English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

N

 

nine

shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine

shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine [MS, MR, AB, FR, OM]

shoⁿ-ka (schunk-kah) - 9 [GI]

shoⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine [FS]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-ka (shⁿka) - nine [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-ka (shoⁿka) - nine [Omaha]; shoⁿ-ʰka (shⁿ-ḳa) - the archaic word for nine [FL-Osage]; shaⁿ-ka (shⁿka) - nine [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gthe-bthoⁿ ʰtse wiⁿ thiⁿ-ge (gth-bthoⁿ ṭse wiⁿ thiⁿ-ge) - nine, ten minus one [FL-Osage]; le-braⁿ ʰtse wiⁿ-ke (lbrą ʰce w̨įke) - nine [CQ-Osage]

 

nine times

hi-shaⁿ-kiⁿ (h̨kk̨) - nine times

cf. shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine; hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time; hi-naⁿpa-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times; hi-da-bniⁿ (hdabn̨) - thrice; hi-to-wiⁿ (htow̨) - four times; hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times; hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

 

nines, by nines

shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines

cf. shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals; miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece; naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece; da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes, 3 apiece; to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours; sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives; sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, at a time; pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens; pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, at a time; kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece/at a time; da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens, 13 apiece; sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each; pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, at a time; shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each; kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece; kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each; wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each, (distributive)

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]

 

nineteen

shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ (̨kka knį) - nineteen, 9 sitting on 10

shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ (̨kka knį) - nineteen [MS]

cf. shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ shaⁿ-ka (a-gⁿ-ca-ka) - the extra nine, nineteen [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthiⁿ shoⁿ-ka (agthⁿshoⁿka) - nineteen, the extra nine [Omaha/Ponca]; a-li shaⁿ-ka (lishⁿka) - nineteen [Kaw]

 

nineteens, by nineteens

shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each

cf. shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ (̨kka knį) - nineteen; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals; miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece; naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece; da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes, 3 apiece; to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours; sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives; sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, at a time; pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens; pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, at a time; shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines; kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece/at a time; da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens, 13 apiece; sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each; pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, at a time; kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece; kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each; wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each, (distributive)

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]

 

ninety

kde-bdaⁿ shaⁿ-ka (kdbdą ̨kka) - ninety [MS]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; shaⁿ-ka (̨kka), shoⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine

Dhegiha: gthe-ba shoⁿ-kʰa (gthbashⁿkʰa) - ninety [Omaha/Ponca]; le-blaⁿ shaⁿ-ka (lblaⁿ shⁿka) - ninety [Kaw]

 

ninth

i-shaⁿ-ka (ąkk) - ninth

cf. i () - ordinal numeral marker + shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine; i-da-bniⁿ (dabn̨) - third, ordinal numeral; i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral; i-sa-taⁿ (sattą) - fifth, ordinal numeral; i-sha-pe (appe) - sixth; i-pe-naⁿ-pa (ppen̨pa) - seventh; i-pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eighth; i-kde-bdaⁿ (kdebd̨) - tenth; i-kde-bdaⁿ-naⁿ-pa (kdebdąn̨pa) - twentieth

Dhegiha: we-shoⁿ-kʰa (wshoⁿkʰa) - ninth, the ninth one [Omaha/Ponca]; we-shoⁿ-ka (wshoⁿka) - ninth [Omaha]; we-shaⁿ-ka (wshⁿka) - ninth [Kaw]

 

nip, bite along the edge

da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip bda-zi-pa (bdzippa) - I, ta-zi-pa (ttzippa) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of one's own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something

 

nipple

ma-ze-pa (mazppa) - nipple of the breast

cf. ma-ze (maz) - breast; pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze-pa (moⁿepa) - womans nipple; nipple on a bottle [Omaha]; ba-ze-ʰpa (ba--p̣a) - nipple, teat [FL-Osage]

 

ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples

cf. ma-ze (maz) - breast; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak; pa-pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose

ex: ma-ze pa-si niⁿ-kʰe (maz ppas nįkʰ) - the nipples

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tongue-tip, tree-top, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (p̣a-) - point, a peak, the top of a pole, the top of a tree [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object, like the point of a pencil [Kaw]

 

no

hoⁿ-zhi (h̨i), (hǫ) - no

hoⁿ-zhi (h̨i) - no [MS, AG, OM]

hoⁿ-zhi (hongi) - no or nothing (non ou rien) [GI]

hoⁿ-zhi (hǫ) - not so [JOD]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ka-zhi (ákajǐ) - no [JOD-Omaha]; uⁿ-ka-zhi (uⁿkazhi) - no, never [Omaha]; hoⁿ-ʰka-zhi (hⁿ-ḳa-zhi), oⁿ-ʰka-zhi (ⁿ-ḳa-zhi) - no, not so, not [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka-zhi (h̨ąʰkai) - no [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ka-zhi (hⁿkazhi) - no, used by both male and female [Kaw]

 

hoⁿ-aⁿ-zhi (h̨ą) - no [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-aⁿ-zhi i-he aⁿ-maⁿ (h̨ą ihĕ ąm̨) - I usually say no [JOD]

 

no matter what

koi-shoⁿ-e (kįe) - no matter what

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding; koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįtta) - thus, accordingly, in that way; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - that way, in, therefore

 

nobody

be-a-zhi (bai) - nobody

cf. be (be) - who; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

Dhegiha: e-be-a-zhi (ĕ-b--jĭ) - nobody, it is nobody [JOD-Omaha]; be thiⁿ-ge (b thiⁿ-ge) - nobody [FL-Osage]; pe thiⁿ-ke (pe įk) - no one [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-be (be) - who, somebody, someone [Omaha/Ponca]; e-be (eb) - who [Omaha]; be (be) - whoever [FL-Osage]; pe (pe) - who, whom [CQ-Osage]; be (be) - who; someone; somebody [Kaw]

 

ho-wa-zhi (hwai) - nobody

cf. ho-wa (hwa) - where, who, which; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation; ho-wa-da (hwada) - where is/are the (class) obj?, hwada + (positional); ho-wa-ke (howak) - which one of a crowd [JOD]; ho-wa-tʰe-ta-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, nearby; ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, far away; ho-wa-ta (hwatta) - whose

Dhegiha: ho-wa (hwa) - which, which one [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa (hwa) - what; which one (specified by shape); where is the X- shaped object? [Kaw]

 

noise of planks, clatter

di-xa-xa-da (dixxada) - clatter, noise of planks bdi-xa-xa-da (bdxaxada) - I, ti-xa-xa-da (ttxaxada) - you

cf. ka-xa-xa-da (kaxxada) - thump, make a dull sound; ka-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

 

noise, make a crack noise by stepping

naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - make crack noise by stepping a-naⁿ-ta-ze (an̨ttaze) - I, da-naⁿ-ta-ze (dan̨ttaze) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting; di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks; ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

Dhegiha: naⁿ-do-ze (naⁿdze) - crack ice by stepping on it [Kaw]

 

noise, make a lot of noise

xa-naⁿ e-hi (xʔną hi) - make a lot of noise

cf. xa-naⁿ (xʔną) - to make talking noise or any noise, etc.; hi (hi) - very

ex: xa-naⁿ e-hi-we i-ya (xʔną hiw iy) - they made a lot of noise, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

noise, make a rattling noise

di-sha-sha-da (diada) - rattle, make a rattling noise

cf. a-na-sha-da (nada) - bell, rattle [MS]; di-sha-da (dida) - rattle; ka-sha-da (kaad) - rattle by striking something

 

noise, no noise, not even breathing

o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

cf. o-ni-aⁿ-hi-de (onįhid), (onąhde) - breathe; o-ni-oⁿ-da-zhi (onǫkdzi) - sigh

Dhegiha: o-ni thiⁿ-ke (on įk) - be quiet, not make noise, no sound [CQ-Osage]; ni-aⁿ-yiⁿ-ge (niⁿyiⁿg) - speechless, quiet, unmoving, still [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-u (niu) - to breathe [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-oⁿ (ni-ⁿ) - breath [FL-Osage]; o-ni-e (nie) - breathe, draw breath, sound [CQ-Osage]

 

noise, to make noise talking, or any noise, etc

xa-naⁿ (xʔną) - to make talking noise or any noise, etc. a-xa-naⁿ (axʔną) - I, da-xa-naⁿ (daxʔną) - you

cf. xa-naⁿ e-hi (xʔną hi) - make a lot of noise

 

noise, to make noise with the feet

naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe (nątatxe kγe) - to make noise with the feet [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; naⁿ-ta-xe (nąttxe) - stomp, trample, thump with feet

