

mans son-in-law

i-toⁿ-te (itt̨tte), e-toⁿ-te (eT̨Te) - a mans son-in-law wi-i-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my, di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your

cf. i-toⁿ-te-de (itt̨ttede), e-toⁿ-te-de (eT̨Tede) - to have as a son-in-law

Dhegiha: taⁿ-de-ha (tandha) - son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtoⁿ-de (i-ṭⁿ-de), i-ʰtoⁿ-dse (i-ṭⁿ-dse) - son-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtoⁿ-tse (iʰt̨ce) - his/her son-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-toⁿ-je (itⁿje) - son-in-law, his or her son-in-law [Kaw]

 

wi-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my son-in-law

wi-to-ta (witttta) - son-in-law, my son-in-law [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-de (witⁿde) - my son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-dse (wi ṭⁿ-dse) - my son-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (wiʰt̨ce) - my son-in-law, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-toⁿ-je (witⁿje) - my son-in-law [Kaw]

 

di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your son-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (iʰt̨ce) - your son-in-law, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-toⁿ-je (yitⁿje) - your son-in-law [Kaw]

 

mans wife

i-ka-xnaⁿ (ikxną), i-ka-xnoⁿ (ikxnǫ), e-ka-xnaⁿ (ekxną) - mans wife wi-ka-xnaⁿ (wikxną) - my, di-ka-xnaⁿ (dikxną) - your

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchmans wife

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ, enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-naⁿ e-ka-xna (ttąn ekxna) - tree frog, lit. wife of the ground

Dhegiha: i-ga-xthaⁿ (i-g-qaⁿ) - his wife [JOD-Omaha]; i-ga-xthoⁿ (igaxthoⁿ) - wife, slave [Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-ga-xthoⁿ (wagaxthoⁿ) - servant, laborer [Omaha]; wa-ga-xthoⁿ (wagqthoⁿ) - servant [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-ga-xthoⁿ (wa-ga-xthoⁿ) - servant [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-xlaⁿ (wagxlaⁿ) - slave [Kaw]

 

wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - wife, his woman wa-xo wi-ta (waxʔ wtta) - my, wa-xo di-ta (waxʔ dtta) - your, wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - his

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, female animal, wife; i-ta (itt) - his, hers, its; ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - husband, her man

ex: wa-xo wi-ta (waxʔ wtta) - my wife [MS]

ex: haⁿ wa-xo di-ta (hą waxʔ dtta) - what is the matter with your woman/wife [JOD]

ex: wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - his wife

Dhegiha: wa-u (wau) - woman [Omaha]; wa-u (wa) - woman [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-ʰko (wa-ḳ') - woman or women [FL-Osage]; wa-ko (wakʔ) - woman, wife, my wife, queen in a deck of cards [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko (wak') - woman, female, wife [Kaw]

 

mankind

ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man, human being, clan, gen

ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - people [MS, OM, AG]

cf. ki-sto kniⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka (kist kn̨ nkkaka) - U.S. Congress; ni-ka-shi-ka te (nkkaka tʔ) - corpse of a person; ni-ka-shi-ka  (nikkaka), e-ni-ka-shi-ka (nikkaka), i-ni-ka-shi-ka (inkkaka) - clan, gen

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka  wa-xo . shi-zhi-ka  (nkkaka waxʔ. ikka) - men, women, and the children [AG]

ex: ni-ka-si-ka zo-we (nikkasixGa˙z˙we) - men [FS]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-we i-we-niⁿ-aⁿ taⁿ-ha i-ya (nkkaik-we iwnį̨ t̨ha iy) - because he thought it was the people, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wttek, nkkaka hi h k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke nįkʰ) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-pa (nkkaikapa) - the (moving) people

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni (nkkaka zan) - all the people [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ (nkkaka m̨) - one person [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de tʰe taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ tʰi (tbde de tʰ tą nkkaka mį tʰ) - when you went hunting a person came [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xpa-ni (nkkaka waxpn) - poor people [MS]

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (kʰak, hak nkkaka ett nįkʰe, iy) - younger brother, where is the human being? said he [JOD]

ex: ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ, kʰa-ke, i-ye (hak nkkaka ett nį, kʰak, ye) - where is the human being, younger brother? he said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka maⁿ-shi e-ti ni-te naⁿ (nkkaka m̨i ett nit ną) - human being-above-there-how possible [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti ni-te naⁿ (m̨i nkkaka ett nit ną) - above-human being-there-how possible [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xo o-do-hi-ki-de (nkkaka waxʔ odhikid) - he made (caused her) to change into a female human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat (think, regard) him as a human being

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (nkashⁿga), (nkʰashⁿga) - people, person [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (nikashiⁿga) - person, people, human, citizen, man [Omaha]; ni-ʰka-shi-ga (n-ḳa-shi-ga) - a people, people, man, person, persons [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka-shi-ka (nʰkaika) - the people, a people, live, exist [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (nkashiⁿga) - person, people, men, clan [Kaw]

