English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

U

 

U.S. President

i-ti-kaⁿ-da-we (ittkądwe) - President of the U.S., lit. they have him as a grandfather

i-ti-kaⁿ-da-we (ittkądwe) - President [MS]

cf. i-ti-kaⁿ-de (ittkąde) - to have as a grandfather; a-we (-awe), we (-we) - pluralizer for verbs and noun phrases; i-ti-kaⁿ (ittką), e-ti-kaⁿ (ettką) - grandfather, his or her grandfather

Dhegiha: i-ti-goⁿ-tha-i (itgoⁿtha) - he whom they have for a grandfather, the President of the U.S. [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-go a-bi wa-ʰtoⁿ-ga (ṭs-go a-bi wa-ṭoⁿ-ga) - grandfather to all, this is the Osage term for President of the United States [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-ko-a-pi (iʰckoap) - President of the United States, lit., grandfather of all [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-go-ya-be (icgoybe) - Washington, the President, wi-tsi-go-ya-be (wicgoybe) -  possessive form, lit., we have him as our grandfather [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ti-gaⁿ-the (i-t͓-gaⁿ-ĕ) - to have one for an i-ti-gaⁿ (i-t͓-gaⁿ) [JOD-Omaha]; i-tsi-go-ye (icgoye) - to have for a grandfather, to call someone i-tsi-go (icgo) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ti-gaⁿ (i-t͓-gaⁿ) - his or her grandfather or father-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-go (i-ṭs-go) - grandfather, the term ʰtsi-go (ṭsi-go) is applied to a fathers father, to his father, to a mothers father, to his brother, to a father-in-law, and to a wifes maternal uncle, it is also used as a term of reverence for God and for natural objects, such as the sun, the morning star, the dipper, Orion's belt, the pole star, and living objects whose mysterious habits inspire in the Osage mind a feeling of reverence for the Creator [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-ko (iʰcko) - his/her grandfather, his/her father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-go (icgo) - his or her grandfather, grandfather's father; great grandfather [Kaw]

 

udder

ma-ze (maz) - breast

Dhegiha: ma-ze (maz) - the female breasts; the udder of a cow, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿze) - breast [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿ-) - a womans breast [FL-Osage]; ba-ze (ba-) - a womans breast; udder [FL-Osage]; pa-ze (paaz) - breast, udder [CQ-Osage]; ba-ze (bazé) - breast [Kaw]

 

ugly

shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly aⁿ-shi-ke (ąke) - I, di-shi-ke (dike) - you, di-shi-ka-we (dikwe) - youall, shi-ke (ke) - he/she, wa-shi-ke (wike) - we, I and one other, wa-shi-ka-we (wikawe) - we

shi-ke (k) - bad [LQ, AG, OM]

shi-ke (shik) - bad [ASG]

Dhegiha: shi-ge (shge) - bad, evil, injury [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-a-zhi (pazhi) - not good, not well: bad, wrong [Omaha/Ponca]; pi-a-zhi (piazhi) - evil; bad; ugly; contaminate [Omaha]; pi-zhi (p-zhi) - bad, evil [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-zhi (ʰpii) - bad, awful, evil, wicked [CQ-Osage]; pi-zhi (pzhi) - be bad, no good [Kaw]

 

shi-ki-aⁿ taⁿ-ka (kkį tt̨ka) - ugly, be ugly aⁿ-shi-ki-aⁿ taⁿ-ka (ąkkią tt̨ka) - I, di-shi-ki-aⁿ taⁿ-ka (dikkią tt̨ka) - you

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to; aⁿ (ʔą), oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do, be, use, have; i-aⁿ (į), i-oⁿ (į), i-yaⁿ (iy̨) - with, by means of; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

o-la-zo-zhi (lazi) - ugly [OM]

o-ta-za-zhi (ttazi) - be wrong

cf. o-ta-za (ttaza) - pretty [OM]; o-ta-za (ttaza) - right, straight, honest; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation; o-ta-za ka-xe (ttaza kγe) - right, correct, act honestly

Dhegiha: u-ʰta-za-zhi (u-ṭ-a-zhi) - homely; homeliness; ugly [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za-zhi (oʰtzai) - ugly, homely, not pretty or handsome [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: o-ʰta-za (o-ṭa-a), u-ʰta-za (u-ṭ-a) - handsome; showy; stateliness; pretty; comely; pleasing to the sight; satisfying to the sense of beauty [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za (oʰtza) - good looking, handsome, beautiful, very pretty [CQ-Osage]

 

unable

di-sha-i (diai) - unable [JOD]

di-sha (diʔ) - fail, fall short bdi-sha (bdʔa) - I, ti-sha (ttʔa) - you, di-sha-wi (diʔawi), di-sha-i (diʔai) - they

cf. o-di-sha-ke (odʔake) - refuse, be unwilling, decline; da-sha-a (daʔ) - fail to finish eating

ex: ka-ta-te de di-sha-i niⁿ (katttte de diai nį) - he became mired and was unable (failed) to go [JOD]

ex: di-sha (diʔ) - he failed [JOD]

ex: shi-noⁿ di-sha (nǫ diʔ) - he failed again [JOD]

ex: ka-xe di-sha (kaγ diʔ) - he failed to make it [JOD]

ex: ha-te naⁿ di-sha i-ki-ba-haⁿ (hatʔ ną diʔ kibah̨) - he knew he would fail because of his sickness [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą waxʔ ik nį diʔ) - then the old woman gave out [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-naⁿ-pa niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą nąp͓ nį diʔ) - then the second one gave out [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-da-bniⁿ di-sha (etttʰą dabnį diʔ) - then the third one gave out [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti mi-zhi-ka za-ni hi i-ki-ta-i taⁿ di-sha-wi (kįttą tti mika zan hi kʔita tą diʔawi) - then, every single one of the girls there tried it and they failed [JOD]

ex: di-sha-i taⁿ za-ni di-sha-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ niⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki de-da-wi (diʔai tą zan diʔa tą wah̨nįk nįkʰ kikʔ dedwi) - they all failed, when they failed, they gave it back to the orphan [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-a (thi) - to be unable [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-a (thia) - fail, miss, unable, I could not, could not make it [Omaha]; thu-ʰtsa-ge (thu-ṭs-ge) - unable, inability to do, failure to to a thing, work left unfinished, to fail [FL-Osage]; thu-tsa-ke (uucʔke) - be unable to do, fail at [CQ-Osage]; yu-tsa-ge (yutsge) - unable to do, not to work, fail to act [Kaw]

 

unable to spare something

i-kʰiⁿ-te (kʰ̨tte) - be unable to spare something i-da-kʰiⁿ-te (idkʰįtt) - I, i-da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰįtte) - you

 

uncertainty

te te (tte tt) - such and such, expresses uncertainty, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te te (hǫn̨ttą tte tt)

cf. e-te te (tte tt) - perhaps, maybe; wi-e te-te (wettett) - I or whoever was meant

ex: a-te-zhe naⁿ, ta-taⁿ ke aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de e-te te, i-ye (ate ną, tttą ke ̨tee hid, mikkxʔe ̨tee hid tte tte, iy) - when I urinated, what is this urinating on me, I wonder if its the stars urinating on me, he said [JOD]

ex: koi ta-taⁿ te-zha-i ke, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zha-i ke e-te te (ki tttą tai k, mikkxʔe ąteai ke tte tte) - what is that urinating, I wonder if the stars are urinating one me [JOD]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we a, e-te-te (pahąw a, tte tte) - do youall know? I wonder [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰe-iⁿ-tʰe (tʰiⁿtʰe) - perhaps; probably; it may be; in spoke questions, should [Omaha/Ponca]; e-iⁿ-te (iⁿtʰe) - if, perhaps, maybe [Omaha/Ponca]

 

uncle, a mans fathers older brother

i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother, uncle iⁿ-ta-e naⁿ-haⁿ (įtttte nąh̨) - my, di-a-te naⁿ-haⁿ (ditte nąh̨) - your

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - his or her father; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; iⁿ-da naⁿ-hoⁿ (įdan̨hǫ) - older aunt

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

uncle, a mans fathers younger brother

i-da-te zhi-ka (idtteka), e-da-te zhi-ka (edtteka) - a mans fathers younger brother, uncle iⁿ-ta-te zhi-ka (įtttteka) - my, di-a-te zhi-ka (ditteka) - your

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - father; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; iⁿ-da zhiⁿ-ka (įdįka) - youngest aunt

Dhegiha: iⁿ-ʰta-tsi-zhį (įʰtciį) - my fathers brother, my paternal uncle [CQ-Osage]

 

uncle, a mans mothers brother

i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (ettke) - a mans mothers brother, uncle wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my; di-te-ke (dtteke) - your

Dhegiha: i-ne-gi (ingi) - uncle [Omaha]; i-dse-gi (i-ds-gi) - uncle on mothers side [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tse-ki (įcki) - his/her mothers brother, his/her maternal uncle, more precise than English his/her uncle [CQ-Osage]; i-je-gi (ijgi) - uncle, mans mothers brother [Kaw]

 

wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my uncle, my mothers brother

wi-te-ke (wtteke) - my uncle (mothers side) [MS, MR, OM]

ex: iⁿ-da, wi-te-ke, e-ta-we, di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd, wittke, ettwe, ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed, iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke (h̨, wttek) - yes, my uncle [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-ne-gi (wingi) - my uncle [Omaha]; wiⁿ-dse-gi (wiⁿ-dse-gi) - my uncle [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-tse-ki (w̨cki) - my mothers brother, my maternal uncle, more precise than English my uncle [CQ-Osage]; wi-je-gi (wijgi) - my uncle, my mothers brother [Kaw]

 

di-te-ke (dtteke) - your uncle, your mothers brother

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ, di-te-ke, wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da, i-ye naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨, dtteke, was niⁿkʰe tta tti d, iy ną ąn̨hos naⁿ) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to the black bear, your uncle [JOD]

ex: di-te-ke naⁿ-pe ni-ke hi, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (dtteke tttą n̨ppe nik hi, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - your uncle fears nothing at all, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! di-te-ke ta-ska pa-hi naⁿ-pe niⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (hǫ! dttke ttask ppah n̨ppe n̨, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - yes! your uncle fears the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-tse-ki (įcki) - your mothers brother, your maternal uncle [CQ-Osage]; yi-je-gi (yijgi) - your uncle, your mothers brother [Kaw]

 

i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (ettke) - his uncle, his mothers brother

Dhegiha: i-ne-gi (ingi) - uncle [Omaha]; i-dse-gi (i-ds-gi) - uncle on mothers side [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tse-ki (įcki) - his/her mothers brother, his/her maternal uncle, more precise than English his/her uncle [CQ-Osage]; i-je-gi (ijgi) - his uncle, his mothers brother [Kaw]