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-da-da-xe (ga-d-da-xe) - to knock at a door [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ga-da-da-xe (p̣a-g-da-da-xe) - woodpecker [FL-Osage]; ga-ta-xe (gatxe), ga-ta-xi (gatxi) - tap, make a tapping noise [Kaw]; ga-da-ghe (gadghe) - to knock (once) [Kaw]; ga-da-da-ghe (gaddaghe), ga-da-da-xe (gaddaxe) - knock repeatedly on something; To tap the bark of a tree and make a quick sound: said of the woodpecker and other birds; woodpecker [Kaw]

 

noiseless, silent, speechless

a-pe (ppe) - silent, noiseless, speechless

cf. a-pe-hi (apphi) - very silent

 

noiseless, very noiseless

a-pe-hi (app hi) - noiseless-very [JOD]

a-pe-hi (apphi) - very silent

cf. a-pe (ppe) - silent, noiseless, speechless; hi (hi) - very

 

non-hearsay

i-ye (iy) - quotative, non-hearsay evidential

i-ye (iy) - he/she says/said [JOD]

cf. i-ye (iy), e (e), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye), i-e (e) - talk, speak; word

ex: hau ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-da-ke tʰi i-ye, i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (hau mat̨ke odke tʰ iy, keywe n̨ iy) - ho, the rabbit says that he has come to tell us news, they (black bears) said to one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe naⁿ, ta-taⁿ ke aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de e-te te, i-ye (ate ną, tttą ke ̨tee hid, mikkxʔe ̨tee hid tte tte, iy) - when I urinated, what is this urinating on me, I wonder if its the stars urinating on me, he said [JOD]

ex: i-ye niⁿ-kʰe (iy nįkʰ) - she was saying as she sat [JOD]

ex: i-ye niⁿ (iy nį) - she said / the mv. ob. or as she walked [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we i-ye niⁿ, i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe iy nį, iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya, wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte, iy nį, iy, waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, they say [JOD]

ex: i-ye tʰaⁿ, i-ya (iy tʰą) - he was saying as he stood [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde, i-ye tʰaⁿ, i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde, iy tʰą, iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: i-ye pa (iy pa) - they were saying [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: i-ye na (iy ną) - she said / when [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ, di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da, i-ye naⁿ, aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨, dtteke was niⁿkʰe tta tti d, iy ną, ąn̨hos ną) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to the black bear, your uncle [JOD]

Dhegiha: e (e) - to say [FL-Osage]; e (e) - say, ask or tell someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; e (e) - say [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-e (e) - speak [JOD-Omaha]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word, language [Omaha]; i-e (e) - to speak [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk, speak a language, word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speak; speech, language, sentence [Kaw]

 

none, leave none

ni-wa-de (nwade) - exterminate, lit. leave none ni-a-wa-de (niawade) - I, ni-wa-da-de (niwadade) - you, ni-oⁿ-wa-da-we (niǫwadawe) - we

cf. ni-de hi (nid hi) - use up, take or destroy all; ni-ki-de (nkide) - to expend someones property; wa-ni-de (wande) - to be generous, give away; wa-ni-ki-de (wankide) - give away someones property

ex: o-ki-hi-ta-zhi ni-ki-de tʰe (okhittai nkide tʰe) - he is anxious to expend it all [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-the) - to exterminate; to destroy utterly; annihilate; to spend money; to give away ones own possessions, till all are gone [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - give away, divest oneself of, be out of, be lacking [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ye (yⁿye) - exterminate, wipe out [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thi e-the (wathi the) - give away [Omaha]; wa-ni-the (wane) - give things away, hold a giveaway, giveaway at i-loⁿ-shka (il̨ǫka) dances and other special occasions [CQ-Osage]; wa-yiⁿ-ye (wayⁿye) - give away freely, as gifts at a dance; to give to a stranger or to a member of another tribe [Kaw]

 

none, to have none

ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I, di-ni-ke (dinke) - you

niⁿ-ke (nik͓) - none [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, semi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, mind [JOD]

ex: ni niⁿ-ke (ni nįk) - no water [JOD]

ex: wa-niⁿ-ke-hi-we (wan̨kehiw) - we have none at all [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were lacking [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (mątt-įkʰe ąn̨ke) - I do not have a paddle [JOD]

ex: o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-we (nikwe) - they are not, there are none [JOD]

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

ex: ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health, without sickness

ex: wa-haⁿ-ni-ke (wah̨nik) - orphan, without family/relation

ex: hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha ni-ke (hǫb̨tteha nik) - slippers, lit. without moccasin flaps

ex: ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient, lack hearing

ex: o-ki-te ni-ke (okktte nke) - elephant, lit. without joints

ex: te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. cow without balls

ex: o-xaⁿ ni-ke (xʔą nik) - for nothing, without cause

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk [MS]

ex: ni-ke hi (nik h) - there is none [OM]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke naⁿ-ta ni-ke niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke nątt nik nįkʰ) - the dog didnt have no ear [MS]

ex: wa-xo ni-ke hi niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nik hi nįkʰ) - hes no good, he has no woman/wife [AG]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿge) - blank, obsolete, zero, vanish, nothing, none, erosion, absent, lack [Omaha]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿ́-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

noon

hoⁿ-be (hǫb) - noon

cf. hoⁿ-be-haⁿ-ke (hǫbhąk) - morning, forenoon, hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba) + i-haⁿ-ke (ihąke); hoⁿ-be-ka-bni-da (hǫbkabnda) - afternoon, hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba) + i-ka-bni-da (ikabnda); haⁿ-be-haⁿ-ke-taⁿ (hąbhąkttą) - in or during forenoon, hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba) + i-haⁿ-ke-taⁿ (ihąkettą); miⁿ-haⁿ-pe-haⁿ-ke (m̨hąphąk) - nearly noon, miⁿ (mį) + hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba) + i-haⁿ-ke (ihąke)

Dhegiha: miⁿ-thu-maⁿ-shi (mⁿumⁿci) - noon [JOD-Omaha]; mi-thu-moⁿ-shi (mi thumoⁿshi) - noon [Omaha]

Dhegiha: mi-tho-ʰtoⁿ (mi-th-ṭoⁿ) - mid-day, noon [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-tho-ʰta (mįįʰta), miⁿ-tho-ʰtaⁿ (m̨įoʰtą) - (at) noon, midday, high noon, sun seen straight overhead [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-yo-taⁿ (miⁿytaⁿ), miⁿ i-yo-taⁿ (miⁿ iytaⁿ) - noon, midday [Kaw]

 

north, northwind, cold

o-sni (osn) - cold, north, northwind

cf. sni (sni) - cold, to be cold; o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes

Dhegiha: u-sni (ni) - cold [Omaha]; u-sni (u-s͓n) - cold, cool [JOD-Omaha]; u-hni (u-hn) - shade, cool [FL-Osage]

 

north, winter

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - north, winter

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - north [MS]

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - cold, cold weather [MS, AG]

sni-wa-te (snwatte) - winter [FR, OM]

sni-wa-te (sniwtte) - power of winter (male)

cf. sni (sni) - cold, to be cold; sni-tʰe (sntʰe) - cold; ka-sni-sni (kasnsni) - autumn, blows cold on and off; ni-sni (nisn) - spring, lit. cold water; sni-tʰe zho-ka-te (sntʰe kkatte) - to have chills and fever

ex: sni-wa-te hi (snwatte hi) - very cold [MS]

ex: sni-wa-te hi pa-de taⁿ (snwatte hi pde ttą) - cold, winter time [MS]

ex: a-shi sni-wa-te (i snwatt) - cold outside [AG]

ex: sni-wa-te kdi ta (snwatte kdi tta) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]

ex: sni-wa-te kdi ta tʰe (snwatte kdi tta tʰe) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]

ex: sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter, precedes pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska)

Dhegiha: hni-wa-ʰtse (hn-wa-ṭse), ni-wa-tse (n-wa-tse) - to be cold, cold weather, a cold day, it is cold [FL-Osage]; ni-wa-ʰtse (nwaʰce) - (be) cold (an impersonal weather expression, not used for people [CQ-Osage]; hni-wa-tse (hnwace) -  cold, as the weather; winter, the cold months [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sni-te (s͓nte) - to be cold: said of persons, feeling cold [JOD-Omaha]; zni-tʰe (zntʰe) - to be cold (said of humans) [Omaha/Ponca]; hni-ʰtse (hn-ṭse) - cold [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰtse (nʰce) - be cold, feel cold [CQ-Osage]; hni-tse (hnce) - to be cold, as a person or animal [Kaw]

