English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

N

 

nail

ma-ze snaⁿ-ka (mze sn̨kka) - nail

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron or gun; ma-ze snaⁿ-ka o-ka-taⁿ (mze sn̨kka okttą) - drive a nail into something

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron, metal [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿe) - nail, iron, metal, female breasts, teats [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron or any kind of metal [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mą́ze) - metal of any kind, lead or iron, wire, cable [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mⁿze) - iron, metal in general [Kaw]

 

nail, drive a nail into something

ma-ze snaⁿ-ka o-ka-taⁿ (mze sn̨kka okttą) - drive a nail into something

cf. ma-ze snaⁿ-ka (mze sn̨kka) - nail; o-ka-taⁿ (okttą) - drive in, as nails in a board

Dhegiha: o-ga-doⁿ (ogadoⁿ) - pound [Omaha]; u-ga-doⁿ (u-g-doⁿ) - to nail down a board or nail up a box [FL-Osage]; o-ga-daⁿ (ogdaⁿ) - drive a nail into something [Kaw]

 

o-ka-taⁿ (okttą) - drive in, as nails in a board o-a-ka-taⁿ (okattą) - I, o-da-ka-taⁿ (odkattą) - you

cf. ma-ze snaⁿ-ka o-ka-taⁿ (mze sn̨kka okttą) - drive a nail into something

Dhegiha: o-ga-doⁿ (ogadoⁿ) - pound [Omaha]; u-ga-doⁿ (u-g-doⁿ) - to nail down a board or nail up a box [FL-Osage]; o-ga-daⁿ (ogdaⁿ) - drive a nail into something [Kaw]

 

nail, fingernail

naⁿ-pe sha-ke (nąp ke) - fingernails

naⁿ-pe sha-ke (nąp ke) - fingernail [MS]

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof; si-pa sha-ke (sipp ke) - toe nail; wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we sha-ke (wąka xwe ke) - eagle claw; wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke (wąka ke) - birds claw

Dhegiha: shi-sha-ge (shshage) - fingernails [Omaha/Ponca]; sha-ge-ha (sh-ge-ha) - finger nail [FL-Osage]; sha-ge-ya-ha (shgeyah) - fingernail [Kaw]

 

nail, toenail

si-pa sha-ke (sipp ke) - toe nail(s)

si-pa sha-ke (sipp ke) - toe nail [MS]

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi sha-ge ((siphi shge) - toenails [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa sha-ge-ha (sip shgeha) - toenail [Kaw]

Dhegiha: si-pa-ha (i-p̣-ha) - toenail [FL-Osage]; si-pa-ha (sipha) - toenail [Kaw]

 

naked to the waist

do-ka-niⁿ (dokknį), to-ka-niⁿ (tokknį) - naked to the waist

cf. si do-ka-niⁿ (si dkkan̨) - to be barefoot; to-ka-ni o-zha (tokkni a) - war dance, no shirt - dance [MS]; zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ha thu-ka-thiⁿ-i (hukiⁿi) - naked [JOD-Omaha]; nu-ka-thiⁿ (nukiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [JOD-Omaha]; ha thu-ga-thiⁿ (ha thgathiⁿ) - naked, nude, bare [Omaha]; tho-ʰka-thiⁿ (tho-ḳ-thiⁿ), thu-ʰka-thiⁿ (th-ḳa-thiⁿ), nu-ʰka-thiⁿ (nu-ḳa-thiⁿ) - stripped to the waist; nude, naked [FL-Osage]; yo-ka-yiⁿ (yokyiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [Kaw]

 

naked, nude

zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat; do-ka-niⁿ (dokknį), to-ka-niⁿ (tokknį) - naked to the waist; hi (hi) - very; si do-ka-niⁿ (si dkkan̨) - to be barefoot; to-ka-ni o-zha (tokkni a) - war dance, no shirt - dance [MS]

Dhegiha: ha thu-ka-thiⁿ-i (hukiⁿi) - naked [JOD-Omaha]; nu-ka-thiⁿ (nukiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [JOD-Omaha]; ha thu-ga-thiⁿ (ha thgathiⁿ) - naked, nude, bare [Omaha]; tho-ʰka-thiⁿ (tho-ḳ-thiⁿ), thu-ʰka-thiⁿ (th-ḳa-thiⁿ), nu-ʰka-thiⁿ (nu-ḳa-thiⁿ) - stripped to the waist; nude, naked [FL-Osage]; yo-ka-yiⁿ (yokyiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [Kaw]

 

name

zha-zhe (e) - name

ex: ta-taⁿ zha-zhe a-tiⁿ (tttą e att̨) - whats your name? [MS]

ex: ma-xe-ka a-niⁿ zha-zhe, ka-hi-ka (mxeka an̨ e, kahke) - mxeka-he had-name-chief (the chiefs name was mxeka) [JOD]

Dhegiha: zha-zhe (zh-zhe) - name [FL-Osage]; zha-zhe (e) - name [CQ-Osage]; zha-zhe (zhzhe) - name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-zha-zhe (izhzhe) - name [Omaha/Ponca]; i-zha-zhe (izhazhe) - name [Omaha]

 

i-zha-zhi (i) - name [OM]

ex: i-zha-zhi ta-to jhi-e (i ttto ǰe) - what is your name? [OM]

Dhegiha: i-zha-zhe (izhzhe) - name [Omaha/Ponca]; i-zha-zhe (izhazhe) - name [Omaha]

Dhegiha: zha-zhe (zh-zhe) - name [FL-Osage]; zha-zhe (e) - name [CQ-Osage]; zha-zhe (zhzhe) - name [Kaw]

 

name of the west wind or quarter

a-ka i-de (kʔa id) - the name of the west wind or quarter

a-ka i-de (kʔa id) - south [MS]

cf. a-ka (kʔa) - west wind; i-de (id) - do, go; i-de (id) - departed [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; hi-de (hde) - precipitate, as rain, snow

ex: si-o-ti a-ka hi-de tʰe (sitti kʔa hde tʰ) - the west wind was blowing yesterday

Dhegiha: aa (a) - south wind, an archaic word still retained in names [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰka (-ḳa) - south; the south wind [FL-Osage]; a-ʰka-dsi (-ḳa-dsi) - archaic name for south [FL-Osage]; ʰta-dse a-ka tse (ṭ-dse a-ka tse) - south wind [FL-Osage]; a-ʰka-hiu-e (-ḳa-hiu-e) - wind is from the south [FL-Osage]; a-ka-hu-e (kʔahe) - south wind [CQ-Osage]; a-ka (ka) - south, south wind; deity of the south wind, power of the south wind [Kaw]; a-ka zhiⁿ-ga (ka zhⁿga), a-ka-hiⁿ-ga (kahiⁿga) - west, west wind; deity of the west wind, power of the south wind [Kaw]; a-ko-ye (koye) - west wind [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-the (h-ĕ) - to cause him, her, or it to reach there (not his home) [Omaha]; hi-the (hi-th), hiu-the (hiu-the) - to have gone; to have departed; to cause to reach there, to send thither [FL-Osage]; hiu-the (hi-the) - coming; to cause to come [FL-Osage]; hu-the (he) - cause to come here, send here; hand over, hand to, pass to by hand or other means (e.g., food at the table); come here [CQ-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there (lit., cause to arrive there) [CQ-Osage]; hu-ye (hye) - relating to weather: blowing, precipitating [Kaw]; hi-ye (hiy) - to have gone (somewhere) [Kaw]; i-ye (iy), hi-ye (hiy) - to have gone to a particular place; to have set, as the sun [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-de (hid) - base, bottom, root; lowest part; root of a tree; lowest part of a stream, near the mouth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi-de (hide) - low, base [Omaha]; hiu-dse (hi-dse) - down, below [FL-Osage]; hu-tse (huce) - down, downward [CQ-Osage]; hu-je (huj) - bottom, lower part of something; lower course of a stream just above its mouth [Kaw]

 

name or call something, read aloud

da-te (dat) - read aloud, call or name something bda-te (bdte) - I, ta-te (ttte) - you

cf. i-ka-zo-zo da-te (kazzo dat) - school, school house, read books [MS]

ex: da-ta-i (data) - they called [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-de (thad) - call, name, speak, utter, pronounce [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-dse (tha-ds) - to call as by name, to pronounce [FL-Osage]; tha-tse (aac) - say, pronounce, read, call on someone's name, say the name of something or someone, call, define as, assign a name to something or someone, use a name for something or someone [CQ-Osage]; ya-je (yaj) - read, pronounce, to call by name [Kaw]

 

name, first daughters birth name

si-ke (ske) - daughter, oldest daughter, first daughter, birth order name, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [AG] is recorded saying that they called her oldest sister si-ke (sik)

si-ke (sik) - girl [AG]

ex: si-ke xda (ske xd) - skinny girl [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te niⁿ-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

Dhegiha: si-ge (si-g) - the ordinal birth-name for the fourth daughter [JOD-Omaha]; si-ge (sig) - birth-order name; fourth daughter [Omaha/Ponca]; si-ge (-ge) - the third daughter (special kinship term) [FL-Osage]; si-ke (ske) - third daughter [CQ-Osage]; si-ge (sig) - third or fourth daughter [Kaw]

 

name, first daughters birth name

wi-naⁿ zhi-ka (win̨ ka) - first born daughter, vocative wi-naⁿ-e (win̨e)

Dhegiha: wi-naⁿ (wi-nⁿ) - the ordinal birth-name for the first daughter [JOD-Omaha]; mi-na (m-na) - this is a special kinship term used by a father and mother for their first daughter, the term is also used by other members of the family, it is not a personal name, it is however, a gentile name, by which she may be addressed by anybody [FL-Osage]; mi-na (mina) - eldest daughter [CQ-Osage]; mi-noⁿ (m-noⁿ) - the first daughter (special kinship term) [FL-Osage]; mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - first daughter [Kaw]