 

uncle, to have as an uncle

i-te-ke-de (ittkede) - to have as an uncle i-te-ke-a-de (ittkeade) - I, i-te-ke-da-de (ittkedade) - you

cf. i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (ettke) - a mans mothers brother, uncle

Dhegiha: i-je-gi-ye (ijégiye) - to have for an uncle, to call someone i-je-gi (ijégi) [Kaw]

 

uncomfortable, feel uncomfortable inside

ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (kįkika) - feel uncomfortable inside aⁿ-aⁿ-shki-ka (ą̨kika) - I, di-aⁿ-shki-ka (dįkika) - you

cf. i-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (ikįkik) - indigestion, gastric discomfort

ex: i-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka-na (kiąkik) - he felt uncomfortable inside on account of [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we o-kdo-xa maⁿ-tʰe hi-naⁿ i-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka-naⁿ, i-ya (dixi wadxow okdxʔa m̨tʰe h-ną kiąkik-ną, iy) - Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth felt very uncomfortable throughout its interior, on account of him (Rabbit) arriving inside, it is said [JOD]

 

uncover

ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth a-naⁿ-pe (nąpe) - I, da-naⁿ-pe (dnąpe) - you, oⁿ-ka-naⁿ-pa-we (ǫkn̨pawe) - we

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet

Dhegiha: ga-e-thoⁿ-be (gathoⁿbe) - to strike the ground with a hoe, making something appear which has been hid beneath the sod [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-be (thoⁿbe) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from water [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise; emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up a-wa-di-shta (wadita) - I, da-wa-di-shta (dwadita) - you

cf. wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand

Dhegiha: ga-wa-thi-shna (ga-w-i-c͓na) - to make visible by digging, as something buried under ground, snow, etc.; to blow off the sand or snow, causing what was covered to appear [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring it out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

na-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet a-na-wa-di-shta (an̨wadita) - I, da-na-wa-di-shta (dan̨wadita) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring it out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

under

maⁿ-tʰe (m̨tʰe) - inside, in, within, under

ex: ni maⁿ-tʰe (n mątʰ) - under the water

ex: maⁿ-tʰe wa-tʰe (m̨tʰe watʰ) - slip, undergarment

ex: maⁿ-tʰa-ha (mątʰha) - into, down into (as water)

ex: ki-ha-ti ti maⁿ-tʰe kʰi-we (kihtti tt m̨tʰe kʰwe) - down below within the lodge, they arrived there [JOD]

ex: ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte m̨tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (m̨tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-tʰe (mⁿ-te) - in, into, within [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-te (moⁿte) - inside [Omaha]; moⁿ-tse (mⁿ-tse) - in the deepest of secret places [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe (mącʰ) - in the center of something (centrally located), within, underneath [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-che (mⁿche) - underneath, within [Kaw]

 

under jaw

da-ka (dka) - jaw, the under jaw

cf. da-ka wa-hi (dka whi) - jawbone; da-ka wa-hi (dka whi) - chin [MS]; da-ka-hiⁿ (dakhį) - whiskers, sideburns

 

under the arms, armpit

to-si (tos) - under the arms [JOD]

to-si (tos) - armpit

ex: to-si a o-doⁿ-de (tos a od̨de) - under the arms/he locked arms [JOD]

ex: to-si a o-doⁿ-de a-taⁿ ti-a-ti a-niⁿ kdi (tos a od̨de attą ttitti an̨ kdi) - he took hold of her under the arms and brought her back to the lodge [JOD]

Dhegiha: nu-si (nus) - the arm-pits [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-si (nu) - armpit [Omaha]; do-siu (do-i) - armpit [FL-Osage]; do-su (dos) - armpits [Kaw]

 

under, beneath a solid object

o-di-xda (odxda) - under, beneath a solid object

Dhegiha: u-thu-xtha-ha (u-th-xtha-ha) - underneath, downward [FL-Osage]; o-thu-lu-ha (oluha) - underneath, beneath, below, under [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-xla (oyxla) - undersomething, underneath [Kaw]

 

under, put under belt

mi-zhi (mi) - put plural objects under belt, tuck in mi-a-zhi (mii) - I, mi-da-zhi (mdai) - you

cf. a-zhi (i) - put small objects onto something that serves as a platform; o-zhi (o) - put collection into something, plant, fill

Dhegiha: mi-zhi (mzhi) - to put a number of small things, not his, in his belt [Omaha/Ponca]

 

under, slip from under

bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under pi-knoⁿ-da (ppknǫda) - I, shpi-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: bi-gthoⁿ-tha (bigthⁿtha) - to press down on an object, which suddenly turns aside, going beyond the effect of the pressure [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-gthoⁿ-tha (b-gthoⁿ-tha) - to miss hold [FL-Osage]

 

undercut by striking or chopping

ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping a-shoⁿ-da-da (ǫdada) - I, da-shoⁿ-da-da (dǫdada) - you, oⁿ-ka-shoⁿ-da-da (ǫkǫdada) we dual, I and one other

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

undercut, undermine

pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine pa-a-shoⁿ-da-da (pądad) - I, pa-da-shoⁿ-da-da (pdądad) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

undergarment, slip

maⁿ-tʰe wa-tʰe (m̨tʰe watʰ) - slip, undergarment

cf. maⁿ-tʰe (m̨tʰe) - inside, in, within, under; wa-tʰe (watʰ) - skirt, long skirt, dress

Dhegiha: wa-te moⁿ-te (wat moⁿte) - ladies slip; under skirt [Omaha]; wa-te maⁿ-te (wa-t-maⁿ-te) - a womans undergarment or chemise [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-te (mⁿ-te) - in, into, within [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-te (moⁿte) - inside [Omaha]; moⁿ-tse (mⁿ-tse) - in the deepest of secret places [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe (mącʰ) - in the center of something (centrally located), within, underneath [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-che (mⁿche) - underneath, within [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-te (wat) - skirt, womans dress [Omaha]; wa-te (wa-t) - an Indian womans skirt [JOD-Omaha]; wa-tse (wa-ts) - skirt, dress [FL-Osage]; wa-tsʰe (wacʰe) - skirt with ribbon work or other decorations [CQ-Osage]; wa-che (wach) - dress, womans skirt [Kaw]

 

undermine

da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine

cf. shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine pa-a-shoⁿ-da-da (pądad) - I, pa-da-shoⁿ-da-da (pdądad) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

understand

i-ba-haⁿ (bahą), i-ba-hoⁿ (bahǫ) - know how, recognize, know i-pa-haⁿ (ppahą) - I, i-shpa-haⁿ (pahą) - you, i-shpa-haⁿ-we (pahąw) - youall, i-ba-haⁿ-wi (bahąw) - they, oⁿ-noⁿ-ba-haⁿ-we (ǫnǫbahąwe) - we

ex: i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (zan pahǫ nkʰe) - you all that understand [AG]

ex: i-ba-hoⁿ (bahǫ) - knew him; recognized him [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti hi-naⁿ, di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we i-ba-hoⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke tti h-ną, dixi wadxow bahǫ n̨, iy) - when Rabbit arrived there, Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth knew him, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-ba-hoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi wadxow nįkʰ mat̨ke bahǫ-tą dxwa ną, iy) - as the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth knew the Rabbit, he refused to swallow him, it is said [JOD]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we (pahąw) - you (plural) know it [JOD]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we a, e-te-te (pahąw a, tte tte) - do youall know? I wonder. [JOD]

ex: i-ba-haⁿ-wi (bahaⁿw) - they knew it [JOD]

ex: tʰi niⁿ i-ba-haⁿ-wi (tʰi n̨ bahaⁿw) - they knew he was coming [JOD]

ex: i-ba-haⁿ-zhi (bahą) - to not know, to not know how, to not recognize

ex: i-pa-haⁿ-zhi miⁿ-kʰe (ppahą mįkʰ) - I do not know/I who sit [JOD]

ex: ha-ki i-da-we i-pa-haⁿ-zhi miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (hak idwe ppahą mįkʰ, iy) - I dont know where they have gone, she said [JOD]

ex: i-ba-haⁿ kʰi-de (bahąkʰde) - inform, cause to know

ex: i-ki-ba-haⁿ (kibahⁿ) - to know about oneself

ex: ha-te naⁿ di-sha i-ki-ba-haⁿ (hatʔ ną diʔ kibah̨) - he knew he would fail because of his sickness [JOD]

ex: i-ki-ba-haⁿwi (kibahąw) - they knew it for themselves [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-ba-hoⁿ (bahoⁿ) - know, to know a person or thing [Omaha/Ponca]; i-pa-hoⁿ (pahoⁿ) - know how, to know how to do something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ba-hoⁿ (ibahoⁿ) - know [Omaha]; i-ba-hoⁿ (-ba-hoⁿ) - to know [FL-Osage]; i-pa-hoⁿ (pahǫ) - know, understand, know as a person, be acquainted with, recognize, know someone as being a certain way or a certain type of person, guess [CQ-Osage]; i-ba-hoⁿ (bahoⁿ) - to know, understand [Kaw]

 

pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) - do well, expresses precocity pi-moⁿ (ppmǫ) - I, shpi-zhoⁿ (pǫ) - you

pi-aⁿ (ppį) - know how, knew how [JOD]

pi-naⁿ (ppną) - do well at something precociously

Dhegiha: ʰpi-oⁿ (p̣i-ⁿ) - expert, skillful [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-oⁿ (ʰpǫ) - know how to do something; learn; be skilled at or expert in [CQ-Osage]; i-e pi-oⁿ (e poⁿ) - talk well, correctly [Kaw]

 

undertake something

o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something, put oneself in o-a-ki-knaⁿ (okkikną) - I, o-da-ki-knaⁿ (odkkikną) - you

cf. o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc.

ex: shi-ke o-ki-knaⁿ (ik okkkną) - get into trouble, to get into trouble

Dhegiha: u-gi-gthaⁿ (u-g-gaⁿ) - to put his book, paper, etc., into his pocket; to put a cv. ob., belonging to himself, into a barrel or cv. box [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-gthoⁿ (u-g-gthoⁿ) - to put something in a pile [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-laⁿ (ʰkilą) - that which one puts oneself into, clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ), o-ʰki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-laⁿ (oglaⁿ) - put something in a container; put a sitting object into something [Kaw]

 

undo with the mouth or teeth

da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-kda (bakd), naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: tha-gtha (thagth) - to get the thong off his jaw; said of a horse, when no bit is used, and a thong is passed through his mouth [Omaha/Ponca]