 

manner, aforementioned words or manner

koi-she (kie) - aforementioned words or manner

 

manner, in what manner

haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner

cf. ha (ha) - indefinite; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use

ex: haⁿ (hą) - what is the matter [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband, they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e)  - is that so? [OM]

ex: kʰi naⁿ, haⁿ wa-xo di-ta di-te a-e (kʰ ną, hą waxʔ dtta ditʔ ae) - when he reached home, he was asked, what is the matter with your woman/wife, is she dead (to you)? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ i-she (hą i) - what did you say? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ i-she naⁿ (hǫi ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ she (h̨ ) - what did you say? [OM]

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ ni-kʰe (hǫ nikʰ) - how are you? [OM]

ex: hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (hǫnįkʰ) - how are you?, greeting

ex: hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she (h̨ datʰ̨e) - what is the matter with you? [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ ǫkʰ (hǫ ǫkʰ) - what is the matter with you who recline? [JOD]

 

manner, piling up the pieces in that manner

koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so or of that sort; so or in that case [JOD]; a-zhi (i) - put onto; o-zhi (o) - put into

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti ta-zho ta-bi-ze ka-xe koi-shoⁿ-zhi i-ti-kde-kaⁿ ni-kʰa (kįttą ett tta tbize kγe koįi tikdką nikʰ) - then-there-venison-dried by heat-made-piling up the pieces in that manner-like a hose-they were (pl. classifier) [JOD]

 

manure, dung

iⁿ-kde (įkd) - dung, manure

iⁿ-kde (įkd) - feces [JOD]

cf. iⁿ-kde o-ba-toⁿ-da (įkd obttǫda) - tumble bug, dung roller

ex: ha-o, iⁿ-kde wi-ta (ha, įkd wtta!) - ho, my feces [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthe (iⁿgth) - dung, feces, manure, excrement [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthe (iⁿgthe) - manure [Omaha]; iⁿ-gthe (iⁿ-gth) - dung, excrement [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-le (įl) - excrement, feces, dung, ordure, excretory function, bowels [CQ-Osage]; i-le (il) - dung, manure, excrement [Kaw]

 

many

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

 

many, a great many

a-na-hi-te-xti (anhittxti) - many, a great many

cf. a-na-hi-te (anhitte) - much; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

 

many, half that many

miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, half that quantity

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd-) - half (of that measure); e-naⁿ (ną) - only that; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-na (wiⁿdna) - half, half the amount of a collective substance [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-naⁿ (enⁿ) - that only [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (e-nⁿ) - only one, sole, exclusive [FL-Osage]; e-na (een), e-naⁿ (een̨) - be the only one, that only, therefore, thats why, enough [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

 

many, how many

ha-naⁿ (han̨), ha-noⁿ (han̨) - how much, how many

ho-noⁿ (honǫ́) - how many, how much [OM]

Dhegiha: ha-noⁿ (h-noⁿ) - how much or how many [FL-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (haną) - how many, how much [CQ-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (hnaⁿ) - how many, how much [Kaw]

 

many, however many

ha-na-hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many

ha-na-i-te (han itte) - however much or many

ha-naⁿ-hi-de (han̨hide) - however many/much

cf. ha-naⁿ (han̨), ha-noⁿ (han̨) - how much, how many; hi-te (hitt) - indefinite prn., (what)-ever; i-te (-itt) - indefinite prn. marker, -ever

Dhegiha: ha-noⁿ (h-noⁿ) - how much or how many [FL-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (haną) - how many, how much [CQ-Osage]; ha-naⁿ (hnaⁿ) - how many, how much [Kaw]

 

many, much

zho-hi (hi) - much, many

cf. zho-hi hi (hi hi) - very many, very much

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi (nkkaka oh) - many people [JOD]

 

many, pile up many flat objects one on another

a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books

cf. i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (i-t-ĕ) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels: to put many small things in one pile or heap [JOD-Omaha]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

many, this many

de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, this many

cf. de (de) - this; she-naⁿ (ną) - enough, more; ka-she-naⁿ (kaną) - thats all, that is enough, just this much, be ended, finished, thats all, something is finished; koi-she-na ⁿ(kien̨) - that amount, that quantity; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity or number; miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many or quantity

Dhegiha: she-noⁿ (shenoⁿ) - enough [Omaha]; the-noⁿ (th-noⁿ) - this much [FL-Osage]; ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - be ended, finished, thats all, something is finished, closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashhnaⁿ) - thats all, that is enough, just this much [Kaw]; ye-naⁿ (ynaⁿ), ye-noⁿ (ynoⁿ) - this many, this much, this number [Kaw]

 

many, to the many

ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ke-ti (kett) - at the plural

