English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

M

 

me too

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (weh̨), wi-e-haⁿ (wieh̨) - I too, me too [JOD]

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - me too [OM]

cf. di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too; e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

ex: wi-e-haⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ hi-we (wiehaⁿ́ ̨nį-hiw) - they took me there also [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde iy tʰą iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

me, as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (weh̨), wi-e-haⁿ (wieh̨) - I too, me too [JOD]

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - me too [OM]

cf. di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too; e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

ex: wi-e-haⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ hi-we (wiehaⁿ́ ̨nį-hiw) - they took me there also [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde iy tʰą iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

wi-e e-miⁿ-kʰe-ti (we mįkʰtti) - I, as for me

       ► cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - 1sg continuative aux sitting

 

me, at me, to me, for me, on me, etc.

aⁿ (̨) - me, at me, to me, for me, on me, etc.

ex: aⁿ-ba-zo (̨bazo) - it pointed at me, from a-ba-zo (bazo) - to point at

ex: o-aⁿ-tʰiⁿ (ǫtʰį) - he/she hit me, from o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - to strike, slap, hit

ex: o-aⁿ-da-tʰiⁿ (ǫdatʰį) - you hit me, from o-da-tʰiⁿ (odtʰį) - you hit

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi (̨nąxʔ̨i) - she had not listened to me [JOD], from na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen + zhi (i) - not, negation

ex: aⁿ-da-na-xoⁿ (̨dnaxʔǫ) - did you hear me, from da-na-xoⁿ (danxʔǫ) - you hear, listen

ex: aⁿ-ki (ąkʔ) - he gave to me [JOD], from ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

ex: aⁿ-ki-we (ąkʔwe) - they gave to me [JOD], from ki-we (kʔiwe) - they give something to someone

ex: aⁿ-da-ska (̨daska) - it sticks to me, from a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow

ex: aⁿ-shpi-ta (̨pitta) - you lean on me, from, a-shpi-ta (pitta) - you lean on

ex: aⁿ-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (̨ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close to me, from a-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close

ex: aⁿ-ti-xe (̨ttiγe) - you take me for your husband [JOD], a-ti-xe (ttiγe) - you marry a man, you take a man for a husband

ex: aⁿ-te-zhe (̨tee) - urinate on me [JOD], from te-zhe (te) - urinate

ex: aⁿ-di-za-i (ądiza) - they get it for me [JOD], from di-za-wi (dizwi) - they get, take, receive

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ (ąb̨) - he called to me, he calls to me [JOD], from baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ-wi (ąb̨wi) - they called me [JOD], from baⁿ-wi (b̨wi) - they call, they halloo

Dhegiha: aⁿ (aⁿ) - pr. frag. 1st. s. obj. [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ (ą) - 1st person sg. patient pronominal, used as object of active verbs, (me, for me, to me, from me, etc.); 1st person sg. patient pronominal prefix, used as subject of stative verbs, (I) [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ (aⁿ) - the pronoun I in <S> conjugations [Kaw]

 

me, I

wi-e (we) - I, 1st singular actor

wi-e (we) - me [MS, OM]

wi-e (wi-eh) - me (moi) [GI]

cf. di-e (de) - you, disjunctive 2nd singular; e (e) - he, she, it, that; oⁿ-ko-we (ǫkwe) - we

ex: wi-e bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we bd tta mįkʰ) - Im going [MS]

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I will go in this direction [JOD]

ex: wi-e a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we akd tta mįkʰ) - I want to go home (I will be going home) [AG]

ex: wi-e a-wa-naⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-khe (we awaną́bde ta mįkʰ) - Im going to eat [AG]

ex: wi-e a-gi-ta (we gtta) - Im getting up [AG]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: wi-e ho-taⁿ (we httą) - I am happy [MW], would expect aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (ąhttą) - Im good, happy

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi wi-e i-da-de (hǫ we idde) - no, I didn't see it [AG]; would expect, i-da-da zhi (idda zhi) - I dont/didnt see

ex: e wi-e a-de (e we de) - yes, I saw it [AG]; conjugates i-de (de) - to see, as a-de (de), expected conjugation i-da-de (idde) - I see

ex: wi-e i-xa (we xa) - I laugh [AG]; would expect i-da-xa (idxa) - I laugh

ex: wi-e maⁿ-niⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (we mąn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I am going to go walking [AG]; would expect conjugated form of verb, a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ (am̨bdį) - I walk

ex: wi-e o-ka-xpa (we okxpa) - Im Quapaw [AG]

ex: wi-e toⁿ ni miⁿ-kʰe (we t̨ ni mįkʰ) - I see you [AG]; would expect same as, wi-toⁿ-we (wit̨we) - Im looking at you [MR]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow); a-kde (akd) - I go home, I start homeward [AG]

Dhegiha: wi-e (we), wi (wi) - I, me [Omaha/Ponca]; wi (wi) - me [Omaha]; wi-e (w-e) - I, me [FL-Osage]; wi (wi) - I am [FL-Osage]; wi-e (we), wi (w) - me, I [CQ-Osage]; we (we), wi-e (wie) - I, me [Kaw]; wi-e (wi), we (we) - me, I am the one who...; it is I who... [Kaw]

 

me, I, 1st person singular verb conjugations

a (a) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, regular active conjugation

ex: a-kiⁿ (akʔį) - I carry on the back, from kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

Dhegiha: a-iⁿ (aʔiⁿ) - I carry on the back, from iⁿ (ʔiⁿ) - carrying, carrying on the back [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰkiⁿ (a-ḳⁿ) - I carry, from ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; a-kiⁿ (akʔ̨) - I carry, from kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; akiⁿ (akiⁿ) - I carry on the back, from kiⁿ (kiⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

aⁿ (ą) - 1st person singular verb conjugation

ex: aⁿ-ta-ka-te (ątkkatte) - Im hot, from ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot

Dhegiha: aⁿ-na-ka-de (ⁿ-na-ka-de) - I am hot, from na-ka-de (n-ka-de) - hot, to be hot [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-da-ʰka-dse (ⁿ-da-ḳa-dse) - I am hot, from da-ʰka-dse (da-ḳa-dse) - to be hot [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-da-ka-je (ⁿdakaje) - Im hot, from da-ka-je (dkaje) - be hot, as a stove or a person [Kaw]

 

b (b) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, R stems

ex: bde (bd) - I go, from de (de) - go

Dhegiha: bthe (be) - I go, from the (e) - go, to go, to depart [Omaha/Ponca]; bthe (bthe) - I go, from the (the) - to go [FL-Osage]; bre (bre) - I go, from the (e), a-the (ae) - go there, motion underway, set out for there, be on the way there, leave, be leaving, go foreword, set out, start off [CQ-Osage]; ble (ble) - I go, from ye (ye) - go, be going [Kaw]

 

pʰ (pʰ) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, H stems

ex: pʰi (pʰi) - I come, from hi (hi) - come, be coming here, not own

Dhegiha: pʰi (pʰi) - I come, from i (i) - to come [JOD-Omaha]; pshu (p) - I come, from hu (h), a-hu (ah) - come here [CQ-Osage]; pʰu (pʰu) - I come, from hu (hu) - come to a place that is not ones own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

m (m) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, glottal stems

ex: moⁿ (mǫ), (mą) - I do, I use, from oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, use, be, have (as a disease)

Dhegiha: maⁿ (mą) - I do, from aⁿ (ʔ̨) - [Omaha/Ponca]; e-maⁿ (mą), e-moⁿ (mǫ) - I do, from e-oⁿ (oⁿ) - do [CQ-Osage]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - I do, from oⁿ (oⁿ) - do [Kaw]

 

p (pp) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, B-stems

ex: pa-xi (ppxi) - I push off balance, from ba-xi (bax) - push off balance, shove

Dhegiha: pa-xi (p͓qi) - I awaken by pushing, from ba-qi (baq) - to awaken one by pushing him; to contend or oppose [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xi (p̣-xi) - I aroused him, from ba-xi (ba-x) - to arouse one from sleep by pushing [FL-Osage]; pa-xi (pxi) - I rouse by nudging, from ba-xi (bax) - rouse by nudging [Kaw]