 

northeast

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - northeast, towards sunrise

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - sun-rise-towards [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun; o-tiⁿ (ttį) - visible, insight; naⁿ-pe (n̨pe) - come into view, come into the open, to appear, to show; ta-de-de (ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise; o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes; a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

ex: e-ti mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! i-ke (tti mi ottinąbettadede ̨tʰį ded! ik) - she told him, throw the club/stick there, towards the sunrise! [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! aⁿnaⁿ-ki-ye (tti kki mi ttin̨bettadde ̨tʰį ded! ąn̨kiye) - there, yonder, towards the sunrise, throw the club/stick! she said to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: miⁿ e-thoⁿ-be (mⁿethⁿbe) - sunrise [Omaha/Ponca]; mi i-thoⁿ-be (m-i-thoⁿ-be) - the sun appears, sunrise [FL-Osage]; miⁿ i-thoⁿ-pe (m̨į ǫpe) - sunrise, the emergence of the sun, lit., sun appears [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]; wa-tiⁿ (watⁿ) - visible, in sight [Kaw]

 

northwest

o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes

cf. o-sni (osn) - cold, north, northwind; hi (hi) - come, be coming here; ta-de-de (ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

Dhegiha: u-sni-a-ta-thi-shaⁿ (u-s͓n-a-t͓-i-caⁿ) - towards the cold, towards the north [JOD-Omaha]; u-sni a-ta-thi-shoⁿ (uni atathishoⁿ) - north [Omaha]; ni-wa-ʰtse-kshi ʰta-ha (nwaʰceki ʰtha) - north, lit., in the direction of the cold, toward the cold [CQ-Osage]; niⁿ ke ʰta hu-the (n̨ k ʰta hue) - north wind [CQ-Osage]; hni-ta (hnta) - north, north wind, lit. towards the cold; the deity or power of the north wind [Kaw]

 

nose perforation for ring

pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; wa-sa i-ba-xdo-xdo (was baxdoxd) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks [JOD]; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto), wa-naⁿ-bdi-ba-xto (wan̨bdibaxto) - fork, a table fork, something to stick food; ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd), ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear

Dhegiha: ʰpa ba-xthu-ge (p̣-ba-xthu-ge) - perforation in the septum of the nose [FL-Osage]; pa ba-xlo-ge (pa bxloge) - pierced septum, pierced nose [Kaw]

 

nose, beak, bill

pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill

pa (ppa) - nose [MS, AB, OM]

pʰa (p'a) - nose [FV]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa (pa) - nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa (pa) - nose [Omaha]; ʰpa (p̣a) - snout, the projecting nose of an animal [FL-Osage]; ʰpa (ʰp) - nose, snout [CQ-Osage]; pa (pa) - nose [Kaw]

 

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose

pʰa-zi zhe (p'az˙e) - nose, may mean tip of nose [VG]

Dhegiha: pa-shi-zhe (pashzhe) - nose tip, tip of the nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-shi-zhe (pashizhe) - tip of the nose [Omaha]; ʰpa-zhu-zhe (p̣a-zh-zhe) - the tip of the nose; the bill of a swan and other birds [FL-Osage]; pa-zho-zhe (pzhozhe), pa-zhu-zhe (pazhzhe) - nostrils [Kaw]

 

nose, crooked nose

pa kaⁿ-ka (pp kkąkk) - crooked nose, a traders nickname

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; kaⁿ-ka (kkąkk) - crooked

 

nose, ridge of the nose

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe bdo-ka hi (ppąe bdka h) - ridge of the nose

cf. pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose; bdo-ka (bdka) - whole, entire, circular, round; hi (hi) - very

 

nose, septum of the nose

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe i-koⁿ-kde (ppąe kkǫkde) - septum of the nose

ex: pa-zhiⁿ-zhe i-koⁿ-kde kʰe (ppąe kkǫkde kʰe) - the septum

 

nose, tip

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, soft part

cf. pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose; pʰa-zi zhe (p'az˙e) - nose, may mean tip of nose [VG]; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk) - soft; naⁿ-ta o-shtaⁿ-ka (nątt otąk) - ear lobe; wa-shtaⁿ-ka (wat̨ka) - green corn; di-shtoⁿ-ka (dit̨ka) - hold a soft object; a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket

Dhegiha: pa u-shtoⁿ-ga (p ushtⁿga) - the soft part of the nose, around the tip, including the septum [Omaha/Ponca]; pa u-shtoⁿ-ga (paushtoⁿga) - septum [Omaha]

 

nose, tip of the nose

pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose

cf. a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak; ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples; pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River; ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill

Dhegiha: ʰpa ʰpa-si (p̣-p̣-i) - tip of the nose [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: pa (pa) - nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa (pa) - nose [Omaha]; ʰpa (p̣a) - snout, the projecting nose of an animal [FL-Osage]; ʰpa (ʰp) - nose, snout [CQ-Osage]; pa (pa) - nose [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tongue-tip, tree-top, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (p̣a-) - point, a peak, the top of a pole, the top of a tree [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object, like the point of a pencil [Kaw]

 

nose, White Nose

pa ska iⁿ (pa skiⁿ), pa skaⁿ-iⁿ (pa skⁿ-iⁿ) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; White Nose. Sister of Alphonsus Valliere, and former wife of John Medicine [JOD]

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; ska (ska) - white; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female, sometimes contracted as iⁿ (-į) in names

 

nosed, long nosed fish

ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish

ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi  sttte) - garfish [MS, OM]

cf. ho (ho) - fish; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; ste-te (sttte) - long, tall

Dhegiha: hu pa-si zne-de (hu psi znde) - gar pike, fish with a long nose tip [Omaha/Ponca]; hu pa-si sne-de (hupinede) - garfish [Omaha]; hu pa-si stse-e (hu p-i stse-e) - long nosed fish, garfish [FL-Osage]; ho pa-su stse-je (ho psu scje) - gar, lit. long nosed fish [Kaw]

 

nostril(s)

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-xo-te (ppąe oxʔtte) - nostril(s)

cf. pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose; pʰa-zi zhe (p'az˙e) - nose, may mean tip of nose [VG]; o-xo-te (oxʔtte) - hole, natural opening; na-xi-te o-xo-te (naxtte oxʔtte) - meatus of the ear, the external opening

Dhegiha: pa-xthu-ge (paqthge) - nostrils [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-xthu-ge (paxthuge) - nostril, nasal [Omaha]; pa-xtho-ge (p̣a-xth-ge) - nostrils [FL-Osage]; pa-zhu-zhe u-xthu-ka (p̣a-zh-zhe u-xthu-ka) - the nostrils [FL-Osage]; pa-xlo-ge (p xlge) - nostril [Kaw]

 

not

zhi (i), a-zhi (ai) - negative, not, negation

ex: ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; ki-da-kni (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ko-ka-zhi (kkokki) - weak, feeble; ko-ke (kkkke) - health, strength, healthy, be physically + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da (n̨tte ̨dada) - unsteady heart, insecure heart + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ta-ti-oⁿ-ha-zhi (ttttįhai) - windless, a calm; ta-ti-oⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-da-xe-da-zhi (wadxʔedi) - mericless, pitiless; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them + da-xe-de (daxʔde) - pity, be kind to someone  + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (whǫki) - wild, crazy, ill behaved; wa-hoⁿ-ka (whǫk) - to be well behaved + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-di-xa-zhi (wdiγi) - unmarried woman, virgin; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them + a-di-xe (diγe) - marry a man, take a man for a husband + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wanxʔǫ) - to be deaf; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them + na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: shi-ka-zhi (iki) - she/he is not bad; shi-ke (ke) - bad  + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ zhi (winaxʔ̨ i) - I didnt hear you [MS]; wi (wi) - I to you; first person singular acting on second person + na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (jǐ), a-zhi (a-jǐ) - negation, not [JOD-Omaha]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

not a little, a great deal

haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi (h̨ęi), (h̨eą) - not a little, a great deal [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ she-mi ke wa-ki-shka-te haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi wa-saⁿ-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą em ke wkiktte h̨eą was̨de tʰ̨ ną) - then-girl-the plural-played with them-a great deal-she liked (prized) them-the standing-past sign [JOD]

ex: xa-ke haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi niⁿ (γak h̨ęi n̨) - he cried out-not a little-the moving one [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ wa-xpa-ni-de haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eką n̨ wah̨nįk tʰą waxpnid h̨eą tʰą ną) - then-so-the moving-orphan-the standing-treated her miserably-a great deal-the standing-past sign [JOD]