 

undo, unravel, pull apart

di-she (di) - undo, unravel, pull apart bdi-she (bde) - I, ti-she (tte) - you

Dhegiha: thi-she-thoⁿ (thishethoⁿ) - disconnect; destroy; destruction; wreck; erase; cancel [Omaha]; thi-she-thoⁿ thi-shtoⁿ (thishethoⁿ thishtoⁿ) - disconnected; abolished [Omaha]; wa-xiⁿ-xa thi-she-thoⁿ (waxiⁿxa thishethoⁿ) - divorce [Omaha]

 

undo, untie, pull loose

di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose bdi-kda (bdkda) - I, ti-kda (ttkda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ba-kda (bakd), naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: thi-gtha (thigth) - to unbraid or unravel with the hand; to undo a string by pulling it [Omaha/Ponca];  thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - unravel, unbraid, separate with the hand; straighten coiled wire by pulling; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

 

undone, come undone

naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace or moccasin string a-naⁿ-kda (an̨kda) - I, da-naⁿ-kda (dan̨kda) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd), ba-kda (bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push or blow loose; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ka-kda (kakd) - sway

Dhegiha: naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿláya) - to come undone, as a moccasin string; straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ki-noⁿ-gtha (kinⁿgtha) - of noⁿgtha; to come undone of its own accord, as a cord tied in a knot [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gth-tha) - untie; to unravel; to unbraid or untie [FL-Osage]; la-ya (layá) - opened out, untied, uncoiled, undone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-gtha (bagth) - untie, unmake, loosen, to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: ga-gtha (gagth) - said of a horse carrying a pack: as he walks the motion causes the thongs to come undone [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-gtha (ga-gth) - untangle; to make ones hair become undone by accident [FL-Osage]; ga-la-ya (galáya) - comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids; cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire; wind or other natural force to cause an object to fall and spread out (coming undone) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha (thigth) - to unbraid or unravel with the hand; to undo a string by pulling it [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yuláya) - unravel, unbraid, separate with the hand; straighten coiled wire by pulling; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand

 [Kaw]

 

unearth

ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth a-naⁿ-pe (nąpe) - I, da-naⁿ-pe (dnąpe) - you, oⁿ-ka-naⁿ-pa-we (ǫkn̨pawe) - we

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet

Dhegiha: ga-e-thoⁿ-be (gathoⁿbe) - to strike the ground with a hoe, making something appear which has been hid beneath the sod [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-be (thoⁿbe) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from water [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise; emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

ungainly, unsteady

i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - unsteady, ungainly

i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - suddenly and often [JOD]

ex: zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną) - he leaped often, or each time [JOD]

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance

ex: zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną) - leaping at intervals [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨ ną, i-ya) - Rabbit jumped about continually, it is said [JOD]

 

unhappy

ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented aⁿ-da-kni-zhi (̨dakni) - I, di-dkni-zhi (ddakni) - you

cf. ki-da-kni (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation; da-kni (dkni), da-kniⁿ (dknį) - archaic word for good, used primarily in Quapaw personal names

Dhegiha: gi-tha-gthiⁿ (g-tha-gthiⁿ) - happy, pleased [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-liⁿ (kilį) - be glad, feel good, also used as an equivalent of thank you, like, enjoy, be happy about, be pleased with [CQ-Osage]; gi-ya-le (gyale) - be happy [Kaw]

 

wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased

cf. wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ) and the Kansas ya-liⁿ(yaliⁿ). Used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid, to be pleased [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį) - be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, good, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good or well-behaved person, or good food [Kaw]

 

unit of measure

si-toⁿ-we (sttǫwe) - one foot, unit of measure

cf. si (si) - foot; i-toⁿ-we (ttǫwe), i-tʰoⁿ-we (tʰǫwe) - bushel, measure for solids

 

unmarried boy

iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-no (įtt̨no), iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na (įtʰ̨na) - bachelor, unmarried boy

iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na (įtʰ̨na) - young man; youth; boy, youth [JOD]

ex: ni-ka iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na ke wa-pe-da-i naⁿ (nkka įtʰ̨na k wappda-i n̨) - the young men wore shawls [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ wi-a-de pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, įtʰ̨na m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną wide pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the young unmarried men (able to take wives) whom I have seen carrying quivers on their backs, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

unmarried female

mi zhi-ka (mika) - young girl, unmarried female

mi zhi-ka (miik) - girl [JOD]

cf. mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

ex: mi-zhi-ka ho-taⁿ (miik httą) - girl/good [JOD]

ex: mi zhiⁿ-ka ho-toⁿ (mih-jinka-hutton) - a pretty girl (fille une jolie) [GI]

ex: mi-zhi-ka o-zha (mika o) - girls dancing, a constellation with a circle of stars with one in the middle

ex: te mi zhi-ka (tte m ka) - Buffalo Girl, Little Buffalo Girl, female name [MR]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka (ąmik) - me large girl [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka ke (miik ke) - the girls [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke mi-zhi-ka ke xa-ke a-pa (kak ke miik ke γak pa) - those girls were crying [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke (mika i ke) - the other girls [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka za-ni hi (mika zan hi) - all the girls, every single one of the girls [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti mi-zhi-ka za-ni hi i-ki-ta-i taⁿ di-sha-wi (kįttą tti mika zan hi kʔita tą diʔawi) - then, every single one of the girls there tried it and they failed [JOD]

Dhegiha: miⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (mⁿzhiⁿga) - girl [Omaha/Ponca]; mi zhiⁿ-ga (mzhiⁿga) - girl [Omaha]

 

unmarried woman

wa-di-xa-zhi (wdiγi) - unmarried woman; virgin

wa-di-xa-zhi hi (wdiγi h) - unmarried woman, spinster

cf. a-di-xe (diγe) - marry a man, take a man for a husband

Dhegiha: wa-thi-xe a-zhi (wathixe azhi) - unmarried [Omaha]; wa-thi-xa ba-zhi (wixa-baj) - had not married [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-xa-zhi (w-thi-xa-zhi) - a woman not yet married; a maiden [FL-Osage]; wa-thu-xa-zhi (wuγai) - female who has not married; virgin [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-gha-zhi (wáyughazhi) - maiden, unmarried woman [Kaw]

 

unravel, undo, pull apart

di-she (di) - undo, unravel, pull apart bdi-she (bde) - I, ti-she (tte) - you

Dhegiha: thi-she-thoⁿ (thishethoⁿ) - disconnect; destroy; destruction; wreck; erase; cancel [Omaha]; thi-she-thoⁿ thi-shtoⁿ (thishethoⁿ thishtoⁿ) - disconnected; abolished [Omaha]; wa-xiⁿ-xa thi-she-thoⁿ (waxiⁿxa thishethoⁿ) - divorce [Omaha]

 

unripe, raw, green

sa-ka (sakk) - raw, green, unripe

Dhegiha: sa-kʰa (skʰa) - raw, uncooked, green, unripe; said of plums, choke cherries, or grapes when they are hard [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-ka (ska) - raw, uncooked, as food; green unripe [JOD-Omaha]; sa-ʰka (-ḳa) - raw, uncooked [FL-Osage]; sa-kaⁿ (skaⁿ) - something raw [Kaw]

 

unsteady by burning

ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning, said of a fire, not a personal act

cf. ta (t-) - by extreme temperature; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]

 

unsteady, insecure

shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure

cf. di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth

ex: ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at

ex: bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing

ex: da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine

ex: di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance

ex: ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping

ex: naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose

ex: pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine

ex: po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at

ex: ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

ex: naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

unsteady, make unsteady by pressing

bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing pi-shoⁿ-da-da (ppǫdada) - I, shpi-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdada) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

unsteady, ungainly

i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - unsteady, ungainly

i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - suddenly and often [JOD]

ex: zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną) - he leaped often, or each time [JOD]

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance

ex: zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną) - leaping at intervals [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨ ną, i-ya) - Rabbit jumped about continually, it is said [JOD]

 

unsuccessful by shooting or punching

po-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - to be unsuccessful shooting or punching po-a-iⁿ-zhi (pąi) - I, po-da-iⁿ-zhi (pdąi) - you, po-oⁿ-iⁿ-zha-we (pǫįawe) - we

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching; zhi (-i) - negative, not; ba-iⁿ-zhi (bąi) - fail or miss pushing at something; bi-iⁿ-zhi (bįi) - fail/miss pressing/blowing; da-iⁿ-zhi (dąi) - fail using the mouth, voice; di-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - fail in pulling, rowing, etc.; ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking; naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ną̨i) - fail in walking or with machine; pa-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - fail in cutting or sawing; ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough

Dhegiha: bo-iⁿ-ba-zhe (biⁿbazhe) - botch in shooting, blowing [Kaw]

 

unsuccessful, be disappointed

o-naⁿ-zhi (nąi) - unsuccessful, be disappointed oⁿ-naⁿ-zhi (̨nąi), o-aⁿ-naⁿ-zhi (ąnąi) - I, o-di-naⁿ-zhi (dinąi) - you

 

untie, loosen, open

di-shke (dik) - untie, loosen, open bdi-shke (bdke) - I, ti-shke (ttke) - you

Dhegiha: thi-shke (thishke) - untie [Omaha]; thi-shke (thi-shke) - to untie a knot [FL-Osage]; yu-shke (yushk) - untie something, as a knot [Kaw]

 

untie, undo, pull loose

di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose bdi-kda (bdkda) - I, ti-kda (ttkda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ba-kda (bakd), naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: thi-gtha (thigth) - to unbraid or unravel with the hand; to undo a string by pulling it [Omaha/Ponca];  thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - unravel, unbraid, separate with the hand; straighten coiled wire by pulling; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

 

until

shoⁿ-hi (̨hi) - till, until [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

 

until, boiled until done

wa-ti-te (wattte) - mush, boiled until done

cf. ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked; ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something

Dhegiha: wa-niⁿ-de (wanⁿde) - mush [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-niⁿ-de (waniⁿde) - mush [Omaha]; wa-dsu-dse (wa-dsu-dse) - mush [FL-Osage]; wa-ju-je (wajje) - mush, corn mush; rice; can also refer to corn; gravy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-de (nⁿ-de) - cooked till done, as food; burnt or frozen, as parts of the body or the face, by exposure to heat or cold; blistered, as by a mustard plaster or fly blister [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ-de (niⁿde) - ripe; cooked [Omaha]; dsiu-dse (dsi-dse), dsu-dse (ds-dse) - cooked well done; mellow; softened with ripeness; ripe; mature; as applied to fruit or grain [FL-Osage]; tsu-tse (cuce) - done, cooked, ripe, mellow, mature, cook well done [CQ-Osage]; ju-je (jje) - cooked, done, as when fully cooked; burned, blistered [Kaw]; niⁿ-je (níⁿje) - cooked [Kaw]