 

t (tt) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, D-stems

ex: toⁿ-we (tt̨we), taⁿ-we (tt̨we) - I look, from toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something

Dhegiha: toⁿ-be (t͓aⁿ-be) - I look, from doⁿ-be (dⁿbe) - to look at, to perceive any object, to see it [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-be (ṭⁿ-be) - I see, from doⁿ-be (doⁿ΄-be) - to see [FL-Osage]; ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰt̨pe) - I look, from toⁿ-pe (tǫ́pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon, [CQ-Osage]; toⁿ-be (tt̨be), (tmbe) - I look at it, from doⁿ-be (dⁿbe) - see, look at [Kaw]

 

p (pp) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, G-stems

ex: pa-xe (ppγe) - I make, from ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: pa-xe (p͓xe) - I make, from ga-xe (g-xe) - to do, make, act, behave [JOD-Omaha]; ʰpa-xe (p̩-xe) - I make, from ga-xe (g-xe) - to make, to perform [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-xe (ʰpaγe) - I make, from ka-xe (kaγe) - make, fix, prepare, bake, build, force someone to do something, cause something to be a certain way, turn on, do, perform, engage in, make it, [CQ-Osage]; pa-ghe (pghe) - I make, from ga-ghe (gghe) - make, do, pretend, cause [Kaw]

 

k-b (kk-b) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, doubly conjugated as G-stems and R-stems

ex: koⁿ-bda (kkǫbd) - I want, from koⁿ-da (kǫd) - want, desire, wish

Dhegiha: koⁿ-btha (koⁿbtha) - I want, from goⁿ-tha (goⁿtha) - desire, crave, want [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-btha (ḳⁿ-btha) - I want, from goⁿ-tha (gⁿ-tha) - to want, to desire, to prefer [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-bra (ʰk̨bra) - I want, from koⁿ-tha (k̨a) - want, desire [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-bla (kⁿbla) - I want it, from goⁿ-ya (gⁿya) - want, wish, hope [Kaw]

 

m (m) - 1st person singular verb conjugation, W-stems

ex: i-moⁿ-xe (mǫγe) - I ask a question, from i-moⁿ-xe (mǫγe) - ask someone a question

 

i-da (id) - 1st person singular verb conjugation

ex: i-da-de (idde) - I see, from i-de (de) - to see, to find

Dhegiha: i-tha-the (iĕ) - I find it, from i-the (e) - discover, find [JOD-Omaha]; i-tha-the (i-th-the) - I discern, I discovered, from i-the (the) - to discover [FL-Osage]; i-tha-the (iie) - I saw, I see, from i-the (ie) - see, find, understand [CQ-Osage]

 

me, I, continuatve auxiliary

a-ni-he (anih) - I, 1sg continuative moving

ex: pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi- i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (pʰi nih, iy iy mat̨ke) - so I have been coming here, replied the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ-he (iⁿh) - I who move [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ-he (a-thⁿ-he) - in my life movements, as I go forth [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-thiⁿ-he (ąįh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 1st sg. subject, moving here means changing location [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-he (ayih) - continuative, I, while moving [Kaw]

 

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1sg continuative sitting

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1sg continuative auxiliary lying

ex: tʰi naⁿ te paⁿ-ze shkoⁿ-zhi hi a-zhaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (tʰi ną tʔe pp̨ze k̨i hi ą mįkʰ) - when he arrived, I pretended to be dead, I lay there motionless [JOD]

Dhegiha: miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkʰe) - singular first person [JOD-Omaha]; miⁿ-kshe (miⁿ-kshe) - I, who sit here [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-kshe (mįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 1st sg. sitting or lying down subject [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkh) - continuative I, while sitting [Kaw]

 

a-tʰaⁿ-he (atʰąh) - I, 1sg continuative auxiliary standing

ex: hoⁿ-a-bde a-tʰaⁿ-he shi-ke-xti i-da-hoⁿ-bde (h̨abde atʰąh ke-xti idhǫbde) - Ive had a dream, I dreamed a very bad dream [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-taⁿ-he (taⁿh) - I who stand [JOD-Omaha];  a-toⁿ-he (a-toⁿ-he) - I stand [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-txaⁿ-he (ątxąh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for standing 1st sg. subject [CQ-Osage]; a-kha-he (akhhe) - continuative I, while standing [Kaw]

 

meadowlark

to-ti-niⁿ-ke (ttttin̨ke) - meadowlark

to-ti-niⁿ-ke (ttttin̨ke) - meadowlark [MS]

Dhegiha: tʰa-tʰi-thiⁿ-ge (tʰtʰithⁿge), tʰa-chʰi-thiⁿ-ge (tʰchʰithⁿge) - meadowlark [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ti thiⁿ-ge (tti thiⁿge) - meadowlark [Omaha]; to-tsiⁿ-yiⁿ-ge (tciⁿyiⁿge), to-i-tsiⁿ-yiⁿ-ge (tociⁿyiⁿge) - meadow lark [Kaw]

 

meal, eat a meal

wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine a-wa-naⁿ-bde (awnąbd) - I, wa-da-naⁿ-bde (wadnąbd) - you

wa-naⁿ-bde (ŭah-nohmmĕlĕh) - eat, consume (manger) [GI]

wa-naⁿ-bde (waną́bde) - eat [AG, OM]

wa-naⁿ-bde (waną́bde) - come eat [AG]

cf. pa-ze-de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wanⁿbde) - supper [MS]; o-zhi ska wa-noⁿ-bde (i ska wan̨bde) - bowl [MS]; a-wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - table; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. something to stick food; o-naⁿ-bde (nąbde) - food, something to eat

ex: a-wa-naⁿ-bde koⁿ-bda (awnąbd kkǫbd) - I want to eat [MS]

ex: wi-e a-wa-naⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (we awaną́bde ta mįkʰ) - I'm going to eat [AG]

ex: a-wa-naⁿ-bde (awnąbd) - I have eaten (I eat) [OM]

ex: da-wa-naⁿ-bde (dwanąbd) - have you eaten? [OM]; expected conjugation, wa-da-naⁿ-bde (wadną́bd) - you eat

ex: jhi-e wa-naⁿ-bde (jhe waną́bde) - you come eat [AG]; expected conjugation, wa-da-naⁿ-bde (wadną́bd) - you eat

ex: jhi-e wa-naⁿ-bde shkoⁿ-ta (ǰe waną́bde kǫtt) - do you want to eat? [AG]; expected conjugation, wa-da-naⁿ-bde (wadn̨bd) - you eat

ex: i-za-ni oⁿ-ka-kdi wa-naⁿ-bde shkoⁿ-ta (zani ǫkkdi wan̨bde kǫtt) - come on, all of you, if you want to eat [AG]

ex: aⁿ-wa-naⁿ-bde (ąwnąbd) - we eat [MS]

ex: da-tʰe wa-naⁿ-bde (datʰ waną́bde) - eating [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-bthe (wanⁿbthe) - an eater [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-bthe (wa-nⁿ-bthe) - to eat, to dine, a meal, breakfast, dinner, or supper, nourishment, food [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-bre (wan̨bre) - dine, eat, dinner, supper, meal served at noon or in the evening [CQ-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-ble (wanⁿble) - eat a meal, dine, food [Kaw]

 

mean

o-xnaⁿ (xną) - angry, irritated, cross

o-xnaⁿ (o-hu-nu) - mean [LH]

cf. o-xnaⁿ ka-xe (xną kγe) - to make angry or cross

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - mean dog [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

Dhegiha: u-xthoⁿ shtoⁿ (-xthoⁿ-shtoⁿ) - to be cross, disagreeable [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (lą), (olą), o-loⁿ (ol̨ǫ), o-dla (dla) - pout, sulk, sulky [CQ-Osage]; xthoⁿ (xthoⁿ) - to sulk, pout, peeved [FL-Osage]; loⁿ (l̨), laⁿ (l̨) - mad, angry [CQ-Osage]