 

not a long time, soon

ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

cf. ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago; ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]; ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-zhi hi (ttįi h) - not a long time, very soon [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te (kįttą ttįi h hatʔ) - then in a very short time, he became sick [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

not afraid, He Fears Not Arrows

maⁿ naⁿ-pa-zhi (mⁿ naⁿ-p-ji) - masculine name, He Fears Not Arrows [JOD]

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow, arrow shaft; naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation; noⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade) - dangerous

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ) - arrow [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - arrow [Omaha]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - an arrow [FL-Osage]; maⁿ (m̨ą), moⁿ (m̨) - arrow, staff used at peyote meetings [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ (maⁿ) - arrow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ʰpa-zhi (nⁿ-p̣a-zhi) - not afraid, not afraid to face danger [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpa-zhi (n̨ǫʰpai) - unafraid, fearless [CQ-Osage]

 

not bad

shi-ka-zhi (iki) - she/he is not bad

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad; zhi (zhi) - negative, negation, not

ex: ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi (mą iki) - prewar times, before civil war, lit. when the land was good (not bad)

 

not bark

o-ho-zhi (hoi) - to not bark

cf. o-ho (ho) - bark, as a dog [MS]; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ o-ho zhi da-tʰi ta (hǫn̨ttą hoi datʰ tta) - how come he (dog) doesnt bark when you come around? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ shoⁿ-ke o-di-ho zhi (hǫn̨ttą ̨ke dihoi) - why didnt dog bark at you? [MS]

Dhegiha: u-hu-hu (-hu-hu) - to bark at, as a dog does [JOD-Omaha]; u-hu-hu (huhu) - dogs bark [Omaha]; u-hu-hu (-hu-hu) - bark of a dog [FL-Osage]; o-ho (hoo) - bark, woof, as a dog does [CQ-Osage]; o-ho (oh) - bark [Kaw]

 

not cause it to be

ki-da-zhi (kidi) - to not cause it to be [JOD]

cf. kʰi-de (kʰide), (kʰde) - cause to; ki-de (kde) - cause ones own; reflexive-possessive causative; ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: o-ki-hoⁿ a-ta-ha ti-te-ki-da-zhi (kihǫ attah tttekidi) - cooking-much-she had not caused it to be done [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-the (kithe) - to cause oneself [Omaha/Ponca]; kʰi-the (kʰthe) - to cause someone [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-the (gi-the) - make to be [FL-Osage]; ʰki-the (ḳi-the) - to cause, to cause one, to cause oneself; to cause another, to cause themselves [FL-Osage]; kshi-the (kshi-the) - to cause to do a thing [FL-Osage]; ki-the (ke) - make or have someone engage voluntarily in some act, let or allow someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-the (ʰke) - cause, make oneself to be or do [CQ-Osage]; kshi-the (ke) - let or allow someone to do something, have someone do something for his/her own benefit [CQ-Osage]; khi-ye (khye) - cause to do, let, allow to do (dative causative auxiliary) [Kaw]

 

not correct, not like, not so

e-koⁿ-zhi (ek̨i) - wrong

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; zhi (i) - negative, not; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; e-kaⁿ xti (kąxt), e-koⁿ xti (ek̨xti) - really, just so

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ-a-zhi (egoⁿazhi) - wrong, illegal, inaccurate, incorrect, false [Omaha]; e-koⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - not be like this or that, be not thus, be otherwise, unseemly, inappropriate, not right, unsuitable, unfitting, ill-advised, wrong [CQ-Osage]; e-go-zhi (gozhi) - not like, not so, not as [Kaw]

 

not defend, talk against

o-do-ki-zhi (odkkii) - talk against, (not defend) o-do-a-ki-zhi (odakki) - I, o-do-da-ki-zhi (oddakki) - you

cf. o-do-wa-ki (odwakki) - to side with them; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

Dhegiha: u-thu-ki (u-th-ki) - to defend, to defend a friend or relative in a fight or altercation, to uphold in an argument  [FL-Osage]

 

not drink

da-taⁿ-zhi (datt̨i) - to not drink

cf. da-taⁿ (datt̨) - drink; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: bda-taⁿ-zhi (bdatt̨i) - I dont/didnt drink

ex: bda-taⁿ-zhi ta miⁿkʰe (bdatt̨i tta mįkʰ) - I wont go on drinking

ex: da-taⁿ-zhi (datt̨i) - she/he doesnt/didnt drink

ex: ma-kaⁿ-sha haⁿ da-taⁿ-wa-zhi, e-niⁿ-te iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ da-taⁿ pa (makk̨a hą datt̨wa, nįtt ̨čʰǫ tą datt̨ ppa) - they didnt drink coffee, though now they do [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-tʰoⁿ (thatʰⁿ) - drink, to drink [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ʰtoⁿ (tha-ṭⁿ) - to drink, to quaff [FL-Osage]; tha-ʰtaⁿ(aaʰtą́) - drink [CQ-Osage]; ya-taⁿ (yatⁿ) - drink [Kaw]

 

not even second hand, indirectly

a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - indirectly, not even second hand

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events; a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley

ex: a-ki-kde-kde a-na-xoⁿ (kkikdekde anxʔǫ) - I heard it indirectly

 

not finish, fail to finish

ki-ha-zhi (kihi) - fail to finish a-ki-ha-zhi (akha) - I, da-ki-ha-zhi (dakha) - you

cf. ki-ha (kih) - finish, quit; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation; ki-ha (kih) - quit, divorce [MS]; ki-ha oⁿ-pa (kih ̨ppa) - Monday

 

not go

da-zhi (di) - didnt go, went not [JOD]

cf. de (de) - go; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: ko-zhi da-zhi hi, bdi-ze (kki di hi, bdze) - it didnt go very far, I caught it [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-zhi (thzhi) - not go, not to go [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhi (th-zhi) - to remain [FL-Osage]; tha-zhiⁿ (aą) - to not go [CQ-Osage]

 

not he, it is not he

e-tʰaⁿ-zhi (etʰ̨i) - it is not he [JOD]

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it; aforementioned; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; e-tʰaⁿ (etʰ̨) - he was that [JOD]; zhi (zhi) - negative, negation, not

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - the standing animate; the, animate, obviative, standing; the animate standing, proximate [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - the; the one standing; he who is standing; to stand as a man, woman, or horse [FL-Osage]; txaⁿ (txą), kxaⁿ (kxą) - positional article for singular animate standing entity [CQ-Osage]; kha (kha), khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - the; definite article for standing/animate objects; positional continuative [Kaw]

 

not hear

na-xoⁿ-zhi (naxʔ̨) - to not hear, to not listen

cf.na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen; wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wanxʔǫ) - to be deaf

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ-zhi (winaxʔ̨i) - I didnt hear you [MS]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-xo-zhi (̨nąxʔ̨i) - she had not listened to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: na-oⁿ-zhi (naⁿzhi) - to not hear or listen, to not understand [Omaha/Ponca]

 

not heavy, light

ha-ha (hha) - light, not heavy

ex: ha-ha hi (hha hi) - very light, not very heavy [MS]

Dhegiha: ha-ha-da (hahada) - lightweight [Omaha]; ha-ha-daⁿ (hhadⁿ) - light [JOD-Omaha]; ha-ha (h-ha) - light weight [FL-Osage]; ha-ha (hha) - light, lightweight [Kaw]

 

not in sight, wait for someone not in sight

i-da-pe (idppe) - wait for someone not in sight i-bda-pe (ibdppe) - I, i-ta-pe (ittppe) - you

Dhegiha: i-tha-pe (ithape) - wait [Omaha]; i-tha-ʰpe (i-th-p̣e) - to wait for someone [FL-Osage]; i-tha-ʰpe (iʰpe) - wait, wait for [CQ-Osage]; i-ya-pa (iyapa) - wait [Kaw]

 

not laugh or smile

i-xa-zhi (ixa) - to not laugh, to not smile i-da-xa-zhi (idxa) - I, i-da-xa-zhi (daxa) - you

