English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

A

a lot

o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot

cf. o-she-xti (exti) - full; wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ-niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (they have a lot of money) [MS]

Dhegiha: u-she (-she) - plenty, plentiful [FL-Osage]; o-she (e) - exist plentifully, lots, abundance, plenty, profusion of something [CQ-Osage]

zho-hi (hi) - much, many

cf. zho-hi ka-xe (hi kγe) - to multiply; zho-hi hi (juh hi) - very many [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

a

miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article

cf. miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one; mi-aⁿ-pa miⁿ (mįpa m̨) - month, lunar month

Dhegiha: wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one, single [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ (wį) - a, an, one, single, any one, one of a group [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - one, a, an; indefinite article [Kaw]

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one

cf. miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wiⁿ́-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wi-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

abandon

oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave oⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I, oⁿ-te (ǫtt) - you, oⁿ-da-we (̨ǫdawe) - we

cf. ki-oⁿ-de de-de (kįde dde) - throw something at someone suddenly; oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly

Dhegiha: oⁿ-the (̨ǫe) - throw away, discard, leave behind, remove, as from office, quit someone, divorce or separate from [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-ye (ⁿye) - leave, throw away, abandon, forsake [Kaw] . oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - forsake, abandon, leave, throw away [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - oust, discard, abandon, discharge, disqualify, desert, abandoned [Omaha]; oⁿ-tha (ⁿ-tha) - to throw away, to dispense [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-tha (̨ǫa) - throw away, throw, leave or quit someone, discard someone or something, toss out [CQ-Osage]

a-di-o-te (ditte) - abandon, leave a-bdi-o-te (bditte) - I, a-ti-o-te (ttitte) - you, oⁿ-ka-di-o-ta-we (ǫkdittawe) - we

i-ki-ti-ze (kittize) - leave, abandon one's own i-da-ki-ti-ze (idkittze) - I, i-da-ki-ti-ze (dakittze) - you

abdomen

o-zi-zi (ozzi) - belly, pubic region of abdomen

o-zi-zi (ozzi) - belly [MS]

abominable

o-kaⁿ-shi-ka-wa-de (okk̨ikwade) - hateful, abominable

cf. o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik) - hate; o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - hateful, be

abound

xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. "cedars abound in it"; near Quapaw, OK

cf. taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

Dhegiha: tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - exist, abound, have, possess, to exist, there is/there are; to abound, to have or possess [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - to possess [FL-Osage]; toⁿ (toⁿ) - have, possess [Kaw]

about

a-ta (tta) - about, concerning

above

maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven

maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, "house to talk above"

cf. maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit.,"talks on high"; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (moⁿ́-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite

cf. koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

abrogate

di-e-zhi (die) - change, alter, abrogate bdi-e-zhi (bdei) - I, ti-e-zhi (ttei) - you

cf. e-zhi (i) - another, different; e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

Dhegiha: thi-a-zhi (thiazhi) - changed [Omaha]; thi-e-zhi (thi--zhi) - change in plans, to make a change in ones plan, or in making of something, to pervert, perversion [FL-Osage]; thu-e-zhi (ei) - change, lit., make different [CQ-Osage]; yu-e-zhi (yuzhi) - change, alter something, act or dress differently [Kaw]

i-ye si-ze-ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate

cf. i-ye (ye) - word, talk, speak; si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm; ni-ke (nik) - none, to have, be lacking; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause    

abundance

ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

cf. wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot; o-she-xti (exti) - full

Dhegiha: wa-she (wacĕ′) - rich [JOD-Omaha]

abuse

i-si-si-ke (siske) - mistreat, abuse someone

                        cf. i-si-aⁿ (sį) - irritate, pick on; i-si-wa-de (siwde) - irritate, pick on someone

Dhegiha: i-si (-i) - to dislike, to hate, to abhor, repugnance [FL-Osage]; i-si (isi) - hate, dislike, detest, abhor, despise [CQ-Osage]; i-si (si) - hate, dislike [Kaw]

di-si-si-ke (dissike) - mistreat, abuse bdi-si-si-ke (bdsisike) - I, ti-si-si-ke (ttsisike) - you

di-shi-shi-ke (diike) - mistreat, abuse [MS]

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly

ex: ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ kdaⁿ-ni-ke wa-x′o di-shi-shi-ke [wi]ʰpi-a-we (nikkąs̨ kdąnke waxʔ diike [wi]ʰpiwe) - sometime they treat a woman mean, thats the way they, they do, they say, they, all soldiers drunk then [MS]

accidentally

e-koⁿ-zhi (ek̨i), e-kaⁿ-zhi ka-xe (ek̨i kγe) - wrong, do accidentally, err

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; e-kaⁿ xti (kąxt), e-koⁿ xti (ek̨xti) - really, just so; zhi (i) - negative, not