 

mean something, refer to something

wa-kʰe (wakʰ) - mean something, refer to something a-wa-kʰe (wakʰe) - I, da-wa-kʰe (dwakʰe) - you, oⁿ-wa-kʰa-we (̨wakʰaw) - we

cf. wa-ki-kʰe (wakkkʰe) - refer to oneself

ex: de e a-wa-kʰe (de e wakʰe) - this is what I mean

ex: she e a-wa-kʰe ( e wakʰe) - that is what I mean, that is what I meant, that is what I was talking about

ex: di-ta e a-wa-kʰe (dtta e wakʰe) - I meant yours

ex: be e da-wa-kʰe (be e dwakʰe) - who do you mean

ex: di-e wa-wi-kshe (de wwike) - I mean you

Dhegiha: wa-ke (wa-k) - to mean, to intend, to refer to [JOD-Omaha]; wa-kshe (wa-ksh) - to mean anything [FL-Osage]; wa-kshe (wak) - mean, intend, have in mind [CQ-Osage]; wa-khe (wakh) - mean something, refer to, intend [Kaw]

 

mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful

wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful

wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean [MS]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will power, will, mind, idea, volition; shi-ke (ke) - bad; wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi (wą ddai) - to lose patience; wa-zhiⁿ ska (wa-jĭⁿ́-skă) - masculine name White Disposition, Wise. [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ ʰpi-zhi (wa-zhⁿ-p̣i-zhi) - to be very angry [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ ʰpi-zhi (wą ʰpii) - enraged, mad, angry [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ pi-zhi (wazhⁿpizhi) - being hateful, spiteful, literally bad thoughts [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - will power [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - own will, volition [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - will, mind, idea [CQ-Osage]

 

means, by means of

i-aⁿ (į), i-oⁿ (į) - by means of [JOD]

i-yaⁿ (iy̨) - with, by means of

cf. i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to; aⁿ (ʔą), oⁿ (ʔǫ) - use, do

ex: maⁿ-te i-oⁿ di-xe di-knaⁿ (mątt į dix dikn̨) - (they) planned to chase/pursue him by using a canoe [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe, i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe, i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe, iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe, iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - with which to [FL-Osage]; i () - with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to [CQ-Osage]; i () - instrumentive locative: with, using, by means of [Kaw]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - do, be [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ (̨) - do, engage in an activity [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (oⁿ), oⁿ (oⁿ) - do [Kaw]

 

i () - instrumental, comitative, requires special pronominal allomorphs

ex: i-ka-za (kaza) - to hit with, whip; i (i) + ka-za (kaz), ga-za (gaz) - to whip

ex: i-sta-de (stade) - grease with; i (i) + sta-de (stde) - to grease

ex: i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; i (i) + tʰiⁿ (tʰ̨) - verb root, strike, slap, hit

ex: i-te-de (itʔde) - kill with something; i (i) + te-de (tʔede) - kill

Dhegiha: i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - with which to [FL-Osage]; i () - with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to [CQ-Osage]; i () - instrumentive locative: with, using, by means of [Kaw]

 

yaⁿ (-yą) - with, by means of

 

meant, I or whoever was meant

wi-e-te-te (wettett) - I or whoever was meant

cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; te te (tte tt) - such and such, expresses uncertainty; e-te te (tte tt) - perhaps, maybe

 

measure

i-kaⁿ-ska (kąska) - measure i-da-kaⁿ-ska (idkąsk) - I, i-da-kaⁿ-ska (dak̨ska) - you

cf. i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.

 

i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.

cf. i-kaⁿ-ska (kąska) - measure

ex: i-kaⁿ-ska-de sa-taⁿ wa-tʰi-shka (kąskde sattą watʰika) - Five Mile Creek, I.T.

ex: ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de (mą ikąskde) - mile, lit. land measure

ex: ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (mą ikąskde mįxti) - one mile

ex: wa-hiⁿ-ska i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wah̨ska kąskde) - yard, lit. calico measure

ex: zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (ą ikąskde mįxti) - one yard

ex: zhoⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de (ǫ kąskde) - a yard (measure)

ex: wa-ni i-kaⁿ-ska-de (wan kąskde) - yard, a calico measure

 

measure for solids

i-toⁿ-we (ttǫwe), i-tʰoⁿ-we (tʰǫwe) - bushel, measure for solids

cf. si-toⁿ-we (sttǫwe) - one foot, unit of measure

 

measure, coinage, amount

ska-di (skdi), ska-ti (skti) - coinage, amount, measure; from iskali in Muskogean < Fr. escalin

cf. ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents [AG]; de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali money, French escalin shilling; de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents; de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp), de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits; de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, fifty cents, four bits; de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

 

measure, half of measure

miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure)

ex: miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

ex: miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many or quantity

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-na (wiⁿdna) - half, half the amount of a collective substance [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-na-ska (wiⁿdnaska) - half size, half that size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-thoⁿ-ska (wiⁿdthoⁿska) - half, half the size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (wiⁿdtʰoⁿ) - half, half full, half the length [Omaha/Ponca]

 

measure, unit of measure

si-toⁿ-we (sttǫwe) - one foot, unit of measure

cf. si (si) - foot; i-toⁿ-we (ttǫwe), i-tʰoⁿ-we (tʰǫwe) - bushel, measure for solids

 

meat, cut meat from the bone

a-pa-xi (paxʔi) - cut meat from the bone

cf. ka-xi (kaxʔ) - scrape, as hair from a hide; a-da-xi (daxʔi) - grating sound, make by gnawing on, as a rat gnawing on wood or metal

 

meat, dried meat, deer

ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat; deer

ta (tta) - meat; deer [MS, MR, OM]

ta (tah) - meat (viande); deer, venison (chevreuil) [GI]

ex: ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat [MS]

ex: ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

ex: ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ), ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde), ta-ni-hoⁿ-de (ttanhǫde) - soup, beef soup, lit. meat-water-boil/cook-cause to

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - dried meat, especially buffalo, elk, or deer meat, jerky [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (ta) - dried meat [Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - the deer, meat of any kind [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - deer, doe, fawn, buck, meat [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - deer, meat of any sort [Kaw]

 

meat, eat no meat

ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat

ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat; deer; da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew; zhi (i) - not, negative; da-tʰa-zhi (datʰi) - fast, not to eat; da-tʰa-zhi (dati) - ate not [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰta tha-ta zhi hoⁿ-ba (ṭa-th-ta-zhi hoⁿ-ba) - not eat meat, Friday [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-pa ʰta tha-tsʰa zhi (h̨ąpa ʰtaaacʰai) - Friday, literally, day of no meat eating [CQ-Osage]; ta ya-cha zhi (ta ychazhi) - Eats no Deer, subclan of the Kaw deer clan [Kaw]

 

meat, fat meat

wa-shiⁿ (wą) - fat, fat meat

wa-shiⁿ (wą) - fat, fatty meat [FS]

wa-shiⁿ (wą) - bacon, pork, fat meat [MS, AG, OM]

cf. shiⁿ (į) - fat, as a person or animal; shiⁿ ka-xe (į kγe) - fatten, make fat [JOD]; shiⁿ-wa-de (įwde) - to fatten them, cause to be fat; shiⁿ-xti (įxt) - very fat, very, really fat; ta shiⁿ (ttą) - deer fat; te naⁿ-ka shiⁿ (tte n̨kka ̨) - buffalo back fat [JOD]; te ni-te shiⁿ (tte ntte į) - buffalo rump fat [JOD]; wa-shiⁿ-ha (wąha) - bacon, fatskin

ex: wa-shiⁿ koⁿ-bda (wą kkǫbd) - I want some meat (bacon, fat meat) [AG]

Dhegiha: wa-shiⁿ (washiⁿ) - fat [Omaha]; wa-shiⁿ (wa-shⁿ) - meat with very little lean, fat meat [FL-Osage]; wa-shiⁿ (wą)- bacon, fat meat, salt pork, be fat, be overweight [CQ-Osage]; wa-shiⁿ (washⁿ) - fat, bacon, also any kind of fat [Kaw]