 

unwilling, refuse, decline, lazy

o-di-sha-ke (odʔake) - refuse, be unwilling, decline o-bdi-sha-ke (obdʔake) - I, o-ti-sha-ke (ottsʔake) - you

ex: o-di-sha-ke hi (odʔake hi) - very lazy [MS]

ex: o-bdi-sha-ke (obdʔake) - I am unwilling [JOD]

ex: o-bdi-sha-ke! di-e kiⁿ e-ka! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (obdʔake! de kʔ̨ ek! iy iy mat̨ke) - I refuse! You carry it yourself! it is said Rabbit said.

ex: o-di-sha-ke (od횒ak) - he refused [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-sha-ge (uthshage) - to be unwilling, to refuse [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thu-ʰtsa-ge (u-th-ṭsa-ge) - anything that becomes a nuisance; offensive; vexatious or annoying; not willing; lazy; idle; one who shirks, avoids work, evades responsibility [FL-Osage]; u-thi-sha-ge (u-th-sha-ge) - lazy man, an idler [FL-Osage]; o-thu-tsa-ke (oucʔake) - laziness, lazy, be or become tired or weary of [CQ-Osage]; o-thu-tsa-ke (uucʔake) - be lazy [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-tsa-ge (yutsage) - be unwilling, refuse, deny, lazy [Kaw]

 

up on a hill

a-ni a-shi (ni i) - up on a hill [MS]

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on, over

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ni a-shi tʰaⁿ, i-bniⁿ-aⁿ (̨keaknį ni i tʰ̨, bnį̨) - I think the horse is standing on the hill

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

 

up, bristle up

di-sha-ka (diakʔ) - bristle up, cause by handling bdi-sha-ka (bdakʔa) - I, ti-sha-ka (ttakʔa) - you

cf. ki-kdi-sha-ka (kkikdakʔa) - make ones hair stand on end

 

up, broken up

xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

cf. di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash; ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle; ma-xpi ka-xde-xde (maxp kaxdxde) - small puffy clouds; ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object

Dhegiha: thi-xthe-xthe-ge (thi-xth-xthe-ge) - to shatter glass or other brittle substances with the hand [FL-Osage]; thu-le-ke (uulke) - cause to break, cause to shatter, break or shatter with the hands (e.g., a dish, an egg, a light bulb, a window) [CQ-Osage]; yu-xle-ge (yuxlge) - crack something like an egg [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-xthe-xthe-ge (ga-xth-xthe-ge) - to crack into small pieces [FL-Osage]; ga-xthe-ge (ga-xth-ge) - to crack something brittle like glass, china, or stone [FL-Osage]; ka-le-ke (kaalke) - shatter or break (eg., glass), shatter by striking or sudden movement, fracture (e.g., ones skull) [CQ-Osage]; ga-xle-ge (gaxlge) - smash or break a solid, hard object, such as an egg, glass, ice, stone, wood, or bone [Kaw]

 

up, burn up

ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtoⁿ-he (ga-ṭoⁿ-he) - to pound into fine powder, as seeds for perfume [FL-Osage]; ga-taⁿ-haⁿ (gatáⁿhaⁿ) - mash and break something up, pound up [Kaw]

 

up, clean up

di-ki-za (dikkza) - clean up, put things away bdi-ki-za (bdkkiza) - I, ti-ki-za (ttkkiza) - you

di-ki-ki-za (dikkkkiza) - clean up, put house in order bdi-ki-ki-za (bdkkikkza) - I, ti-ki-ki-za (ttkkikkza) - you

cf. ba-ki-ki-za (bakkkkiza) - push through a crowd; wa-ki-za (wakkza) - space, bare spot

Dhegiha: thi-kʰi-za (thikʰza) - to make his way through a lodge or house filled with people; to put the lodge in order by clearing away the goods, etc., putting them in their right places [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: ki-za (kza) - open forest, trees without undergrowth, including tall grass, sunflowers, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-ki-za (kkiza) - clear patches, places here and there where one can see distant things, as the fog breaks away [Omaha/Ponca]

 

up, come up

do-tʰi tʰe (dtʰi tʰ) - it came up or forth, to come up [JOD]

cf. do (d) - here, proximal prefix of relative proximity; on this side, on the near side; tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; collective/inanimate; past, completive aspect

ex: e-koⁿ-xti do-tʰi tʰe (ek̨xti dtʰi tʰ) - just so/it came up [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ do-tʰi tʰe ka-xe, ka-xe (ek̨ dtʰi tʰ kaγ, kγe) - that sort, so/to come up/made/he made it [JOD]

Dhegiha: yo-chi (yochí) - arrive here (visible) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: du-a (dua) - on this side of [JOD-Omaha]; yo (yo) - here, proximal prefix of relative proximity; on this side, on the near side [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ti (t) - to have come hither, had come [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - to come, has come [FL-Osage]; tsʰi (cʰ), a-tsʰi (acʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place, initial a is sometimes omitted in 3rd person forms and normally omitted in imoeratives [CQ-Osage]; chi (chi) - arrive over here; arrive at a place not ones home for the first time [Kaw]

 

do-tʰi tʰe ka-ha (dtʰi tʰ kah), do-tʰi tʰe-ka-ka (dtʰi tʰkah) - to come up or forth [JOD]

cf. do (d) - here, proximal prefix of relative proximity; on this side, on the near side; tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; collective/inanimate; past, completive aspect; ka-ha (kah) - on, upon; float; te-ka (ttka) - new; ha (ha) - another

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-naⁿ-bde do-tʰi tʰe-ka-ka ka-xe (kįttą mat̨ke wan̨bde dtʰi tʰkah kγe) - then/rabbit/food/to come up/made it [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka o-hoⁿ -we sa-wa ti-te we-kdi o-zhi-xti do-tʰi tʰe-ka-ka (skka tt̨ka oh̨ we saw titt wkdi oxti dtʰi tʰkah) - turkey/boiled/dried corn/cooked till done/grease/much put in it/come up [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ do-tʰi tʰe-ka-ka ka-xe (ek̨ dtʰi tʰekaha kγe) - so/to come up or forth/he made it [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ do-tʰi tʰe ka-ka ka-xe (ną dtʰi tʰe-kha kγe) - again/to come up or forth/he made it [JOD]

 

o-do-hi (odhi) - become or come up; changed into, turned into [JOD]

cf. o-do (od) - used to form instrumental of verbs in o; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own

ex: wa-di-si, e-zhi o-do-hi pa-xe te (wadis, i odhi ppγe tte) - throw it out, I will come up with something different [JOD]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe (wsʔa odhi kʰe) - she changed into a serpent [JOD]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe i-ba-haⁿ (wsʔa odhi kʰe bahą) - he knew that she was changed into a serpent [JOD]

ex: e-hoⁿ kʰe we-sa o-do-hi kʰe taⁿ-ha naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (eh̨ kʰe wesʔa odhi kʰe t̨ha n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - because her mother had been changed into a serpent, she sat crying in fear [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-xo wi-ta we-sa o-do-hi naⁿ ni-ti de (waxʔ wtta wsʔa odhi ną ntti d) - when my wife was turned into a serpent she went into the water [JOD]

ex: wa-hi-ka zhi-ka ta-sha-knaⁿ o-do-hi ka-xe (wahkka ka takn̨ odhi kxe) - he made her change into into a small pin [JOD]

ex: o-do-hi-ki-de (odhikkid) - he caused her to change into [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xo o-do-hi-ki-de (nkkaka waxʔ odhikkid) - he made (caused her) to change into a female human being [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-hi (uh) - place of reaching [JOD-Omaha]; u-hi (u-h) - to reach and to enter [FL-Osage]; o-hi (oh) - arrive at a place [Kaw]

 

up, cover up

a-ka-naⁿ-da (kan̨da) - hide something by covering it up with blowing dust, snow, shoveled dirt, etc. a-a-ka-naⁿ-da (akan̨da) - I, a-da-ka-naⁿ-da (dakan̨da) - you

Dhegiha: a-ga-naⁿ-tha (-ga-naⁿ́-a) - to blow dust or snow over an object and conceal it, as wood, footprints, etc.; to hoe the ground, throwing the displaced soil over an object hiding it from view [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-noⁿ-ya (ganoⁿya) - fill up, knock a cover onto, conceal a hole by hitting the ground with a stick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-noⁿ-tha (-noⁿ-tha) - to overshadow; to obscure [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-ya (ánoⁿya) - overwhelm, obscure, cover [Kaw]

 

i-ka-bnaⁿ (kabną) - lid, covered up [MS]

i-ka-bnaⁿ (kabną) - lid, covered

 

up, cut up

ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up pa-to-we (ppttowe) - I, shpa-to-we (pttowe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - plow; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: ma-tu-be (mtube) - to cut tolerably fine with a knife, as meat or tobacco [Omaha/Ponca]; ma-tu-be (ma tube) - mutilate [Omaha]; ba-ʰto-be (b-ṭo-be) - to slice; to cut up; chopped fine [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ba-tu-be (batbe) - to make fine by pounding, as corn, buffalo meat, or pop-corn [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-to-be (batóbe) - grind, pound fine [Kaw]

 

pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco pa-a-taⁿ-ha (pattąha) - I, pa-da-taⁿ-ha (pdattąha) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtoⁿ-he (ga-ṭoⁿ-he) - to pound into fine powder, as seeds for perfume [FL-Osage]; ga-taⁿ-haⁿ (gatáⁿhaⁿ) - mash and break something up, pound up [Kaw]

 

pa-te (ptte) - butcher, to carve, cut up, dissect a dead body a-pa-te (aptte) - I, da-pa-te (daptte) - you

ex: pa-te (ptte) - she cut it up (the dead body) [JOD]

ex: pa-te taⁿ kiⁿ kde, i-ya (ptte tą kʔį kd, iy) - when she butchered it (the dead body), she packed it on her back, and carried it home, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-de (pde) - to carve, cut up, dissect a dead body; to scalp a person [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpa-ʰtse (p-ṭse), ʰpa-dse (p-dse) - to butcher, to dissect; surgical (operation) [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-tse (ʰpce) - butcher, dissect, operate on, perform surgery on, surgery [CQ-Osage]; pa-je (pje) - butcher an animal, to gut as fish [Kaw]

 

up, dry up

ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes

ex: ta-xe aⁿ-da-ki-de (txe ądkid) - you barbeque for me [JOD]

ex: ta-xe aⁿ-ki-da (txe ąkid) - barbeque thou for me! [JOD]

 

ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil pa-ta-xe (ppttaxe) - I, shpa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

 

bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry pi-ta-xe (ppttaxe) - I, shpi-ta-xe (pttaxe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

 

da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ta-xe (txe) - dead from heat or cold, dried up

 

di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot bdi-ta-xe (bdttaxe) - I, ti-ta-xe (ttttaxe) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