Dhegiha: mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - second daughter [Kaw]

 

name, first sons birth name

iⁿ-knaⁿ (įkn̨) - first son [JOD]

cf. iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi-ka (įkd̨ ka) - son, first born; iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi (įkd̨ ) - first son [MS]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, wa-zhiⁿ ki-te da-ni-he  (įkn̨, wą kktte d-nih) - first son, go shoot some birds! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, aⁿ-ka-kde te, i-ke tʰaⁿ (įkn̨, ąkkde tt, ik tʰą) - first son, lets go home, he said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿgthⁿ) - first son, a birth order name [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthaⁿ (i-gⁿ), iⁿ-gtho (i-g) - the first born son [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿ-gthⁿ) - special kinship term for the first son, one that only the immediate family uses [FL-Osage]; i-loⁿ (il̨ǫ), i-loⁿ-taⁿ (il̨ǫʰtą) - eldest son [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-loⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ǫʰpa), i-loⁿiⁿ-ʰpa (il̨įʰpa), i-loⁿ-aⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ąʰpa) - first son in any clan (probably a baby name) [CQ-Osage]; i-lo-a-pa (ilapa) - first born son [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi-ka (įkd̨ ka) - son, first born

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi (įkd̨ ) - first son [MS]

cf. iⁿ-knaⁿ (įkn̨) - first son [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthaⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (i-gⁿ ji-ga) - n.p. masc. of the Ponka gens [JOD-Omaha]; i-lo hiⁿ-ga (ilhⁿga) - first born son; last born son [Kaw]

 

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, oldest boys birth name, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [MR] and [OM] are recorded saying kʰa-ke (kʰke) as oldest boy

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - oldest boy [MR, OM]

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - boy closer to you [AG]

Dhegiha: ka-ge (ka-g) - the ____ born son, also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the young brothers serve as messengers for elder brothers [FL-Osage]; ka-ge pa-haⁿ-le (kag pahⁿle), kha-ge pa-haⁿ-le (khag pahⁿle) - first of the ka-ge (kag), third-born son [Kaw]

 

kʰa-zhiⁿ (kʰį) - first son

Dhegiha: ka-ge (ka-g) - the ____ born son, also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the young brothers serve as messengers for elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) [CQ-Osage]; kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį), kxa-zhiⁿ-ka (kxįka) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-ke (kxke) [CQ-Osage]; ka-ge pa-haⁿ-le (kag pahⁿle), kha-ge pa-haⁿ-le (khag pahⁿle) - first of the ka-ge (kag), third-born son [Kaw]

 

name, fourth sons birth name

kʰa-ke zhi-ka (kʰak ka) - son, 4th sons birthname

Dhegiha: ka-ge (ka-g) - the ____ born son, also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the young brothers serve as messengers for elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) [CQ-Osage]; kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį), kxa-zhiⁿ-ka (kxįka) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-ke (kxke) [CQ-Osage]; ka-ge pa-haⁿ-le (kag pahⁿle), kha-ge pa-haⁿ-le (khag pahⁿle) - first of the ka-ge (kag), third-born son [Kaw]

 

name, second daughters birth name

wi-na (win), wi-naⁿ (win̨) - second daughter, birth name

wi-na (wi-n) - second girl [OM]

wi-na (wi-n) - second girl, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [OM] says wi-na (win) for second daughter, one of [MS] great granddaughters was nicknamed wi-na (win), as she was the second daughter in that family, when [MS] was asked how to say second daughter by her father, she said wi-na (win)

Dhegiha: mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - second daughter [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wi-naⁿ (wi-nⁿ) - the ordinal birth-name for the first daughter [JOD-Omaha]; mi-na (m-na) - this is a special kinship term used by a father and mother for their first daughter, the term is also used by other members of the family, it is not a personal name, it is however, a gentile name, by which she may be addressed by anybody [FL-Osage]; mi-na (mina) - eldest daughter [CQ-Osage]; mi-noⁿ (m-noⁿ) - the first daughter (special kinship term) [FL-Osage]; mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - first daughter [Kaw]

 

name, second daughters birth name

si-ke (ske) - second daughter

si-ke zhi-ka (ske ika) - second daughter

Dhegiha: si-ge (si-g) - the ordinal birth-name for the fourth daughter [JOD-Omaha]; si-ge (sig) - birth-order name; fourth daughter [Omaha/Ponca]; si-ge (-ge) - the third daughter (special kinship term) [FL-Osage]; si-ke (ske) - third daughter [CQ-Osage]; si-ge (sig) - third or fourth daughter [Kaw]

 

name, second sons birth name

iⁿ-kʰe zhi-ka (įkʰ ka) - son, second born

Dhegiha: iⁿ-ke (i-k) - n.p. masc. [JOD-Omaha]; i-khe (ikh) - second son: birth-order name [Kaw]

 

name, third daughters birth name

wi-he (wih) - third born daughter, birth name

wi-he zhi-ka (whe ka) - third born daughter, birth name; vocative wi-he (wih)

Dhegiha: wi-he (wi-h) - the ordinal birth-name for second daughter; used by a female in addressing a younger sister, or female friend, just as ka-ge (kage) is used by a male in addressing a younger brother or a male friend [JOD-Omaha]; wi-he (wi-h) - special kinship term; the name by which the second daughter is called [FL-Osage]; wi-he (wih) - second daughter [CQ-Osage]; wi-he (wih) - second born daughter [Kaw]

 

name, third sons birth name

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, third sons birth name

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (kʰak, hak nkkaka ett nįkʰe, iy) - younger brother, where is the human being? said he [JOD]

ex: ha-ki ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti niⁿ, kʰa-ke, i-ye (hak nkkaka ett nį, kʰak, ye) - where is the human being, younger brother? he said [JOD]

ex: kʰa-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka ha-ki e-ti niⁿ, i-ye kʰak, nkkaka hak ett nį, iy) - younger brother, where is the human being? he said [JOD]

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-zhoⁿ wi-ke (kʰak, hą wike) - younger brothers, what are you doing? [JOD]

Dhegiha: ka-ge (ka-g) - the ____ born son, also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the young brothers serve as messengers for elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) [CQ-Osage]; kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį), kxa-zhiⁿ-ka (kxįka) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-ke (kxke) [CQ-Osage]; ka-ge pa-haⁿ-le (kag pahⁿle), kha-ge pa-haⁿ-le (khag pahⁿle) - first of the ka-ge (kag), third-born son [Kaw]

 

names of the original Quapaw towns

When the Kwapa were discovered by the French they dwelt in five villages, described by the early chroniclers as the Imaha (Imaham, Imahao), Capaha, Toriman, Tonginga (Doginga, Topinga), and Southois (Atotchasi, Ossouteouez). Three of these village names are known to all the tribe: 1, o-ka-xpa-xti (uʞqpa-qti), Real Kwapa; 2, ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (t-u--di-maⁿ) (Toriman), t-u-a-d maⁿ (of Mrs Stafford); 3, o-zo ti-o-we (u-z-ti--wĕ) (Southois, etc). The fourth was taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (taⁿ́waⁿ jʞa), Small village. Judging from analogy and the fact that the fifth village, i-ma-ha (imaha), was the farthest up Arkansas river, that village name must have meant, as did the term Omaha, the upstream people. [JOD-Quapaw]

 

i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

i-ma-ha (măha) - a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwp, who lived with the Ḱdohad́cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwp were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwp who lived upstream (maha) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. [J. Mooney-Caddo]

ma-ha (maha) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind

Dhegiha: u-ma-ha (u-m-ha), u-maⁿ-haⁿ (umaⁿ-haⁿ) - those that went upstream, the Omahas, a tribe of the egiha group of the Siouan Family, see Paka, Wajaje, K͓aⁿze, and Ugaqpa [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (u-mⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for Omaha [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-haⁿ (om̨hą) - Omaha (tribe or tribal member) [CQ-Osage]; o-ma-ha (omha), oⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (oⁿmⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha tribe or people, those who went upstream, so called because they (as well as the Ponca, Osage, and Kansa) went up stream when they left the Quapaw [Kaw]

 

o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages; spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.

ga-pa (gappa) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (u-g-qpa) - those who went downstream, the Kwapas or Quapaws, they were known to the Illinois tribes as the Arkansas or Alkansas [JOD-Omaha]; u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, the down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom

o-zo ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: u-zu (u-) - lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - 1) wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber; oz tⁿga ji ay gⁿyabe che a, pahⁿle ch. They first desired to go to an extensive bottom land, abounding in timber, where Junction City now stands; 2) hilltops JOD uses this term in reference to the noⁿnⁿbahu t, a kind of grape or berry found on the oz (hill tops) but the term more commonly refers to lowlands, as in sense 1. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zu u-gthoⁿ (-u-u-gthoⁿ) - lowland forest in the bend of a stream [FL-Osage]; u-zu i-ha zhiⁿ-ga (u--i-ha zhiⁿ-ga) - at one time there was a large bend in the stream, which was nearly closed; the meaning of the name is small mouth; it is near the u-zu (u-u) or woods, what is known as Bartlesville, Kans. This was the site of the fourth camp in the fisrt trail, also of the third trail [FL-Osage]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber, the name of a village, literally, they live in the timber. JOD identifies this as a proper town, that is, it refers to a specific village, also called cexliⁿ village on a highland or lowland level, destitute of trees. The second name seems to contradict the first name but MRs comments might be intended to clarify: There used to be three branches, like Pawhuska, and some of them lived in that and some of them lived along the creek, Gaxoliⁿ and Zaⁿjliⁿ. Those people lived in the [_?_], why they used to live north of Kaw there, at Washunga there. And those others, they used to [_?_] on top of the hill. And I think they called Waxga-oliⁿ where the cactus grows. Zaⁿjliⁿ is where they live in the timber, zaⁿj. And Gax-oliⁿ, they used to live along the edge of [creek?] over there at Washunga. [Kaw]