 

meat, flesh, skin

zho (o) - flesh, meat

zho (o) - flesh, skin [MS, OM]

zho (jŭh) - meat (viande) [GI]

zho (o) - flesh [FS]

cf. zho zhi-te (otte) - Indian; i-ha-zho (ha) - lip; te-ska zho (ttesk o) - beef [AB, AG]; zho-i-ka (oka), (ika) - body, self; zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever; zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude; ni-te-a-zho (nitteo) - rump, buttocks

ex: ta zho (tta) - venison, deer flesh/meat [JOD]

ex: te-ska zho (ttesk o) - beef [AB, AG]

ex: wa-sa zho (was o) - black bear meat, lit. black bear - flesh, body [JOD]

ex: wa-sa zho pa-shpe a-niⁿ kdi (was o pap an̨ kdi) - she cut a piece of the black bear meat/flesh and brought it home [JOD]

ex: wa-sa zho o-we sa-ki wa-bdo-ka o-do-ki-hoⁿ (was we ski wabdka odkihǫ) - black bear meat and whole ear of dried corn boiled/cooked together [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-hi-te aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe, aⁿ-te taⁿ zho za-ni ta-xaⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿki-ye (̨hite ątʔ tta mįkʰ, ątʔ tą zan txʔąkid-nihĕ́, ąn̨kiye) - well/at any rate I am going to die, when I'm dead barbecue all my flesh for me, he said to me [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu (zhu) - flesh, body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu (zhu) - flesh or body [FL-Osage]

 

meat, fresh meat

ta to-ka (ttatkka), ta do-ka (ttadkka) - fresh meat

cf. ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat; to-ka (tkka) - wet

ex: ta to-ka niⁿ-kʰe (ttatkka-nįkʰ) - the fresh meat

Dhegiha: ta nu-ka (tanka) - fresh meat [Omaha/Ponca]; ta nu-ka (tanuka) - fresh meat [Omaha]; ʰta do-ʰka (ṭ-do-ḳa) - meat [FL-Osage]; ta do-ka (ta dka) - fresh meat, raw meat [Kaw]

 

meat, fried meat cooked with the grease

ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, meat, especially dried meat; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

meat, meat soup

ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ), ta-ni-i-hoⁿ-de (ttanihǫde), ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde) - soup, beef soup

ta-niu-hoⁿ (ttanǘhǫ) - soup [OM]

ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde) - soup [MR]

cf. ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat; deer; ni (ni) - water; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

Dhegiha: ta-ni (tan) - soup [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ni (tani) - soup, broth [Omaha]; ʰta-ni (ṭa-n) - soup, broth, meat water [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ni (ʰtaani) - soup, broth, consomm [CQ-Osage]; ta-niⁿ (ta nⁿ) - soup [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-haⁿ (u-hⁿ) - to boil it in a kettle [JOD-Omaha]; u-hoⁿ (uhoⁿ) - broil, cook, a cook [Omaha]; u-hoⁿ (-hoⁿ) - the act of cooking, to cook by boiling or stewing [FL-Osage]; o-hoⁿ (ooh̨) - cook, prepare food, person who cooks [CQ-Osage]; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook things, cook stuff [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-haⁿ (oⁿhⁿ) - a boiling, a kettle [Kaw]

 

meat, roast meat on a stick

ba-znaⁿ (bazną) - roast meat on a stick

ba-znaⁿ (pazze-nah) - roast (rtir) [GI]

Dhegiha: ba-znaⁿ (bas͓nⁿ) - to push a stick through a piece of meat and hold it before a fire to roast [JOD-Omaha]; ba-znoⁿ (ba-noⁿ) - to roast meat of any kind over the fire on a sharpened stick [FL-Osage]; ba-hnaⁿ (bahnⁿ) - roast, spit a piece of meat; to push a stick through a piece of meat and then thrust one end of the stick into the ground, close to a fire, in order to roast the meat; to roast meat in that manner (this method of roasting meat was used by most, if not all, Plains tribes, it was also used for cooking bread, by pressing dough around the stick and tilting it toward the fire) [Kaw]

 

meat, slice meat into thin strips on something

a-ka (ka) - cut (slice) on something; slice meat into thin strips on something a-a-ka (aka) - I, a-da-ka (daka) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-we (̨kakawe) - we

Dhegiha: a-ga (-ga) - to cut an object into thin slices or strips on something [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ga (wga) - of a-ga (aga), to cut meat into slices [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ga (-ga) - to slice meat for drying [FL-Osage]

 

meat, small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits

wa-sa i-ba-xdo-xdo (was baxdoxd) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits [JOD]

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; i-ba-xdo (baxdo) - stuck in him [JOD]; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. something to stick food with; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring; ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd), ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus plant; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear

ex: wa-sa i-ba-xto-xto we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (was baxtoxt wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks with the fat around it [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole in meat, put on both sides of a horse, to be carried, fastening an end of a cord to each hole; to pierce; to punch holes in moccasins [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

meatus of the ear, the external opening

na-xi-te o-xo-te (naxtte oxʔtte), na-xi-te o-xo-de (naxtte oxʔde) - meatus of the ear, the external opening

cf. ni-xi-te (niγtte) - inner ear, opening of the ear, hearing; o-xo-te (oxʔtte) - hole, natural opening; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-xo-te (ppąe oxʔtte) - nostril(s); o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de (noⁿxide) - ear, the inner hearing organ [Omaha]; na-xi-de (naxde) - ear [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse (noⁿ-x-dse) - the internal, that which holds the hearing orifice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse (nąąγce) - ear, inner ear, act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je (nighje) - the external ear, sense of hearing [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-u-de (ude) - hole [Omaha/Ponca]; u-u-te (uute) - hole [Omaha]; u-ʰku-dse (u-ḳ-dse) - a hole, perforation, orifice [FL-Osage]; o-ko-tse (okʔce), o-ko (okʔ) - hole [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-je (okje) - hole, aperture [Kaw]

 

meddle with things

di-hi-te (dihtte) - meddle with things bdi-hi-te (bdhitte) - I, ti-hi-te (tthitte) - you

cf. a-ki-hi-te (kkihtte) - pay attention, attend, give heed; to insist on; ba-hi-te (bahtte) - poke, as a fire; pe-te e-ba-hi-te (pptte bahtte) - poker

Dhegiha: thi-hi-dse (thi-h-dse) - to treat unkindly, maltreat, to persecute [FL-Osage]; thi-hi-tse (iihce) - play with something, fiddle with something, fool, tease, be mischievous or deceitful toward, play slyly or meanly with, deceive, mistreat, persecute an animal or person [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-di wa-thi-hi-de a-he (edi wathihide ahe) - interfere [Omaha]; wa-thi-hi-dse (wa-th-hi-dse) - meddler, a mischief maker [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-hi-tse (waihice) - tease people [CQ-Osage]

 

medicine

ma-kaⁿ (makk̨) - medicine

ma-kaⁿ (makk̨) - medicine [MS, MR, OM]

maⁿ-kaⁿ (moncon) - medicine (mdecine) [GI]

maⁿ-kaⁿ (m ku) - medicine root [MH]

cf. ma (ma), maⁿ (mą) - relating to the earth or ground; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant

ex:  ma-kaⁿ sha (makk̨a) - coffee, lit. dark medicine [MS, AB, MR, AG, OM]

ex: ma-kaⁿ shoⁿ-shoⁿ (makk̨ ̨ǫ) - pill, lit. globular medicine

ex: ma-kaⁿ ka-xe (makk̨ kγe) - doctor, whitemans doctor, lit. makes medicine

Dhegiha: ma-kʰoⁿ (makʰⁿ) - medicine [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-koⁿ (moⁿkoⁿ) - medicine, peyote [Omaha]; moⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (moⁿ-ḳⁿ) - drugs, any kind of medicine except poison [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ʰka (mąʰka), maⁿ-ʰkaⁿ (mąʰk̨) - peyote, aspirin, or any other kind of medicine [CQ-Osage]; mo-kaⁿ (mokⁿ), ma-kaⁿ (makⁿ) - medicine [Kaw]

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ) - earth, ground; archaic word used in compounds [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ (mąą) - related to the ground or the earth [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: koⁿ (koⁿ) - sinew, root, string [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel, veins, artery, root, string [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ʰkoⁿ) - a vein or blood vessel, roots of trees or plants, sinew [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kʔą) - root [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein, artery, root, sinew, string [Kaw]

 

medicine arrow, peyote staff

maⁿ ste-te (m̨ sttte) - medicine arrow, peyote staff

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ) - arrow [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - arrow [Omaha]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - an arrow [FL-Osage]; maⁿ (m̨ą), moⁿ (m̨ǫ) - arrow, staff used at peyote meetings [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ (maⁿ) - arrow [Kaw]