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ-a-zhi (egoⁿazhi) - wrong, illegal, inaccurate, incorrect, false [Omaha]; e-koⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - not be like this or that, be not thus, be otherwise, unseemly, inappropriate, not right, unsuitable, unfitting, ill-advised, wrong [CQ-Osage]; e-go-zhi (gozhi) - not like, not so, not as [Kaw]

accompany

zho-kde (okd) - with, be with someone zho-a-kde (okde) - I, zho-da-kde (dakde) - you

cf. zho (o) - with, comitative

Dhegiha: zhu-gthe (zhgthe) - to be with someone [Omaha/Ponca]; zho-gthe (zh-gthe), zhu-gthe (zh-gthe) - to accompany, to go with someone, with him or her [FL-Osage]; zho-le (le) - marry, accompany, go with, come with, date, be in courtship with, lit., be with [CQ-Osage]; zho-le (zhle) - with, to be with [Kaw]

accord

e-wa-zhiⁿ (waį) - accord, of its/his/her own

Dhegiha: e-wa-zhiⁿ (e-w-zhiⁿ) - voluntarily, of its own volition [FL-Osage]; e-wa-zhiⁿ (waį) - alone, by oneself, on ones own [CQ-Osage];  e-wa-zhiⁿ (ewzhiⁿ) - of its own accord, by itself [Kaw] . e-wa-zhiⁿ noⁿ-ge (ewzhⁿ nⁿge) - steam engine; what runs by itself [Omaha/Ponca]; e-wa-zhiⁿ noⁿ-ge (e-w-zhiⁿ-noⁿ-ge) - an automobile, lit., runs of its own volition [FL-Osage]; e-wa-zhiⁿ naⁿ-ke (waį n̨ąke) - automobile, car, lit., it runs by itself [CQ-Osage]; e-wa-zhiⁿ naⁿ-ge (ewzhiⁿ nⁿge) - automobile, train, freight train, lit. it runs of its own accord [Kaw]

accordingly    

koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįttą), koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįtta) - thus, accordingly, in that way, that way, in, therefore

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

ex: koⁿi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kǫįttą eki bd ttnih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ache

iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt

iⁿ-te (įt) - to have a pain aⁿ-te (ąt) - I, di-iⁿ-te (dįte) - you, waⁿ-te-a-we (w̨tewe) - we

iⁿ-de (įd) - hurt [AG]

ex: hi iⁿ-te (hi įt) - toothache, have a toothache

ex: moiⁿ-ke iⁿ-te (moį́ke įt) - angina, chest pain(s)

ex: o-ki-te iⁿ-te (okktte įt) - to have rheumatism

ex: zho iⁿ-de (jŭ-indeh) - pain (douleur) [GI]

ex: pa-hiⁿ-te (ppah̨te) - to have a headache

ex: pa-hi iⁿ-te (ppah įt), pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - headache [MS, AG]

ex: pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - I have a headache (to have a headache, he/she has a headache) [OM]

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - I've got a headache [AG]

ex: aⁿ-te (ąt) - hurt me (I'm hurting) [MS]

ex: di-sniⁿ-te naⁿ-te pe-te koi (dsnįte ną́tte pptte koi) - might burn you, that fire [MS]

acorn

pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns of the ta-shka (ttaka) oak are different

Dhegiha: bu-de (bde) - nut, acorn [Omaha/Ponca]

pi-de ste-te hi (ppde sttte hi) - water oak, lit. "tall acorn tree"

pi-de sha hi (ppde hi) - white oak, named for the color of its acorns

ta-shka (ttak) - acorn of the burr oak

            Dhegiha: ta-shka (tshka) - acorn [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-shka (tshka) - acorn [Omaha]

acquire

e-kaⁿ-ki-de (ek̨kkide) - acquire something for someone e-kaⁿ-a-ki-de (ek̨akkide) - I, e-kaⁿ-da-ki-de (ek̨dakkide) - you

o-kʰe-taⁿ (okʰttą) - acquire, gain, possess o-a-kʰe-taⁿ (okʰettą) - I, o-da-kʰe-taⁿ (odkʰettą) - you

            Dhegiha: u-ke-ta (ukta), u-ke-toⁿ (uktoⁿ) - commit, commemorate, succeed, accomplish [Omaha]; u-kshe-ʰtoⁿ (u-ksh-ṭoⁿ) - to obtain, to come into possession of, to win, to gain, to earn, wages, pay, salary, compensation, earnings, income [FL-Osage]; o-kshe-ʰtaⁿ (okʰtą) - gain, earn, come into possession of, obtain, salary, earnings, gain, winnings [CQ-Osage]; o-khe-toⁿ (okhtoⁿ) - gain or regain [Kaw]

o-ki-kʰe-taⁿ (okkkʰettą) - acquire for oneself

            Dhegiha: u-gi-ke-toⁿ (ugiketoⁿ) - earn [Omaha]; u-gi-kshe-ʰtoⁿ (u-g-kshe-ṭoⁿ) - to regain, to recover ones own property [FL-Osage]; o-ki-khe-taⁿ (okkhetaⁿ) - recover one anothers property [Kaw]

o-ki-kʰe-tʰaⁿ (okkʰetʰ̨) - acquire something for/from someone o-a-ki-kʰe-taⁿ (okikʰett̨) - I, o-da-ki-kʰe-taⁿ (odkikʰett̨) - you

acre

ma-zhoⁿ wa-da (mą wad), ma-zhaⁿ wa-da (mą wad) - acre of land

cf. ma-zhaⁿ (maą́), ma-zhoⁿ (maǫ́) - land

wa-da zhi-ka (wad ka) - acre

across

kda-kaⁿ (kdkką), kda-kʰaⁿ (kdkʰą) - crosswise, across

ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ (ttttikdakʰ̨) - across the wind, as when a boat tacks