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha, i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah, ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

many, very many

zho-hi hi (hi hi) - very many, very much

cf. zho-hi (hi) - much, many; hi (hi) - very

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi (skka tt̨ka hi hi) - many turkeys [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-aⁿ-de aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (wąka hi h tʔęde ąkkde tte) - we have killed many birds, lets go home [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

ex: zho-hi hi ka-xa-we (oh hi kγawe) - they made many [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

maple sugar

zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, tree sap

zhoⁿ ni (jonnih) - rum, bourbon (rum) [GI]

zhoⁿ ni (jōn-nīh) - water of life, brandy (eau de vie) [GI]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ni (ni) - water, liquid; zhoⁿ-ni hi (ǫn hi) - maple tree, Acer saccharum

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, syrup, honey; wood water, wood sap [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿni) - sap, candy, fudge, sugar [Omaha]; zhaⁿ ni (jaⁿ-n) - wood water, wood sap, sugar; syrup; strained honey [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, candy, wood water [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (ąąni) - sugar, lit., tree water, originally referring to maple sap or syrup [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (zhaⁿn) - sugar, tree liquid [Kaw]

 

maple tree

zhoⁿ-ni hi (ǫn hi) - maple tree, Acer saccharum

cf. zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, tree sap; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ni (ni) - water, liquid; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, syrup, honey; wood water, wood sap [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿni) - sap, candy, fudge, sugar [Omaha]; zhaⁿ ni (jaⁿ-n) - wood water, wood sap, sugar; syrup; strained honey [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, candy, wood water [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (ąąni) - sugar, lit., tree water, originally referring to maple sap or syrup [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (zhaⁿn) - sugar, tree liquid [Kaw]

 

maple, soft maple

we-sa-de hi (wsade h) - soft maple, black dye tree

cf. we (we) - that by which, with which to; sa-de (sde) - blacken, cause to be black; sa (sa) - black that is near, distinct; de (de) - cause to, to cause; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg; iⁿ-te sa-de (įtt sde) - to fast, lit. blacken the face; we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, whiten with it

Dhegiha: we-na-sha-be the hi (wnashabe the hi) - Maple Tree [Omaha]; we-sha-be-the hiu (w-sha-be-the-hiu) - maple sugar, the bark of this tree was used for making a black dye [FL-Osage]; we-tso sa-be hu (wco sbe hu) - sugar maple [Kaw]

 

marbled godwit

kiⁿ-ke-taⁿ sha (kkįkkttą ) - woodcock or marbled godwit

 

mare

shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ wa-xo (̨keknį waxʔ) - mare

cf. shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ (̨ke knį) - horse; wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-ge miⁿ-ga (shⁿge mⁿga) - mare, female horse [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-ge mi-ga (shoⁿge miga) - mare [Omaha]; ʰka-wa mi-ga (ḳ-wa mi-ga) - female horse, a mare [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-ge miⁿ-ga (shⁿgemiⁿga) - mare [Kaw]

 

mare, roan mare

shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ wa-xo xo-te zhi-hi (̨keknį waxʔ xott ih) - roan mare

cf. shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ (̨ke knį) - horse; wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; xo-te zhi-hi (xott ih) - roan; xo-te (xott) - gray; zhi-hi (ih) - reddish yellow

 

mark, leave a mark or track

o-ka-maⁿ-te (okmątte) - leave a mark or track o-a-ka-maⁿ-te (okamątte) - I, o-da-ka-maⁿ-te (odkamątte) - you

 

mark, miss the mark striking at something

ka-shnoⁿ-da (kan̨da) - miss the mark striking at something a-shnoⁿ-da (nǫda) - I, da-shnoⁿ-da (dnǫda) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water; ba-shnoⁿ-da (ban̨da) - push at and fail or miss; bi-shnoⁿ-da (bin̨da) - fail, miss applying pressure; da-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨da) - slip in eating, talking, etc.; di-shnoⁿ-da (din̨da) - let slip, fumble something; naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (nąn̨da) - lose ones footing, slip; pa-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - fail to cut something with a knife; po-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - miss a target shooting

Dhegiha: zhnoⁿ (zhnoⁿ) - verb root, to miss, let fall, zhnoⁿ-tha (c͓naⁿa), ba-zhnoⁿ (bac͓naⁿ), bu-zhnoⁿ (buc͓naⁿ), tha-zhnoⁿ (ac͓naⁿ), thi-zhnoⁿ (ic͓naⁿ), ga-zhnoⁿ (gac͓naⁿ), ma zhnoⁿ (mac͓naⁿ), mu-zhnoⁿ (muc͓naⁿ) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

mark, scratch, draw line

di-xo (diγ) - mark, scratch, draw line bdi-xo (bdγo) - I, ti-xo (ttγo) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xu (thix) - draw, mark; to draw; to make marks on paper; to make marks such as are made on arrows [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xu (thixu) - sketch, mark [Omaha]; thi-xu (thi-x) - to scratch marks on rocks or draw lines on paper; to draw a line [FL-Osage]; yu-gho (yugh) - make scratch marks [Kaw]