 

medicine, make you get better

we-ki-ho-taⁿ de-de (wkihttą dde) - medicine, make you get better

cf. we- (we-) - with which to; ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - convalesce, improve; de-de (dde) - causative of go

 

medicine, give bad medicine to someone

xnaⁿ-xe (xnąγ) - give bad medicine to someone a-xnaⁿ-xe (axnąγ) - I, da-xnaⁿ-xe (daxnąγ) - you

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ-xe (gthⁿ-xe) - the practice of magic upon another [FL-Osage]; loⁿ-ghe (lⁿghe) - bewitch, practice magic, hex, charm [Kaw]

 

meet a person or animal

a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal a-a-ki-pa (akkippa) - I, a-da-ki-pa (dakkippa) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-we (ǫkakkippawe) - we

cf. a-ki-pa-i-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors

ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-pa (̨dakkippa) - you meet me

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (-ki-pa) - to meet a person, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-pa (-ḳi-pa) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

 

mellow, make mellow

di-shoⁿ-ke (diǫk) - pulverize, make mellow bdi-shoⁿ-ke (bdǫke) - I, ti-shoⁿ-ke (ttǫke) - you

cf. wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

 

melon

wa-tʰaⁿ (watʰ̨) - watermelon [MS, OM]

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon deau) [GI]; wa-tʰaⁿ si-ta (watʰą stta) - muskmelon, mushmelon; wa-tʰaⁿ o-ha (watʰą ha) - pumpkin; wa-tʰoⁿ to (watʰ̨ tto) - pumpkin

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ (watoⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, melon [Omaha]; wa-ʰtoⁿ (waṭⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, or any of the vegetables of that family [FL-Osage]; wa-txaⁿ (watx̨), wa-kxaⁿ (wakx̨) - pumpkin, squash [CQ-Osage]; wa-khaⁿ (wakhⁿ) - pumpkin (generic term) [Kaw]

 

wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon

wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon [MS]

wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon deau) [GI]

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ (watʰ̨) - watermelon [MS, OM]; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon deau) [GI]; wa-tʰaⁿ si-ta (watʰą stta) - muskmelon, mushmelon; wa-tʰaⁿ o-ha (watʰą ha) - pumpkin; wa-tʰoⁿ to (watʰ̨ tto) - pumpkin

Dhegiha: sa-kʰa thi-de (skʰathde) - watermelon [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-kʰa thi-de u-kʰe-thiⁿ (skʰathide ukʰthiⁿ) - watermelon, common Omaha watermelon, it has a green rind, usually striped, and black seeds [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-kiu (-ḳiu) - watermelon [FL-Osage]; sa-ʰku (sʰku) - watermelon [CQ-Osage]; sa-ko-je (skoje) - native melon [Kaw]

 

wa-tʰaⁿ si-ta (watʰą stta) - muskmelon, mushmelon

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ (watʰ̨) - watermelon [MS, OM]; wa-tʰaⁿ o-ha (watʰą ha) - pumpkin; wa-tʰoⁿ to (watʰ̨ tto) - pumpkin; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon; wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon deau) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ (watoⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, melon [Omaha]; wa-ʰtoⁿ (waṭⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, or any of the vegetables of that family [FL-Osage]; wa-txaⁿ (watx̨), wa-kxaⁿ (wakx̨) - pumpkin, squash [CQ-Osage]; wa-khaⁿ (wakhⁿ) - pumpkin (generic term) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ (watoⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, melon [Omaha]; wa-ʰtoⁿ (waṭⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, or any of the vegetables of that family [FL-Osage]; wa-txaⁿ (watx̨), wa-kxaⁿ (wakx̨) - pumpkin, squash [CQ-Osage]; wa-khaⁿ (wakhⁿ) - pumpkin (generic term) [Kaw]

 

melon seeds

wa-maⁿ-te (wam̨tte) - melon seeds

Dhegiha: wa-miⁿ-de (wamⁿde), wa-mi-de (wamde) - seed, seed for planting or sowing [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-moⁿ-dse (wa-mⁿ-dse) - seeds of any kind [FL-Osage]

 

melt

ta-skaⁿ (tską) - melt

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; di-skaⁿ (disk̨) - melt something with the hands

Dhegiha: skoⁿ (skoⁿ) - melted, thawed, as snow, ice, grease, lead, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; na-skoⁿ (nakoⁿ) - melt, dissolve in heat, thaw [Omaha]; na-skaⁿ (n-skaⁿ) - to melt, as a metal; to melt or thaw, as ice, snow, butter, fat meat, lard, etc., if exposed to heat [JOD-Omaha]; da-skoⁿ (d-koⁿ) - melted, to melt, to make into a liquid, to liquefy [FL-Osage]; ta-skaⁿ (taską) - melt [CQ-Osage]; da-skaⁿ (dskaⁿ) - be melted by heat, as liquids that have been frozen, metals, grease, etc. [Kaw]

 

melt something with the hands

di-skaⁿ (disk̨) - melt something with the hands bdi-skaⁿ (bdską) - I, ti-skaⁿ (ttską) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; ta-skaⁿ (tską) - melt

Dhegiha: skoⁿ (skoⁿ) - melted, thawed, as snow, ice, grease, lead, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; na-skoⁿ (nakoⁿ) - melt, dissolve in heat, thaw [Omaha]; na-skaⁿ (n-skaⁿ) - to melt, as a metal; to melt or thaw, as ice, snow, butter, fat meat, lard, etc., if exposed to heat [JOD-Omaha]; da-skoⁿ (d-koⁿ) - melted, to melt, to make into a liquid, to liquefy [FL-Osage]; ta-skaⁿ (taską) - melt [CQ-Osage]; da-skaⁿ (dskaⁿ) - be melted by heat, as liquids that have been frozen, metals, grease, etc. [Kaw]

 

men

ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke (nkka nąh̨ ke) - the grown men [JOD]

cf. ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; ni-ka (nkka) - man, as opposed to a woman; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - back then, the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka (n-ka) - an archaic word, conveying the idea of male of the human race, used in certain compounds [JOD-Omaha]; nu (nu) - man, human male [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ʰka (n-ḳa) - man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka (nʰka) - man, person, husband [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka (nka) - man, human male, husband [Kaw]

 

ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man, human being, clan, gen

ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - people [MS, OM, AG]

cf. ki-sto kniⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka (kist kn̨ nkkaka) - U.S. Congress; ni-ka-shi-ka te (nkkaka tʔ) - corpse of a person; ni-ka-shi-ka  (nikkaka), e-ni-ka-shi-ka (nikkaka), i-ni-ka-shi-ka (inkkaka) - clan, gen

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka  wa-xo . shi-zhi-ka  (nkkaka waxʔ. ikka) - men, women, and the children [AG]

ex: ni-ka-si-ka zo-we (nikkasixGa˙z˙we) - men [FS]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-we i-we-niⁿ-aⁿ taⁿ-ha i-ya (nkkaik-we iwnį̨ t̨ha iy) - because he thought it was the people, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wttek, nkkaka hi h k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke nįkʰ) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-pa (nkkaikapa) - the (moving) people

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni (nkkaka zan) - all the people [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ (nkkaka m̨) - one person [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de tʰe taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ tʰi (tbde de tʰ tą nkkaka mį tʰ) - when you went hunting a person came [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xpa-ni (nkkaka waxpn) - poor people [MS]

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (kʰak, hak nkkaka ett nįkʰe, iy) - younger brother, where is the human being? said he [JOD]

ex: ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ, kʰa-ke, i-ye (hak nkkaka ett nį, kʰak, ye) - where is the human being, younger brother? he said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka maⁿ-shi e-ti ni-te naⁿ (nkkaka m̨i ett nit ną) - human being-above-there-how possible [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti ni-te naⁿ (m̨i nkkaka ett nit ną) - above-human being-there-how possible [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xo o-do-hi-ki-de (nkkaka waxʔ odhikid) - he made (caused her) to change into a female human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat (think, regard) him as a human being