 

pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk pa-a-ta-xe (pattaxe) - I, pa-da-ta-xe (pdattaxe) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

 

po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching po-a-ta-xe (pattaxe) - I, po-da-ta-xe (pdattaxe) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

 

ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

 

up, flew up

ki-ka-ze (kikze) - it flew up on her, blow upon one and cover [JOD]

ex: o-de-a-a-ze (deaze) - cave in

ex: wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi (watʰ ̨kaze h) - skirt/it flew up on me/very [JOD]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ̨kaze h k̨ h ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰe naⁿ ki-ka-ze kaⁿ-kʰe (watʰ ną kikze ką-kʰ) - skirt/only/it flew up on her/she lay for a while (or, doing nothing) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ga-a-ze (gaze) - said of the wind blowing a plank; off one place or object and on another; ʰtsi u-ʰki-a-ze (ṭsi -ḳi-a-e) - house covering [FL-Osage]; ga-wa-ze (gawáze) - wind to blow off a cover, such as a plank, to expose what is beneath it [Kaw]

 

up, gather up

di-xaⁿ (diγ̨), di-xoⁿ (diγ̨) - gather up in the hands bdi-xaⁿ (bdγą) - I, ti-xaⁿ (ttγą) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xoⁿ (thixⁿ) - to take up a handful of wheat, coffee, small nuts, berries, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xoⁿ-xoⁿ (thixⁿxoⁿ) - to gather up wheat, etc., by handfuls [Omaha/Ponca]

 

up, get up

ki-ta (ktta), gi-ta (gtta) - arise, get up a-ki-ta (aktta) - I, da-ki-ta (daktta) - you, ki-ta (kitt) - he/she

ki-ta (ktta) - rise, rising, gets up, getting up, comes, coming, coming up [JOD]

cf. ki (ki) - be returning to here; kʰi (kʰi) - arrive back at ones own; ta (tta) - to, at, toward; ki-we (kiw) - come, come in (invitation)

ex: a-ki-ta (aktta) - I rise [JOD]

ex: e-ta hi ki taⁿ, a-ki-ta taⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ, a-kde maⁿ-te e-ti (tta h k tą, aktta tą tt̨nį wką, akd mątt ett) - when he reached there, I rose and running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: a-gi-ta (gtta) - I go home (Im getting up) [AG]

ex: wi-e a-gi-ta (we gtta) - Im getting up [AG]

ex: ki-ta (kitt) - she arose [JOD]

ex: ki-ta (kitt), gi-ta (gtta) - get up! [MS, AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te ni-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

ex: haⁿ-ba ki-ta (h̨ba ktta) - female name, Rises Early; Gets Up Early

ex: kde-taⁿ ki-ta (kdet̨ ktta) - masculine name, Hawk Gets Up [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shaⁿ iⁿ-te ki-ta (m̨ą įtt ktta) - female name, Feather is Turned Bottom Up [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shaⁿ ki-ta (mą ktta), ma-shiⁿ gi-ta (m̨ gtta) - female name, Feather Rising, Feather Getting Up, Mary Thompson Williams name [MS]

ex: mi ska ki-ta (mi sk ktta) - female name, White Sun Coming Up, White Sun Gets Up (Comes), White Female Coming [MS, FR, JOD]

ex: pa-si ki-ta (psi ktta) - masculine name, Hail Comes (gets up) [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ ki-ta (tt̨į kitt) - masculine name, (Sun) Gets up In-sight [JOD]

ex: ta-te ki-ta (ttatt kitt) - female name, not recorded, possibly, Rising Wind, Wind Gets up, Coming Wind [JOD]

ex: te-ka ki-ta (ttka ktta) - female name, not recorded, possibly, Rises Anew, Newly Risen [JOD]

ex: te mi ki-ta (tte m kitt) - female name, not recorded, possibly, Buffalo Woman Gets Up; Buffalo Female Rises, Female Buffalo Comes [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰe ki-ta (wtte ktta) - female name, not recorded, possibly, Rising Star, Star That Rises [JOD]

Dhegiha: xu-e gi-da (xu-e-gi-da) - Comes Roaring, personal name, refers to the wind in an approaching storm [FL-Osage]

 

na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand a-na-zhiⁿ (anį) - I, da-na-zhiⁿ (danį) - you, oⁿ-na-zhiⁿ-we (ǫnįwe) - we

na-zhiⁿ (ną) - standing [OM]

cf. a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand upon; floor; o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; iⁿ-ka-bde a-na-zhiⁿ (įkbde anį) - Lovers Leap near Quapaw, OK; a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on ones own; ki-na-zhiⁿ (knaį) - stand with reference to another; ni-a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (nikinį) - have duty of fetching water, stand to fetch water for one; i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone

ex: na-zhiⁿ ni-he (ną nih) - stand up!

ex: na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (ną kγe) - stood/made him [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ) - stand, continue [Omaha/Ponca]; na-zhiⁿ (na-jⁿ) - to stand; to continue doing any thing [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿzhiⁿ) - get up, arise, standing, tise up [Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to rise or stand; stood [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-zhiⁿ (nąą̨) - stand, be standing; stand up, get up; terminate ongoing activity preparatory to departing; stop, cause to stop, halt, detain someone who is passing by [CQ-Osage]; na-zhiⁿ (nazhíⁿ), naⁿ-zhiⁿ (naⁿzhíⁿ) - stand, stand up [Kaw]

 

up, go up

maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend

cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, above, heaven, high; de (de) - go

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - above; high in the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (m̨i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]

 

up, grown up

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature aⁿ-naⁿ-hoⁿ (̨nąh̨) - I, di-naⁿ-hoⁿ (dnąh̨) - you, wa-naⁿ-hoⁿ-we (wnąhǫwe) - we

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult

ex: i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother

ex: iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]

ex: she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl

ex: naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (̨nąh̨) - me grownup [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

ex: de naⁿ-haⁿ tʰaⁿ (d nąh̨ tʰą) - this grown one (standing) [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (mįt̨ nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

ex: wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - I/only/grown/there/I who (sit) [=I am the eldest] [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty

ex: naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi (nąh̨ ik h) - grown/a little/very [JOD]

ex: e she-mi i-ta-de taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ ka-i-she-taⁿ hi taⁿ e-hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe te ( mi ttad tą nąh̨ ik h tą k-itą h tą eh̨ nįkʰ tʔe) - when the girl that was born reached puberty her mother died [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi (nąh̨ ik h) - grown/a little/reached [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-koⁿ niⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ kaⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ (kįttą kǫ n̨ nąh̨ ik h tą ką-t̨ ną) - then, she went along like that for sometime until she was grown (reached puberty) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi (nąh̨ ik h) - grown/a little/very [a little larger] [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eǫh nąh̨ ik h t̨ ną) - then, after some time, she grew a little larger (a little older) [JOD]

ex: ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: she-to naⁿ-haⁿ (tto nąh̨) - grown boy, large boy, teenager

ex: she-to naⁿ-haⁿ (tto nąh̨) - boy/grown (=large) [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to naⁿ-haⁿ maⁿ-di-taⁿ si-si hi naⁿ-we e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto nąh̨ mądttą sis hi ną-w kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the grown boys who pull a bow and are very active (able to run swiftly and far), it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - grown woman, old lady

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka i-niⁿ pa naⁿ (waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek in̨ pa n̨) - grown women wore short dresses [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ-ʰto noⁿ-hoⁿ (shⁿ-ṭo-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - a bachelor, a single man [FL-Osage]; shi-do noⁿ-hoⁿ (shdo noⁿhoⁿ) - a youth, a young man that is nearly grown [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wakʔ n̨h̨) - a woman who has been married, but who is now alone, a widow [JOD-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wak noⁿhⁿ) - grown woman [Kaw]

Dhegiha: naⁿ (nⁿ) - grown [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal; adult person; elder [Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - to grow; to age; to mature; an adult [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature; adulthood, grownups, adults; old folks, elders in times past, old ones; advancded age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

up, high up

maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative

cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, above, heaven, high; hi (hi) - very

ex: pe-te-shte maⁿ-shi hi (ppettte m̨i h) - very high blaze, flame [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - above; high in the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (m̨i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]

 

up, hurry up

o-ti-ti (ttitti) - hurry in doing something, quickly o-a-ti-ti (attitt) - I, o-da-ti-ti (dattitt) - you

o-ti-ti (ttitti) - hasten, in haste [JOD]

o-chi-chi (čiči) - hurry [OM]

cf. tʰi-de (tʰid) - to begin, suddenly [JOD]

ex: o-ti-ti wa-ba-hi (ttitti wabahi) - snatch up bits

ex: di-taⁿ-shka o-ti-ti o-ki-hoⁿ! (ditt̨ka ttitti kih̨!) - hurry up and cook for your nephew, (your brothers son)! [JOD]

ex: o-ti-ti! hoⁿ-pe o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe! si taⁿ-ka! zaⁿ-ze hi! i-shta taⁿ-ka! i-ha-shka! i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (ttitti! hǫp odkitʰǫ nįkʰe! si tt̨ka! ząz hi! it tt̨ka! hak! iy iy mątʰ) - hurry! you putter on of moccasins! big foot! stinky! big eyes! split lip! it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰi-the (tʰith) - to begin, commence, or start suddenly [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-the (ṭsi-th) - he hastened; denoting sudden action [FL-Osage]; chi-ye (chiyé) - suddenly, action in this direction [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-noⁿ-xthiⁿ (noⁿqthiⁿ) - to hasten or be in a hurry for or on account of any thing [Omaha/Ponca]; o-noⁿ-xthiⁿ (-noⁿ-xthiⁿ), u-noⁿ-xthiⁿ (-noⁿ-xthiⁿ) - to make haste; to hurry [FL-Osage]; o-na-liⁿ (nalį), o-na-xliⁿ (naxlį), o-na-ʰliⁿ (naʰlį) - hurry up! [CQ-Osage]; o-naⁿ-xliⁿ (ónaⁿxliⁿ), o-noⁿ-xliⁿ (ónoⁿxliⁿ) - Hurry up!; fast, rapidly, as a wheel revolving or animate objects moving [Kaw]

 

up, I am standing up now

a-na-zhiⁿ a-tʰaⁿ-he (anį atʰąh) - I am standing up (now) [ASG]

cf. a-na-zhiⁿ (anį) - I stand; a-tʰaⁿ-he (atʰąh) - 1sg continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: a-na-zhiⁿ (anzhiⁿ) - I stand [Omaha/Ponca]; a-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (a-nⁿ-zhiⁿ) - I rise [FL-Osage]; a-naⁿ-zhi (an̨ąi), a-naⁿ-zhiⁿ (an̨ąį) - I stand [CQ-Osage]; a-na-zhiⁿ (anzhiⁿ) - I stand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-he (atʰoⁿh) - I who stand [Omaha/Ponca]; a-toⁿ-he (a-toⁿ-he) - I stand [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-txaⁿ-he (ątxąh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for standing 1st sg. subject [CQ-Osage]; a-kha-he (akhhe), a-khaⁿ-he (akháⁿhe) - continuative I, while standing [Kaw]

