English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

O

 

oil, coal oil

ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthe (noⁿxthe) - coal fuel, charcoal [Omaha]; noⁿ-xthe (noⁿ-xth) - charcoal, coal [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xle (naⁿxl) - coals, embers [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

oil, coal oil lamp

ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

cf. ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil, fat; ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil; a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ-gthe we-gthi (wnakⁿgthe wgthi) - lamp oil [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ we-gthiⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ we-gthiⁿ) - kerosene oil [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ we-li ni-ni (taʰką wli nini) - oil well, lamp oil spring/well [CQ-Osage]; we-li a-da-kaⁿ (wli dakaⁿ) - coal oil [Kaw]

 

oil, grease, lard, fat

we-kdi (wkdi) - lard, fat, grease, oil

we-kdi (wkti) - grease, fat [JOD]

we-kdi (weghetih) - oil (huile) [GI]

we-kdi (wkdi) - lard, grease [AB]

we-kjhi (wkǰ) - lard, grease [OM]

ex: ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. milk grease

ex: we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

ex: wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

ex: ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

ex: we-kdi u-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - fat wrapped around [JOD]

ex: ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil

ex: a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

ex: ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - lamp, coal oil              

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

oil, lamp oil

a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

cf. a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle; we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil, fat; ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil; ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - lamp, coal oil; ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. milk grease; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]; we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - fat wrapped around [JOD]; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

Dhegiha: wa-na-koⁿ-gthe we-gthi (wnakⁿgthe wgthi) - lamp oil [Omaha/Ponca]; a-da-ʰkoⁿ we-gthiⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ we-gthiⁿ) - kerosene oil [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ we-li ni-ni (taʰką wli nini) - oil well, lamp oil spring/well [CQ-Osage]; we-li a-da-kaⁿ (wli dakaⁿ) - coal oil [Kaw]

 

old female dog

shoⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka (̨ waxʔ ka) - old female dog [JOD)]

cf. shoⁿ-ke (̨ke) - dog; shoⁿ-taⁿ-ka (̨ttąka) - wolf; shoⁿ-zhi-ka (̨ika) - puppy, pup; wa-xo zhi-ka (waxʔik) - old woman, old female animal, little old lady

ex: shoⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe i-ki-aⁿ-xa-we (̨ waxʔ ka nįkʰ kiąγwe) - he questioned the old female dog [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

 

old man

ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother, uncle; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]

ex: e-ti, ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka (n-ka) - an archaic word, conveying the idea of male of the human race, used in certain compounds [JOD-Omaha]; nu (nu) - man, human male [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ʰka (n-ḳa) - man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka (nʰka) - man, person, husband [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka (nka) - man, human male, husband [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

ni-ka sha-ke (nkka ʔak) - old man [JOD]

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man; sha-ke hi (ʔak h), (ʔake h) - old man, elder; sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very); sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; te sha-ge (tshage) - old buffalo [Omaha]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke (ʔak) - old, old man [JOD]

sha-ke (jakeh) - old, elderly, aged (vieux) [GI]

cf. ni-ka sha-ke (nkka ʔak) - old man [JOD]; sha-ke hi (ʔak h), (ʔake h) - old man, elder; sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very); sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchmans wife

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke niⁿ wa-taⁿ a-ki-de tʰe kdi (kįttą ʔke nį watt̨ akde tʰ kd) - then the old man returned with the goods that he went after [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke hi (ʔak h), (ʔake h) - old man, elder

sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very)

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man; hi (hi) - very; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there; ni-ka sha-ke (nkka ʔak) - old man [JOD]; sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

old people, elders

sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; ni-ka sha-ke (nkka ʔak) - old man [JOD]; sha-ke hi (ʔak h), (ʔake h) - old man, elder; sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very)