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (nkashⁿga), (nkʰashⁿga) - people, person [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (nikashiⁿga) - person, people, human, citizen, man [Omaha]; ni-ʰka-shi-ga (n-ḳa-shi-ga) - a people, people, man, person, persons [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka-shi-ka (nʰkaika) - the people, a people, live, exist [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (nkashiⁿga) - person, people, men, clan [Kaw]

 

merchandise, goods

wa-taⁿ (watt̨) - goods, merchandise

wa-taⁿ (watt̨) - goods [JOD]

cf. wa-taⁿ niⁿ (watt̨ nį) - trader

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke niⁿ wa-taⁿ a-ki-de tʰe kdi (kįttą ʔke nį watt̨ akde tʰ kd) - then the old man returned with the goods that he went after [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtoⁿ (wa-ṭⁿ) - ware, goods, anything sold or exchanged at a store or trading place [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtoⁿ u-zhi (wa-ṭⁿ u-zhi) - a dry-goods store, a place to store goods, a warehouse [FL-Osage]; wa-toⁿ-zhu (wat̨ǫu) - store, trading house [CQ-Osage]; wa-toⁿ (watⁿ) - property, goods [Kaw]

 

mericless, pitiless

wa-da-xe-da-zhi (wadxʔedi) - mericless, pitiless wa-da-xe-a-da-zhi (wadxʔeadi) - I, wa-da-xe-da-da-zhi (wadxʔedadi) - you, wa-da-xe-oⁿ-da-wa-zhi (wadxʔędawai) -we

cf. wa (wa) - them, things, stuff; da-xe-de (daxʔde) - pity, be kind to someone; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation; da-xe-ki-de (daxʔekde) - care for ones own; da-xe-ki-de (daxʔkkide) - care for one for someone else; da-xe ti-aⁿ (daxʔ tį) - pitiable, miserable

Dhegiha: wa-tha-ʰke-tha-zhi (wa-th-ḳe-tha-zhi) - merciless, unkind, uncharitable, pitiless, cruel, selfish, ruthless [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-tha-e-the (wa--e-e) - to be kind or merciful to them, to be kind, show pity [JOD-Omaha]; wa-tha-e-the (watha ethe) - fair-minded, sympathy, accommodate, take care of, pity, be comforted, charity [Omaha]; wa-tha-ʰke-the (wa-th-ḳe-the) - sympathy, sympathetic, easily moved to sympathy and pity for those who suffer, tender-hearted, a man of kindly spirit, compassion [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ke-the (wakʔee) - be a kind or generous person [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-e-the (tha ethe) - pity, befriend [Omaha]; tha-ʰke-the (tha-ḳe-the) - to be tender, gentle, and sympathetic to one who suffers with grief or is in great trouble, tenderness, kind-heartedness [FL-Osage]; tha-ke-the (akʔe) - feel sorry for, pity, be good to, be merciful to, take care of, bless [CQ-Osage]; ya-ke-ye (yakye) - pity or love, bless [Kaw]

 

Merry Christmas

o-wi-bnaⁿ (owibną) - Christmas gift, Maude Supernaw states the concept of Christmas would not have been known to the older generations of Quapaws [MS]

o-wi-bnaⁿ (owibnaⁿ) - Merry Christmas [OM]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da i-zhiⁿ-ga i-ta-te (wakoⁿda izhiⁿga itate) - Christmas, Gods son born [Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta i-zhiⁿ-ke i-ki-ta-the (waʰk̨ta įke ikitae) - Christmas, literally Gods son is born again, implies the day recurs [CQ-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta i-zhiⁿ-ke haⁿ-pa i-tha-liⁿ (waʰk̨ta įke h̨ąpa ialį) - Merry Christmas! literally, good with Gods sons day [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-tse hu ka-xe hoⁿ-pa (xǫǫchu kaγe h̨ǫpa) - Christmas, literally, cedar tree preparation day [CQ-Osage]

 

mess with, mix, make gooey

i-di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - mix, mess with, make gooey i-bdi-xdi-we (bdixdwe) - I, i-ti-xdi-we (ttixdwe) - you

cf. di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - dip hand into something; di-xdi-xdi-we (dixdxdiwe) - sticky, make from handling; ma-xti-xti-we (mxtixtwe) - mud, shallow

 

metal

ma-ze (mze) - gun, metal, iron [MS]

ma-ze (mze) - iron, gun

maⁿ-ze (m̨ze) - gun also iron [FS]

Dhegiha:  moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron, metal [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron or any kind of metal [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mą́ze) - metal of any kind, lead or iron, wire, cable [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mⁿze) - iron, metal in general [Kaw]

 

meteor, shooting star, falling star

mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling star

cf. mi-ka-xe (mikkxʔe) - star; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; ni ox-pa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall

Dhegiha: miⁿ-ka-e u-xpa-the (miⁿke uqpthe) - meteor, falling star [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-ʰka-ʰke u-xpa-the (mi-ḳ-ḳe u-xpa-the) - meteor, falling star [FL-Osage]; mi-ʰka-ke o-xpa-the (miʰkkʔe oxpe) - falling star, meteor [CQ-Osage]; mi-ka-ke o-xpa-ye (mikke oxpye) - shooting star, meteor, lt. star that falls [Kaw]

 

Mexican, Spanish

spa-i-aⁿ (spiʔą) - Mexican

spa-i-a (spia) - Mexican [MS]

spa-iⁿ (spahin) - Spaniard (Espagnol) [GI]

Dhegiha: shpai-u-na (shpaina) - Spaniard, Spanish person [Omaha/Ponca]; he-shpai-u-na (hshpaina) - Spaniard, Spanish person or people [Omaha/Ponca]; he-spa-yu-na (hespayna) - Spaniards, Hispanic [Omaha]; i-spa-tho (i-sp-tho) - the Osage word for Spanish; Spaniard [FL-Osage]; i-shpa-thoⁿ (paǫ)  - Spanish, Mexican, French; Spaniard, any native Spanish speaking person, especially a Mexican, French person; Spanish language, French language, borrowed from Spanish espaol [CQ-Osage]; e-spa-na-ni (espnani), e-spa-no-ne (spanne) - Mexican, Spaniard [Kaw]

 

mice, cache dug by mice for food

wa-ti-he (watthe) - cache dug by mice for food

cf. wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cache, cellar; xe (xe) - bury; o-xe (xe) - cache; wa-xe (wax), wa-xe (waxʔ) - grave; mi-xe (mxe) - grave

Dhegiha: ti-he (the) - hole where a field mouse buries its store of beans for the winter [Omaha/Ponca]

 

middle

o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half in length, middle

ex: haⁿ-skaⁿ-ska (h̨skąska) - midnight

ex: pe o-skaⁿ-ska (p osk̨ska) - midsummer

ex: sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter, precedes pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska)

ex: pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar, precedes zhaⁿ-to ti-te (̨tto tttte)

ex: naⁿ-piu-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąpzskąsk), naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąp zoskąsk) - middle finger, second finger

ex: naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska o-pa-taⁿ (nąp zoskąsk opttą) - third finger, ring finger, next to the middle finger

ex: si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ (sippzosk̨ską) - middle or third toe

ex: si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe

ex: ski-ke o-skaⁿ-ska (skke osk̨ska) - one half pound, 1/2 lb

ex: o-ka-ki-xe hi o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi o-a-zha aⁿ-maⁿ (okkixe h osk̨ską h a ąm̨) - I usually dance, going around in the middle [JOD]

ex: o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi na-zhiⁿ tʰaⁿ (osk̨ską hi ną tʰą) - he stood in the middle, he was standing in the middle [JOD]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

middle finger

naⁿ-piu-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąpzskąsk) - middle finger [MS]

naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąp zoskąsk) - middle finger, second finger

cf. naⁿ-pe o-za (nąp oz), naⁿ-piu-za (nąpza) - finger; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half in length, middle; naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska o-pa-taⁿ (nąp zoskąsk opttą) - third finger, ring finger, next to the middle finger; naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be (noⁿbe) - hand [Omaha]; noⁿ-be (noⁿ-b) - the hand [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-pe (nǫǫp) - palm of the hand, fist [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-be (naⁿb) - hand, paw [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-za-be (ube) - fingers [Omaha]; sha-ge u-za-be (sh-ge u-a-be) - fingers [FL-Osage]; o-za-be (ozbe) - digits, fingers and toes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

middle toe

si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ (sippzosk̨ską) - middle or third toe