 

up, lace up

o-di-snoⁿ (odsnǫ) - lace up o-bdi-snoⁿ (obdsnǫ) - I, o-ti-snoⁿ (ottsnǫ) - you

Dhegiha: u-thi-znoⁿ (uthznoⁿ) - thread, lace, harness, to thread a needle, lace a shoe, harness a horse to a wagon [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-hoⁿ u-thi-znoⁿ (wahoⁿ uthinoⁿ) - thread [Omaha]; o-thi-naⁿ (oiną) - fasten, button (e.g., an old-fashioned shoe with buttons or a sweater with buttons), zip, tie up, rope (e.g., a calf) [CQ-Osage]

 

i-ba-zoⁿ-te (baz̨tte) - lace up, as a pack i-pa-zoⁿ-te (ppazǫtte) - I, i-shpa-zoⁿ-te (pazǫtte) - you

cf. i-ki-pa-zoⁿ-te (kkippaz̨tte) - fasten; ka-zaⁿ-te (kaz̨tte) - weave, braid; wa-zoⁿ-te (wzǫtte) - mat

Dhegiha: i-ba-zaⁿ-je (bazaⁿje) - lace up with, fasten shut, to fasten, as the end skins of a tent, by running the sticks or cords from one side to the other [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-zoⁿ-de (bazoⁿde) - to stitch up, sew up, or lace up [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-zoⁿ-dse (-ba-oⁿ-dse) - to lace a shoe, to lace up as a shoe [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-ba-zoⁿ-de (bazⁿde) - to stitch or run up, in sewing on any object, for another [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-ba-zoⁿ-de (uthbazⁿde) - to lace and tie another's shoes for him, at his request [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zoⁿ-de (zoⁿzoⁿde) - stitch [Omaha]; wa-zoⁿ-dse (w-oⁿ-dse) - any woven article, textile [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-zoⁿ-de (gaoⁿde) - weave, braid [Omaha]; ga-zoⁿ-dse (ga-ⁿ-dse) - to weave, to braid [FL-Osage]; ga-zaⁿ-je (gazⁿje) - weave [Kaw]

 

up, lift up

di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly bdi-ha-ta de-a-de (bdhtta dade) - I, ti-ha-ta de-da-de (tthtta ddade) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; to throw it off; he sent it off or thither; he threw it away or off; ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

di-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (dikatʰǫ) - lift someone up, causing them to moan bdi-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (bdikatʰǫ) - I, ti-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (ttikatʰǫ) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; i-ka-toⁿ (kattǫ) - grunt, groan, moan

Dhegiha: thi-i-ga-tʰoⁿ (thigatʰoⁿ) - to make a sick person grunt or groan by lifting him or her [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: i-ga-tʰoⁿ (-ga-taⁿ) - to grunt, snivel; to labor, as a woman in travail [JOD-Omaha]; i-ga-toⁿ (igatoⁿ) - moan, groan [Omaha]; i-ga-ʰtoⁿ (-ga-ṭoⁿ) - to groan, to moan [FL-Osage]

 

di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high bdi-maⁿ-shi (bdmąi) - I, ti-maⁿ-shi (ttmąi) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven, high, above

ex: di-maⁿ-shi hne (dim̨i hn) - raise it up! [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-moⁿ-shi (thimⁿshi) - to pull up high [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-moⁿ-shi (thi moⁿshi) - elevate [Omaha]; thu-maⁿ-shi (uum̨i) - pull up, hold up, raise, lift [CQ-Osage]; yu-maⁿ-shi (yumⁿshi) - to elevate, put up high; to lift something [Kaw]

 

up, open up

di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open bdi-shi-we (bdiwe) - I, ti-shi-we (ttiwe) - you

cf. i-di-shi-we (diwe) - key; o-naⁿ-taⁿ di-shi-we (on̨ttą diwe) - door knob; o-shi-we (owe) - slipped off of its own accord; mi-aⁿ-pa di-shi-we (mįpa diwe) - eclipse of the moon

Dhegiha: thi-shi-be (thishibe) - open, unlock, uncap, unhitch [Omaha]; thi-shi-be (thi-sh-be), thi-shu-be (thi-sh-be) - to open anything that has a lid or a door, to open a covered box, to open as a door, to open or unfasten a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-pe (iipe), thu-shu-pe (uupe) - open, unlock and open [CQ-Osage]; yu-shu-be (yushbe), yu-shu-we (yushwe) - open, as a door or a sacred bundle, unlock, gate [Kaw]

 

ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up a-wa-di-shta (wadita) - I, da-wa-di-shta (dwadita) - you

cf. wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand

Dhegiha: ga-wa-thi-shna (ga-w-i-c͓na) - to make visible by digging, as something buried under ground, snow, etc.; to blow off the sand or snow, causing what was covered to appear [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring it out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

up, pick up

ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object pa-ha-ta (pphatta) - I, shpa-ha-ta (phatta) - you

cf. ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it

 

ba-hi (bhi) - to pick [JOD]

ba-hi (bah) - grab pa-hi (pphi) - I, shpa-hi (phi) - you

cf. ki-ba-hi (kibhi) - to pick up ones own [JOD]; wa-ba-hi (wabhi) - pick up food as birds, animals

ex: wa-ta-sto-ta ba-hi (watstotta bhi) - to pick pecan nuts [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-hi (bah) - select, pick; pick up [Omaha]; ba-hi (bahi) - to pick up, gather up [JOD-Omaha]; ba-hi (bah) - to pick, as selecting one from many; to sort, to sort the good from the bad; picked, selected, the best; to pick or gather from the ground; to be elected [FL-Osage]; pa-hi (paah) - pick or gather (e.g., fruit, flowers), collect together or pick up (many small, scattered things), sort (e.g., beans, clothing to be laundered) [CQ-Osage]; ba-hi (bah) - pick up, gather; to pick or gather from the ground, as fruit, vegetables, etc. [Kaw]

 

ki-ba-hi (kibhi) - to pick up ones own [JOD]

cf. ba-hi (bhi) - to pick, grab; wa-ba-hi (wabhi) - pick up food as birds, animals

ex: ki-ba-hi a-taⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe o-ki-zhi maⁿ-niⁿ niⁿ, i-ya (kibhi-att̨ wabtʰe iha nįkʰ oki m̨nį n̨, iy) - she walked around picking up the pieces, filling her sewing bag, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-pa-hi (gi-p͓-hi) - to pick up or gather his own from the ground [JOD-Omaha]; gi-ba-hi (g-ba-hi) - to pick or gather from the ground (neither from trees nor from bushes) for another [JOD-Omaha]; ki-pa-hi (k͓i-p͓-hi) - to pick out for themselves [JOD-Omaha]; ʰki-ʰpa-hi (ḳip̣hi) - to choose a man or woman from their own number, as in a ball game [FL-Osage]; ʰki-ʰpa-hi (ʰkʰpaahi) - pick, pick up, choose, select for oneself [CQ-Osage]

 

wa-ba-hi (wabhi) - pick up food as birds, animals

cf. ba-hi (bhi) - to pick, grab; ki-ba-hi (kibhi) - to pick up ones own [JOD]

ex: o-ti-ti wa-ba-hi (ttitti wabahi) - snatch up bits

Dhegiha: wa-ba-hi (w-ba-hi) - to gather them together [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ba-hi (wa-b-hi) - to graze as animals; a grazing place, a place of resort for game; to gather together or collect pieces of meat to give to the chiefs, the act of a brave; wa-ba-hi (wbahi) - collection; graze [Omaha]; wa-ba-hi (wa-b-hi) - to graze, grazing; to pick, choose, or select them [FL-Osage]; wa-pa-hi (wapahi) - pick, choose, or select people or things [CQ-Osage]

 

up, pile up

a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-a-de (kkistde itʰad) - I, a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-da-de (kkistde itʰdad) - you

cf. sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather

Dhegiha: sto-the shu (to-th shu) - gathered them together [FL-Osage]; thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ni-ka stu-wa-the (nkastuwathe) - The Gatherer, personal name [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ʰka stu-e (n-ḳa-tu-e) - gathering of men, personal name [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a season [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to place away [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-a-de (kkizze itʰad) - I, a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-da-de (kkizze itʰdad) - you

cf. i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: e-ga-ze-ze (gazze) - abreast; in a line; in rows [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ta-ze-ze (tazze) - fill out, fill up, raise level [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to place away [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

up, piling up the pieces in that manner

koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so or of that sort; so or in that case [JOD]; a-zhi (i) - put onto; o-zhi (o) - put into

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti ta-zho ta-bi-ze ka-xe koi-shoⁿ-zhi i-ti-kde-kaⁿ ni-kʰa (kįttą ett tta tbize kγe koįi tikdką nikʰ) - then/there/venison/dried by heat/made/piling up the pieces in that manner/like a hose/they were (pl. classifier) [JOD]

 

up, prop up

i-ba-siⁿ-kde (bas̨kde) - prop up, brace i-pa-siⁿ-a-kde (ppasįkde) - I, i-shpa-siⁿ-da-kde (pasįdkde) - you, oⁿ-noⁿ-ba-siⁿ-kde (ǫn̨basįkde) - we

 

up, pull up

a-shi ki-knaⁿ (i kikn̨) - pull up out of; pull something out of water, mud, a hole, etc. a-shi a-knaⁿ (i kną) - I, a-shi da-knaⁿ (i dkną) - you, a-shi oⁿ-knaⁿ-we (i ̨knąwe) - we

cf. a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on, over; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put

Dhegiha: gi-laⁿ (glaⁿ) - replace a sitting inanimate object [Kaw]

 

bda-bda i-tʰe-de (bdabd itʰde) - pull up on the long end, as a plank bda-bda i-tʰe-a-de (bdabd itʰad) - I, bda-bda i-tʰe-da-de (bdabd itʰdad) - you

cf. bda-bda (bdbda) - raised; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to place away [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly bdi-ha-ta de-a-de (bdhtta dade) - I, ti-ha-ta de-da-de (tthtta ddade) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; to throw it off; he sent it off or thither; he threw it away or off; ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high bdi-maⁿ-shi (bdmąi) - I, ti-maⁿ-shi (ttmąi) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven, high, above

ex: di-maⁿ-shi hne (dim̨i hn) - raise it up! [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-moⁿ-shi (thimⁿshi) - to pull up high [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-moⁿ-shi (thi moⁿshi) - elevate [Omaha]; thu-maⁿ-shi (uum̨i) - pull up, hold up, raise, lift [CQ-Osage]; yu-maⁿ-shi (yumⁿshi) - to elevate, put up high; to lift something [Kaw]