                        cf. ta-ti-oⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind

Dhegiha: ta-de gtha-kʰoⁿ (tad gthkʰoⁿ) - across wind, across the wind, perpendicular to the wind direction [Omaha/Ponca]

ma-sa-ni (masni) - opposite side, on, across; a horizontal object, a road or river, other terms for 'opposite', all of which seem to depend on shape

Dhegiha: maⁿ-siⁿ-ha (mąs̨ha) - to or on the other side, opposite [CQ-Osage]; ma-siⁿ (masⁿ), mo-siⁿ (mosⁿ) - other side of something, as a stream, in the direction of the other side, on one of two sides [Kaw]

wa-ki-to (waktto) - ferry passengers across stream

act

o-shkaⁿ (ką) - act, deed

Dhegiha: u-shkoⁿ (shkoⁿ) - act, deed, custom, business [Omaha/Ponca]; u-shkoⁿ (-shkoⁿ) - disposition, temperament, habit, custom [FL-Osage]; o-shkaⁿ (shkaⁿ) - act, deed, custom [Kaw]

o-ta-za ka-xe (ttaza kγe) - right, correct, act honestly

                        cf. o-ta-za (ttaza) - right, straight, honest; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: u-ʰta-za (u-ṭ-a) - handsome, showy, stateliness, pretty, comely, pleasing to the sight, satisfying to the sense of beauty [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za (oʰtza) - good looking, handsome, beautiful, very pretty [CQ-Osage]

niⁿ-de (nį d) - indicates wrong act

                        cf. niⁿ-kʰe de (nįkʰe d) - impermissive, done without permission

active

si-si (sis) - active aⁿ-si-si (ąssi) - I, di-si-si (dissi) - you, wa-si-si-we (wassiwe) - we

Dhegiha: si-si (-i) - stalwart, brave, active [FL-Osage]; si-si (s-si) - strong, energetic, well, healthy [CQ-Osage]

i-ki-si-si (kissi) - active, lively, to make one aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-si-si (ąn̨kissi) - I, i-di-ki-si-si (dikissi) - you

accordion

wa-kiⁿ-te (wak̨tte) - accordion, fiddle

ba-kiⁿ-te (bak̨tte) - play, accordion or violin pa-kiⁿ-te (ppkįtte) - I, shpa-kiⁿ-te (pkįtte) - you

            cf. ba-kiⁿto-zha (bak̨ttoa) - fiddle dance, whiteman's dance; ba-giⁿ-to-zha (bagįttoa) - fiddle dance, whiteman's dance [OM]

Dhegiha: ba-gi-ze (bagze) - fiddle, creak, squeak, to play the fiddle, to make a creaking or squeaking sound by pushing [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-gi-dse (ba-g-dse) - ba (ba), an act of pushing; gi-dse (gi-dse), squeak; a fiddle, ba-gi-dse ke spa-gi-dse ha (ba-gi-dse ke sp-gi-dse ha) - you play the fiddle [FL-Osage]; pa-ki-tse (paakce) - play music on an instrument, musical instrument, piano, music [CQ-Osage]; ba-gi-je (bagje) - fiddle, play the fiddle [Kaw]

adams apple

to-te ba-xaⁿ (ttte bxą) - adam's apple

cf. to-te (ttte) - throat

Dhegiha: do-dse ʰta-xe (d-dse-ṭa-xe) - adams apple, the knob on the throat [FL-Osage]; do-je ta-xe (dje tax) - adams apple [Kaw]

addition

a-ka-ha-tsi (kahtsi) - besides, in addition to, ts- suggests an Osage word

address

bi-te (bitt) - hands, extended to person, address pi-te (pptte) - I, shpi-te (ptte) - you

adhere

a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow aⁿ-da-ska (̨daska) - it sticks to me, naⁿ-pe ti aⁿ-da-ska (nąp-tti ̨daska) - it sticks to my hands, a-di-da-ska (didska) - it sticks to you, wa-da-ska-we (wdaskwe) - it sticks to us

cf. a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick; a-da-ska kniⁿ (daska kn̨) - sit close together