 

mark, tie tightly leaving mark

di-ski-ta (disktta) - dent, tie tightly leaving mark bdi-ski-ta (bdskitta) - I, ti-ski-ta (ttskitta) - you

Dhegiha: thi-sku-da (thiskda) - mark by tying or drawing rope over, to mark across the grain by tying or drawing a rope over the surface [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ski-da (thi-k-da) - to tie something tightly, to make an indention [FL-Osage]; yu-ski-da (yuskda) - mark, make a mark with the hands, to make a groove or depression in a bag, or a mark on the leg of a person or animal by tying it very tightly [Kaw]

 

mark, to leave a mark

o-we-tiⁿ (owttį) - to leave a mark o-a-we-tiⁿ (owettį) - I, o-da-we-tiⁿ (odwettį) - you

cf. o-we-taⁿ-iⁿ ka-xe (owttąį kγe) - distinguish, make distinction; taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

Dhegiha: u-we-ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ-iⁿ) - a mark of some kind by which a thing may be found; a sign, something placed to aid in the memory of a place; identification mark; a register, a token, a keepsake; to register [FL-Osage]; we-toⁿ-iⁿ (wtoⁿiⁿ) - distinction, difference [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (w-ṭoⁿ-iⁿ) - mark of identification [FL-Osage]; we-tiⁿ (wtiⁿ) - difference, distinction [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

marker, indefinite pronoun marker

i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun marker, -ever

hi-te (hitt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever

ex: ha-ki e-hi-te (hak ehitt) - anywhere, where+soever [JOD]

ex: ha-ke hi-te (hak hitt), ha-ke i-te (hak itt) - wherever, anywhere

ex: ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big

ex: ha-naⁿ-hi-de (han̨hide) - however many/much

ex: ha-na-hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many

ex: ha-na-i-te (han itte) - however much or many

 

marker, ordinal numeral marker

i () - ordinal numeral marker; i () + numeral stem

ex: i-naⁿ-pa (nąpa), i-naⁿ-paⁿ (nąp̨), i-naⁿ-baⁿ (nąb̨) - second, second time, again, i () + naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-naⁿ-pa tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (̨ik nąp͓ tʰą kkikn̨wi) - they put their second pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-naⁿ-pa niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą nąp͓ nį diʔ) - then the second one gave out [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: i-da-bniⁿ (dabn̨) - third, ordinal numeral, i () + da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three

ex: de i-da-bniⁿ (d dabnį) - this third one [JOD]

ex: e-ti shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-da-bniⁿ tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti ̨ik dabnį tʰą kkikn̨wi) - there, they put their third pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-da-bniⁿ di-sha (etttʰą dabnį diʔ) - then the third one gave out [JOD]

ex: i-da-bni-ka (dabnika) - third, fraction

ex: i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral, i () + to-wa (twa) - four

ex: naⁿ-piu-za i-to-wa tʰe (nąpza towa tʰe) - fourth finger [MS]

ex: e-ti i-to-wa tʰaⁿ o-do-ha-ke ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti towa tʰą odhake kkikn̨wi) - they put down the fourth, last born for him [JOD]

ex: i-to-wa-ka (towaka) - fourth, fraction

ex: i-sa-taⁿ (sattą) - fifth, ordinal numeral, i () + sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five

ex: i-sa-taⁿ-ka (sattąka) - fifth, fraction

ex: i-sha-pe (appe) - sixth, i () + sha-pe (app) - six

ex: i-pe-naⁿ-pa (ppen̨pa) - seventh, i () + pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven

ex: i-pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eighth, i () + pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight

ex: i-shaⁿ-ka (ąkk) - ninth, i () + shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine

ex: i-kde-bdaⁿ (kdebd̨) - tenth, i () + kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten

 

marker, plural continuative aspect marker

a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - continuative aspect marker, 3rd person plural of niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving

cf. a-pa (apa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-pa (nkkaikapa) - the (moving) people

ex: te ki-da-kniⁿ pa naⁿ (tʔe kidknį pa ną) - they liked to die

ex: ka-ki ke mi-zhi-ka ke xa-ke a-pa (kak ke miik ke γak pa) - those girls were crying [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi te-wa-de i-ya (was-ppa zan hi tʔwade iy) - all of the black bears were killed, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate

ex: ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate

ex: ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder

ex: she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate

ex: to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

Dhegiha: a-ma (am) - the plural moving [JOD - Omaha]; a-pa (apa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person sg. or pl. moving or absent subject [CQ-Osage]; a-ba (ab) - continuative he/she/it (animate), while moving or not within sight [Kaw]

 

marker, potential or optative marker

te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall, will be

ex: bda-taⁿ te (bdatt̨ tte) - I will/would drink

ex: pa-hi-o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d!  iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

ex: ni-zhi te (ni tte) - its going to rain [OM]

ex: ni-zhi te (nii tte) - it will rain

ex: e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: te (te) - will [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets [CQ-Osage]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

marks, tattoo marks

si-di i-bi-xtaⁿ (sid bixtą) - tattoo marks, rubbed in with gunpowder

cf. si-di (sid) - gunpowder; bi-xtaⁿ (bixt̨) - rub onto; si (si) - grain, seed, pit, kernel