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

old woman

wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, wife; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother (older uncle); iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt, older [OM]; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka i-niⁿ pa naⁿ (waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek in̨ pa n̨) - grown (old) women wore short dresses [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-u naⁿ hi (wa-u naⁿ h) - to arrive at middle age, said of women only [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wa-ḳ noⁿ-hoⁿ) - a woman of questionable chastity, a harlot, a prostitute [FL-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wakʔ nǫǫh̨) - a woman who has been married, but who is now alone, a widow; prostitute, woman of bad reputation [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wak noⁿhⁿ) - grown woman [Kaw]

 

wa-xo naⁿ (waxʔną) - old woman

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, wife; naⁿ (ną) - old, grown, mature, adult

Dhegiha: wa-u (wa) - woman [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-u (wau) - lady, woman [Omaha]; wa-ʰko  (wa-ḳ) - woman or women [FL-Osage]; wa-ko (wakʔ) - woman, wife; wa-ko (wak) - woman, female, wife  [Kaw]

Dhegiha: naⁿ (nⁿ) - grown [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - to grow, to age, to mature, an adult [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (nǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

wa-xo zhi-ka (waxʔik) - old woman, old female animal; little old lady

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe ki-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (waxʔik nį wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kikʔ̨ kd, iy) - the old woman carried her sewing bag upon her back and went homeward, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe ki-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (waxʔik nį wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kikʔ̨ kd, iy) - the old woman carried her sewing bag upon her back and went homeward, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ zho-kde e-ti hi naⁿ (waxʔik nį kde tti h ną) - the old woman accompanied him as he went there [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-to-shpa, shoⁿ iⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka tʰaⁿ (h̨, wttop, ǫ į, iy iy waxʔik tʰą) - yes, my grandchild, that will do, the old woman replied  [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo zhi-ka shi-zhi-ka zho-wa-ki-kde wa-kda-niⁿ hi taⁿ a-di-xe (kįttą n̨a waxʔ ik nįkʰ ika wakkde wkdanį h tą adiγ) - and then the old woman married him, she took her children along with her [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi ta-i, wa-xo zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔ ik ikk nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya, wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte, iy nį, iy, waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą waxʔ ik nį diʔ) - then the old woman gave out [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe i-ki-aⁿ-xa-we (̨ waxʔ ka nįkʰ kiąγwe) - he questioned the old female dog [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

 

wa-xo zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - aged woman

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little; hi (hi) - very; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there

Dhegiha: wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga hi (wa-ḳ zhⁿ-ga hi) - a woman who has reached old age [FL-Osage]

 

wa-xo zhi-ka xti (waxʔika xti) - aged woman

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; zhi-ka (ik) - small, little; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wa--ji-ga) - an old woman [JOD-Omaha]; wa-u zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - old woman, elder [Omaha]; wa-ʰko zhiⁿ-ga (wa-ḳ zhiⁿ-ga) - an aged woman, a crone, mother-in-law [FL-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ (wakʔį) - my mother-in-law, mother-in-law, crone, elderly woman, little old woman, little woman, used both to refer to her and to address her [CQ-Osage]; wa-ko zhiⁿ-ga (wak zhiⁿga), wa-ko-hiⁿ-ga (wakhⁿga) - old woman, mother-in-law [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

old, aged

sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very)

sha-ke hi (ʔak h), (ʔake h) - old man, elder

cf. sha-ke (ʔke) - old, elderly, aged, old man; hi (hi) - very; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there; ni-ka sha-ke (nkka ʔak) - old man [JOD]; sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

Dhegiha: ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

old, grown up, mature

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature aⁿ-naⁿ-hoⁿ (̨nąh̨) - I, di-naⁿ-hoⁿ (dnąh̨) - you, wa-naⁿ-hoⁿ-we (wnąhǫwe) - we

cf. naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (̨nąh̨) - me grownup [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (mįt̨ nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka i-niⁿ pa naⁿ (waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek in̨ pa n̨) - grown women wore short dresses [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

old, mature, adult

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult

cf. naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; naⁿ (nⁿ) - grown [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

older aunt

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt, older aunt on mothers side; mothers older sister