 

taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - small town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

cf. taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: taⁿ-waⁿ (tⁿ-waⁿ) - a cluster of lodges, a camp, village, or Indian town [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town; cluster of lodges, Indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - a town or city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (ttodimą) - one of the five original Quapaw villages mentioned in early French narratives, often spelled Toriman or Thoriman by the French

 

naming

While endeavoring to obtain a full list of personal names of the tribe, I met with considerable difficulty on account of the reluctance of the people to communicate to me the information which they regarded as the peculiar right of a class of men whom the called wapinaⁿ. A wapinaⁿ they divined as a nika quwe or mysterious man. [JOD]

kahike stete (Tall Chief) o Lewis Angells, is a chief or kahike as well as the principal wapinaⁿ of the tribe. His subordinate wapinaⁿ is one of two Kwapa men known as naka tu or Green Back, the other being kani jika or Little Thunder. Tallchief, in his capacity of wapinaⁿ, is obliged to go back and forth every year to administer to the spiritual wants of both divisions of the Kwapa nation. As chief wapinaⁿ, Tall Chief is essential is the custodian of all the Kwapa personal names. Whenever a person is adopted into the Kwapa nation, the presence of Tall Chief is essential, for he alone can bestow the personal name. When the life of a Kwapa is supposed to be in danger from illness, he or she desires to abandon his or her personal name. Application is made to another member of the tribe, who goes to Tall Chief, and from him purchases a new name which is given to the patient.  With abandonment of the old name, it is supposed that the sickness, too, is thrown off. On the reception of the new name, the patient becomes related to the Kwapa who has purchased the name from Tall Chief. Any Kwapa can change or abandon his or her personal name four times; but it is considered bad luck to attempt such a thing for the fifth time. Tall Chief regulates marriages. While I was on the Quapaw reservation in January, the coming of Tall Chief was looked for every day. I was informed on his arrival he would perform the marriage ceremony for some of the young people, without regarding their individual preferences. [JOD]

 

 

nape, vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

ta-i-ta-kde (ttittkde) - spinal prominence, vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

cf. ta-i-ta (ttitt) - neck

Dhegiha: ta-i-u-gthe (tigthe) - neck bone, bone in the lower back of the neck, into which the spine fits [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i u-gthe (tai gthe) - hollow at the nape of the neck [Omaha]; ta-i-a-ta (taita) - at or near the back of the head [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: ta-i (ti) - back of the head, from the parting of the hair on the crown to the neck [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i (ta) - back of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-hiu (ṭ-hiu) - nape of the neck, the neck [FL-Osage]; ʰta-hu (ʰthu) - neck [CQ-Osage]; ta-hu (thu) - neck [Kaw]

 

narrow

zo-we (zwe) - narrow

Dhegiha: zu-be (zbe) - pointed, sharp, peaked [Omaha/Ponca]; zu-be (z-be) - sharp-pointed, the peak of a hill [JOD-Omaha]; ba-zu-be (bzube) - cut to a point, whittle a point [Kaw]; ba-zu-be (bazbe), ba-zu-we (bazwe) - whittle, poke with a point [Kaw]

 

nasal mucus, snot

pa-xni (ppaxn) - snot, nasal mucus

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption

Dhegiha: pa-xthiⁿ (paqthⁿ) - nasal mucus, nasal excretion, snot [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-xthiⁿ (paxthiⁿ) - snot [Omaha]; ʰpa-xthiⁿ (p̣a-xthⁿ) - mucus from the nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-liⁿ (ʰpal̨), ʰpa-ʰliⁿ (ʰpaʰlį), ʰpa-li (ʰpali) - mucus from the nose, runny nose, snot [CQ-Osage]; pa-xliⁿ (paxlⁿ) - nasal mucus, snot [Kaw]

 

nation, tribe

o-taⁿ-knaⁿ (ttąkną) - tribe, nation

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into

Dhegiha: o-taⁿ-maⁿ-laⁿ (otⁿmaⁿlaⁿ) - to dwell within village [Kaw]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (tⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - tribe, nation, people, city, town; tribe or nation dwelling in a town or village [Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (toⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - village, town [Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (ṭⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ) - the common name for the gens (clans) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ-la (ʰt̨wąla) - clan [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town, cluster of lodges, indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - town, village, city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

native

de-to (dett), de-do (ded) - native; translates to JODs Dhegiha

de-do (ddo) - here

de-do (de-do) - here, this place, right here [AG, OM]

cf. she-do (do) - yonder, there

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe moⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨ mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here? he said to him [JOD]

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

Dhegiha: the-thu (u) - here [JOD-Omaha]; the-thu-di a-toⁿ (thethudi atoⁿ) - from here [Omaha]; the-tho (th-tho) - here at this place [FL-Osage]; ye-yo (yy) - here, right here [Kaw]

 

natural opening, hole

o-xo-te (oxʔtte), o-xo-de (oxʔde) - hole, natural opening

cf. na-xi-te o-xo-te (naxtte oxʔtte), na-xi-te o-xo-de (naxtte oxʔde) - meatus of the ear, the external opening; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-xo-te (ppąe oxʔtte) - nostril(s); o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

Dhegiha: u-u-de (ude) - hole [Omaha/Ponca]; u-u-te (uute) - hole [Omaha]; u-ʰku-dse (u-ḳ-dse) - a hole, perforation, orifice [FL-Osage]; o-ko-tse (okʔce), o-ko (okʔ) - hole [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-je (okje) - hole, aperture [Kaw]

 

navel

de-ta (dtta) - navel

cf. de-ta-shoⁿ (dttaǫ), de-ta-shaⁿ (dttaą) - navel

Dhegiha: the-tʰa (thtʰa) - navel [Omaha/Ponca]

 

de-ta-shoⁿ (dttaǫ), de-ta-shaⁿ (dttaą) - navel

cf. de-ta (dtta) - navel

Dhegiha: the-tʰa-shoⁿ (thtʰashoⁿ) - navel, outer part of the navel [Omaha/Ponca]; the-ta-shoⁿ (thtashoⁿ) - navel [Omaha]; the-ʰta-shoⁿ (th-ṭa-shoⁿ) - navel, umbilicus [FL-Osage]; ye-ta-shoⁿ (ytashoⁿ) - navel [Kaw]

 

navel, belly below the navel

ta-iⁿ (ttą) - belly below navel, above o-zi-zi (ozzi) - belly, pubic region of abdomen

ta-iⁿ (ttą) - belly, stomach [MS]

 

near, bend or lean near the ground

a-da-bda (dabda) - bend near the ground, lean near the ground but not touching it, as tree branches

 

near, by

koⁿ-ha (kk̨ha) - near

koⁿ-ha (kk̨ha), kaⁿ-ha (kk̨ha) - near, by

ex: iⁿ koⁿ-ha (į kkǫha) - near the stone

Dhegiha: ʰkoⁿ-ha (ḳⁿ-ha) - near to us [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-ha-ha kshe (ḳⁿ-ha-ha kshe) - the vicinity, neighborhood, surroundings [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-ha (kⁿha) - selvedge, edge, border [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-ha (koⁿ-ha) - rim, edge [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-ha (ḳⁿ-ha) - the edge, margin, selvage, welt, of certain goods [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-ha (ʰk̨ha) - edge [CQ-Osage]

 

near, close

a-shka (ak) - near, close

a-shka (ka) - near [JOD]

ex: a-shka hi (ak hi) - very close [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ni shi-a-pʰe a-shka ki, i-ya-we (etttʰą ni ipʰe ka k, iywe) - thence-water-shore-near-reached there again-they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ni a-shka ki taⁿ pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki-knaⁿ ( odhake n ka k tą ppah nįkʰ kkikn̨) - that-last one-water-near-reached here again-when-head-the (part)-she put down her own for him [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-shka (shka) - near, close by [Omaha/Ponca]; a-shka (-shka) - near, close by, short distance [FL-Osage]; a-shka (ka) - nearby, close, a short distance away [CQ-Osage]; a-shka (shka) - near, something nearby; close, close at hand [Kaw]

 

o-shka (ka) - near [OM]

 

nearby

ho-wa-tʰe-ta-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in; nearby

cf. ho-wa (hwa) - where, who, which; ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in; far away; ho-wa-tʰe-ti (hwatʰett) - at or by what collection of inanimate objects [JOD]; ho-wa-da (hwada) - where is/are the (class) object; ho-wa-ta (hwatta) - whose; ho-wa-ke (howak) - which one of a crowd [JOD]; ho-wa-zhi (hwai) - nobody

Dhegiha: ho-wa (hwa) - which, which one [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa (hwa) - what; which one (specified by shape); where is the X- shaped object? [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-gi-ʰtoⁿ (h-wa-gi ṭoⁿ) - from where [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-gi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (h-wa-iⁿ-g-ṭoⁿ-tse) - from what source, what direction [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-iⁿ-ge (h-wa-iⁿ-ge) - where; in what place [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-iⁿ-ki (howįki), ho-wa-iⁿ-ki-tse (hwaįkice), ho-wa-i-ke (howike), ho-wa-i (hwai) - where, wherein, where at, where to; be where; wherever, be wherever [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-yiⁿ-ge-ji (hwayiⁿgeji) - in, by, or near what place or object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-ge (h-wa-ge), hu-wa-ge (h-wa-ge) - where [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-ge (hwage) - where are the scattered objects; where are the different places [Kaw]; ho-wa-ge-ji (hwagji) - where, to what place; at what place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-the (h-wa-the) - where; which one [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-the-shki (howaeshki) - whichever one (animate), whatever one (person or animate being); anybody; everybody; whoever [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-ye (hwaye) - where is the moving animate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-tsʰe-shki (howacʰeki) - whichever one (inanimate), whatever (thing), anything, everything [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-che (hwache) - which; where is the standing inanimate object; where is the pile or collection of object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-thiⁿ-ke (h-wa-thiⁿ-ke) - which one (sitting) [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-iⁿ-kshe (hwaįke) - which one (round, sitting) [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-yiⁿ-khe (hwayiⁿkh) - where is the animate object; where is the one who; where is the sitting one; where is the wider-than-tall inanimate object [Kaw]