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half in length, middle; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe

Dhegiha: si-pa (sip) - toes, foot head [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa (i-p) - toes [FL-Osage]; si-pa u-za-be (i-p-u-a-be) - the toes [FL-Osage]; si-ʰpo (siiʰp) - toe [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

middle, half of that measure

miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure)

ex: miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

ex: miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-na (wiⁿdna) - half, half the amount of a collective substance [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-na-ska (wiⁿdnaska) - half size, half that size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-thoⁿ-ska (wiⁿdthoⁿska) - half, half the size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (wiⁿdtʰoⁿ) - half, half full, as a glass, pail, or barrel; half the length [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (wiⁿdetoⁿ) - half [Omaha]; mi i-doⁿ-be wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (mi idoⁿbe wiⁿdetoⁿ) - half hour [Omaha]; hoⁿ wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (hoⁿwiⁿde toⁿ) - midnight [Omaha]

 

middle, in the middle of

o-di-zaⁿ-ti (dizątt) - among, in the middle of

cf. o-di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - among; ti (-tti) - at, by, in, to

Dhegiha: u-thi-zaⁿ (u--zaⁿ) - the middle [JOD-Omaha]; u-thi-zaⁿ-a-di (u--zaⁿ-a-d) - at, by, in, or to the middle (of a place, etc., starting from elsewhere, not from here) [JOD-Omaha]; u-thi-zoⁿ (uthizoⁿ) - middle [Omaha]; u-thi-zoⁿ-ha (-thi-oⁿ-ha) - to become a member of some society or organization, to join [FL-Osage]; o-thi-zaⁿ (ozą), o-thi-zaⁿ-ha (iząha) - be among other in, be a member of, belong to, be a part of, be among [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-zaⁿ (oyzaⁿ) - to be many, to be a lot together [Kaw]; o-yu-zaⁿ-ha (yuzaⁿha) - to be among many [Kaw]

 

midnight

haⁿ skaⁿ-ska (h̨skąska) - midnight

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half, middle

Dhegiha: hoⁿ kʰoⁿ-ska (hⁿkʰoⁿska) - midnight [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ skoⁿ-ska (hⁿ koⁿ-ka) - midnight [FL-Osage]; haⁿ o-ʰka-ska (h̨ą oʰkska) - midnight [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ o-kaⁿ-ska (hⁿ okⁿska) - midnight [Kaw]

 

midsummer

pe o-skaⁿ-ska (p osk̨ska) - midsummer

cf. pe (pe), pe-taⁿ (pttą) - summer; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half in length, middle; ma-shte pe-taⁿ (mat pttą) - summertime, sun shining [MS]; pe-te-ti (petttti) - in summer [JOD]; pe-ta-ti (pttatti) - in the spring [JOD]; pe-ta-da-taⁿ (pttadttą) - springtime; pe-ta-de (pettde) - towards spring [FR, OM]

Dhegiha: me (me) - spring, the spring of the year [Omaha/Ponca]; be (be) - spring of the year [FL-Osage]; pe (pe) - springtime, spring [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: nu-ge (nug) - summer [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-ge (nuge) - Indian summer, summer [Omaha]; do-ge (do-g) - summer [FL-Osage]; to-ke (took) - summer [CQ-Osage]; do-ge (dog) - summer [Kaw]

 

midwinter

pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar, precedes zhaⁿ-to ti-te (̨tto tttte)

cf. pa-de (pde) - winter; pa-de taⁿ (pdettą) - wintertime, when it is winter; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length)

Dhegiha: ma-the (mthe) - winter, year [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-the (b-the) - winter [FL-Osage]; pa-the (pa) - winter [CQ-Osage]

 

might, effort

wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong, with an effort, all ones might a-wa-shkaⁿ (awką) - I, da-wa-shkaⁿ (dawką) - you

cf. wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort; wa-shkoⁿ-hi a-ki-di-taⁿ (wak̨hi kkiditt̨) - to pull hard on; wa-shkaⁿ-hi ka-xe (wak̨hi kγe) - strengthen, make strong; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wak̨ttąka) - powerful, all-powerful

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫ-n̨ wak̨ kd ǫ-n̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde (tt̨nį wak̨ kd) - running with all her might, she went home [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: e-ta hi ki taⁿ, a-ki-ta taⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ, a-kde maⁿ-te e-ti (tta h k tą, aktta tą tt̨nį wką, akd mątt ett) - when he reached there, I rose and running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-shkaⁿ (wa-ckⁿ) - an effort, attempt; to make an effort or attempt; to persevere; to be active, play a prominent part  [JOD-Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do ones best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

a-zho-wa-xti (owxti) - with a great effort, with all one's might [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa-xti (owxti) - with a great effort, with all her might [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa-xti so-te hi kde ke (owxti stte h kde k) - with great effort/with all her might, very fast/rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi (aow hi) - as fast as possible [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-niⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

 

might, perhaps, maybe

naⁿ-te (n̨tte), (nątt) - perhaps, maybe

naⁿ-te (naⁿ-tĕ́) - can [JOD]

ex: di-sniⁿ-te naⁿ-te pe-te koi (dsnįte n̨tte pptte koi) - might burn you, that fire [MS]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-ʰtse (thoⁿ-ṭse), thoⁿ-dse (thoⁿ-dse), thoⁿ-tse (thoⁿ-ts) - perhaps, suitable, appropriate, convenient [FL-Osage]; thaⁿ-ʰtse (ąąʰc) - possible, suitable, appropriate, could would, probable, look like, be at the point of happening [CQ-Osage]

 

migrate, go on hunting expedition

ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - migrate, go on hunting expedition

ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - hunting as a tribe [JOD]

cf. ka-xnaⁿ o-zhoⁿ-ke (kaxn̨ ǫke) - migratory route, hunting route

ex: ka-xnaⁿ hi ni-kʰa (kaxn̨ h nikʰ) - they were camping while hunting, they were on a hunting expedition [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-xthoⁿ (gaqthⁿ) - hunting party, a hunting party including all or most of a tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xthoⁿ-the (ga-xthⁿ-the) - to migrate, to go on a hunting expedition [FL-Osage]; ka-loⁿ-the (kaalⁿe) - travel, migrate, go on a hunting expedition [CQ-Osage]; ga-xlaⁿ (gaxlⁿ) - migrate, go an on extensive hunting expedition with many or all of the tribe; to go with a large party, each man taking his household [Kaw]

 

migratory route, hunting route

ka-xnaⁿ o-zhoⁿ-ke (kaxn̨ ǫke) - migratory route, hunting route

cf. ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - migrate, go on hunting expedition; ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - hunting as a tribe [JOD]; o-zhoⁿ-ke (ǫke) - road

Dhegiha: u-ga-xthoⁿ u-zhoⁿ-ge (ugqaⁿ ujáge) - road of the migratory pary [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xthoⁿ u-zhoⁿ-ge (ga-xthⁿ u-zhoⁿ-ge) - a migration or hunting trail [FL-Osage]; ga-xlaⁿ o-zhaⁿ-ge (gaxlⁿ ozhⁿge) - road traveled by hunters or migrants, the road traveled by the whole tribe, or by a part of it, when the people are going on the buffalo hunt [Kaw]

 

mile

ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de (mą ikąskde) - mile, lit. land measure

cf. ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.