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

cf. iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother; i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother, his or her mother; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - mans fathers older brother; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - girl, young; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-na-ha (ⁿnaⁿ ha) - my mother [Omaha/Ponca]; i-noⁿ-ha (inoⁿha) - my mother [Omaha]; i-na (i-na) - when addressing the mother, i-noⁿ-hoⁿ (-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - my mother [FL-Osage]; i-naⁿ (iin̨) - my mother, my mother's sister, my maternal aunt, either younger or older than my mother, more precise than English, my aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-naⁿ (inⁿ) - my mother, i-na-ye (inay) -  my mother (said by a man addressing his own mother), i-na-ye a (naye ) - my mother (said by a woman addressing her own mother) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-haⁿ (i-hⁿ) - a mother, his or her mother [JOD-Omaha]; i-hoⁿ (i-hⁿ) - someones mother, his or her mother [Omaha/Ponca]; i-hoⁿ (i-hⁿ) - mother [Omaha]; i-hoⁿ (i-hⁿ) - mother [FL-Osage]; i-hoⁿ (iih̨) - his or her mother, the mother, a mother [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ (ihⁿ) - his or her mother [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

older brother, a mans older brother

i-zhiⁿ-de (įde), e-zhiⁿ-de (ęde) - a mans elder brother wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your

cf. i-zhiⁿ-de-de (įdede) - to have as an elder brother

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-the (izhⁿthe) - elder brother [Omaha]; i-zhiⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - his elder brother, brother older than himself [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - his older brother (more precise than English his brother) [CQ-Osage]; i-zhi-ye (izhye) - mans elder brother [Kaw]

 

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder brother (male speaking)

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wi-jindheh) - my older brother (frere an) [GI]

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-the (wizhⁿthe) - my elder brother [Omaha]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wi-zhⁿ-the) - my elder brother, my brother older than myself [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wįe) - my older brother (used only when speaker is male) [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhi-ye (wizhye) - my elder brother [Kaw]

 

di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - your older brother (used only when speaking to a man) [CQ-Osage]; yi-zhi-ye (yizhye) - your elder brother [Kaw]

 

older brother, a womans older brother

i-ti-to (itttto) - brother, womans elder, his or hers wi-ti-to (witttto) - my, di-ti-to (ditttto) - your

Dhegiha: i-ti-nu (itnu) - elder brother [Omaha];  i-tsiⁿ-do (i-tsiⁿ́-do) - her elder brother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsiⁿ-to (iʰic̨to) - her older brother, any of her brothers who is older than she is [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-do (icdo) - woman's eldest brother [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my brother, woman's elder (female speaking)

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my elder brother (female speaker) [MS]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-tsiⁿ-do (wi-tsiⁿ́-do) - brother older than myself, woman speaking [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (wiʰc̨to) - my elder brother, oldest of speaker's brothers, not necessarily older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female, more precise than English, my older brother [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-do (wicdo) - my elder brother, female speaking; my step-brother, female speaking, older; my father's brother's son, older than myself, female speaking; my mother's brother's daughter's son, female speaking; my mother's sister's son, older than myself, female speaking [Kaw]

 

di-ti-to (ditttto) - your brother, womans elder (speaking to a female)

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (iʰic̨to) - your older brother, used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-do (yicdo) - your elder brother, addressing a woman [Kaw]

 

i-ti-to-de (ittttode) - brother, to have as an elder i-ti-to-a-de (ittttoade) - I, i-ti-to-da-de (ittttodade) - you

Dhegiha: i-tsi-do-ye (icdoye) - woman to have someone as her older brother, to call someone i-tsi-do (icdo) [Kaw]

 

older brothers daughter, a womans older brothers daughter

i-to-zhaⁿ-ke (ittąke), e-to-zhaⁿ-ke (eTąke) - niece, womans elder brothers daughter wi-to-zhaⁿ-ke (wittąke) - my, di-to-zhaⁿ-ke (dittąke) - your