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; zhi (zhi) - negative, negation, not

ex: i-da-xa-zhi (idxa) - I laugh not [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ, i-da-xa-zhi, i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa-, iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: i-xa-zhi (ixa) - he/she laugh not [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe i-xa koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe e-ni-te, o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ, i-da-xa-zhi (waxʔ nįkʰe xa k̨da nįkʰe nitte, dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąmį, idxa-i) - the woman wanted to laugh, although she thought he will see/find me, I wont laugh [JOD]

 

not like, to not like

ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely aⁿ-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (̨hottą ttahi) - I, di-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (dhottą ttahi) - you

cf. ho-taⁿ (httą) - good; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly; zhi (zhi) - negative, negation, not; ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo koi (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it, lit., that woman liked it [MS]

 

ki-shoⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - to be displeased aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi (ą̨i) - I, di-shoⁿ-zhi (dįi) - you

cf. ki-wa-shoⁿ (kwaǫ) - to be happy

ex: aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi tʰe aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi a-ta-pa (̨kidi h tʰe ą̨i ttapp) - I did not like it much that he did not tell me at all

Dhegiha: gi-shoⁿ-zhi (g-shoⁿ-zhi) - to dislike, disagree, to disapprove [FL-Osage]; ki-shoⁿ-zhi (k͓-cŭⁿ-c͓i) - to dislike, to disagree with, to disapprove of [JOD-Osage]; gi-zu a-zhi (g-u a-zhi) - he is not happy over it, disconsolate [FL-Osage]; ki-zo-zhi (kzoi) - be lonesome, unhappy, sad, disconsolate [CQ-Osage]; gi-zo-zhi (gzozhi) - to be unhappy [Kaw]

 

koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - to not want, not like koⁿ-bda zhi (kkǫbd i) - I, shkoⁿ-ta zhi (k̨tta i) - you, koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - he/she

cf. koⁿ-da (kǫd) - want, desire, wish; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-bda zhi (kkǫbd i) - I dont like it (I dont want it) [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I don't want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde ta, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tta, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ taⁿ (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą tą) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: koⁿ-da zhi e (kǫd i e) - she didn't like it [MS]

ex: a-ki-na-xoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi (aknaxʔ̨ kǫdi) - he did not want to hear him (listen to him) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze naⁿ zhaⁿ koⁿ-da zhi, i-ya-we, ki-ha-ti (kiǫttą h̨nąppze ną ą kǫd , iywe, kihtti) - then when it was dark, she did not want to sleep, they say, at the bottom [JOD]

 

o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik), o-koⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ika) - hate

cf. o-kaⁿ-shi-ka-wa-de (okk̨ikwade) - hateful, abominable; o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - be hateful

ex: o-wi-kaⁿ-shi-ka (owkkąik) - I hate you

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkk̨ik) - white man didnt like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

 

not mine, not my

wi-ta zhi (wtta i) - not mine, not my

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation

ex: si-kde wi-ta zhi (sikd wtta i) - theyre not my tracks [MS]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ, wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨, wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

ex: wi-ta zhi i-pe-hiⁿ (wtta i pehį) - not my pillow [MS]

 

not quite, almost

i-hi-zhi (hii) - almost, not quite

cf. i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

 

not stingy, generous

wa-te-da-zhi (wttedi) - generous, not stingy a-wa-te-da-zhi (awttedi) - I, da-wa-te-da-zhi (dawttedi) - you

cf. wa-te-de (wattde) - stingy

 

not there

e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi (ett nįkʰa) -

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative sitting; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti niⁿ-ka-zhi (mat̨ke ett nįkʰa) - the rabbit was not there [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di (ed) - there [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di (edi) - there, over there, at [Omaha]; e-dsi (e-ds) - there [FL-Osage]; e-tsi (ec) - be present here/there, exist here/there; be at that time [CQ-Osage]; e-ji (ej) - there, in that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (ik) - sitting one, animate sitting [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the (one) sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - 3rd person sitting continuative aspect marker; sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkh) - the sitting animate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (jǐ), a-zhi (a-jǐ) - negation, not [JOD-Omaha]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

not to eat, fast

da-tʰa-zhi (datʰi) - fast, not to eat bda-tʰa-zhi (bdtʰai) - I, ta-tʰa-zhi (tttʰai) - you

cf. da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew; zhi (i) - not, negation; ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, lit. eat no meat

Dhegiha: wa-tha-ta-zhi (wathatazhi) - fast [Omaha]; ʰta tha-ta zhi hoⁿ-ba (ṭa th-ta-zhi hoⁿ-ba) - ṭa - meat, tha-ta - eat, zhi - not, hoⁿ-ba - day, day not eat meat, Friday [FL-Osage]; haⁿpa ʰta tha-tsʰa zhi (hą́ąpa ʰtaaacʰai) - Friday, literally, day of no meat eating [CQ-Osage]; ta ya-cha zhi (ta ychazhi) - Eats no Deer, subclan of the Kaw deer clan [Kaw]

 

not to have come back here

kdi-zhi (kdii) - to not have come back here

cf. kdi (kdi) - to have come back here; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: kdi-zhi (kdi) - he had not come back [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ kdi-zhi (hǫn̨ttą kdi) - why hasnt he come back? [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthi (g) - to have come back [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthi (ag) - came back [JOD-Omaha]; gthi (gthi) - to come home, to return home [FL-Osage]; a-gthi (a-gth) - returning, this expression is found frequently when referring to the return of one who has been searching for some particular thing [FL-Osage]; li (l), a-li (al) - arrive back here, arrive home here, return here, come back, get back, motion accomplished; initial a is often omitted in 3rd person [CQ-Osage]; li (li) - to have come home, to have come back [Kaw]

 

not to know how to do anything

kaⁿ-zhi-ka (k̨ik) - not to know how to do anything paⁿ-zhi-ka (pp̨ik) - I, shkaⁿ-zhi-ka (k̨ik) - you

Dhegiha: gaⁿ-zhiⁿ-ga (gⁿ-ji-ga) - to be ignorant of, not know how to do or make [JOD-Omaha]; goⁿ-zhiⁿ-ga (gⁿ-zhiⁿ-ga) - failure to do a thing for lack of skill, unskilled [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka (k̨įka) - be unskilled at, not know how to [CQ-Osage]; go-zhiⁿ-ga (gzhiⁿga) - ignorant, not to know how to [Kaw]; ga-go-zhiⁿ-ga (gagzhiⁿga) - not to know how, be ignorant of how to use an implement such as a hoe or ax [Kaw]

 

not to listen or heed, ignore, disobey

a-na-xoⁿ-zhi (naxʔǫi) - ignore, heed not, disobey a-a-na-xoⁿ-zhi (anaxʔ̨i) - I, a-da-na-xoⁿ-zhi (danaxʔ̨i) - you

cf. a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - listen to; zhi (i) - not, negation; na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen; wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wanxʔǫ) - to be deaf; ki-na-xoⁿ (knaxʔǫ) - listen to someone, heed someone; o-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - hear about something, hear a report; o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-zo-zo (naxʔǫ kazzo) - newspaper, lit. paper that hears; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph; o-na-xoⁿ-de (onxʔǫde) - tell, lit. cause to hear something

ex: a-a-na-xoⁿ-zhi pʰi (anaxʔ̨i pʰ) - I did not heed him-I was coming, (I ignored him as I was coming) [JOD]

ex: tʰi-we, tʰi-we, wi-he, i-ye naⁿ a-na-xaⁿ-zhi hi kde i-ya-we (tʰiw, tʰiw, wih, iy ną naxʔąi h kd iywe) - come, come, younger sister, he said, she was not listening to (ignoring) him as she headed home, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi (̨nąxʔ̨i) - she had not listened to me, she ignored me [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-na-aⁿ-zhi (naaⁿ́ji) - he did not listen to, he does not listen to [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-tha-na-aⁿ-zhi (aⁿ́anaaⁿ́ji) - you do not listen to me [JOD-Omaha]; a-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ-zhi (-noⁿ-ḳoⁿ zhi) - to disobey [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-tha-na-koⁿ-zhi-e (̨anakʔǫe) - you did not listen to me [CQ-Osage]

 

not to speak, mute

i-a-zhi (a) - mute

i-ya-zhi (yai) - he/she spoke not [JOD]

cf. i-ye (ye), i-e (e) - talk, speak, word; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation

Dhegiha: i-a-zhi (azhi) - not to speak, be silent [Omaha/Ponca]; i-a-zhi (-a-zhi) - speak not, a mute, reticent [FL-Osage]; i-a-zhi (ai) - to say anything [CQ-Osage]