 

marriage, consider marriage to a woman

miⁿ di-kdaⁿ (mį dkdą) - consider marriage to a woman miⁿ bdi-kdaⁿ (mį bdikd̨) - I, miⁿ ti-kdaⁿ (mį ttikd̨) - you

cf. miⁿ (mį), mi (mi) - female; di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense; i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately, think, decide, form an opinion, plan; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise

Dhegiha: wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - woman, female, in names [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - woman, female, in names [FL-Osage]; miⁿ (m̜į) - female [CQ-Osage]; mi (mi) - woman, female [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - have on ones mind, think about, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

marrow

wa-hi zhi-we (wah we) - marrow

cf. wa-hi (wah) - bone

Dhegiha: wa-ji-be (wa-j-be) - marrow [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ-be (wazhiⁿbe) - marrow [Omaha]; wa-zhu-pe (wape) - marrow [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhu-be (wazhbe), wa-zhu-we (wazhwe) - marrow [Kaw]

 

marry a man, take a man for a husband

a-di-xe (diγe) - marry a man, take a man for a husband a-bdi-xe (bdiγe) - I, a-ti-xe (ttiγe) - you, oⁿ-ka-di-xa-we (ǫkdiγawe) - we

cf. wa-di-xzhi (wdiγi) - unmarried woman,virgin; wa-di-xa-zhi hi wdiγi h) - unmarried woman, spinster; wa-we-di-xe (wawdixe) - refugee (from another tribe); i-kdi-xe (kdixe) - live with, stay with someone

ex: a-wi-bdi-xe (wibdiγe) - I take you for my husband

ex: a-wi-bdi-xe te, i-ke (wibdγe tt, ik) - she said to him, I will take you for my husband [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ti-xe (̨ttiγe) - you take me for your husband [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-ti-xe (ąn̨ttiγe) - you stay with me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-ti-xe shkoⁿ-ta (ąn̨ttiγe k̨tta) - do you want to live with me? [JOD]

ex a-di-xe (diγ) - to marry him [JOD]

ex: a-di-xe te (diγe tt) - she will marry him [JOD]

ex: a-di-xe (adiγ) - she married him [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo zhi-ka shi-zhi-ka zho-wa-ki-kde wa-kda-niⁿ hi taⁿ a-di-xe (kįttą n̨a waxʔ ik nįkʰ ika wakkde wkdanį h tą adiγ) - and then the old woman married him, she took her children along with her [JOD]

ex: we-a-kdi-xe a-bdi-shtaⁿ (wekdixe bdit̨) - I ceased to live with them

ex: e a-di-xe koⁿ-da ( diγ kǫd) - she wanted to marry him, the aforementioned [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thi-xe (ixe) - to marry him [JOD-Omaha]; a-thu-xe (-thu-xe) - to take a husband [FL-Osage]; a-thu-xe (uγe) - marry, get married to, take as a husband [CQ-Osage]; a-yu-ghe (yughe) - marry a man, take a husband [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-xe (wathixe) - marry, intermarry [Omaha]; wa-thu-xe (wthuxe) - to take a husband; to marry, with reference to a woman [FL-Osage]; wa-thu-xe (wuγe) - be or get married, said of a female; wedding, used by brides friends or family [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-ghe (wyughe) - marry, get married (female reference only) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-xe (uthiqe) - a refugee, one who has left his tribe and is staying with another people [Omaha/Ponca]; o-yu-ghe (yughe) - take refuge in [Kaw]

 

marry a woman

knoⁿ-ke (knǫk) - marry a woman a-knoⁿ-ke (knǫke) - I, da-knoⁿ-ke (dknǫke) - you

cf. miⁿ-knaⁿ (m̨kną) - marry, take a wife, the male term for to marry; wa-knoⁿ-ke (wknǫk) - marry more than one wife; ki-knoⁿ-ke (kiknǫk) - marriage, married, marry

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, da-knoⁿ-ke koⁿ-bda, she-mi ke a-wa-ki-shka-te kaⁿ-a-ni-he koⁿ-bda (įttatt, dknǫk kkǫbd, mi ke awkiktte k̨-anih kkǫbd) - father, I want you to marry her, I want to play with the girls [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ knoⁿ-ke taⁿ ta-bde naⁿ ta te-de taⁿ a-zho-wa ta da-tʰe-wi (kįttą knǫk tą tbde ną tt tʔde tą owa tta dtʰewi) - then he married her, when he hunted, he killed deer, they often ate deer [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - to take a wife; to take someone as ones wife [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ-ge (gthoⁿ-ge) - to take a wife, to marry, refers to a man [FL-Osage]; laⁿ-ke (l̨ke) - marry a woman, take as a wife [CQ-Osage]; laⁿ-ge (lⁿge), loⁿ-ge (lⁿge) - marry, take a wife (male term) [Kaw]