Dhegiha: we-a-tha-ska ba-the (weatha ka bathe) - paste, glue, adhesive tape [Omaha]; ska-be (skabe) - sticky, miry, mushy [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha-ska-be (uthskabe) - stick, adhere, to stick fast, as flat object which is glued to another [Omaha/Ponca]; ska-ska-be (k-ka-be) - sticky or miry; muddy [FL-Osage]; ska-be (skbe) - sticky, miry [Kaw]

a-ta-knaⁿ (ttakną) - stick, adhere to

cf. we-da-ta-knaⁿ-de (wdattaknąde) - paste, glue; a-da (da) - glue on; glue feathers on an arrow cf. i-da-da (idda) - glue something to something; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put si/in; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear-JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface

adopt

o-ka-xpa ki-de (okxpakkde) - be adopted as a Quapaw o-ka-xpa a-ki-de (okxpa akkde) - I, o-ka-xpa da-ki-de (okxpa dkkide) - you

Dhegiha: shi-e-gi-the (shigithe) - to adopt a person to take the place of ones own deceased child, grandchild, nephew, or niece [Omaha/Ponca]; she-gi-the (shgithe) - adopt [Omaha]; zhiⁿ-ga e-e-gi-ye (zhiⁿg egiye) - adopt one as a child [Kaw]

adult

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature

cf. naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - girl, young; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - father's older brother, man's

ex: wa-x'o naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

ex: iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (noⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw] . noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - to mature, to grow, to age [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age[CQ-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

     te-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (ttka n̨hą) - young, lit., new adult, recently grown up

cf. te-ka (ttka) - new; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature

ex: te-koⁿ no-ha (te-kon-no-hă) - young [JOD]

ex: te-ko no-ha (te-ko-no-hă) - young [LH]

Dhegiha: ʰtse-ga noⁿ (ṭs-ga noⁿ) - newly grown, just grown to maturity [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ka noⁿ (ʰcka n̨ǫ) - teenager, young person or young people, children in their teens (lit., "recently grown-up" or "recently adult") [CQ-Osage]; tse-ga noⁿ (cganoⁿ) - young man [Kaw]

wa-k'o tse-ga noⁿ (wak' cganoⁿ) - young woman, female just grown [Kaw]

     te-ka noⁿ-hi (ttka n̨hi) - young, lit., reached adult, arrived at adulthood

                        cf. te-ka (ttka) - new; noⁿ (noⁿ), naⁿ (naⁿ) - old; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been

                        ex: te-ke noⁿ-hi  (ttke n̨hi) - young [OM]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hi (noⁿ-h) - senility, reaches mature age [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hi (nǫǫh), noⁿ a-hi (n̨ǫ ah) - grow up, reach maturity, lit., arrive at adulthood [CQ-Osage]

advance

e-to-ha (ettha) - ahead, in front, in advance

                        cf. e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction, e-ta+o-ka-xde (etta+okaxde)

Dhegiha: e-ʰta-ha (ʰtaha) - toward [CQ-Osage]; e-ta-ha (taha) - there, over there, thither [Kaw]

adze

iⁿ-spe xa-taⁿ (̨spe xttą) - adze made of iron

                        cf. iⁿ-spe (̨spe, įsp) - axe; iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet

affection

wa-pi-de (wappde) - love or affection [OM]

wa-pi-de (w-pĭ-te) - love, affection [LH]

                        cf. pi-de (ppde) - love, as a woman does a man

Dhegiha: wa-pi-the (wa-p-the) - to love [FL-Osage]; pi-the (p-the) - the love of a woman for a man or boy [FL-Osage]; pi-ye (pye) - love a man, said of a woman [Kaw]

afraid

naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something naⁿ-a-pe (n̨appe) - I, naⁿ-da-pe (nądappe) - you, naⁿ-oⁿ-pa-we (n̨ǫppawe) - we

cf. noⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade) - dangerous; maⁿ naⁿpa-zhi (maⁿnaⁿ-p-ji) - He fears not Arrows; masc. name [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-pe (wanoⁿpe) - fear [Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰpe (nⁿ-p̣e) - to fear, to dread, to have a horror, to be afraid, to be timid [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpe (n̨ǫʰpe) - be afraid or scared, fear [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-pe (nⁿpe) - be afraid of what is visible [Kaw]

koi-he (kohe) - fearful, insecure aⁿ-koi-he (ąkihe) - I, di-koi-he (dikihe) - you, wa-koi-wa-he (wakoiwahe) - we

cf. koi-he-wa-de (kohewde) - fearful, inspiring fear

Dhegiha: ku-he (khe) - to feel insecure, to dread an unseen or uncertain danger, to be apprehensive, fear [Omaha/Ponca]; gu-he (ghe) - be afraid at night [Omaha]; ko-i-pshe (k-i-pshe) - to fear, as the fear of some unseen danger, misgiving, a feeling of doubt [FL-Osage]

na-xi-da (naγida) - scared, to be aⁿ-na-xi-da (ąnγida) - I, di-na-xi-da (dinγida) - you

                        cf. di-na-xi-da (dinxida) - scare, frighten

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-tha (noⁿxitha) - scare [Omaha]; xi-tha (qtha) - through fear of failure, reluctant, doubtful, to hate to undertake, to think that someone will not answer for the purpose [Omaha/Ponca]; xi-tha (xi-th) - lack of confidence [FL-Osage]; ʰki-xi-tha (ʰkxia) - despair, mistrust oneself, not trust oneself, doubt oneself, give up [CQ-Osage]