Dhegiha: i-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (i-t͓-ja-ge) - her brothers daughter [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtsu-zhoⁿ-ge (i-ṭs-zhoⁿ-ge) - a niece; her brothers daughter [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ke (iʰcąke), i-ʰtsi-o-zhaⁿ-ke (iʰciąke) - her brothers daughter (more precise than English her niece) [CQ-Osage]; i-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (iczhoⁿge) - niece, womans brothers daughter; her niece [Kaw]

 

wi-to-zhaⁿ-ke (wittąke) - my niece, my elder brothers daughter

Dhegiha: wi-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (wit͓jage) - my niece, my brothers daughter [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ke (wiʰcąke), wi-ʰtsi-o-zhaⁿ-ke (wiʰciąke) - my brothers daughter (used only when speaker is female; more precise than English my niece) [CQ-Osage]; wi-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (wiczhoⁿge) - my niece [Kaw]

 

di-to-zhaⁿ-ke (dittąke) - your niece, your elder brothers daughter

Dhegiha: thi-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (it͓jage) - your niece, your brothers daughter [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰtso-zhaⁿ-ge (iʰcąke), thi-ʰtsi-o-zhaⁿ-ke (iʰciąke) - your brothers daughter (used only when speaking to a woman; more precise than English niece) [CQ-Osage]; yi-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (yiczhoⁿge) - your niece [Kaw]

 

i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-de (ittąkede) - to have as a niece i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-a-de (ittąkeade) - I, i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-da-de (ittąkedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-tu-zhaⁿ-ge-the (i-t͓-ja-ge-ĕ) - to have another female for an i-tu-zhaⁿ-ge (it͓ujage) [JOD-Omaha]; i-tso-zhoⁿ-ge-ye (iczhoⁿgeye) - woman to have someone for a niece, to call someone i-tso-zhoⁿ-ge (iczhoⁿge) [Kaw]

 

older or younger aunt, a mans fathers sister

i-ti-mi (ittmi), e-ti-mi (eTmi) - a mans aunt, a mans fathers sister (older or younger) wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my, di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your

cf. i-ti-mi-de (ittmide) - to have as an aunt

Dhegiha: i-ti-mi (itmi) - aunt [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-mi (i-ṭs-mi) - aunt, on father's side, his or her father's sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-mi (iʰcmi) - his/her father's sister, his/her paternal aunt, more precise than English, his aunt or her aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-mi (icmi) - his or her aunt, fathers sister [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my aunt, my father's sister [MS, MR, AG]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, I'm glad to see you [FR]

Dhegiha: wi-ti-mi (witmi) - my aunt (Omaha); wi-ʰtsi-mi (wiʰcmi) - my father's, older or younger sister, my paternal aunt, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-mi (wicmi) - my aunt, my fathers sister [Kaw]

 

di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsi-mi (iʰcmi) - your father's sister, younger or older, your paternal aunt [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-mi (yicmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister [Kaw]

 

older sister, a mans older sister

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), e-taⁿ-ke (eT̨ke) - a mans elder sister wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my, di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke) - sister [OM]

cf. i-taⁿ-ke-de (itt̨kede) - sister, to have as an elder

ex: wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: i-ʰtoⁿ-ge (-ṭⁿ-ge) - sister, his elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtaⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - his/her older sister, i.e., the oldest among a group of sisters; not necessarily older than the person referred to by his or her [CQ-Osage]; i-taⁿ-ge (itⁿge) - mans or womans younger sister [Kaw]

 

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-ge (wiʇa′ge) - my sister [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtaⁿ-ke (wiʰt̨ke) - my older sister, used when speaker is male or female, my sister, loosely used mutually among unrelated younger and older female speakers to show respect, my wife, lit., my sister, used to refer to speaker's wife when they have no children and possibly to address her [CQ-Osage]; wi-taⁿ-ge (witⁿge) - my younger sister [Kaw]

 

di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your older sister

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-ge (thi-ṭⁿ-ge) - your sister [FL-Osage]; thi-taⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - your older sister, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman, referring both to a sister older than the addressee and to the oldest of the addressees sisters, who may not be older than the addressee [CQ-Osage]; yi-taⁿ-ge (yitⁿge) - your younger sister [Kaw]