 

nearby, that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that sg/si/an nearby object on this side of a place

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the sg/si/an or in; to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that sg/mv/an object that arrived on this side; to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that sg/st/an object on this side of a place he has reached

 

nearer, that singular/moving/animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that sg/mv/an object on this side or the nearer of two objects

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ (nį) - the sg/mv/an; to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those du/st or cl/in objects on this side; to-wa-ke (twak) - those pl/st/an objects on this side; to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that sg/ly/in object on this side; to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those pl/si or lying objects on this side; to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that sg/si object on this side; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those pl/mv/an objects on this side; to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that sg/st or cl/in object on this side

 

nearly dawn

haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke-te (h̨ba h̨kette) - nearly dawn

haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke-te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost

 

nearly day

haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke (h̨pa h̨ke) - nearly day [JOD]

haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke-te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost

ex: e haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke hi ( h̨pa h̨ke h) - that-day-nearly-very [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke taⁿ a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (kįttą ką nį hąp͓ hąke t̨ ate tį ttaha) - so then it was almost day when I had a strong urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ o-do-tʰe kde (kįttą h̨p͓a hąk hi tą dotʰe kd) - then when it was almost day the maneater started homeward [JOD]

 

nearly night, almost dark

pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - its almost dark [MS]

pa-ze de haⁿ-ke (ppze d hąk) - dark-became-almost [JOD]

pa-zi de haⁿ-ke (ppzi d hąk) - nearly night

cf. pa-ze (ppze) - evening; pa-ze-de (ppazde) - evening; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost; a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall; pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening; a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-ze (pze) - evening, dusk, time between afternoon and night [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-ze (pe) - evening [Omaha]; pa-ze (p-e) - evening, close of the day [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ze (ʰpze) - evening, in the evening time, not quite dark yet, night [CQ-Osage]; pa-ze (pze) - evening, late fternoon [Kaw]

 

nearly noon

miⁿ haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke (m̨ h̨bahąk) - nearly noon

 

nearly, almost

haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost

haⁿ-ke (hąk) - almost, nearly [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti ki, i-ya-we, waxo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti ki, i-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k, iywe, waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k, iywe) - they say, he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-ba i-haⁿ-ke (hǫba ihąke) - morning, forenoon

ex: hoⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke-ta (hǫba hąkttą) - in or during forenoon

 

nearly, come near doing something

aⁿ-ni ni-hi (̨ni ... nih) - nearly, come near doing something, verb falls between

Dhegiha: aⁿ-thiⁿ (ⁿ-iⁿ) - almost, nearly [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-thiⁿ-oⁿ (oⁿthiⁿoⁿ) - almost [Omaha]; hoⁿ-ni (hⁿ-ni) - nearly, almost [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-ni (h̨ni), ho-ni (hni) - almost, nearly, can be used to express fail to [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-niⁿ-daⁿ niⁿ-e (hⁿniⁿdⁿ nⁿ e), haⁿ-ni-daⁿ ni (hⁿnidⁿ n) - almost, to nearly do X (unintentionally); expresses the idea that something that might have occurred by accident did not happen [Kaw]

 

nearsighted, be nearsighted

i-shta we-de da-kniⁿ-zhi (it wde dakn̨i) - be nearsighted i-shta we-a-de da-kniⁿ-zhi (it wade dakn̨i) - I, i-shta we-da-de da-kniⁿ-zhi (it wdade dakn̨i) - you

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; we-de (wde) - to see, find, or discover them, from i-de (de) - see, find; da-kniⁿ-zhi (dakn̨i) - not good, not well; wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased; ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį), ki-da-kni (kidkni) - happy, pleased, to like

Dhegiha: i-shta (isht) - eye [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta (iⁿshta) - eyes [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta (iⁿ-sht) - eye, eyes [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta (įįt), i-shta (iit) - eye [CQ-Osage]; i-shta (isht) - the eye, pair of eyes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-the (w-ĕ) - to find them (the an. objects for which they have been hunting); to find, as the horses which he had lost; to discover or detect, as the approach or presence of enemies [JOD-Omaha]; we-the (wthe) - find, detect, discover; to find, detect, or discover a plural object [Omaha/Ponca]; we-the (w-the) - to see, find, or discover [FL-Osage]; we-ye (wye) - to see, find, or discover them (plural animate objects) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ-a-zhi (thgthiⁿzhi) - not well made; clumsily or badly done [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ a-zhi (th-gthiⁿ a-zhi) - not good [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ-zhi (alįi) - not good [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage, tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ), and the Kansas, ya-liⁿ (yaliⁿ), used chiefly in personal names [JOD-Omaha]; tha-gthiⁿ (thgthiⁿ) - good, used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, peaceful and beautiful, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid  [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį), tha-ʰliⁿ (aʰlį) - good, be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good or well-behaved person, or good food; good, pleasant, to be good [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (jǐ), a-zhi (a-jǐ) - negation, not [JOD-Omaha]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

neat

wa-si-taⁿ-hi (wasttąhi) - neat aⁿ-wa-si-taⁿ-hi (ąwsitt̨hi) - I, di-wa-si-taⁿ-hi (diwsitt̨hi) - you

cf. di-wa-si-taⁿ-hi (diwsittąh) - pluck clean, e.g. of feathers

Dhegiha: wa-si-hi (wa--hi) - neat, tidy, clean in character, without reproach, free from blame [FL-Osage]; wa-su-hu (washu) - clean, clear, cleanly, clearly [CQ-Osage]; wa-su-hu (washu) - be clean, neat, tidy, above reproach [Kaw]

 

Nebraska

ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Nebraska, flat water [OM]

ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Platte river, NE

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; bda-ska (bdska) - flat

Dhegiha: ni-btha-ska (ni-b-ska) - flat water; the Platte River, Neb., hence the name of the state, Nebraska [JOD-Omaha]; ni-btha-ska (ni-bth-ka) - flat river, Platte River, Nebraska [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ni (n) - water [Omaha/Ponca]; ni (ni) - water, liquid, river [Omaha]; ni (ni) - water, river, rivulet, creek [FL-Osage]; ni (ni) - water, any fluid, liquid [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - water, river, any liquid [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bda-ska (bdska) - flat [RR-Quapaw]; btha-ska (bthska) - flat [Omaha/Ponca]; btha-ska (bth-ka) - flatten [FL-Osage]; bra-ska (braska) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ska (blska) - flat, as the edges, not the surfaces, of something [Kaw]

 

neck

ta-i-ta (ttitt) - neck

cf. ta-i-ta-kde (ttittkde) - spinal prominence, vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i-a-ta (taita) - at back of head; at or near the back of the head [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i (ti) - back of head, back of the head, from the parting of the hair on the crown to the neck [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i (ta) - back of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-hiu (ṭ-hiu) - the neck, the nape of the neck; back of the neck [FL-Osage]; ʰta-hu (ʰthu) - neck [CQ-Osage]; ta-hu (thu) - neck [Kaw]

 

neck, wear around the neck

naⁿ-iⁿ (nąʔ̨) - wear around the neck a-naⁿ-iⁿ (an̨ʔį) - I, da-naⁿ-iⁿ (dan̨ʔį) - you

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, nekerchief

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ a-ba-tʰe (wan̨ʔį abtʰe) - necklace made of beadwork that is sewed on

ex: ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament (gorget), from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ si-zhi-ka (wan̨ʔį sik) - small beads

ex: to-te wa-na-iⁿ (ttte wan̨ʔį) - necklace

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ke ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds claw necklace

Dhegiha: naⁿ-piⁿ (nⁿpiⁿ) - to wear on the neck [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (nⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - to wear around the neck, as a necklace [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-piⁿ (nǫpʔį) - wear around the neck [CQ-Osage]

 

necklace made of beadwork that is sewed on

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ a-ba-tʰe (wan̨ʔį abtʰe) - necklace made of beadwork that is sewed on

cf. wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads, necklace, necktie, neckerchief, something worn around the neck; a (a) - on, upon; ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-tʰe (ba-tʰ) - sew, to sew [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-tse (ba-ts) - to sew [FL-Osage]; pa-tsʰe (paacʰ) - sew [CQ-Osage]; ba-che (bach) - sew [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-che (bache) - sew something on [Kaw]

 

necklace, birds beak necklace

wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill to-te (ttte) - throat; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief, beads

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga pa (wa-zhⁿgapa) - beak, bill [Kaw]

 

necklace, birds claw necklace

wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ke ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds claw necklace

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof; to-te (ttte) - throat; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief, beads

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga sha-ge (wa-zhiⁿ-ga sha-ge) - bird claws, talons, as of the eagle [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: sha-ge (shage) - hoof, talon, claws, fingernails [Omaha]; sha-ge (sh-ge) - hands, paws, claws, talons [FL-Osage]; sha-ke (ake) - hand, claw [CQ-Osage]; sha-ge (shge) - claws, finger [Kaw]