African American

i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - negro, lit., "dark whiteman"

i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - African American, negro [MS, MR]

i-sta-ge sha (istge ) - African American, negro [OM]

                        cf. i-shta-xe (itxe) - Frenchman, whiteman; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-xiⁿ) - yellow eyes, a white man [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (įįtxįį) - white person, French person, Canadian or English person, light eyes, gray, brown, or yellow eyes [CQ-Osage]; i-shta-xe (ishtxe) - white man, Frenchman, eyebrows [Kaw] . sha-be (shbe) - dark [Omaha/Ponca]; sha-be (sh-be) - dark in color [FL-Osage]; sha-pe (pe) - dark in color, shaded, darkened [CQ-Osage]; sha-be (shbe) - dark, shadowy, distant black, brown [Kaw]

after another

a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events, indirectly, not even second hand

ex: a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession, fire a volley

ex: a-ki-kde-kde a-na-xoⁿ (kkikdekde anxʔǫ) - I heard it indirectly

afternoon

hoⁿ-be ka-bni-da (hǫb kabnda) - afternoon

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; ka-bni-da (kabnda) - knock around, turn by hitting

afterward

a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ (iǫhttą) - later, afterward

                        cf. a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - last of a party or series

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-taⁿ oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨ [tta ǫkatʰ̨]) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago)

again

shi (i) - again, and, also

Dhegiha: shi (shi) - and, and then, again [Omaha/Ponca]; shi (shi) - again, and [FL-Osage]; shi (i) - again, more [CQ-Osage]; shi (shi) - again, and [Kaw]

shi-naⁿ (ną), shi-noⁿ (nǫ) - again, over and over, repeatedly [JOD]

cf. shi (i) - again, and, also; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic

ex: shi-naⁿ kdi hne (ną kdi hn) - come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-noⁿ kjhi (nǫ kǰi) - comeback again [AG)]

ex: jhi-e shi-noⁿ kjhi (ǰe nǫ kǰ) - you come back again [AG]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I'll come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: shi-noⁿ i-ta-de ta niⁿ-kʰe (nǫ ttade tta nįkʰ) - they're going to have another baby [AG]

Dhegiha: shi-noⁿ (sh-noⁿ) - again and again [FL-Osage]; shi-naⁿ (ną) - over and over, again and again, keep on, continue to do a thing [CQ-Osage]

i-naⁿ-paⁿ (nąp̨), i-naⁿ-baⁿ (nąb̨) - second time, again

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Dhegiha: i-thoⁿ-boⁿ (i-thⁿ-boⁿ) - a second time, again [FL-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-ba (yoⁿba) - second time, again [Kaw]

against

ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; i-maⁿ-ha (imąha) - Imaha, a Quapaw village, the 'up river' Quapaw village

Dhegiha: ki-moⁿ-hoⁿ (kimoⁿhoⁿ) - go against [Omaha]; ʰki-moⁿ-hoⁿ (ḳ-moⁿ-hoⁿ) - to face the wind, against the wind, current or upstream, windward [FL-Osage]; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmaⁿhaⁿ) - against the current or wind, upstream [Kaw]

aged

sh'a-ke (jakeh) - old, elderly, aged (vieux) [GI]

sh'a-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very)

cf. sh′a-ke hi (ʔake h), (ʔak h) - old man, elder; sh′a-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

Dhegiha: te sh′a-ge (tsh'age) - old buffalo [Omaha]; iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; ʰts′a-ge (ṭs′a-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses, father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ts′a-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law, used by a man addressing or referring to his wife's father, used by anyone referring to a man's father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; ts′a-ge (ts'ge) - old man, father-in-law, be unable for lack of time, fail [Kaw]; ts′a-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ts'ge zhⁿga), ts′a-ge hiⁿ-ga (ts'gehiⁿga) - be old, an old man, a venerable man, an ancestor, elder, one of the ancients or supernatural beings, hence, applied to the deities [Kaw]

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ - old, grown up, mature

cf. ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - father's older brother, man's

ex: wa-x'o naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

ex: iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (noⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw] . noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - to mature, to grow, to age [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age[CQ-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

wa-xo zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - woman, aged

cf. wa-xo zhi-ka (waxʔik) - woman, old, old female animal, little old lady

agency

pa-saⁿ-ta (psątta) - Pine Bluff, Quapaw Agency, IT

cf. pa-saⁿ (psą) - pine; pa-saⁿ hi (pasąhi) - pine tree; toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą)

agent

wa-jhi-ni ka-hi-ke (waǰni kahike) - President; Indian agent

wa-jhi-ni ga-hi-ge (waǰni gahge) - President, Indian Agent [OM]

cf. wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - white people, white man, white race [MS, MR, OM]; ka-hi-ke (kahke), ga-hi-ge (gahge) - chief

ago

ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago

a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago)]

di-o-za (diza) - just now, a short time ago

ahead

e-to-ha (ettha) - ahead, in front, in advance

                        cf. e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction, e-ta+o-ka-xde (etta+okaxde)