 

marry more than one wife

wa-knoⁿ-ke (wknǫk) - marry more than one wife a-wa-knoⁿ-ke (awknǫk) - I, wa-da-knoⁿ-ke (wadknǫk) - you

cf. miⁿ-knaⁿ (m̨kną) - marry, take a wife, the male term for to marry; knoⁿ-ke (knǫk) - marry a woman; ki-knoⁿ-ke (kiknǫk) - marriage, married, marry

Dhegiha: wa-gthoⁿ-ge (wa-gthⁿ-ge) - he has married them [FL-Osage]; wa-laⁿ-ge (walⁿge) - marry, take a wife or wives [Kaw]

 

marry, marriage, married

ki-knoⁿ-ke (kiknǫk) - marriage, married, marry [JOD]

ki-knoⁿ-ke (kighenokieh) - marriage, wedding (mariage) [GI]

cf. miⁿ-knaⁿ (m̨kną) - marry, take a wife, the male term for to marry; knoⁿ-ke (knǫk) - marry a woman; wa-knoⁿ-ke (wknǫk) - marry more than one wife

ex: ki-knoⁿ-ke ta niⁿ-kʰa (kiknǫk tta nįkʰ) - theyre married (theyre going to be married) [MS]

ex: ki-knoⁿ-ke ta niⁿ-kʰa iⁿ-chʰoⁿ i (kiknǫk tta nįkʰ ̨čʰǫ i) - theyre married (theyre going to be married, now) [MS]

ex: ki-ki-knoⁿ-ka-we (kikknǫkwe) - they married each other [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-gthoⁿ (gigthoⁿ) - marriage [Omaha]; ʰki-gthoⁿ-ge (ḳi-gthⁿ-ge) - intermarrying into another tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰki-laⁿ-ke (ʰkil̨ke) - marry each other [CQ-Osage]; ki-laⁿ-ge (klaⁿge) - pair off as mates; marry, intermarry [Kaw]; ki-loⁿ-ge (kloⁿge), ki-laⁿ-ge (klaⁿge) - marry (each other) [Kaw]

 

marry, take a wife

miⁿ-knaⁿ (m̨kną) - marry, take a wife, the male term for to marry miⁿ-a-knaⁿ (mįakną) - I, miⁿ-da-knaⁿ (mįdakną) - you

cf. miⁿ (mį), mi (mi) - female; knoⁿ-ke (knǫk) - marry a woman; wa-knoⁿ-ke (wknǫk) - marry more than one wife; ki-knoⁿ-ke (kiknǫk) - marriage, married, marry

Dhegiha: miⁿ-gthoⁿ (mⁿgthoⁿ) - to take a wife, mary [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-gthoⁿ (migthoⁿ) - marry, married man [Omaha]; mi-gthoⁿ-ge (m-gthoⁿ-ge) - matrimony (male) [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-laⁿ-ke (m̨įląke) - marry a woman, take a wife, marry; married (referring to a man); wedding, marriage [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-laⁿ-ge (mⁿlaⁿge) - marry, get married (male reference only) [Kaw]

 

martin, bee martin

wa-zhiⁿ-shki (wąki) - kingbird or bee martin, Tyrannus tyrannus

cf. wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - bird, shortened from wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka), not to be confused with wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will, mind, personality; wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; wa-zhiⁿ to (wą tto) - paroquet; wa-zhiⁿ zha ma-ni (waį mni) - nuthatch, lit. walks upside down; mutch-hotch; wa-zhiⁿ zhi-te (wą tte) - cardinal, also tanager; wa-zhiⁿ aⁿ-xa-ke (wą ̨γak) - mocking bird, lit. crying bird; wa-zhiⁿ da-kniⁿ (wa-jiⁿ́ d-ktiⁿ) - Pretty Bird, Handsome Bird, masculine name of the Kwapa Bird gens; Pretty Bird [JOD]; wa-zhiⁿ ska (wa-jiⁿ sk) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; White Bird (near by) [JOD]; wa-zhiⁿ haⁿ-ka (wa-jiⁿ́ ha-k͓) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Ancestral or First Bird (Angel, Ancestral or First Bird, Sacred Bird, personal name of Louis Angell, Tallchief, ka-hi-ke  ste-te, Maude Supernaw stated that her father, Louis Angell, belonged to the Snake Clan.) [JOD]; wa-zhiⁿ mi te-xi (wa-jiⁿ́ mi t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Bird Female Difficult to be won or captured [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wa-zhⁿga), wa-zhiⁿ (wazhⁿ) - any bird, chicken, fowl [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wa-jí-ga) - the generic name for small birds [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wa-zhⁿ-ga), wa-zhiⁿ (wazhⁿ) - bird [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka), wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - bird [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wazhⁿga), wa-zhiⁿ (wazhⁿ) - bird, small birds [Kaw]