 

older sister, a womans older sister

i-zhoⁿ-de (įde), e-zhoⁿ-de (ęde) - womans elder sister wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhoⁿ-de (dįde) - your

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-the ha (zhoⁿth ha) - older sister [JOD-Omaha]; i-zhoⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - her elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (įą) - her elder sister, more precise than English her sister [CQ-Osage]; i-zho-we (izhwe) - man or womans elder sister [Kaw]

 

wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder sister (woman speaking)

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (wįą) - my elder sister, older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female [CQ-Osage]; wi-zho-we (wizhwe) - my elder sister [Kaw]; wi-zho-we a (wzhowe ) elder sister! (female speaking - address form) [Kaw]

 

di-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (dįde) - your elder sister (speaking to a woman)

Dhegiha: thi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (įą) - your older sister, used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-zho-we (yizhwe) - your elder sister [Kaw]

 

i-zhoⁿ-de-de (įdede), e-zhoⁿ-de-de (ędede) - to have someone as elder sister i-zhoⁿ-de-a-de (įdeade) - I, i-zhoⁿ-de-da-de (įdedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zho-we-ye (izhweye) - have another woman as an elder sister [Kaw]

 

older uncle, a mans fathers older brother

i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother, uncle iⁿ-ta-e naⁿ-haⁿ (įtttte nąh̨) - my, di-a-te naⁿ-haⁿ (ditte nąh̨) - your

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - his or her father; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

oldest boys birthname

iⁿ-knaⁿ (įkn̨) - first son [JOD]

cf. iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi-ka (įkd̨ ka) - son, first born; iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi (įkd̨ ) - first son [MS]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, wa-zhiⁿ ki-te da-ni-he  (įkn̨, wą kktte d-nih) - first son, go shoot some birds! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, aⁿ-ka-kde te, i-ke tʰaⁿ (įkn̨, ąkkde tt, ik tʰą) - first son, lets go home, he said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿgthⁿ) - first son, a birth order name [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthaⁿ (i-gⁿ), iⁿ-gtho (i-g) - the first born son [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿ-gthⁿ) - special kinship term for the first son, one that only the immediate family uses [FL-Osage]; i-loⁿ (il̨ǫ), i-loⁿ-taⁿ (il̨ǫʰtą) - eldest son [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-loⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ǫʰpa), i-loⁿiⁿ-ʰpa (il̨įʰpa), i-loⁿ-aⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ąʰpa) - first son in any clan (probably a baby name) [CQ-Osage]; i-lo-a-pa (ilapa) - first born son [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi-ka (įkd̨ ka) - son, first born

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi (įkd̨ ) - first son [MS]

cf. iⁿ-knaⁿ (įkn̨) - first son [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthaⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (i-gⁿ ji-ga) - n.p. masc. of the Ponka gens [JOD-Omaha]; i-lo hiⁿ-ga (ilhⁿga) - first born son; last born son [Kaw]

 

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, oldest boys birth name, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [MR] and [OM] are recorded saying kʰa-ke (kʰke) as oldest boy

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - oldest boy [MR, OM]

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - boy closer to you [AG]

cf. kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, third sons birthname; kʰa-ke (kʰak) - younger brother [JOD]; kʰa-ke zhi-ka (kʰak ka) - son, 4th sons birthname

Dhegiha: ka-ge (ka-g) - the ____ born son, also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the young brothers serve as messengers for elder brothers [FL-Osage]; ka-ge pa-haⁿ-le (kag pahⁿle), kha-ge pa-haⁿ-le (khag pahⁿle) - first of the ka-ge (kag), third-born son [Kaw]

 

kʰa-zhiⁿ (kʰį) - first son, birth name

Dhegiha: ka-ge (ka-g) - the ____ born son, also used as a vocative by brothers, parents, and grandparents [JOD-Omaha]; ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the young brothers serve as messengers for elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) [CQ-Osage]; kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį), kxa-zhiⁿ-ka (kxįka) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-ke (kxke) [CQ-Osage]; ka-ge pa-haⁿ-le (kag pahⁿle), kha-ge pa-haⁿ-le (khag pahⁿle) - first of the ka-ge (kag), third-born son [Kaw]