Dhegiha: e-ʰta-ha (ʰtaha) - toward [CQ-Osage]; e-ta-ha (taha) - there, over there, thither [Kaw]

aid

i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone i-da-na-zhiⁿ (idną) - I, i-da-na-zhiⁿ (danį) - you

cf. na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: i-gi-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (-gi-noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to depend on someone [FL-Osage]; i-ki-na-zhi (kinaazhi) - depend on, count on, rely on, lit., stand with another [CQ-Osage]

o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone o-a-kaⁿ (akką) - I, o-da-kaⁿ (dakką) - you

ex: o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone [OM]

ex: wi-ki-kaⁿ ta (wi-gi-kun-t) - I will help you [LH]

Dhegiha: o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help one's own relative [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help another who is not a relative [CQ-Osage] . o-ʰkaⁿ (ʰką) - help, help someone with a task, assist, aid [CQ-Osage] . u-wa-koⁿ (wakoⁿ) - help, to help them [Omaha/Ponca]; o-wa-kaⁿ (wakaⁿ) - help, to help someone [Kaw] . u-wa-gi-koⁿ (wagikⁿ) - aid, help, to help them or us, to aid more than one person [Omaha/Ponca]

o-ki-kaⁿ (kkikk̨) - help each other o-a-ki-kaⁿ (okkikk̨) - I, o-da-ki-kaⁿ (odkkikk̨) - you

aim

a-di-taⁿ (dittą) - aim at something a-bdi-taⁿ (bdittą) - I, a-ti-taⁿ (ttittą) - you, oⁿ-ka-di-taⁿ-we (ǫkdittąwe) - we

cf. di-taⁿ (ditt̨), maⁿ-te di-taⁿ (m̨tte ditt̨) - pull a bowstring; di-taⁿ (ditt̨) - feel, touch something; a-ki-di-taⁿ (kkiditt̨) - pull, as a rope

ex: ma-ze a-di-taⁿ (mze dittą) - aim a gun, aim at with a gun

ex: maⁿ a-di-taⁿ (m̨ dittą) - to aim at with a bow

Dhegiha: a-thi-doⁿ (-thi-doⁿ) - to pull on, to pull over one, as a blanket, to shut as a door [FL-Osage]; a-thi-ʰtaⁿ (iiʰtą) - close by grasping [CQ-Osage]; a-yu-taⁿ (yutaⁿ) - feel something with the hands or feel for one thing that is under another [Kaw] . thi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰⁿ) - touch, feel [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-doⁿ (thi-dⁿ) - to pull with the hands, to tug [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰtoⁿ (thi-ṭoⁿ) - to touch with the hand, to feel, to touch [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰtaⁿ (iiʰt̨) - grasp, touch with the hand, feel someone or something, handle, knead, work something with the hand [CQ-Osage]; yu-taⁿ (yutⁿ) - touch, feel with the hands, treat, palpate, work on with the hands [Kaw]

alcohol

ni shi-ke (ni ke) - whiskey, lit., "bad water"

ni shi-ke (ni ke) - whiskey [MS, AG, MW, OM]

                        cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly

te-ska te-zhe-ni (ttesk teni) - beer [OM]

                        cf. te-ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, "bison + white"; te-zhe-ni (teni) - urine

                        Dhegiha: ka-wa tse-zhe-ni (ʰkwaceenii) - beer, lit., horse urine [CQ-Osage]

ha-zi ni (hazni) - wine, grape juice

ha-zi ni (hah-zinnih) - wine (vin) [GI]

                        cf. ha-zi (hzi) - grape; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

Dhegiha: ha-zi ni (haini) - wine [Omaha]; ha-zi ni (h-i-ni) - juice of grapes, wine [FL-Osage]; ha-zu ni (hazunii) - grape juice [CQ-Osage]

zhoⁿ ni (jonnih) - rum, bourbon (rum) [GI]

zhoⁿ ni (jōn-nīh) - water of life, brandy (eau de vie) [GI]

                        cf. zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, "tree sap"

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, syrup, honey, wood water, wood sap [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ni (zhoⁿni) - sap, candy, fudge, sugar [Omaha]; zhaⁿ ni (ąąni) - sugar, lit., tree water, originally referring to maple sap or syrup [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (zhaⁿn) - sugar, lit., tree liquid, a reference to maple sap [Kaw]

alike

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike, Quapaw should have e-kaⁿ (eką), e-koⁿ (ekǫ) - like

cf. koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-go (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (k͓ŭⁿ-s͓e -k͓ŭⁿ) - alike, resembling something else referred to [JOD-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

alive

ni (ni) - alive, conscious

ex: ni-de (nde) - save a life, cause to live

Dhegiha: ni (ni) - to exist, to live [FL-Osage]; ni (n) - live, be alive, be living, be well or all right, be in good health [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - live, to be alive [Kaw]

ni tʰaⁿ, ni toⁿ (ni-ton) - life, existence (vie) [GI]

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - 3sg standing continuative auxiliary; taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