 

di-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (dikatʰǫ) - lift someone up bdi-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (bdikatʰǫ) - I, ti-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (ttikatʰǫ) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; i-ka-toⁿ (kattǫ) - grunt, groan, moan

Dhegiha: thi-i-ga-tʰoⁿ (thigatʰoⁿ) - to make a sick person grunt or groan by lifting him or her [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: i-ga-tʰoⁿ (gatʰoⁿ) - to grunt, snivel; to labor, as a woman in travail [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ga-toⁿ (igatoⁿ) - moan, groan [Omaha]; i-ga-ʰtoⁿ (-ga-ṭoⁿ) - to groan, to moan [FL-Osage]

 

di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up bdi-ta-te (bdttatʔe) - I, ti-ta-te (ttttatʔe) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling, cause or make to; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

Dhegiha: thi-na-te-ga (thintega) - to make grass, etc., wither by pulling or holding [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-da-tse-ga (thi-d-tse-ga) - to cause green plants to wither by rough handling [FL-Osage]; yu-da-tse-ga (yudtsega) - wilt from being pulled up, as plants, wood [Kaw]

 

i-di-ze (dize) - pull up, uproot

cf. di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive; wa-di-ze di-ze (wadze diz) - to get goods on credit; zhoⁿ di-ze (̨ dze) - to get wood; kdi-ze (kdze) - take ones own; i-di-za-za (dizza) - hold, grasp something for holding; i-kdi-za-za (kdizza) - stick to one here and there

Dhegiha: thi-ze (thiz) - to take, accept, receive; to take up an object [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ze (iz) - take, took, receive, seize [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ze (thize) - take; receive; draw out; take out; anybody accepts [Omaha]; thu-ze (thu-) - to take, to receive or accept [FL-Osage]; thu-ze (uuz) - select, choose, take, get, draw water, gather or pick fruit [CQ-Osage]; yu-ze (yuz) - get, take, accept [Kaw]

 

up, roll up

a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over a-a-ki-pa-xta-na (akkippxtana) - I, a-da-ki-pa-xta-na (dakkippxtana) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-xta-na-we (̨kakkippxtanawe) - we

cf. a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

ex: a a-ki-pa-xta-na ( kkippaxtana) - to roll up a sleeve; turn up the sleeve of a shirt or coat

ex: niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ a-ki-pa-xta-na (n̨tte diį kkippaxtana) - to turn (roll up) the legs of pants

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (-ḳi-p̣a) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰki-ba-xtha (ḳ-ba-xtha) - meet face to face [FL-Osage]; u-ʰki-ba-xtha (u-ḳ-ba-xtha) - to meet face to face [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ki-ba-xla (okkibaxla) - meet face to face, coming from opposite directions: said of more than one pair [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pa-toⁿ (ukipatoⁿ) - roll [Omaha]; u-ki-pa-taⁿ (ukpatⁿ) - rolled himself over [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰpa-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-ḳi-pa-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll over and over [FL-Osage]

 

up, root up the soil

ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil pa-ta-xe (ppttaxe) - I, shpa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - you

cf. ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

up, screw up the face

iⁿ-te da-shi-ke (įtt dake) - screw up the face, make a face iⁿ-te bda-shi-ke (įtt bdike) - I, iⁿ-te ta-shi-ke (įtt ttike) - you

cf. iⁿ-te (įtt) - face; da (da) - by mouth; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly

Dhegiha: iⁿ-tse thu-ʰpi-zhi (įc uuʰpii) - make faces, grimace, lit., make a bad face [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-de (ⁿde) - face [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-de (iⁿde) - face [Omaha]; iⁿ-dse (iⁿ-ds) - face [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-tse (įc) - face [CQ-Osage]; i-je (ij) - face [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-a-zhi (pazhi) - bad, wrong, not good [Omaha/Ponca]; pi-zhi (p-zhi) - bad, evil [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-zhi (ʰpii) - bad, awful, evil, wicked [CQ-Osage]; pi-zhi (pzhi) - be bad, no good [Kaw]; shi-ge (shge) - bad, evil, injury [Kaw]

 

up, set up

a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (kʰą itʰdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ (kʰą) - leaning against, lean on; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

Dhegiha: a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-the (akaⁿ ite) - to place, a stick, etc., against any object [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: a-kʰaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lean up against; lie against; lie down, as to sleep or rest [CQ-Osage]; a-khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to place away [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

o-ki-kde-kde (kikdkde) - set up in a row [JOD]

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events; a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - indirectly, not even second hand; a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley; ti-kde-kde (ttkdekde kʰe) - line of standing lodges

ex: pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde (ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde) - flour/barrel/filled/set up in a row [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthe-boⁿ kʰi-gthe (gthboⁿ kʰgthe) - ten times in succession, ten times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-koⁿ kʰi-gthe (shⁿkoⁿ kʰgthe) - nine times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; e-shoⁿ ki-gthe (eshoⁿ kigthe) - close together [Omaha]; u-ʰki-gthe (u-ḳ-gthe) - to splice two ropes together [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰki-gthe (-ḳi-ḳi-gthe) - to join two boards or poles [FL-Osage]

 

ti-kde (ttikd) - to set up housekeeping; to live together in same tent; village, collection of lodges

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD)]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde nikʰ ną) - four women were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ha-ki i-da-we, i-he (waxʔ twa ttkde hak idwe, ih) - where have the four women that live together gone too, I say [JOD]

ex: ti-kda-wi (ttkdawi) - they dwelt in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ka niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke nįkʰ ni kihid-nįkʰtti ttkde nįkʰ) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (t͓-gĕ) - to dwell in a lodge [JOD-Omaha]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

up, shut up something

a-kda-po-wi (kdappwi) - shut up something a-a-kda-po-wi (akdappwi) - I, a-da-kda-po-wi (dakdappwi) - you, oⁿ-ka-kda-po-wi-we (̨kakdappwiwe) - we

cf. a-da-po-i (dappi) - shut the mouth

 

up, split up

ki-da-ha (kkidha) - separated

cf. di-ki-da-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort

ex: ki-da-ha (kkidha) - separating [JOD]

ex: ki-da-ha ta-bde da-we (kkidha tbde dwe) - they went hunting in different directions, (they split up) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰki-tha-ha (ḳ-tha-ha) - separate, apart, moving in opposite directions, separation [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-ha (kaha) - be apart, separated, divorced, divided, distant, or estranged from each other; divided or separate the parts of something; separate from, divorce, or become estranged from [CQ-Osage]; ki-ya-ha (kíyaha) - apart, moving in different directions, both sides; apart, moving in different directions [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ki-tha-ha (akthaha) - apart [Omaha]; a-kʰi-tha-ha (a-k-a-ha) - apart; in different or opposite directions [JOD-Omaha]

 

ki-ha (kih) - finish, quit, divorce a-ki-ha (akha) - I, ki-ha (kih) - he/she; ki-ha-we (kihwe), ki-ha-i (kiha) - they

ki-ha (kih) - quit [MS]

cf. ki-ha oⁿ-pa (kih ̨ppa) - Monday; ki-ha-zhi (kihi) - fail to finish

ex: ki-ha-we (kihwe) - they quit, they quit being married, divorced [MS]

 

up, stand something up

i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate i-tʰe-a-de (itʰad) - I, i-tʰe-da-de (itʰdad) - you

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: a-ba-xda-te i-tʰe-de (baxdtte itʰde) - he stuck it into the hair/he put the standing object [JOD]

ex: ni-shki-ta a-ba-xda-te i-tʰe-de (niktta baxdtte itʰde) - he stuck it (the pin) into his hair (upright on the back of his head) [JOD]

ex: a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a singular/standing/inanimate object; make an upright object lean by pulling it

ex: a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something

ex: a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

ex: a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch

ex: a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch

ex: a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile; here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile

ex: a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

ex: a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books

ex: a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de (itti itʰde) - outside of the lodge/he piled it [JOD]

ex: kiⁿ kʰi taⁿ a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de naⁿ, i-ya (kʔ̨ kʰttą itti itʰde ną iy) - when he reached home carrying (the meat) on his back, he piled it outside (the lodge), it is said [JOD]

ex: a-toⁿ-wi-tʰe-de (ttǫwitʰde) - put standing/inanimate object down carefully

ex: bda-bda i-tʰe-de (bdabd itʰde) - pull up on the long end, as a plank

ex: bda-ska i-tʰe-de (bdska itʰde) - pull something upright on short end

ex: na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide singular/standing/inanimate or collection

ex: sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to put down something erect [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

up, stand up

na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand a-na-zhiⁿ (anį) - I, da-na-zhiⁿ (danį) - you, oⁿ-na-zhiⁿ-we (ǫnįwe) - we

na-zhiⁿ (ną) - standing [OM]

cf. a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand upon; floor; o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; iⁿ-ka-bde a-na-zhiⁿ (įkbde anį) - Lovers Leap near Quapaw, OK; a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on ones own; ki-na-zhiⁿ (knaį) - stand with reference to another; ni-a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (nikinį) - have duty of fetching water, stand to fetch water for one; i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone

ex: na-zhiⁿ ni-he (ną nih) - stand up!

ex: na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (ną kγe) - stood/made him [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ) - stand, continue [Omaha/Ponca]; na-zhiⁿ (na-jⁿ) - to stand; to continue doing any thing [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿzhiⁿ) - get up, arise, standing, tise up [Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to rise or stand; stood [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-zhiⁿ (nąą̨) - stand, be standing; stand up, get up; terminate ongoing activity preparatory to departing; stop, cause to stop, halt, detain someone who is passing by [CQ-Osage]; na-zhiⁿ (nazhíⁿ), naⁿ-zhiⁿ (naⁿzhíⁿ) - stand, stand up [Kaw]

 

na-zhiⁿ ni-he (ną nih) - stand up!

cf. na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand; ni-he (nih) - imperative plural

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ) - stand, continue [Omaha/Ponca]; na-zhiⁿ (na-jⁿ) - to stand; to continue doing any thing [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿzhiⁿ) - get up, arise, standing, rise up [Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to rise or stand; stood [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-zhiⁿ (nąą̨) - stand, be standing; stand up, get up; terminate ongoing activity preparatory to departing; stop, cause to stop, halt, detain someone who is passing by [CQ-Osage]; na-zhiⁿ (nazhíⁿ), naⁿ-zhiⁿ (naⁿzhíⁿ) - stand, stand up [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-he (thiⁿh) - imperative sign, expressing a strong command: be sure to do it! [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-he (thiⁿh) - strong suggestion or imperative, sign of strong prohibition, strong warning, express a strong urging [Omaha]; thiⁿ-hau (thiⁿ-ha) - be sure, used at the end of a sentence [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ (į), thi (i), niⁿ (nį), ni (ni) - imperative marker, sentence final marker for command to sg. addressee [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-he (hnⁿhe) - strong imperative or prohibition marker [Kaw]