 

necklace, necktie, neckerchief

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace [MS]

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wŭ nŭ ī) - medicine necklace, this is worn in the mescal (peyote) ceremony, it bears an arrowhead charm maⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿ hī si) representing Flint-Fire, panther (grizzly) claw maⁿ-tʰo (m t) representing the panther that shows the way to the spirit world, and a medicine root ma-kaⁿ (m kuⁿ) to make everything all right in the lodge, any of these may be talked to by people under the influence of mescal by holding the charm in the hand, this speciman was very hard to get, from Solomon Quapaw [MH]

cf. wa-naⁿ-ⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads, something worn around the neck; naⁿ-iⁿ (nąʔ̨) - wear around the neck

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

 

to-te wa-na-iⁿ (ttte wan̨ʔį) - necklace

cf. to-te (ttte) - throat; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ke ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds claw necklace

Dhegiha: nu-de (nude) - throat; front part of the neck, including the trachea [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-de (nude) - throat [Omaha]; do-dse (d-dse) - throat, gullet [FL-Osage]; to-tse (toce) - throat, gullet [CQ-Osage]; do-je (dje), to-je (tje) - throat; Adams apple [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

 

necklace, silver breast ornament/gorget

ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament (gorget), from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

cf. ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, white metal; ka-sta (kast) - strike, fall on; ma-ze we-ka-sta (maz wkast) - hammer; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads, necklace, necktie, neckerchief, something worn around the neck

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze-ska wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (moⁿe ka wanⁿpiⁿ) - medal [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze-ska wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (mⁿ-e-ka wa-noⁿ-piⁿ) - silver medal; peace medal [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze-ska wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (m̨ze wan̨pʔį) - necklace of iron or other metal, iron necklace (personal name) [CQ-Osage]; moⁿ-ze wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (mⁿze wanⁿpiⁿ) - friendship medal, lit., metal necklace, a silver medal, such as are given to Indians by the U.S. [Kaw]

 

needle

wa-hi-ka zhi-ka (wahkka ka) - needle

cf. wa-hi-ka (wahkka) - awl; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little; wa-hi (wah) - bone; wa-hi-ka zhi-ka ta-sha-knaⁿ (wahkka ka takn̨) - small pin [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-hiu-ʰka (wa-hi-ḳa) - an awl [FL-Osage]; wa-hu-ʰka (wahʰka) - fork [CQ-Osage]; wa-hu-ka (wahka) - awl of any sort [Kaw]

 

needle, to thread a needle

wa-hi-ka zhi-ka o-da-ze (wahkka ka odze) - to thread a needle

cf. wa-hi-ka zhi-ka (wahkka ka) - needle; o-da-ze (odze) - to thread a needle

 

o-da-ze (odze) - to thread a needle o-bda-ze (obdze) - I, o-ta-ze (ottze) - you, oⁿ-ko-da-za-we (ǫkdazawe) - we

Dhegiha: o-ya-ze (oyze) - push through, thread a needle; to push, as a ring on the finger or as a stick into a ring [Kaw]

 

negative

zhi (i), a-zhi (ai) - negative, not, negation

ex: ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; ki-da-kni (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ko-ka-zhi (kkokki) - weak, feeble; ko-ke (kkkke) - health, strength, healthy, be physically + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da (n̨tte ̨dada) - unsteady heart, insecure heart + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ta-ti-oⁿ-ha-zhi (ttttįhai) - windless, a calm; ta-ti-oⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-da-xe-da-zhi (wadxʔedi) - mericless, pitiless; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them + da-xe-de (daxʔde) - pity, be kind to someone  + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (whǫki) - wild, crazy, ill behaved; wa-hoⁿ-ka (whǫk) - to be well behaved + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-di-xa-zhi (wdiγi) - unmarried woman, virgin; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them + a-di-xe (diγe) - marry a man, take a man for a husband + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wanxʔǫ) - to be deaf; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them + na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: shi-ka-zhi (iki) - she/he is not bad; shi-ke (ke) - bad  + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ zhi (winaxʔ̨ i) - I didnt hear you [MS]; wi (wi) - I to you; first person singular acting on second person + na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (jǐ), a-zhi (a-jǐ) - negation, not [JOD-Omaha]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

negro, African American

i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - negro, lit. dark whiteman

i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - African American, negro [MS, MR]

i-sta-ge sha (istge ) - African American, negro [OM]

cf. i-shta-xe (itxe) - frenchman, whiteman; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-xiⁿ) - yellow eyes, a white man [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (įįtxį), i-shta-xiⁿ (iitxį) - white person, French person, Canadian or English person, lit., light eyes, gray, brown, or yellow eyes; i-shta-xe (ishtxe), i-shta-ghe (ishtghe) - white man, a Frenchman, probably so called on account of having eyebrows; subsequently, any white man [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sha-be (shbe) - dark [Omaha/Ponca]; sha-be (shabe) - dark [Omaha]; sha-be (sh-be) - dark in color [FL-Osage]; sha-pe (pe) - dark in color, shaded, darkened [CQ-Osage]; sha-be (shbe) - dark, shadowy, distant black, brown [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-ʰka sa-be (ni-ḳ a-be) - negro, black man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka sa-pe (nʰka spe) - black person, African American [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka sa-be (nka sbe) - black man, negro male [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-xe sa-be (w-qe s-bĕ) - a black man or negro [JOD-Omaha]; wa-xe sa-be (wqe sbe) - Black person, African-Anerican [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xe sa-be (waxe be) - black man, African [Omaha]

Dhegiha: miⁿ-ka-sa (mįʰksa) - black person; slang, a corruption, blending blackened by the sun with racoon; influenced by English derogatory expression coon [CQ-Osage]; mi-a-sa (misa), miⁿ-a-sa (mįįsa), miⁿ-a-sa-i (m̨įasai) - black person, lit., sun-blackened [CQ-Osage]; sa-e-zhiⁿ (seį), sa-i-zhiⁿ (siį) - little black person [CQ-Osage]

 

nephew

i-taⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), i-toⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), e-taⁿ-shka (ett̨ka) - nephew, son of womans brother or mans sister wi-taⁿ-shka (witt̨ka) - my, di-taⁿ-shka (ditt̨ka) - your

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-shka (i-t͓aⁿ-cka) - his sisters son, his fathers sisters son [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-tu-shka (i-t͓-cka) - her brothers son, including fathers brothers sons son, her mothers sisters sons son, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtsu-shka (i-ṭs-shka) - nephew, son of a sister or fathers sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtso-shka (iʰcka) - his wifes brothers son, his sisters son, her brothers son (more precise than English his/her nephew; his/her fathers sisters son (his/her paternal aunts son; more precise than English his/her cousin [CQ-Osage]; i-tso-shka (icshka) - nephew, mans sisters son [Kaw]

 

i-taⁿ-shka-de (itt̨kade), i-toⁿ-shka-de (itt̨kade) - to have as a nephew or cousin i-taⁿ-shka-a-de (itt̨kaade) - I, i-taⁿ-shka-da-de (itt̨kadade) - you

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-shka-the (i-t͓ⁿ-cka-ĕ) - to have one for an it͓aⁿcka [JOD-Omaha]

 

i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhiⁿ-ke (ęke) - someones son, his/her son wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - my, di-zhiⁿ-ke (dįke) - your

ex: wi-zhiⁿ-ke (wįke) - my elder brothers son (male speaking) [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - son [Omaha]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (i-j-ge) - his or her son [JOD-Omaha]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (i-zhⁿ-ge) - his or her son [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke) - his/her son (any son); his brothers son, her sisters son (more precise than English his nephew or her nephew [CQ-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - his or her son [Kaw]

 

nest

wa-zhiⁿ-ka o-zhi-ha (wąka oha) - birds nest

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; te-zhe-ni o-zhi-ha (teni iha) - bladder; shi o-zhi-ha (oha) - uterus; ta shi o-zhi-ha (ttaoha) - does womb

Dhegiha: u-zhi-ha (zhiha) - bag, sack [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi-ha (zhi ha) - bag, gunny sack, burlap bag [Omaha]; u-zhu-ha (-zhu-ha), o-zho-ha (-zho-ha) - a sack or bag [FL-Osage]; o-zhu-ha (ouhaa) - bag, sack, pouch made of hide or leather, literally, skin into which to put stuff [CQ-Osage]

 

net, fish net

ho we-ki-xe (ho wkixe) - fish net

cf. ho (ho) - fish; o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - go around something at a distance; going all around in a circle; to circumambulate at a distance, they walked all around in a large circle

Dhegiha: a-gi-xe (-gi-xe) - all around a place [FL-Osage]; a-thi-gi-xe (-thi-gi-xe) - a circle [FL-Osage]; a-ki-xe (kiɣe) - move around, be all around, encircle a place or a person (especially in an annoying way); be around, especially in a bothersome way; pass by, circle around (as in a tipi meeting: go clear around, avoiding the center), go table-hopping, table-hop, hang around, be around close, be arrayed around, as when making a path around, skirting the edhe (such as cows around a pond; around (e.g., the edge of a pond), skirting the edge of something [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-ghe (gighe) - all around, a roll of something [Kaw]; o-gi-ghe (gighe) - surround something [Kaw]; yu-gi-ghe (yugghe) - tie something up by tying all around the object [Kaw]; ba-gi-ghe (bgighe) - cut around with a knife [Kaw]