Dhegiha: ni ta (nta) - alive, life [Omaha]

ni o-kniⁿ (ni-unkani) - live, exist (vivre) [GI]

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) -  sit in, dwell in, live in

ti-ta (titt) - live, be alive aⁿ-ti-ta (̨titta) - I, di-ti-ta (dtitta) - you

all

za-ni (zan) - all, all of the

za-ni (zan) - all [AB]

cf. za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: za-ni o-zha ki-we (zan a kiw) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: o-zha za-ni ki-wa-we (a zan  kiwawe) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ba o-zha hne za-ni (ą́ba a hn zan) - whole bunch of them dance all night (request) [MS]

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

i-za-ni (zani) - all [AG]

ex: i-za-ni oⁿ-ka-kdi wa-naⁿ-bde shkoⁿ-ta (zani ǫkkdi waną́bde kǫtt) - come on, all of you, if you want to eat [AG]

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand [AG]

alligator

wa-kdi-ska taⁿ-ka (wakdka tt̨ka) - alligator, "large reptile"

wa-kdi-shka taⁿ-ka (wakdka tt̨ka) - alligator [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-gthi-ska hi du-ba (wagthiska hi duba) - lizard, reptile, four legged reptile [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-gthi-shka hi du-ba (wagthishka hi duba) - lizard, salamander, alligator [Omaha]; wa-gthi-shka hi du-ba toⁿ-ga (wagthishka hi duba toⁿga) - crocodile [Omaha]

almost

haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost

ex: pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - it's almost dark [MS]

ex: pa-zi de haⁿ-ke (ppzi d hąk) - nearly night

ex: hoⁿ-ba i-haⁿ-ke (hǫba ihąke) - morning, forenoon

ex: miⁿ haⁿ-p[a]e-haⁿ-ke (m̨ hąphąk) - nearly noon

ex: haⁿ-b[a]e-haⁿ-ke taⁿ (hąbhąkttą) - forenoon, in or during

ex: haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day

ex: haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke te (h̨ba h̨kette) - dawn, nearly

i-hi-zhi (hii) - almost, not quite

cf. i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place; zhi (i) - negative, not

alone

naⁿ-hi (nąh) - alone, all alone

            cf. e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

naⁿ iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

wi-naⁿ (wną), wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - I, only I, I alone

            Dhegiha: wi-noⁿ (wnoⁿ) - only I [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-naⁿ (wną) - only I [CQ-Osage]

di-naⁿ (dną) - you only

            Dhegiha: thi-e noⁿ (thi-e noⁿ) - yourself [FL-Osage]; thi-naⁿ (ną) - only you [CQ-Osage]

e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

ex: e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - The Only Precious, Difficult One, female personal name [OM]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS]

Dhegiha: e-naⁿ (enaⁿ) - that only [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (e-noⁿ) - only one, sole, exclusive [FL-Osage]; e-na (een), e-naⁿ (een̨) - be the only one, that only, therefore, that's why, enough [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną) - we, only, only us

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ąkną) - only we [CQ-Osage]

along

a-pa-kda (pakda) - along

a-ba-knaⁿ-ta (baknątta) - along, beside, by

ex: iⁿ a-ba-knaⁿ-ta (̨ baknątta) - by a stone

ex: ni a-ba-knaⁿ-ta bde (ni baknątta bd) - I go along the stream

also

ta (tt) - also, too, and

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I, I too, me too, as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - me too [OM]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkką́ik wehǫ owkką́ik waǰni) - he (white man) don't like me and I don't like him either [MS]

di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too

e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-ba (-thoⁿ-ba) - he also [FL-Osage]; e-thoⁿ-pa (eǫǫpa) - group including just mentioned individual(s), can sometimes be translated as both, all, and another, and others or as and I when followed by a verb with 1st pl. inflection [CQ-Osage]; e-yoⁿ-ba (yoⁿba) - both, too, also, and (used with nouns) [Kaw]

naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, also, too

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

alter

di-e-zhi (die) - change, alter, abrogate bdi-e-zhi (bdei) - I, ti-e-zhi (ttei) - you

cf. e-zhi (i) - another, different; e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

Dhegiha: thi-a-zhi (thiazhi) - changed [Omaha]; thi-e-zhi (thi--zhi) - change in plans, to make a change in ones plan, or in making of something, to pervert, perversion [FL-Osage]; thu-e-zhi (ei) - change, lit., make different [CQ-Osage]; yu-e-zhi (yuzhi) - change, alter something, act or dress differently [Kaw]

i-ye si-ze-ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate

cf. i-ye (ye) - word, talk, speak; si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm; ni-ke (nik) - none, to have, be lacking; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

although

e-ni-te (nitte) - although, though

ni-tʰe (nitʰ) - conditional, perfect, although

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿkda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

always

shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide), shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide) - always, ever, never