 

up, stir up

o-do-ka-hi (odokhi) - to stir, to stir up, to paddle

cf. ta-ni-ka-hi (tankahi) - sumac, lit. mix with tobacco; ka-hi (kah) - fan someone; i-ka-hi (kahi) - mixed with, to mix ingredients [JOD]; i-ki-kda-hi (kkikdhi) - mixed; di-i-ki-kda-hi (dikkikdhi) - mix with the hands

ex: pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, to stir up with the nose, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River

Dhegiha: u-thu-ga-hi (uthu gahi) - stir [Omaha]; u-thu-ga-hi (u-th-ga-hi) - to paddle, to stir up what is cooking or boiling [FL-Osage]; o-tho-ka-hi (okahi) - stir [CQ-Osage]

 

up, stop up

a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

cf. a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ba-to (batʔo) - stop, impede progress; wa-ba-to (wbatʔo) - stop, obstruct, impede; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-pʰa-tu (kʰipʰat) - to collide, said of two objects [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu (batu) - to brace or prop an object to keep it from falling [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-ʰtu (-ba-ṭu) - to prevent one from moving by holding one back [FL-Osage]; a-ba-tso (batso) - brace something, prop something up; to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence; be bashful, hesitant [Kaw]

 

up, sun sure up

mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mitt̨į) - sun sure up [MS]

mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mitt̨į) - female name of the Kwapa Sun gens, Visible Moon, mother of ka-hi-ke ste-te (kahke sttte) [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun, moon, orb; taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

Dhegiha: miⁿ toⁿ-iⁿ (mⁿ tⁿiⁿ) - Visible Moon, female name; the first quarter of the moon [Omaha/Ponca]; mi oⁿ-ba a-ka shi ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ bi o (mi oⁿ-ba a-ka shi ṭoⁿ-iⁿ bi o) - the moon has again become visible [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: miⁿ (miⁿ) - sun [Omaha/Ponca]; mi (mi) - sun [Omaha]; mi (mi) - sun [FL-Osage]; mi (mi), miⁿ (m̨į) - sun [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (mⁿ) - sun [Kaw]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-iⁿ (tⁿiⁿ) - visible or plain [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿiⁿ), ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; toiⁿ (t̨į), toⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į), ʰtiⁿ-e (ʰt̨e) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

up, the up river Quapaw village

i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

i-ma-ha (măha) - a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwp, who lived with the Ḱdohad́cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwp were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwp who lived upstream (maha) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. [J. Mooney-Caddo]

ma-ha (maha) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other; i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on the other side

Dhegiha: u-ma-ha (u-m-ha), u-maⁿ-haⁿ (umaⁿ-haⁿ) - those that went upstream, the Omahas, a tribe of the egiha group of the Siouan Family, see Paka, Wajaje, K͓aⁿze, and Ugaqpa [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (u-mⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for Omaha [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-haⁿ (om̨hą) - Omaha (tribe or tribal member) [CQ-Osage]; o-ma-ha (omha), oⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (oⁿmⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha tribe or people, those who went upstream, so called because they (as well as the Ponca, Osage, and Kansa) went up stream when they left the Quapaw [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

 

up, tie up

a-ka-shke (kake) - tie a knot a-a-ka-shke (akake) - I, a-da-ka-shke (dakake) - you, aⁿ-ko-ka-shke (ąkkak) - we, I and one other

cf. iⁿ-kʰe de-di ka-shke (įkʰ ddi kak) - tie for fastening a robe; di-shke (dik) - untie, loosen, open; o-kda-shke (okdke) - to tie/fasten ones own [JOD]

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ e-ti a-ka-shke (ppidttą tti kake) - he tied it on/to his belt [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ko-ka-shke (ąkkak) - we (dual) fastened it [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: a-ki-ka-shka-i (kikaki) - he fastened his own to it [JOD]

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ-ti a-ki-ka-shka-i taⁿ o-zha tʰe tʰi-de (ppidttątt kikaki tą a tʰe tʰid) - he fastened it (his own) to his belt and began dancing [JOD]

ex: ma-te aⁿ-ko-kda-shka taⁿ shi-a-pe aⁿ-ka-de (mątt ąkkdak tą ipe ąkde) - we (dual) tied up our canoe and went ashore [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ga-shke (-ga-cke) - to button, to tie a knot [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-shke (gashke) - buckle, button, pin [Omaha]; a-ga-shke (-ga-shke) - to tie a knot, to tie a scalp lock on a pole [FL-Osage]; a-ka-shke (kake) - tie to something, tie up (as a horse), tie a knot [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-shke (gashke) - tie something, tie on, to tie a knot [Kaw]

 

up, tip up

a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board a-kʰaⁿ i-he-da-de (kʰą ihdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ (kʰą) - to lean on; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him or her to fall; a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it

Dhegiha: a-kʰoⁿ (kʰoⁿ) - leaning against [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on, to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lie down, as to sleep or rest, lie against, lean up against [CQ-Osage]; akhaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ (gaⁿ) - against [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ zhiⁿ-he (gaⁿ zhⁿhe) - to lie against an object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he-the (ihthe) - to put or place a recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob., as a tool, plank, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; i-he-the (ihĕ) - laid down [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

up, vomit up

i-kde-we (kdewe) - vomit up, vomit because of

cf. kde-we (kdwe) - to vomit

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-kde-we naⁿ (mat̨ke kdewe ną) - rabbit/vomited him up/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-kde-we naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi wadxow nįkʰ mat̨ke kdewe ną, iy) - then the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth vomited Rabbit up, it is said [JOD]

ex: we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ (wkdewa ną) - vomited him not up/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (etthi dixi wadxow nįkʰ wkdewa ną, iy) - at that time the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth did not vomit him up, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-gthe-be (gthebe) - to vomit on account of something [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: we-gthe-be (wgthebe) - to vomit on account of them; to vomit them up [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gthe-be (gthbe) - to vomit [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-be (gthbe) - vomit; gag; throw up [Omaha]; gthe-be (gth-be) - to vomit; retch; spew [FL-Osage]; le-pe (lpe) - vomit [CQ-Osage]; le-be (lébe) - to vomit [Kaw]

 

up, warm or heat up

ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shti-te (ttte) - comfortably warm; di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands; ta-shti-te-ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire; o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]

Dhegiha: na-shti-de (nshtide) - to give out heat, making the lodge or person more comfortable; to get warm after coming in from the cold [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-shtsu-e (taace), ta-shtsu-tse (tacuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm, to warm an object by holding it in the hands [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

 

up, wrap up

o-be-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - wrap something around an object o-pe-tʰaⁿ (opptʰą) - I, o-shpe-tʰaⁿ (optʰą) - you, oⁿ-ko-be-tʰaⁿ-we (ǫkbetʰąwe) - we

ex: zhaⁿ a-be-tʰaⁿ (̨abetʰ̨) - barrel, wood wrapped around

ex: wa-sa i-ba-xto-xto we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (was baxtoxt wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks with the fat around it [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-be-toⁿ (ubetoⁿ) - wrap [Omaha]; u-be-tʰoⁿ (ubtaⁿ) - to wrap around it [JOD-Omaha]; u-be-ʰtoⁿ (u-b-ṭoⁿ) - to wrap or envelop [FL-Osage]; o-pe-txaⁿ (optxą), o-pe-tkxaⁿ (optkxą) - tie in a bundle or wrap up something specific [CQ-Osage]; o-be-khaⁿ (obékhaⁿ) - wrap up, wrap something around an object, to bandage [Kaw]

Dhegiha: be-tʰoⁿ (btʰoⁿ) - to fold up or roll up with a blanket, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; be-toⁿ (betoⁿ) - fold [Omaha]; be-ʰtoⁿ (be-ṭⁿ) - to fold goods [FL-Osage]; be-khaⁿ (bekháⁿ) - fold something [Kaw]

 

o-di-be-tʰaⁿ (odibtʰą) - wrap it up [MS]

cf. o-be-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - wrap something around an object

Dhegiha: thi-be-tʰoⁿ (thibtʰoⁿ) - to fold up, or roll up in a bundle [Omaha/Ponca]; yu-be-khaⁿ (yubékhaⁿ) - fold something up [Kaw]

Dhegiha: be-tʰoⁿ (btʰoⁿ) - to fold up or roll up with a blanket, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; be-toⁿ (betoⁿ) - fold [Omaha]; be-ʰtoⁿ (be-ṭⁿ) - to fold goods [FL-Osage]; be-khaⁿ (bekháⁿ) - fold something [Kaw]

 

o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle o-bdi-shiⁿ (obdį) - I, o-ti-shiⁿ (ottį) - you, oⁿ-ko-di-shiⁿ-we (ǫkdiįwe) - we

ex: niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers

ex: pa-hi o-di-shiⁿ, pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (pah-hŭ-odischih) - bonnet (bonnet) [GI]

ex: wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron

ex: we-do-di-shiⁿ (wdodį) - pie

Dhegiha: u-thi-shiⁿ (uthshiⁿ) - cover, to cover, as with a garment [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shiⁿ (u-th-shiⁿ) - to wrap anything up [FL-Osage]; o-thi-shi (oi) - wrap, cover for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc. [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-shiⁿ (oyshiⁿ) - bundle something up, cover something by surrounding it [Kaw]

 

up, wrinkle up

be-soⁿ-soⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold be-soⁿ-soⁿ i-naⁿ-a-de (bes̨sǫ in̨ad) - I, be-soⁿ-soⁿ i-naⁿ-da-de (bes̨sǫ in̨dad) - you

cf. be-soⁿ-soⁿ (bes̨sǫ) - wrinkled, in folds; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth/paper; be-soⁿ (bes̨) - wrinkle, fold

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-be-soⁿ-soⁿ (kʰibesⁿsoⁿ) - folded many times on itself; wrinkled: said of blankets, robes, clothing, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; a-kʰi-be-soⁿ (kʰibsoⁿ) - folded over one on itself; lying on another: said of blankets, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: i-noⁿ-the (inoⁿthe) - put away, put it down [Omaha]; i-noⁿ-the (i-nⁿ-the) - to put upon the ground [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-thaⁿ-the (iaⁿĕ) - to put down [JOD-Omaha]; i-thoⁿ-the (i-thⁿ-the) - to put something away that is round [FL-Osage]; i-yaⁿ-ye (iyⁿye) - put, place a sitting/inanimate object anywhere [Kaw]

 

 Back to Top