 

never

e-ka-naⁿ-ta-zhi (ek̨nątti) - never

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; naⁿ-te (n̨tte) - perhaps, maybe; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ thoⁿ-ʰta-zhi (-goⁿ thoⁿ-ṭa zhi) - impossible, futile, done in vain, of no avail, useless [FL-Osage]; e-goⁿ thoⁿ-ʰtse (-goⁿ thoⁿ-ṭse) - possible [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-ʰta-zhi (thⁿ-ṭa zhi) - impossible, not possible [FL-Osage]; thaⁿ-tsʰa-zhi (ąącʰi) - improbably, against all odds, impossible, unable [CQ-Osage]

 

never, always, ever

shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide), shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide) - always, ever, never

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿ-shoⁿ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (̨ǫwe) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

 

new

te-ka (ttka) - new

ex: di-te-ka (dittka) - repair, renew

ex: mi-aⁿ-pa te-ka (mįpa ttka) - new moon

ex: o-ma-ni-ka te-ka (omnikka ttka) - New Years Day

Dhegiha: te-ga (t͓ega) - new [Omaha/Ponca]; te-ga (tega) - new [Omaha]; ʰtse-ga (ṭs-ga) - new, recently, anew, early [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ka (ʰcka) - new, newly, fresh, recent, recently, just now, just a while ago [CQ-Osage]; tse-ga (cga) - new, first time, anew, right now, just now [Kaw]

 

New Hawk Female

kde-taⁿ mi te-ka (kte-t͓ŭⁿ́ mi t-k͓a), (ktqetăⁿ́ mi tk͓a) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; New Hawk Female

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; te-ka (ttka) - new

Dhegiha: le-daⁿ mi tse-ga (ledⁿ mi cga) - female name, New Hawk Female [Kaw]

 

new moon

mi-aⁿpa te-ka (mįpa ttka) - new moon

cf. mi-aⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-aⁿ-ba (mįba) - moon; te-ka (ttka) - new; o-ma-ni-ka te-ka (omnikka ttka) - New Year's Day dittka) - repair, renew; bi-te-ka (bitteka) - shine, polish rubbing

Dhegiha: te-ga (t͓ega) - new [Omaha/Ponca]; te-ga (tega) - new [Omaha]; ʰtse-ga (ṭs-ga) - new, recently, anew, early [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ka (ʰcka) - new, newly, fresh, recent, recently, just now, just a while ago [CQ-Osage]; tse-ga (cga) - new, first time, anew, right now, just now [Kaw]

 

New Orleans

a-ka-hi-da (akahidah) - New Orleans (Nouvelle Orlans) [GI]

cf: a-ka-hi-da (kahda) - downstream, downwind, with the wind or current; a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream, with his back to the wind; a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream; a-ka i-de (kʔa id) - south [MS]

Dhegiha: aa (a) - south wind, an archaic word still retained in names [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰka (-ḳa) - south; the south wind [FL-Osage]; a-ʰka-dsi (-ḳa-dsi) - archaic name for south [FL-Osage]; ʰta-dse a-ka tse (ṭ-dse a-ka tse) - south wind [FL-Osage]; a-ʰka-hiu-e (-ḳa-hiu-e) - wind is from the south [FL-Osage]; a-ka-hu-e (kʔahe) - south wind [CQ-Osage]; a-ka (ka) - south, south wind; deity of the south wind, power of the south wind [Kaw]; a-ka zhiⁿ-ga (ka zhⁿga), a-ka-hiⁿ-ga (kahiⁿga) - west, west wind; deity of the west wind, power of the south wind [Kaw]; a-ko-ye (koye) - west wind [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-the (h-ĕ) - to cause him, her, or it to reach there (not his home) [Omaha]; hi-the (hi-th), hiu-the (hiu-the) - to have gone; to have departed; to cause to reach there, to send thither [FL-Osage]; hiu-the (hi-the) - coming; to cause to come [FL-Osage]; hu-the (he) - cause to come here, send here; hand over, hand to, pass to by hand or other means (e.g., food at the table); come here [CQ-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there (lit., cause to arrive there) [CQ-Osage]; hu-ye (hye) - relating to weather: blowing, precipitating [Kaw]; hi-ye (hiy) - to have gone (somewhere) [Kaw]; i-ye (iy), hi-ye (hiy) - to have gone to a particular place; to have set, as the sun [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-de (hid) - base, bottom, root; lowest part; root of a tree; lowest part of a stream, near the mouth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi-de (hide) - low, base [Omaha]; hiu-dse (hi-dse) - down, below [FL-Osage]; hu-tse (huce) - down, downward [CQ-Osage]; hu-je (huj) - bottom, lower part of something; lower course of a stream just above its mouth [Kaw]

 

New Years Day

o-ma-ni-ka te-ka (omnikka ttka) - New Years Day (New Year)

cf: o-ma-ni-ka (omnikka) - year; te-ka (ttka) - new; o-ma-ni-ka bdo-ka (omnikka bdok) - year, an entire year; o-ma-ni-ka kde-bdaⁿ-hi (omnikka kdbdąh) - century, a hundred years

Dhegiha: o-maⁿ-iⁿ-ka ʰtse-ka (om̨įʰka ʰcka) - new year, January [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-maⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (u-mⁿ-i-ka) - a season, a year [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-thiⁿ-ka (umoⁿ thiⁿka), u-mai-ka (umaika) - year [Omaha]; u-moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (u-mⁿ-iⁿ-ḳa) - year [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-iⁿ-ka (om̨įʰka) - year [CQ-Osage]; o-maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka (omⁿyiⁿka) - year [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te-ga (t͓ega) - new [Omaha/Ponca]; te-ga (tega) - new [Omaha]; ʰtse-ga (ṭs-ga) - new, recently, anew, early [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ka (ʰcka) - new, newly, fresh, recent, recently, just now, just a while ago [CQ-Osage]; tse-ga (cga) - new, first time, anew, right now, just now [Kaw]

 

news, to tell the news

o-da-ke (odke) - to tell news [JOD]

o-da-ke (odke) - tell about something o-bda-ke (obdke) - I, o-ta-ke (ottke) - you

cf. o-ki-da-ke (okdake) - tell it to one or someone; o-da (od) - tell something; o-ki-da (okda) - tell something to another

ex: o-da-ke (odke) - to tell news [JOD]

ex: hau ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-da-ke tʰi i-ye, i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (hau mat̨ke odke tʰ iy, keywe n̨ iy) - ho, the rabbit says that he has come to tell us news, they (black bears) said to one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki-bda-ke (wikibdke) -  I tell you news [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, a-tʰi, o-wi-ki-bda-ke a-tʰi, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ atʰ wikibdke atʰ iwke iy mat̨ke) - yes, I have come, I have come to tell you the news, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe (wikibdke ta mįkʰ) - I tell you (plural) news-will (plural)-I who sit [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ, wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall the news it is said (they say)

Dhegiha: o-tha-ge (o-th-ge), u-tha-ge (u-th-ge) - to tell, recite, relate, narrate; to tell a tale or  story, to make a statement [FL-Osage]; u-tha-ge (-tha-ge) - a story, narrative, a legend, tradition; story or news [FL-Osage]; o-tha-ke (oake) - tell (e.g., news, stories), relate, narrate, recite, state, proclaim, inform, say so; o-tha-ke (aake) - tell things, inform; story, tale, legend, narrative, telling of something, reporting of news [CQ-Osage]; o-ya-ge (oyge) - tell someone; promise [Kaw]; o-ya-ge (yage) - tell something to someone [Kaw]

 

newspaper

o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-zo-zo (naxʔǫ kazzo) - newspaper, lit. paper that hears

cf: o-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - hear about something, hear a report; i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph; o-na-xoⁿ-de (onxʔǫde) - tell, lit. cause to hear something

Dhegiha: u-na-aⁿ (unaⁿ) - to hear about it [JOD-Omaha]; u-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (u-nⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - a rumor, a report, hearsay [FL-Osage]; o-naⁿ-koⁿ (nąkʔǫ) - rumor, hear a rumor, have foreknowledge of an event, something heard about [CQ-Osage]

 

next

o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next

ex: de o-ba-tʰaⁿ (d obtʰą) - this next one [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska o-pa-taⁿ (nąp zoskąsk opttą) - third finger, ring finger, next to the middle finger

ex: si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe

ex: si-po-za zhi-ka o-ba-taⁿ (sippza ka obttą) - fourth toe, next to the little toe

ex: hi o-ta-ho-kde o-ba-taⁿ (h ottahokd obttą) - bicuspid teeth, next to the canine teeth

Dhegiha: u-wa-taⁿ (u-w-taⁿ) - the next [JOD-Omaha]; u-wa-tʰoⁿ (uwtʰoⁿ) - next [Omaha/Ponca]; u-wa-ʰtoⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ) - next in order or line; the next time, place or rank [FL-Osage]; o-txaⁿ (otx̨), o-kxaⁿ (okx̨) - next, following, the following one [CQ-Osage]; o-wa-khaⁿ (owkhaⁿ) - next of kin [Kaw]

 

next morning

a-ka-sa-ni (kasni) - the next morning [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha a-ka-sa-ni taⁿ o-zha da-wi (kįttą n̨a kasni tą a dwi) - and then the next morning they went to the dance [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti a-ka-sa-ni taⁿ e-ti hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-i niⁿ-kʰe-ta hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe a-niⁿ zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ tʰi-we (kįttą tti kasni tą tti hǫp͓ kidtot-i nįkʰtta h̨p͓ nįkʰ nį ̨ditt̨da ik oknį ttą tʰwe) - then-there-the next morning-when-there-shoe-they pulled off from her-to the st. one-shoe-the part-having it-when-wagon-small-sat in-and-they came [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ a-ka-sa-ni ta-bde de (in̨ kasni tbde d) - again, the next morning he went hunting [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (gaoⁿ thiⁿ) - tomorrow [Omaha]; ga-sa-ni (gasni) - to morrow [JOD-Omaha]; e-ga-sa-ni (gasni) - the morrow [JOD-Omaha]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ), ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (ga-ⁿ thiⁿ) - the morrow, dawn of another day, next day [FL-Osage]; ga-so-iⁿ-xtsi (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ-xtsi) - early morning, dawn [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ (kaas̨), ka-siⁿ-e (kaas̨e), ka-siⁿ-ta (kaas̨ta), ka-siⁿ-taⁿ (kaas̨tą) - tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ka-siⁿ-e-xtsi (kaas̨exc), ka-siⁿ-e-x-tsiⁿ (kaas̨exc̨), ka-siⁿ-xtsi (kaas̨xci) - in the early morning, morning, this morning [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ (gasⁿ) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-si-daⁿ (gasdaⁿ), ga-si-da (gasda) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-siⁿ-xtsi (gasⁿxci), ga-si-xtsi (gasxci) - morning, in the morning [Kaw]