Dhegiha: ma-zhaⁿ we-gaⁿ-ze wiⁿ (ma-jⁿ w-gaⁿ-ze wiⁿ) - a land measure, a mile [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ wa-tha-da-bi (moⁿ-zhⁿ wa-tha-da-bi) - a mile [FL-Osage]; we-ko-je (wkoje), ko-tse (koce) - mile [Kaw]

 

mile, Five Mile Creek

i-kaⁿ-ska-de sa-taⁿ wa-tʰi-shka (kąskde sattą watʰika) - Five Mile Creek, I.T.

cf. i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five; wa-tʰi-shka (watʰka) - creek

Dhegiha: wa-chʰi-shka (wachʰshka) - creek, stream [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-chi-shka (wachshka) - creek, brook [Omaha]; wa-ʰtsi-shka (wa-ṭsi-shka) - a brook, obsolete among the Osage, but still used by the Omaha [FL-Osage]; wa-chiⁿ-shka (wachⁿshka) - river, small, a stream or creek, archaic [Kaw]

 

mile, one mile

ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (mą ikąskde mįxti) - one mile

cf. ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one

Dhegiha: ma-zhaⁿ we-gaⁿ-ze wiⁿ (ma-jⁿ w-gaⁿ-ze wiⁿ) - a land measure, a mile [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ wa-tha-da-bi (moⁿ-zhⁿ wa-tha-da-bi) - a mile [FL-Osage]; we-ko-je (wkoje), ko-tse (koce) - mile [Kaw]

 

milk

ma-ze-ni (mazni) - milk, lit. breast water

ma-ze-ni (mazni) - milk [MS, AG, OM]

cf. ma-ze (maz) - breast; ni (ni) - water, liquid; ma-ze-ni wa-ske (mazni wske) - cheese, lit. milk cake; ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. milk grease

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk [MS]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

Dhegiha: ma-ze-ni (mazni) - milk, breast-water [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze-ni (moⁿe ni) - milk [Omaha]; ba-ze-ni (ba--ni) - milk, udder/breast water [FL-Osage]; pa-ze-ni (paaznii) - milk, lit. breast liquid [CQ-Osage]; ba-ze-ni (bazni) - milk, lit. breast liquid [Kaw]

 

milk bottle

ma-ze ni o-zhi (maz ni o) - milk bottle [MS]

cf. ma-ze ni (mazni) - milk; ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle [MS]; zi-hi o-zhi (zhi i) - jug; o-zhi (o) - put liquid into something, plant, fill, o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish

Dhegiha: ni u-zhi (niuzhi) - water vessel, canteen, water pitcher, puddle, water tank [Omaha]; o-zhi-ʰto-ho (-zhi-ṭo-ho) - a blue/green bottle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]; o-zhu to-ho (zhu tho) - bottle [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zhi (uzhi) - container, contain, luggage, packet, suitcase, load, gardener [Omaha]; u-zhi (uzh) - to fill with water, grain, or other bulky substance, to plant or sow grain or seed [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (u-zhi) - a hollow receptacle [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - put stuff in, plant stuff, pocket, bottle, container, vessel [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone, put in, plant or sow, put in, receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder, for pourable dry or liquid substances [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - put or pour something into something; put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]

 

milk, to milk an animal

ma-ze-ni di-sti-te (mazni disttte) - to milk an animal ma-ze-ni bdi-sti-te (mazni bdstitte) - I, ma-ze-ni ti-sti-te (mazni ttstitte) - you

cf. ma-ze-ni (mazni) - milk; di-sti-te (disttte) - pull out, pull open, to milk

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze-ni thi-zni-de (moⁿe ni thinide) - milk a cow [Omaha]; ba-ze-ni thi-stsu-e (ba--ni thi-stsu-e) - to milk [FL-Osage]; pa-ze-ni thi-stsu-e (paaznii iisce) - to milk [CQ-Osage]

 

mind

wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will power, will, mind, idea, volition

cf. wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi (wą ddai) - to lose patience; wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful; wa-zhiⁿ ska (wa-jĭⁿ́-skă) - masculine name White Disposition, Wise [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ (wa-jⁿ) - disposition, temper, mind [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - will power [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - own will, volition [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - will, mind, idea [CQ-Osage]

 

mine, my

wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine (alienable)

cf. di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, (alienable); di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, you alls (alienable); i-ta (itt) - his, hers, its (alienable); i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our (dual), the two of ours; oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta (̨ke wtta) - my dog

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-pe wi-ta (hǫp wtta) - my shoes [MS]

ex: koi ko-ta wi-ta (ki kkta wtta) - thats my friend [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta (tti wtta) - my house [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I dont want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde taⁿ, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tą, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

ex: ni-ka wi-ta (nkka wtta) - my husband [MS]

ex: ni-ka wi-ta  (nkka wtta) - my husband, my man [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: wa-xo wi-ta (waxʔ wtta) - my wife [MS]

ex: wi-ta i-pe-hiⁿ (wtta pehį) - my pillow [MS]

Dhegiha: wi-wi-ta (wiwta) - my, mine, my own [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-wi-ta (wwita) - mine, my own, clain [Omaha]; wi-ʰta (wṭa) - denoting possession, my or mine [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰta (wʰta) - mine, my [CQ-Osage]; wi-ta (wta) - my, mine, used w/alienable nouns [Kaw]

 

mine, not mine

wi-ta zhi (wtta i) - not mine, not my

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; zhi (i) - not, negative, nagation

ex: si-kde wi-ta zhi (sikd wtta i) - theyre not my tracks [MS]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ, wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨, wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

ex: wi-ta zhi i-pe-hiⁿ (wtta i pehį) - not my pillow [MS]

 

mire

ka-ta-te (katttte), (kattte) - mud, mire

ex: ka-ta-te de di-sha-i niⁿ (katttte de diai nį) - he became mired and was unable (failed) to go [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ni-tʰe ka-ta-te ka-xdo de (h̨nitʰ katttte kaxd d) - somehow he got through (pierced) the mud/mire [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-na-de (gande) - mire, stuck, to get stuck, said of horses or oxen [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-da-dse (ga-d-dse) - miry, boggy, marsh mire [FL-Osage]; ka-ta-tse (kataace) - stick, get stuck [CQ-Osage]; ga-da-je (gadje) - stuck in the mud, to get mired; mud, mire, muck, a slough, quicksand [Kaw]

 

mired, become mired

o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - become mired, stuck in mud

cf. ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand; kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy; di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]

ex: o-ka-kdo niⁿ (okkdo n̨) - he sank in the hole [JOD]

 

mirror

ni o-ki-kda-siⁿ (ni kkikdsʔį) - mirror [MS]

ni o-ki-kda-siⁿ (ni kkikdsʔį) - reflection from water, mirror

cf. ni (ni) - water; o-ka-siⁿ (oksʔį) - peep, peek at

Dhegiha: ni u-ki-gtha-siⁿ (ni--k͓i-g-siⁿ) - a looking glass, mirror, peeping into the water at himself [JOD-Omaha]; ni u-ki-gtha-siⁿ (niu kigthiⁿ) - mirror [Omaha]; ni u-ʰki-gtha-ʰtsiⁿ (ni--ḳi-gtha-ṭsiⁿ) - a mirror, lit., to peer at oneself in the water [FL-Osage]; ni o-ʰki-a-tsiⁿ (niiʰkiacʔį) - mirror, lit., to peer at oneself in the water [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-ki-la-tsiⁿ (nⁿkilatsiⁿ) - mirror, looking glass, this derives from ni-oⁿ-ki-la-stsiⁿ to look into the water at himself [Kaw]

 

misaligned

koiⁿ-xe (kįγe) - crooked, curved, misaligned

cf. ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

ex: e maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe o-pʰe koiⁿ-xe aniⁿ de naⁿ, i-ya-we (e mąttįkʰ opʰ kįγe an̨ d ną, iywe) - when he used the paddle, he went crooked (around and around), they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ku-wiⁿ-xe (kuwiⁿxe), gu-wiⁿ-xe (guwiⁿxe) - turn, turn around, around, spin (verb root) [Omaha]; ʰku-wiⁿ-xe (ḳu-wiⁿ-xe) - turn, around, whirl (verb root) [FL-Osage]; ʰkoiⁿ-xe (ʰkįγe) - turn, turn around (verb root) [CQ-Osage]; ko-miⁿ-ghe (kmiⁿghe), ko-mi-ghe (kmighe) - turn, around and around, revolve, spin (verb root) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-xe (wⁿxe) - turn, circle, around, go around (verb root) [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xe (wiⁿ-xe) - going in circles, around (verb root) - [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-xe (̨γe), wiⁿ-xe (wįγe) - turn, spin, whirl around (verb root) [CQ-Osage]; mi-ghe (mighe), miⁿ-ghe (miⁿghe) - around (verb root) [Kaw]

 

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