 

not to swallow, not to devour

da-sniⁿ-zhi (dasn̨i) - not to swallow, not to devour

cf. da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - swallow; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: da-sniⁿ-zhi (dasn̨i) - he swallowed not [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi (dasn̨wa) - they had not eaten up, they had not devoured all [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi naⁿ pi-ki-zhi di-knaⁿ (dasn̨wa ną ppkii dikn̨) - they had not devoured it all, she decided to put her scraps away [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-sniⁿ (asnⁿ) - to swallow [JOD-Omaha]; tha-hni (tha-hn) - to gulp or swallow [FL-Osage]; ya-hniⁿ (yahnⁿ) - swallow [Kaw]

 

not very

hi-zhi (hi) - not very, negation of hi (hi) - very

cf. hi (hi) - very; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several, many, more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (jǐ), a-zhi (a-jǐ) - negation, not [JOD-Omaha]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

not want

koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - to not want, not like koⁿ-bda zhi (kkǫbd i) - I, shkoⁿ-ta zhi (k̨tta i) - you, koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - he/she

cf. koⁿ-da (kǫd) - want, desire, wish; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-bda zhi (kkǫbd i) - I dont like it (I dont want it) [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I don't want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde ta, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tta, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ taⁿ (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą tą) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: koⁿ-da zhi e (kǫd i e) - she didn't like it [MS]

ex: a-ki-na-xoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi (aknaxʔ̨ kǫdi) - he did not want to hear him (listen to him) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze naⁿ zhaⁿ koⁿ-da zhi, i-ya-we, ki-ha-ti (kiǫttą h̨nąppze ną ą kǫd , iywe, kihtti) - then when it was dark, she did not want to sleep, they say, at the bottom [JOD]

 

not, do not

na-ha (nah) - prohibitive, beware lest..., do not

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ, te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we, i-yi iya (nąp̨, tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe, iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-he naⁿ (tti tt nah ih ną) - you do not go there!, Ive been saying [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there!, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha, i-yi i-ya e-kaⁿ-ki-dai (tti tt nah, iy iy ek̨kdai) - you do not go there, said his grandmother, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha, i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah, ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: da-xa-ke naⁿ-ha (daγke nąh) - beware lest you cry out [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-shpi-ta na-ha (̨pitta nah) - beware lest you lean on me!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

ex: a-da-ka-xdi-we da-na-zhiⁿ na-ha (dakaxdwe danį nah) - beware lest you stand gazing on it!

ex: ka-she-naⁿ na-ha (kaną nah) - dont do that! [AB]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ha (naⁿha), noⁿ-ha (noⁿha) - imperative [Kaw]; na-ha-o (nahao) - imperative, masculine singular [Kaw]

 

not, it is not there (standing)

e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi (etttʰą) - there it stands not [JOD]

cf.e-ti (ett) - there; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - it stands there [JOD]; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - the standing animate; the, animate, obviative, standing; the animate standing, proximate [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - the; the one standing; he who is standing; to stand as a man, woman, or horse [FL-Osage]; txaⁿ (txą), kxaⁿ (kxą) - positional article for singular animate standing entity [CQ-Osage]; kha (kha), khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - the; definite article for standing/animate objects; positional continuative [Kaw]

 

not, to not bring back here

a-niⁿ ki-zhi (an̨ kii) - to not bring back here a-tiⁿ shki-zhi (att̨ kii) - you

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; ki (ki) - be returning to here; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: hoⁿ-tʰe a-tiⁿ shki-zhi a (h̨tʰe att̨ ki a) - why didnt you bring it home? [JOD]

 

notch, arrow notch

maⁿ-te o-zhaⁿ-ka (m̨tte ǫkka) - arrow notch

cf. o-zhoⁿ-ke ki-di-zhoⁿ-ka (ǫke kkdiǫk) - fork in a road; maⁿ (mą) - arrow, arrow shaft; maⁿ-te (m̨tte) - bow

Dhegiha: moⁿ i-tʰa-xe zhoⁿ-kʰa (moⁿ tʰaxe zhⁿkʰa) - forked arrow tip [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-be zhoⁿ-ka (iⁿbe zhoⁿka) - fork tailed hawk, swallow tail hawk [Omaha]; iⁿ-be zhoⁿ-ʰka (ⁿ-be zhoⁿ-ḳa) - fork tailed kite [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-bo-zha-ga (ⁿ-bo-zha-ga) - fly around me in forked lines [FL-Osage]; ni oi-zhaⁿ-ka (ni ozhaⁿka) - fork in a river [Kaw]; o-i-zhaⁿ-ka (ozhaⁿka), o-wi-zhaⁿ-ka (wizhaⁿka) - fork of a road or stream, mouth of a stream [Kaw]; u-be zhaⁿ-ka (be zhaⁿk) - swallow, forked tail swallow [Kaw]

 

notched

ti-te (tttte) - notched

cf. di-ti-te (dittitt) - tear notches, scallops in something; ka-ti-te (katttte) - strike notches in something; pa-ti-te (pttitte) - cut notches with a knife

 

notches, cut notches or scallops

di-shka-shka (dikka) - cut notches or scallops bdi-shka-shka (bdkaka) - I, ti-shka-shka (ttkaka) - you

 

notches, cut notches with a knife

pa-ti-te (pttitte) - cut notches with a knife pa-a-ti-te (patttte) - I, pa-da-ti-te (pdatttte) - you, pa-oⁿ-ti-te-we (Pąttittewe) - we

cf. ti-te (tttte) - notched; di-ti-te (dittitt) - tear notches, scallops in something; ka-ti-te (katttte) - strike notches in something

 

notches, strike notches in something

ka-ti-te (katttte) - strike notches in something a-ti-te (ttitte) - I, da-ti-te (dttitte) - you

cf. ti-te (tttte) - notched; di-ti-te (dittitt) - tear notches, scallops in something; pa-ti-te (pttitte) - cut notches with a knife

 

notches, tear notches or scallops in something

di-ti-te (dittitt) - tear notches, scallops in something bdi-ti-te (bdttitte) - I, ti-ti-te (ttttitte) - you

cf. ti-te (tttte) - notched; ka-ti-te (katttte) - strike notches in something; pa-ti-te (pttitte) - cut notches with a knife

 

note, hold a note singing

da-ste-te (dasttte) - hold a note singing bda-ste-te (bdstette) - I, ta-ste-te (ttstette) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

 

nothing

ta-taⁿ-zhi (tttą) - nothing

cf. ta-taⁿ (tttą) - what, something; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation; ta-taⁿ hi-te (tttą hitt) - some kind or other, whatever [JOD]; ta-taⁿ za-ni (tttą zan) - everything, what+all [JOD]; ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi (tttą hott̨ hi) - something very good [JOD]

Dhegiha: da-doⁿ-zhi (ddoⁿzh) - nothing, what not [Omaha/Ponca]; da-daⁿ-zhi (d-daⁿ-ji) - negation of da-daⁿ (dadaⁿ); what-not, nothing [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what?; something, a thing [JOD-Omaha]; da-doⁿ (ddoⁿ) - what, interrogation [FL-Osage]; ta-taⁿ (tatą) - what (interrogative), thing(s), anything, something, what, whatever (indefinite or relative), what kind, what sort, what type, what class of (interrogative), do what (interrogative) [CQ-Osage]; da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what, something, thing, things [Kaw]

 

nothing but, only that

e-naⁿ-xti (nąxti) - nothing but that, only that

naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]

cf. e-naⁿ (ną) - only that, him, her, it; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; naⁿ-hi (nąh) - alone, all alone, only; wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨), wi-naⁿ (wną) - I, only I, I alone; di-naⁿ (dną) - you only; oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną) - we, only, only us

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka naⁿ-xti wa-da-tʰe-we i-ya (was ke nkkaka-nąxt wdatʰwe iy) - the black bears only ate people, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-xti-shka naⁿ-xti ta-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha waxtka-nąxt ttatʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in future [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-na-xti (e-n-qti) - only that, it, he, she, or they; he, she, it, or them alone [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ-xti (enoⁿxji) - only, single [Omaha]; e-noⁿ-xtsi (e-nⁿ-xtsi) - he, she, or it alone [FL-Osage]

 

nothing, for nothing

o-xaⁿ ni-ke (xʔą nik) - for nothing, without cause

cf. ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking

ex: o-xaⁿ ni-ke da-hoⁿ-bde (xʔą nik dah̨bde) - there was no reason for your having such a dream [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ⁿ thiⁿ-ge (uⁿthiⁿg) - without cause, without permission, free, for nothing, without pay [Omaha/Ponca]; o-kaⁿ yiⁿ-ge (kaⁿyiⁿge) - without cause, for nothing, freely [Kaw]