 

e-ka-sa-ni (kasni) - next morning

e-ka-sa-ni-taⁿ (kasnittą) - next morning

Dhegiha: ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (gaoⁿ thiⁿ) - tomorrow [Omaha]; ga-sa-ni (gasni) - to morrow [JOD-Omaha]; e-ga-sa-ni (gasni) - the morrow [JOD-Omaha]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ), ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (ga-ⁿ thiⁿ) - the morrow, dawn of another day, next day [FL-Osage]; ga-so-iⁿ-xtsi (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ-xtsi) - early morning, dawn [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ (kaas̨), ka-siⁿ-e (kaas̨e), ka-siⁿ-ta (kaas̨ta), ka-siⁿ-taⁿ (kaas̨tą) - tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ka-siⁿ-e-xtsi (kaas̨exc), ka-siⁿ-e-x-tsiⁿ (kaas̨exc̨), ka-siⁿ-xtsi (kaas̨xci) - in the early morning, morning, this morning [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ (gasⁿ) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-si-daⁿ (gasdaⁿ), ga-si-da (gasda) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-siⁿ-xtsi (gasⁿxci), ga-si-xtsi (gasxci) - morning, in the morning [Kaw]

 

ka-sa-ni-a-ti (ksaniti) - on the next morning [JOD]

ka-sa-ni-a-ti (ksaniti) - morning

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi, i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h, iywe) - the next morning, the little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti shi-naⁿ kdwe, i-ya-we (ksaniti ną kdwe, iywe) - then in the morning, again they started for home, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (gaoⁿ thiⁿ) - tomorrow [Omaha]; ga-sa-ni (gasni) - to morrow [JOD-Omaha]; e-ga-sa-ni (gasni) - the morrow [JOD-Omaha]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ), ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (ga-ⁿ thiⁿ) - the morrow, dawn of another day, next day [FL-Osage]; ga-so-iⁿ-xtsi (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ-xtsi) - early morning, dawn [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ (kaas̨), ka-siⁿ-e (kaas̨e), ka-siⁿ-ta (kaas̨ta), ka-siⁿ-taⁿ (kaas̨tą) - tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ka-siⁿ-e-xtsi (kaas̨exc), ka-siⁿ-e-x-tsiⁿ (kaas̨exc̨), ka-siⁿ-xtsi (kaas̨xci) - in the early morning, morning, this morning [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ (gasⁿ) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-si-daⁿ (gasdaⁿ), ga-si-da (gasda) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-siⁿ-xtsi (gasⁿxci), ga-si-xtsi (gasxci) - morning, in the morning [Kaw]

 

Nez Perce Indians

i-na-shpe (nacpĕ) - Kwapa name for the Nez Perc Indians [JOD]

                ► Dhegiha: pe-ga zuⁿ-de (pega uⁿde) - Nez Perce Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-de (p̣e-g-on-de) - the Nez Perc Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-dse (p̣e-g-oⁿ-dse), ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-dsi (p̣e-ga oⁿ-dsi) - Crow Tribe, so called by the Osage Indians [FL-Osage]; pe-ga-zaⁿ-je (pegzaⁿje), pe-ga zaⁿ-de (pegzaⁿde) - Nez Perce or Sahaptin tribe or people, lit. hair in braids over the forehead [Kaw]

 

nice, good

ho-taⁿ (httą) - good aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (ąhttą) - Im, di-ho-taⁿ (dihttą) - youre

ho-taⁿ (httą) - good [MS, OM]

ho-toⁿ (httǫ) - good [AG]

ho-toⁿ (hŭckton) - good (bon) [GI]

ho-taⁿ (httą) - good [JOD]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-khe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkh ̨dakni h̨bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

Dhegiha: u-daⁿ (daⁿ) - good, to be good [Omaha/Ponca]; u-doⁿ (doⁿ) - good, better, nice [Omaha]; u-daⁿ (-daⁿ) - to be good; good [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (thgthiⁿ) - good, used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage, tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ), and Kansas, ya-liⁿ (yaliⁿ), used chiefly in personal names [JOD-Omaha]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, peaceful and beautiful, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid  [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį), tha-ʰliⁿ (aʰlį) - good, be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good or well-behaved person, or good food [Kaw]; ya-le (yle) - good, pleasant, to be good [Kaw]

 

nickel

pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - nickel, five cents [MS, OM]

pi-kai-oⁿ (ppikkaǫ) - 5 cents [JOD]

pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - picayune, 5 or 15 cents, depending on the time

cf. pe-ta-yoⁿ (petyǫ), (ppetyǫ) - picayune, 15 cents, approximately 15 cents; ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents [AG]

Dhegiha: pi-kiu (pikiu) - Picayunne or Nickel Band, named after the French coin; so named because this band was the first to obtain five-cent pieces [Kaw]

 

niece

i-zhaⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhaⁿ-ke (ęke) - daughter, someones daughter wi-zhaⁿ-ke (wįke) - my, di-zhaⁿ-ke (dįke) - your

Dhegiha: i-zhaⁿ-ge (i-j-ge) - his or her daughter [JOD-Omaha]; i-zhuⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - daughter [Omaha]; i-zhoⁿ-ge (i-zhⁿ-ge) - his or her daughter [FL-Osage]; i-zhoⁿ-ke (įke) - his/her daughter; his brothers daughter, hes sisters daughter (more precise than English his/her niece) [CQ-Osage]; i-zhoⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) - his or her daughter; his brothers daughter, her sisters daughter, her fathers sisters daughter (This represents the range of relatives that would be called i-zhoⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) 'daughter' under the traditional Kaw kinship system. It is broader than the European system in that it includes the female offspring of one's siblings and of ones paternal aunts.) [Kaw]

 

wi-zhaⁿ-ke (wįke) - my daughter

wi-zhoⁿ-ke (wįke) - my daughter [MR]

wi-zhoⁿ-ke (wįke) - my elder brothers daughter (male speaking) JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-zhaⁿ-ge (wi-j-ge) - my daughter [JOD-Omaha]; wi-zhuⁿ-ge (wizhⁿge) - my daughter, spoken by mother [Omaha]; wi-zhoⁿ-ke (wįke) - my daughter (used when speaker is male or female); my brothers daughter (used only when speaker is male; more precise than English my niece); my sisters daughter (used only when speaker is female; more precise than English my niece) [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhoⁿ-ge (wizhⁿge) - my daughter [Kaw]

 

di-zhaⁿ-ke (dįke) - your daughter

Dhegiha: thi-zhaⁿ-ge (i-j-ge) - your daughter [JOD-Omaha]; thi-zhoⁿ-ke (įke) - your daughter (used when speaking to a man or woman); your sisters daughter (used only when speaking to a woman; more precise than English niece); your brothers daughter (used only when speaking to a man; more precise than English niece) [CQ-Osage]; yi-zhoⁿ-ge (yizhⁿge) - your daughter [Kaw]

 

i-zhaⁿ-ke-de (įkede), e-zhaⁿ-ke-de (eąkede) - to have as a daughter i-zhaⁿ-ke-a-de (įkeade) - I, i-zhaⁿ-ke-da-de (įkedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zhaⁿ-ge-the (i-j-ge-ĕ) - to have her for a daughter [JOD-Omaha]; i-zhoⁿ-ge-ye (izhⁿgeye) - to have as a daughter, to call someone i-zhoⁿ-ge (izhⁿge) [Kaw]

 

niece, mans sisters daughter

i-ti-zhoⁿ (ittǫ), e-ti-zhoⁿ (eTǫ) - niece, a mans sisters daughter wi-ti-zhoⁿ (wittǫ) - my, di-ti-zhoⁿ (dittǫ) - your

Dhegiha: i-ti-zhaⁿ (i-t͓-jaⁿ) - his sistera daughter; his fathers sisters daughter [JOD-Omaha]; i-ti-zhuⁿ (itzhuⁿ) - niece (speaking in relation to her uncle) [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-zhoⁿ (i-ṭs-zhoⁿ) - niece, daughter of a sister or a fathers sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-zho (iʰco) - his sisters daughter (more precise than English his niece), his fathers sisters daughter (more precise than English his cousin) [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-zho (iczho) - his niece, mans sisters daughter [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-zhoⁿ (wittǫ) - my niece, my sisters daughter

Dhegiha: wi-ti-zhaⁿ (wit͓jaⁿ) - my sisters daughter [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ti-zhuⁿ (witzhuⁿ) - niece (speaking in relation to her uncle, spoken of by uncle) [Omaha]; wi-tsi-zhoⁿ a (wi-ts-zhoⁿ a) - my niece [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-zho (wiʰco) - my sisters daughter (used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my niece), my fathers sisters daughter (used when speaker is male or female, more precise than English my cousin) [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-zho (wiczho) - my niece, man's sister's daughter [Kaw]