 

oldest daughters birthname

si-ke (ske) - daughter, oldest daughter, first daughter, birth order name, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [AG] is recorded saying that they called her oldest sister si-ke (sik)

si-ke (sik) - girl [AG]

cf. si-ke (ske) - second daughter, birth name; si-ke zhi-ka (ske ika) - second daughter

ex: si-ke xda (ske xd) - skinny girl [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te niⁿ-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

Dhegiha: si-ge (si-g) - the ordinal birth-name for the fourth daughter [JOD-Omaha]; si-ge (sig) - birth-order name; fourth daughter [Omaha/Ponca]; si-ge (-ge) - the third daughter (special kinship term) [FL-Osage]; si-ke (ske) - third daughter [CQ-Osage]; si-ge (sig) - third or fourth daughter [Kaw]

 

wi-naⁿ zhi-ka (win̨ ka) - first born daughter, vocative wi-naⁿ-e (win̨e)

cf. wi-na (win), wi-naⁿ (win̨) - second daughter, birth name; wi-na (wi-n) - second girl [OM]; wi-na (wi-n) - second girl, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [OM] says wi-na (win) for second daughter, one of [MS] great granddaughters was nicknamed wi-na (win), as she was the second daughter in that family, when [MS] was asked how to say second daughter by her father, she said wi-na (win)

Dhegiha: wi-naⁿ (wi-nⁿ) - the ordinal birth-name for the first daughter [JOD-Omaha]; mi-na (m-na) - this is a special kinship term used by a father and mother for their first daughter, the term is also used by other members of the family, it is not a personal name, it is however, a gentile name, by which she may be addressed by anybody [FL-Osage]; mi-na (mina) - eldest daughter [CQ-Osage]; mi-noⁿ (m-noⁿ) - the first daughter (special kinship term) [FL-Osage]; mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - first daughter [Kaw]

Dhegiha: mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - second daughter [Kaw]

 

Omaha Tribe

i-ma-ha (imaha) - was the farthest up Arkansas river, that village name must have meant, as did the term Omaha, the upstream people [JOD]

i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

i-ma-ha (măha) - a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwp, who lived with the Ḱdohad́cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwp were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwp who lived upstream (maha) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. [J. Mooney-Caddo]

ma-ha (maha) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind

Dhegiha: u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (umoⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha Tribe [Omaha]; u-ma-haⁿ (u-m-haⁿ), u-ma-ha (umaha) - those who went up-stream, the Omahas, a tribe of the egiha group of the Siouan Family [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (umⁿhoⁿ) - the Osage name for Omaha [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-haⁿ (om̨hą) - Omaha tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; o-ma-ha (omha), oⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (oⁿmⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha tribe or people, those who went upstream, lit. those who went upstream, so called because they (as well as the Ponca, Osage, and Kansa) went up stream when they left the Quapaw, the Omahas derive their name from kmaⁿhaⁿ, while the Osage pronounce that word kimⁿhaⁿ [Kaw]

 

omentum

pa-xaⁿ-noⁿ-ta (ppax̨nǫtt) - diaphragm, caul, omentum

Dhegiha: ʰtse pa-xe-noⁿ-ta (ṭse-p̣-xe-noⁿ-ta) - the diaphragm [FL-Osage]; tse pa-xiⁿ-naⁿ-ta (ce pxiⁿnaⁿt) - buffalo caul or diaphragm [Kaw]

 

on

a (a) - on, upon

ex: a-zhaⁿ (ą) - bed, bedstead; a (a) - on, upon + zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline

ex: a-wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - table; a (a) - on, upon + wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine

ex: a-taⁿ-we (tąwe) - look upon; a (a) - on, upon + toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something

ex: a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand upon; a (a) - on, upon + na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

ex: a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat, sit on; a (a) - on, upon + kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ (̨keknį) - horse; shoⁿ-ke (̨ke) - dog + a-kniⁿ (knį) - sit on

ex: a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze  (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something; a (a) - on, upon + haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze  (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening

ex: a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; a (a) - on, upon + knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put a singular/inanimate object

ex: a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; a (a) - on, upon + ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set ones own, put

ex: a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; a (a) - on, upon + kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out