 

nothing, to have none, be lacking

ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I, di-ni-ke (dinke) - you

niⁿ-ke (nik͓) - none [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, semi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, mind [JOD]

ex: ni niⁿ-ke (ni nįk) - no water [JOD]

ex: wa-niⁿ-ke-hi-we (wan̨kehiw) - we have none at all [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were lacking [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (mątt-įkʰe ąn̨ke) - I do not have a paddle [JOD]

ex: o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-we (nikwe) - they are not, there are none [JOD]

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

ex: ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health, without sickness

ex: wa-haⁿ-ni-ke (wah̨nik) - orphan, without family/relation

ex: hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha ni-ke (hǫb̨tteha nik) - slippers, lit. without moccasin flaps

ex: ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient, lack hearing

ex: o-ki-te ni-ke (okktte nke) - elephant, lit. without joints

ex: te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. cow without balls

ex: o-xaⁿ ni-ke (xʔą nik) - for nothing, without cause

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk [MS]

ex: ni-ke hi (nik h) - there is none [OM]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke naⁿ-ta ni-ke niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke nątt nik nįkʰ) - the dog didnt have no ear [MS]

ex: wa-xo ni-ke hi niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nik hi nįkʰ) - hes no good, he has no woman/wife [AG]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿge) - blank, obsolete, zero, vanish, nothing, none, erosion, absent, lack [Omaha]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿ́-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

notwithstanding, anyhow, at any rate, despite

shoⁿ-hi-te (̨hitte) - anyhow, at any rate, despite, notwithstanding

ex: aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, shoⁿ-hi-te (ątʔ tta mįkʰe ąm̨, ̨hitte) - at any rate, I think I will be dead/die [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-hi-te aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe, aⁿ-te taⁿ zho za-ni ta-xaⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿki-ye (̨hitte ątʔ tta mįkʰ, ątʔ tą zan txʔąkid-nihĕ́, ąn̨kiye) - well/at any rate I am going to die, when I'm dead barbecue all my flesh for me, he said to me [JOD]

 

notwithstanding, then, despite

koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]; koi-shoⁿ-e (kįe) - no matter what; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįtta) - thus, accordingly, in that way; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - that way, in, therefore

 

now

iⁿ-chʰoⁿ (̨čʰǫ) - now

cf. iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi (̨čʰǫ hi) - now, right now; ka-chʰoⁿ zhi-ka (kačʰ̨ ik) - a little while

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

ex: ma-kaⁿ-sha haⁿ da-taⁿ-wa-zhi, e-niⁿ-te iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ da-taⁿ pa (makk̨a hą datt̨wa, nįtt ̨čʰǫ tą datt̨ ppa) - they didnt drink coffee, though now they do [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ mi-aⁿ-ba a-ki-haⁿ a-kniⁿ (̨čʰǫ mįba m̨ kkihą akn̨) - I have now been (here) over a month

Dhegiha: iⁿ-chʰaⁿ (ⁿ-tcaⁿ) - now, at present [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-chuⁿ (iⁿchuⁿ) - meanwhile, current, now, immediately, abrupt [Omaha]; iⁿ-choⁿ (̨-choⁿ) - at this moment, now, immediately, right away [FL-Osage]

 

e-koⁿ-te zhi-ka (ek̨tte ik) - in a little while, presently

cf. e-koⁿ-te (kǫtt) - wait!; in a while, presently; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little; e-koⁿ-te-he (kǫtteh) - wait!; in a while, presently

Dhegiha: the-goⁿ-dsi (the-gⁿ-dsi) - now, at the present time [FL-Osage]; the-koⁿ-tse (ek̨ǫce), the-koⁿ-tsi (ek̨ǫci) - now, at this moment [CQ-Osage]; ye-go-ji (yegji) - now, at this time or place [Kaw]

 

now and then, start now and then to do something

tʰi-da-da (tʰidda) - start now and then to do something a-tʰi-bda-bda (atʰbdabd) - I, da-tʰi-ta-ta (datʰttatt) - you, tʰi-oⁿ-da-da-we (tʰįdadaw) - we

cf. tʰi-de (tʰid) - to begin, suddenly [JOD]; tʰi-kde (tʰikd) - become suddenly; tʰi-kda-kda (tʰkdakd) - repeat a sudden action

Dhegiha: tʰi-tha-tha (ti--a) - freq. of tʰi-the (tie), beginning suddenly now and then [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: tʰi-the (ti-) - to begin, commence, or start suddenly; to come forth, as an infant at birth [JOD-Omaha]; tʰi-the (tʰith) - to begin, to start; to arrive, as a baby being born [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-the (ṭsi-th) - he began, he hastened, denoting sudden action [FL-Osage]; chi-ye (chiy) - suddenly, action in this direction [Kaw]

 

now, just now

di-o-za (diza) - just now, a short time ago

ex: di-o-za (diza) - in a little while [JOD]

ex: o-di-o-za (diza) - in a little while [JOD]

ex: o-di-o-za hi (odizah) - in a very little while [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha di-o-za hi o-xde (n̨a diza h oxd) - then in a very short time he overtook her [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka o-di-o-za hi o-wa-xde (bdok odizah waxde) - in a very short time, he overtook the entire group [JOD]

 

now, right now

iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi (̨čʰǫ hi) - now, right now

cf. iⁿ-chʰoⁿ (̨čʰǫ) - now; hi (hi) - very; ka-chʰoⁿ zhi-ka (kačʰ̨ ik) - a little while

ex: ki-knoⁿ-ke ta niⁿ-kʰa iⁿ-chʰoⁿ i (kiknǫk tta nįkʰ ̨čʰǫ i) - theyre married (theyre going to be married, now) [MS]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-chʰaⁿ (ⁿ-tcaⁿ) - now, at present [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-chuⁿ (iⁿchuⁿ) - meanwhile, current, now, immediately, abrupt [Omaha]; iⁿ-choⁿ (̨-choⁿ) - at this moment, now, immediately, right away [FL-Osage]

 

now, this

de (de) - this, now

Dhegiha: the () - this [JOD-Omaha]; the (the) - this [FL-Osage]; the (e) - positional article for singular moving; that, the aforesaid [CQ-Osage]; the (e) - that; this; those; these; they [CQ-Osage]; ye (ye) - this, here, hither [Kaw]

 

nowhere

ho-wa-zhi (hwai) - nowhere

cf. ho-wa (hwa) - where, who, which; ho-wa-tʰe-ta-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in; nearby; ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in; far away; ho-wa-tʰe-ti (hwatʰett) - at or by what collection of inanimate objects [JOD]; ho-wa-da (hwada) - where is/are the (class) object; ho-wa-ta (hwatta) - whose; ho-wa-ke (howak) - which one of a crowd [JOD]; ho-wa-zhi (hwai) - nobody

Dhegiha: ho-wa (hwa) - which, which one [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa (hwa) - what; which one (specified by shape); where is the X- shaped object? [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-gi-ʰtoⁿ (h-wa-gi ṭoⁿ) - from where [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-gi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (h-wa-iⁿ-g-ṭoⁿ-tse) - from what source, what direction [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-iⁿ-ge (h-wa-iⁿ-ge) - where; in what place [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-iⁿ-ki (howįki), ho-wa-iⁿ-ki-tse (hwaįkice), ho-wa-i-ke (howike), ho-wa-i (hwai) - where, wherein, where at, where to; be where; wherever, be wherever [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-yiⁿ-ge-ji (hwayiⁿgeji) - in, by, or near what place or object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-ge (h-wa-ge), hu-wa-ge (h-wa-ge) - where [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-ge (hwage) - where are the scattered objects; where are the different places [Kaw]; ho-wa-ge-ji (hwagji) - where, to what place; at what place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-the (h-wa-the) - where; which one [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-the-shki (howaeshki) - whichever one (animate), whatever one (person or animate being); anybody; everybody; whoever [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-ye (hwaye) - where is the moving animate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-tsʰe-shki (howacʰeki) - whichever one (inanimate), whatever (thing), anything, everything [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-che (hwache) - which; where is the standing inanimate object; where is the pile or collection of object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa-thiⁿ-ke (h-wa-thiⁿ-ke) - which one (sitting) [FL-Osage]; ho-wa-iⁿ-kshe (hwaįke) - which one (round, sitting) [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa-yiⁿ-khe (hwayiⁿkh) - where is the animate object; where is the one who; where is the sitting one; where is the wider-than-tall inanimate object [Kaw]