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿ-shoⁿ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (̨ǫwe) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

i-ki-he (ikih) - always, incessantly

Dhegiha: i-gi-ha (-gi-ha) - always, ever, often, frequent, incessant [FL-Osage]; i-ki-ha (kiha) - always, repeatedly [CQ-Osage]; i-gi-ha (giha) - always, ever, without stopping [Kaw]

shtaⁿ (tą) - habitual aspect suffix

ex: i-ye-shtaⁿ (yet̨) - talker, loquacious person

ex: wa-maⁿ-da-shtaⁿ (wam̨dat̨) - thief, who steals habitually

Dhegiha: shtoⁿ (shtoⁿ) - in the habit of, habitually, constantly [FL-Osage]; shtaⁿ (tą) - all the time, incessantly, always, a lot, constantly, continually, keep on doing something [CQ-Osage]; shtaⁿ (shtaⁿ) - habitual aspect suffix or postclitic [Kaw]

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic, used with verbs and classifiers

ex: bda-taⁿ naⁿ (bdatt̨ ną) - I drink, I'm a drunkard

ex: ta-taⁿ naⁿ (ttatt̨ ną) - you drink, you're a drunkard

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿkda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect, usually, always, generally [Kaw]

am

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - 1sg continuative auxiliary sitting and lying, I

ex: bda-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ mįkʰ) - I am drinking

ex: ha-t'e miⁿ-kʰe (htʔe mįkʰ) - I'm sick [MS]

ex: i-ka-pʰe o-a-te miⁿ-kʰe (kapʰe otte mįkʰ) - looking for old comb (I'm looking for a comb) [MS]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, uh, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, uh, semi tto ąnke) - I'm going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: hi-da ta miⁿ-kʰe (hid ta mįkʰ) - I'm going swimming [AG, OM]

ex: to-zhoⁿ-ke bda-tʰe miⁿ-kʰe (tǫke bdtʰe mįkʰ) - I'm eating a banana [MS]

ex: i-ka-pʰe o-a-te miⁿ-kʰe (kapʰe otte mįkʰ) - looking for old comb (I'm looking for a comb) [MS]

Dhegiha: miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkʰe) - 1sg aux [JOD-Omaha]; miⁿ-kshe (miⁿ-kshe) - I who sit here [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-kshe (mįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 1st sg. sitting or lying down subject [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-khe (miⁿkh) - I, while sitting [Kaw]

 

a-tʰą-he (atʰąh) - 1sg continuative auxiliary standing, I

ex: wi-e a-tʰaⁿ-he (wiĭ atohe) - I am [LH]

Dhegiha: a-toⁿ-he (a-toⁿ-he) - I stand [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-txaⁿ-he (ątxąh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for standing 1st sg. subject [CQ-Osage]; a-kha-he (akhhe) - I, while standing [Kaw]

a-ni-he (nih) - 1sg continuative auxiliary moving, I

ex: koⁿi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kǫįttą eki bd tt[a]nih) - So I am going to go somewhere else

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ-he (a-thⁿ he) - in my life movements [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-thiⁿ-he (ąįh) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 1st sg. subject [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-he (ayih) - I, while moving [Kaw]

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic

ex: bda-taⁿ naⁿ (bdatt̨ ną) - I drink, I'm a drunkard

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect, usually, always, generally [Kaw]

niⁿ (nį), (nyį) - be in a location, exist bniⁿ (bn̨) - I, tiⁿ (tt̨) - you

ex: dedtą bniⁿ (dedtaⁿ p͓nⁿ), dketitaⁿ bniⁿ (dk͓ettaⁿ p͓nⁿ) - I am Dhegiha [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (iⁿ) - to be [Omaha/Ponca]; niⁿ (n̨), thiⁿ (̨) - be a certain way, live as, exist as, be characterized by the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - to be, to be so, to be such a one, indicates permanent or long-term condition [Kaw]

American

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - American; derived from "Virginia"

wa-jhi-ni (ŭatschinni) - American (Amricain) [GI]

wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - white people, white man, white race (MS, MR, OM)]

ex: wa-jhi-ni  a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful (lit. plural are sitting)

ex: wa-jhi-ni ni-ka (waǰni nkka) - white man [AG, OM]

ex: wa-jhi-ni koi (waǰni ki) - he's a white man [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta aⁿ-ba o-zha hne (waǰni kd tta ą́ba a hn) - you white people go home and dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS)]

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkką́ik) - white man didn't like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkką́ik wehǫ owkką́ik waǰni) - he (white man) don't like me and I don't like him either [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni mi (waǰni mi) - white woman [AG, OM]

ex: wa-jhi-ni mi ta-ka-te (waǰni mi tkkatte) - hot white woman [AG]

ex: wa-jhi-ni miⁿ koi (waǰni mį ki) - she's a white woman [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni wa-x'o (waǰni waxʔ) - white woman [AG]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ka-hi-ke (waǰni kahike) - President; Indian agent

Dhegiha: wa-dsi-ni (w-dsi-ni) - a disease, a malady [FL-Osage]; wa-tsʰi-ni (wcʰini) - venereal disease, sexually transmitted disease, probably from Virginia which may have been used to mean white man [CQ-Osage]; wa-ji-ne (wji ne) - disease, a malady [Kaw]

 

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