 

di-ti-zhoⁿ (dittǫ) - your niece, your sisters daughter

Dhegiha: thi-ti-zhaⁿ (it͓jaⁿ) - your sisters daughter [JOD-Omaha]; thi-tsi-zho (iʰco) - your sisters daughter (used only when speaking to a man, more precise than English niece), your fathers sisters daughter (used when speaking to a man or a woman, more precise than English cousin) [CQ-Osage]; yi-chi-zho (yichzho) - your niece, mans sisters daughter [Kaw]

 

i-ti-zhoⁿ-de (ittǫde), e-ti-zhoⁿ-de (eTǫde) - to have as a niece

Dhegiha: i-ti-zhaⁿ-the (i-t͓-jaⁿ-ĕ) - to have a female for his i-ti-zhaⁿ (it͓ijaⁿ) [JOD-Omaha]; i-tsi-zho-ye (iczhoye) - man to have as a niece, to call someone i-tsi-zho (iczho) [Kaw]

 

niece, womans elder brothers daughter

i-to-zhaⁿ-ke (ittąke), e-to-zhaⁿ-ke (eTąke) - niece, womans elder brothers daughter wi-to-zhaⁿ-ke (wittąke) - my, di-to-zhaⁿ-ke (dittąke) - your

Dhegiha: i-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (i-t͓-ja-ge) - her brothers daughter [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtsu-zhoⁿ-ge (i-ṭs-zhoⁿ-ge) - a niece; her brothers daughter [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ke (iʰcąke), i-ʰtsi-o-zhaⁿ-ke (iʰciąke) - her brothers daughter (more precise than English her niece) [CQ-Osage]; i-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (iczhoⁿge) - niece, womans brothers daughter; her niece [Kaw]

 

wi-to-zhaⁿ-ke (wittąke) - my niece, my elder brothers daughter

Dhegiha: wi-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (wit͓jage) - my niece, my brothers daughter [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ke (wiʰcąke), wi-ʰtsi-o-zhaⁿ-ke (wiʰciąke) - my brothers daughter (used only when speaker is female; more precise than English my niece) [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (wiczhoⁿge) - my niece [Kaw]

 

di-to-zhaⁿ-ke (dittąke) - your niece, your elder brothers daughter

Dhegiha: thi-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (it͓jage) - your niece, your brothers daughter [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ge (iʰcąke), thi-ʰtsi-o-zhaⁿ-ke (iʰciąke) - your brothers daughter (used only when speaking to a woman; more precise than English niece) [CQ-Osage]; yi-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (yiczhoⁿge) - your niece [Kaw]

 

i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-de (ittąkede) - to have as a niece i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-a-de (ittąkeade) - I, i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-da-de (ittąkedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-tu-zhaⁿ-ge-the (i-t͓-ja-ge-ĕ) - to have another female for an i-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (it͓ujage) [JOD-Omaha]; i-tso-zhoⁿ-ge-ye (iczhoⁿgeye) - woman to have someone for a niece, to call someone i-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (iczhoⁿge) [Kaw]

 

night

haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night

ho (ho) - night [OM]

cf. haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe, i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e, iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ te-ti ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-shi-ti hi, i-ya (hǫ tti mat̨ke itti hi, iy) - when it was night, the rabbit went outside, it is said (they say) [Kaw]

ex: ho ho-toⁿ (ho httǫ) - good night [OM]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - night [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - night [Omaha]; haⁿ (haⁿ) - night [JOD-Omaha]; hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - night [FL-Osage]; haⁿ (h̨ą) - night, nighttime, during the night, at night, nocturnal [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ (haⁿ) - night [Kaw]

 

night time, at night

haⁿ-taⁿ (h̨tą) - at night, night time [JOD]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; taⁿ (tą) - when

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-doⁿ (hⁿdoⁿ) - at night, during the night, by night, nightly [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-doⁿ (hoⁿdoⁿ) - nightfall [Omaha]; hoⁿ-doⁿ (hⁿ-doⁿ) - during the night [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-taⁿ (h̨ą tą) - when night [CQ-Osage]

 

Night Walker

haⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ niⁿ (hⁿ maⁿnⁿniⁿ) - masculine name [JOD-Quapaw]

haⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ niⁿ (Hamonmini) - Night Walker, Treaty of St. Louis with the Quapaw (1818)

haⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ niⁿ (Hummonene) - Treaty with the Quapaw (1833)

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; niⁿ (nį) - 3sg continuative moving

Dhegiha: hoⁿ moⁿ-thiⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (hⁿmoⁿthiⁿzhiⁿga) - Little Night Walk, male name [Omaha]; hoⁿ moⁿ-iⁿ (hⁿ-moⁿ-iⁿ) - Moves in the Night, personal name [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-maⁿ-thiⁿ (h̨ąmąį), haⁿ-maⁿ-iⁿ (h̨ąmąį), haⁿ-moⁿ-iⁿ (hąąm̨į) - Night Walker (personal name); Hominy (place name); Osage name of Frances Holdings maternal grandfather, after whom the town of Hominy (Osage County, Oklahoma) was named [CQ-Osage]

 

night, at night, after night

pa-ze de (ppaz de) - at night [MS]

pa-ze de (ppze d) - after night [JOD]

pa-ze de (ppaz de) - evening

cf. pa-ze (ppze) - evening; a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening; a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something

ex: pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, pa-ze de taⁿ naⁿ kniⁿ, i-ya-we (kįttą, ppze d tą ną kn̨, iywe) - then, when it became night she camped, they say [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de taⁿ kniⁿ-wi (ppaz d tą kn̨wi) - after dark they camped [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-ki pa-ze de taⁿ aⁿ-kniⁿ-ti a-zhaⁿ (kįttą ąkki ppze d tą ąkn̨-tti ą̨) - then-we were coming back (or home)-after night-when-we camped-when(where)-we slept [JOD]

ex: pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - its almost dark [MS]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke (ppze d hąk) - dark-became-almost [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-ze the (paze the) - this evening [Omaha]; ʰpa-ze the (ʰpze e) - this evening [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: pa-ze (pze) - evening, dusk, time between afternoon and night [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-ze (pe) - evening [Omaha]; pa-ze (p-e) - evening, close of the day [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ze (ʰpze) - evening, in the evening time, not quite dark yet, night [CQ-Osage]; pa-ze (pze) - evening, late fternoon [Kaw]

 

night, midnight

haⁿ skaⁿ-ska (h̨skąska) - midnight

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half, middle

Dhegiha: hoⁿ kʰoⁿ-ska (hⁿkʰoⁿska) - midnight [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ skoⁿ-ska (hⁿ koⁿ-ka) - midnight [FL-Osage]; haⁿ o-ʰka-ska (h̨ą oʰkska) - midnight [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ o-kaⁿ-ska (hⁿ okⁿska) - midnight [Kaw]

 

night, the whole night

haⁿ bdo-ka (hą bdok) - the whole night, all night, the entire night [JOD]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; bdo-ka (bdka) - whole, entire, circular, round

ex: haⁿ bdo-ka za-ni hi o-wa-ki-da (hą bdok zan hi wakid) - all night long, he told it to everyone [JOD]

Dhegiha: bthu-ga (bthga) - round, circular, whole, entire, all [Omaha/Ponca]; bthu-ga (bthuga) - all, round, cylinder, entire, whole [Omaha]; btho-ga (bth-ga) - round, cylindrical, entire, a whole thing, a whole, a dollar [FL-Osage]; bro-ka (brka) - in bulk, wholesale, in large quantities, overall, undivided, by the yard, in large pieces, not merely pieces of some item but the entire item, in its entirety, fully, whole, entire, complete, dollar [CQ-Osage]; blo-ga (blga) - the whole, the entire thing, all, dollar [Kaw]

 

night, tonight

haⁿ-de (h̨de) - tonight

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; de (de) - this

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-the (hoⁿth) - tonight, this night [Omaha/Ponca]; haⁿ the (h̨ą e) - tonight [CQ-Osage]

 

nightfall

a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall

cf. pa-ze (ppze) - evening; pa-ze de (ppazde) - evening; pa-ze de (ppazde) - at night [MS]; pa-ze de (ppze d) - after dark; a little after dark; it became night [JOD]; pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]; pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - its almost dark [MS]; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening; a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something

Dhegiha: a-pa-ze (-p͓a-zĕ) - to become evening on one, to be be knighted [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: pa-ze (pze) - evening, dusk, time between afternoon and night [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-ze (pe) - evening [Omaha]; pa-ze (p-e) - evening, close of the day [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ze (ʰpze) - evening, in the evening time, not quite dark yet, night [CQ-Osage]; pa-ze (pze) - evening, late fternoon [Kaw]

 

nighthawk, bullbat

iⁿ-taⁿ (̨ttą), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - nighthawk, bullbat

cf. iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl, horned owl [MS]

Dhegiha: te-u-bi-xoⁿ (tubixoⁿ) - nighthawk [Omaha]; pshoⁿ-shka (pshⁿ-shka) - a nighthawk [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-e (ṭse-shⁿ-shiⁿ-e) - nighthawk [FL-Osage]; bu-shka (bshka) - nighthawk, bullbat [Kaw]; pe-be-to (pebto) - bullbat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-chuⁿ suⁿ (iⁿchuⁿ uⁿ) - snowy owl [Omaha]; iⁿ-tshaⁿ-saⁿ (ⁿ-tcaⁿ-sⁿ) - snowy owl [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtoⁿ (-ṭoⁿ) - the horned owl, the horned owl figures in the tribal war rites of the Osage as a symbol [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-ʰtoⁿ (ⁿ-ṭoⁿ) - the snowy owl, white owl [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-thaⁿ (ⁿthaⁿ), iⁿ-khaⁿ (ⁿkhaⁿ), i-khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - owl [Kaw]

 

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