 

nude, naked

  zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat; do-ka-niⁿ (dokknį), to-ka-niⁿ (tokknį) - naked to the waist; hi (hi) - very; si do-ka-niⁿ (si dkkan̨) - to be barefoot; to-ka-ni o-zha (tokkni a) - war dance, no shirt - dance [MS]

Dhegiha: ha thu-ka-thiⁿ-i (hukiⁿi) - naked [JOD-Omaha]; nu-ka-thiⁿ (nukiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [JOD-Omaha]; ha thu-ga-thiⁿ (ha thgathiⁿ) - naked, nude, bare [Omaha]; tho-ʰka-thiⁿ (tho-ḳ-thiⁿ), thu-ʰka-thiⁿ (th-ḳa-thiⁿ), nu-ʰka-thiⁿ (nu-ḳa-thiⁿ) - stripped to the waist; nude, naked [FL-Osage]; yo-ka-yiⁿ (yokyiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [Kaw]

 

nudge, edge, push on edge

ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge pa-zi-pa (ppzippa) - I, shpa-zi-pa (pzippa) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of one's own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

number, equal in quantity or number

kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity or number

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal size; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with

Dhegiha: go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]

 

number, half of a number or quantity

o-di-shte (odte) - half (number or quantity)

cf. o-di-shte (odte) - saw, split by sawing

Dhegiha: u-thi-stse-ge (u-thi-stse-ge) - split [FL-Osage]; o-yu-stse-ge (oyscege) - pull apart, split by pulling [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-stse (u-ḳ-stse), u-ʰki-ste (u-ḳi-te) - half [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-stse(oʰksce) - half of anything, half dollar [CQ-Osage]

 

number, to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

cf. a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - cross roads; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - masculine name, Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish [MS]

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-thi-te u-ga-doⁿ (kʰithte ugdoⁿ) - to nail on crosswise, to crucify [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-thi-tse (-ḳi-thi-tse) - that which lies across the breast [FL-Osage]

 

numeral, ordinal numeral marker

i () - ordinal numeral marker; i () + numeral stem

ex: i-naⁿ-pa (nąpa), i-naⁿ-paⁿ (nąp̨), i-naⁿ-baⁿ (nąb̨) - second, second time, again, i () + naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-naⁿ-pa tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (̨ik nąp͓ tʰą kkikn̨wi) - they put their second pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-naⁿ-pa niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą nąp͓ nį diʔ) - then the second one gave out [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: i-da-bniⁿ (dabn̨) - third, ordinal numeral, i () + da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three

ex: de i-da-bniⁿ (d dabnį) - this third one [JOD]

ex: e-ti shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-da-bniⁿ tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti ̨ik dabnį tʰą kkikn̨wi) - there, they put their third pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-da-bniⁿ di-sha (etttʰą dabnį diʔ) - then the third one gave out [JOD]

ex: i-da-bni-ka (dabnika) - third, fraction

ex: i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral, i () + to-wa (twa) - four

ex: naⁿ-piu-za i-to-wa tʰe (nąpza towa tʰe) - fourth finger [MS]

ex: e-ti i-to-wa tʰaⁿ o-do-ha-ke ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti towa tʰą odhake kkikn̨wi) - they put down the fourth, last born for him [JOD]

ex: i-to-wa-ka (towaka) - fourth, fraction

ex: i-sa-taⁿ (sattą) - fifth, ordinal numeral, i () + sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five

ex: i-sa-taⁿ-ka (sattąka) - fifth, fraction

ex: i-sha-pe (appe) - sixth, i () + sha-pe (app) - six

ex: i-pe-naⁿ-pa (ppen̨pa) - seventh, i () + pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven

ex: i-pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eighth, i () + pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight

ex: i-shaⁿ-ka (ąkk) - ninth, i () + shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine

ex: i-kde-bdaⁿ (kdebd̨) - tenth, i () + kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten

 

numerals, distributive of numerals

►  na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals

ex: miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece

ex: naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece

ex: da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes; 3 apiece

ex: to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours

ex: sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives

ex: sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, 6 at a time

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens

ex: pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, eight at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines

ex: kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece, 10 at a time

ex: da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens; 13 apiece

ex: sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, seventeen at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each

ex: kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece

ex: kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each

ex: e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

ex: ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each

ex: wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]

 

nurse, suckle

ma-ze ki (maz k) - nurse, suckle

cf. ma-ze (maz) - breast; ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

ex: ma-ze ki (maz k) - breast-give to her [JOD]

ex: ma-ze ki, xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (maz kʔ, γak nįkʰ) - let her suckle, shes crying [JOD]

ex: xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe, ma-ze ki, i-he miⁿ-kʰe (γak nįkʰ, maz kʔ, ih mįkʰ) - shes crying, let her suckle, I said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-ze-iⁿ (ma-z-iⁿ) - to use the breasts; to suck, as infants or the young of animals suck the breasts of the mother [JOD-Omaha]; ba-ze-ʰkiⁿ (ba--ḳi), ba-ze-iⁿ (ba--iⁿ) - the act of a mother suckling her child [FL-Osage]

 

nut, black walnut

ta-ke (ttke) - black walnut

ta-ke (ttke) - black walnut [MS]

cf. ta-ke hi (ttakhi) - black walnut tree

Dhegiha: ta-ge (tge) - black walnut [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ge (tage) - walnut [Omaha]; ʰta-ge (ṭ-ge) - black walnut [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ku-e (ʰtkue) - walnut, black walnut [CQ-Osage]; ta-gu (tgu) - black walnut [Kaw]

 

nut, hazel nut

wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka (watstotta kka) - hazel nut

cf. wa-ta-sto-ta (watstotta) - pecan nut; sha-ka (kka) - matted, as hair; wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka hi (watstotta kka hi) - hazel bush

 

nut, hickory nut

poⁿ (ppǫ) - hickory nut

poⁿ (poⁿ) - hickory nut [MS]

poⁿ (pon) - hickory nut (noix) [GI]

cf. poⁿ hi (ppǫh) - hickory tree; poⁿ ka-xnaⁿ-zhe (poⁿ ga ka n[m]o zha) - stone for crushing hickory nuts, from John Quapaw [MH]

Dhegiha: ʰpoⁿ toⁿ-ga (p̣ⁿ-ṭoⁿ-ga) - nut of the hickory tree, hickory nut [FL-Osage]; ʰpa ʰtaⁿ (ʰpʰtąą) - hickory nut [CQ-Osage]; paⁿ taⁿ-ga (pⁿtⁿga) - hickory nut, walnut [Kaw]; paⁿ pa-zhiⁿ-ga (paⁿ pzhiⁿga) - a type of small hickory nut [Kaw]

 

nut, pecan nut

wa-ta-sto-ta (watstotta) - pecan (nut)

wa-ta-sto-ta (watstotta) - pecan [MS]

wa-ta-sto-ta (uattah-stŭttah) - pecan nut (noix de pecan) [GI]

cf. wa-ta-sto-ta hi (watstott hi) - pecan tree

ex: wa-ta-sto-ta ba-hi (watstotta bhi) - to pick pecan nuts [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-da-sto-sta (wa-d-to-ta) - pecan nuts [FL-Osage]; wa-ta-sto-sta (watstosta), wa-ta-sto-e (watstoe), wa-ta-shtsʰo-tsʰe (watčoče) - pecan nut [CQ-Osage]

 

nutcracker, crack nuts

di-xi-xe (dixxe) - crack nuts, nutcracker bdi-xi-xe (bdxixe) - I, ti-xi-xe (ttxixe) - you

cf. ka-xi-xe (kaxix), (kaxxe) - crack something, as an egg

Dhegiha: xi-xe (qxe) - broken in hollow object, broken in as any hollow object [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ge i-ga-xi-xe (tage igaxixe) - nut cracker [Omaha]; ga-xi-xe (ga-x-xe) - to break or crack hard substance like corn, nuts, etc., by striking [FL-Osage]; ka-xu-xe (kaaxɣe) - split, split open, crack or splinter by sudden impact [CQ-Osage]

 

nuthatch

wa-zhiⁿ zha ma-ni (waį mni) - nuthatch, lit. walks upside down; mutch-hotch; Sittidae

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka), wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - bird; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ xa-tha a-he (zhoⁿ qtha he) - nuthatch or Nuttalls woodpecker; bird that goes back again down the tree [Omaha/Ponca]

 

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