 

martin, purple martin

ni-shko-shko (nikko) - purple martin, Progne subis

cf. ni-shko-shko zhi-ka (nikko ka) - swallow (various types)

Dhegiha: ni shku-shku(ni ck-cku) - the martin [JOD-Omaha]; ni shku-shku (ni shku-shku) - barn swallow [Omaha]; ni-shku-shku (ni-shk-shku) - a swallow; the sand martin or bank swallow; the swallow is believed to be associated with the clouds and thunder, it is most active when a storm approaches [FL-Osage]; ni-shku-shku (nishkshku) - the purple martin [Kaw]

 

Mary, Jesuss mother

wa-kaⁿ-ta e-haⁿ niⁿkʰe, e-haⁿ-ko-we-taⁿ (wakk̨tta eh̨ nįkʰ, eh̨ ǫkwettą) - Jesuss mother, Mary [MS]; Maude Supernaw refers to Jesus as God, she was of the Quapaw generation that was introduced to Christinaity and the concept of Gods son. This may explain why she refered to God and Jesus as wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta).

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wak̨ta) - God, spirit; i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother; his or her mother; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - 3sg continuative aux. sitting; oⁿ-ko-we-taⁿ (ǫkwettą) - we (rather than others)

Dhegiha: wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta i-zhiⁿ-ke i-hoⁿ (waʰk̨ta įke iih̨) - mother of Jesus, Mary, lit., Gods sons mother [CQ-Osage]

 

wa-kaⁿ-ta e-haⁿ-ko-we-taⁿ, Mary a-niⁿ niⁿ (wakk̨tta eh̨ ǫkwettą, Mary an̨ nį) - Jesuss mother, Mary [MS]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wak̨ta) - God, spirit; i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother; his or her mother; oⁿ-ko-we-taⁿ (ǫkwettą) - we (rather than others); a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; niⁿ (nį) - 3sg continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta i-zhiⁿ-ke i-hoⁿ (waʰk̨ta įke iih̨) - mother of Jesus, Mary, lit., Gods sons mother [CQ-Osage]

 

mash, make mushy

di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy bdi-kdo-kdo (bdkdokdo) - I, ti-kdo-kdo (ttkdokdo) - you

cf. kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]; we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]; o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - mired, become, stuck in mud; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

 

Mask

iⁿ-te o-kdaⁿ (̨tte kdą) - mask, lit. put the face in it

cf. iⁿ-te (įtt) - face; o-kdaⁿ (kdą), o-knaⁿ (kną) - put inside; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put object upon a surface; pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną), pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat, cap, head is put inside; wa-pa-hi o-knaⁿ (wapphi okn̨) - headdress of woven yarn; wa-xo pa-hi-o-knaⁿ (waxʔ pphikną) - bonnet

Dhegiha: iⁿ-de u-gthoⁿ (iⁿde ugthoⁿ) - mask [Omaha]; iⁿ-dse u-gthoⁿ (iⁿ-ds u-gthoⁿ) - a halter [FL-Osage]; i-je o-laⁿ (ij olⁿ), i-jo-laⁿ (ijlaⁿ) - mask, from ij face + olⁿ sits on there [Kaw]

 

mass, cover in a mass

ba-di-di-te (badditte) - cover in a mass, swarm upon

Dhegiha: ba-thi-de (bathde) - full, swarming or covered with [Omaha/Ponca]

 

mat

wa-zoⁿ-te (wzǫtte) - mat

cf. ka-zaⁿ-te (kaz̨tte) - weave, braid; i-ba-zoⁿ-te (baz̨tte) - lace up, as a pack; i-ki-pa-zoⁿ-te (kkippaz̨tte) - fasten

ex: wa-zoⁿ-te kʰe (wzǫtte-kʰe) - the mat

Dhegiha: wa-zoⁿ-dse (w-oⁿ-dse) - any woven article, textile [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-zoⁿ-de (gaoⁿde) - weave, braid [Omaha]; ga-zoⁿ-dse (ga-ⁿ-dse) - to weave, to braid [FL-Osage]; ga-zaⁿ-je (gazⁿje) - weave [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-zoⁿ-de (bazoⁿde) - to stitch up, sew up, or lace up [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-zoⁿ-dse (-ba-oⁿ-dse) - to lace a shoe, to lace up as a shoe [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zoⁿ-de (zoⁿzoⁿde) - stitch [Omaha]

 

match

pe-ti-te-de (ppettttede) - match

pe-ti-te-de (ppettttede) - matches [MS]

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; i (i) - with which to; te-de (ttde) - light a fire, kindle; o-te-de (ottde) - fireplace

Dhegiha: pe-de (pde) - fire, match [Omaha/Ponca]; pe-de (pede) - fire, matchstick [Omaha]; ʰpe-dse (p̩-dse) - fire [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-tse (ʰpece) - fire, cooking fire, meeting fire, cooking stove gas fire [CQ-Osage]; pe-je (pje) - fire [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ne-the (inthe) - burn, to set something on fire, burn something, cause something to burn [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ne-the (inethe) - kindle fire [Omaha]; i-je-ye (ijye) - kindle, build a fire at/in a place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: dse-the (ds-the), ʰtse-the (ṭs-the) - to kindle as a fire [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-dse-the (-dse-the) - to build a fire on some place or objuct [FL-Osage]; a-tse-the (cee) - build a fire on [CQ-Osage]; a-je-ye (jeye) - kindle a fire on an object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ne-the (unethe) - hearth, fireplace [Omaha]; u-dse-the (u-ds-the) - a place hollowed out in the ground in which to place or kindle a fire, put fire into [FL-Osage]; o-tse-the (oce) - build a fireplace or fire, fireplace or fire for cooking or warming oneself, place to build a fire, stove [CQ-Osage]; o-jhe-ye (oǰye) - fireplace [Kaw]

 

matted as hair

sha-ka (kka) - matted, as hair aⁿ-sha-ka (ąkka) - I, di-sha-ka (dikka) - you

 

matter, no matter what

koi-shoⁿ-e (kįe) - no matter what

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding; koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so or of that sort; so or in that case [JOD]; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįtta) - thus, accordingly, in that way; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - in that way, therefore; koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

 

matter, what is the matter

haⁿ (hą) - what is the matter [JOD]

haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner

cf. ha (ha) - indefinite; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use

ex: kʰi naⁿ, haⁿ wa-xo di-ta di-te a-e (kʰ ną, hą waxʔ dtta ditʔ ae) - when he reached home, he was asked, what is the matter with your woman/wife, is she dead (to you)? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ i-she (hą i) - what did you say? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ i-she naⁿ (hǫi ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ she (h̨ ) - what did you say? [OM]

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ ni-kʰe (hǫ nikʰ) - how are you? [OM]

ex: hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she (h̨ datʰ̨e) - what is the matter with you? [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ ǫkʰ (hǫ ǫkʰ) - what is the matter with you who recline? [JOD]

 

hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; e (e) - question sign

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man (husband), they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e)  - is that so? [OM]

 

mature, grown up, old

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature aⁿ-naⁿ-hoⁿ (̨nąh̨) - I, di-naⁿ-hoⁿ (dnąh̨) - you, wa-naⁿ-hoⁿ-we (wnąhǫwe) - we

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (̨nąh̨) - me grownup [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (mįt̨ nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka i-niⁿ pa naⁿ (waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek in̨ pa n̨) - grown women wore short dresses [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ-ʰto noⁿ-hoⁿ (shⁿ-ṭo-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - a bachelor, a single man [FL-Osage]; shi-do noⁿ-hoⁿ (shdo noⁿhoⁿ) - a youth, a young man that is nearly grown [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wakʔ n̨h̨) - a woman who has been married, but who is now alone, a widow [JOD-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wak noⁿhⁿ) - grown woman  [Kaw]

 

maturity, bring to maturity

naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity naⁿ-hoⁿ-a-de (naⁿ-hoⁿ-a-de) - I, naⁿ-hoⁿ-da-de (naⁿ-hoⁿ-da-de) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - girl, young; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - father's older brother, man's; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

may have in the past

tʰe i-te (tʰe itt) - may have in the past [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte, iy nį, iy waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: te-iⁿ-te (t-iⁿ-te) - perhaps, probably, it may be [JOD-Omaha]

 

maybe, perhaps

naⁿ-te (n̨tte), (nątt) - perhaps, maybe

naⁿ-te (naⁿ-tĕ́) - can [JOD]

ex: di-sniⁿ-te naⁿ-te pe-te koi (dsnįte n̨tte pptte koi) - might burn you, that fire [MS]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-ʰtse (thoⁿ-ṭse), thoⁿ-dse (thoⁿ-dse, thoⁿ-ts) - perhaps, suitable, appropriate, convenient [FL-Osage]; thaⁿ-ʰtse (ąąʰc) - possible, suitable, appropriate, could would, probable, look like, be at the point of happening [CQ-Osage]

 

e-te te (tte tt) - perhaps, maybe

cf. te te (tte tt) - such and such, expresses uncertainty

ex: a-te-zhe naⁿ, ta-taⁿ ke aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de e-te te, i-ye (ate ną, tttą ke ̨tee hid, mikkxʔe ̨tee hid tte tte, iy) - when I urinated, what is this urinating on me, I wonder if its the stars urinating on me, he said [JOD]

ex: koi ta-taⁿ te-zha-i ke, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zha-i ke e-te te (ki tttą tai k, mikkxʔe ąteai ke tte tte) - what is that urinating, I wonder if the stars are urinating one me' (JOD)]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we a, e-te-te (pahąw a, tte tte) - do youall know? I wonder. [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-iⁿ-te (iⁿte) - if, perhaps, maybe [JOD-Omaha]

 

i-ke (ikk), i-kʰe (ikʰ) - perhaps, maybe

 

 Back to Top