Dhegiha: a (a) - on, upon; verbal prefix or prep. [JOD-Omaha]; a (a) - on, upon [FL-Osage]; a () - on, upon; for (locative prefix; sometimes has benefactive sense) [CQ-Osage]; a () - locative prefix to verbs; on, at [Kaw]

 

on another, pile up many flat objects one on another

a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books

cf. i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: e-ga-ze-ze (gazze) - in a row [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta-ze-ze (tazze) - fill out, fill up, raise level [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-te-the (i-t-ĕ) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [JOD-Omaha]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

on another, put a horizontal object on another to hold it down

a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight a-ka-spi-he-a-de (kaspihade) - I, a-ka-spi-he-da-de (kaspihdade)  -you

cf. a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat or (curvilinear) object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: maⁿ-a-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-a-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - the falling of something heavy on a person or thing, to cover up an object [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe), a-ga-spaⁿ (gaspaⁿ) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

on another, put a squat (curvilinear) object on another to hold it down

a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat (curvilinear) object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone a-ka-spi-naⁿ-a-de (kaspin̨ade) - I, a-ka-spi-naⁿ-da-de (kaspin̨dade) - you

cf. a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put sg/si/in or cloth/paper; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: maⁿ-a-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-a-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - the falling of something heavy on a person or thing, to cover up an object [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe), a-ga-spaⁿ (gaspaⁿ) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

on another, spread out one object on another

a-di-bda (dibda) - spread out one object on another, as a robe on a horse or a table cloth on a table a-bdi-bda (bdibda) - I, a-ti-bda (ttibda) - you, oⁿ-ka-di-bda-we (ǫkdibdwe) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; di-bda (dibd) - pull apart, separate

Dhegiha: u-zhoⁿ a-thi-btha (uzhoⁿ athibtha) - cover [Omaha]; wa-tha-te a-thi-btha (wathate athibtha) - table cloth [Omaha]; a-thi-btha (-thi-btha) - spread oilcloth [FL-Osage]; a-thu-bra (ubra), a-thi-bra (ibra) - spread upon, spread over [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-btha (thibtha) - unfold [Omaha]; thi-btha (thi-bth) - to spread a robe or blanket [FL-Osage]; thi-bra (bra), thu-bra (bra) - spread, spread out, as a cloth [CQ-Osage]; yu-bla (yubl) - spread out or hang up to dry, corn, clothes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: btha (ba) - open, spread out [JOD-Omaha]; btha (btha) - to open, to spread out; to be opened or spread out [Omaha/Ponca]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

 

on behalf, strike on behalf of someone else

o-ki-tʰiⁿ (oktʰį) - strike on behalf of someone else

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit; ki (k) - for someone, on behalf of someone

Dhegiha: u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ) - beat, hit, spank, strike, a blow, club [Omaha]; u-tʰiⁿ (utʰⁿ) - to hit or strike him [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drub, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

on bottom, down on bottom

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom

o-zo ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: u-zu (u-) - lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - 1) wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber; oz tⁿga ji ay gⁿyabe che a, pahⁿle ch. They first desired to go to an extensive bottom land, abounding in timber, where Junction City now stands; 2) hilltops JOD uses this term in reference to the noⁿnⁿbahu t, a kind of grape or berry found on the oz (hill tops) but the term more commonly refers to lowlands, as in sense 1. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zu u-gthoⁿ (-u-u-gthoⁿ) - lowland forest in the bend of a stream [FL-Osage]; u-zu i-ha zhiⁿ-ga (u--i-ha zhiⁿ-ga) - at one time there was a large bend in the stream, which was nearly closed; the meaning of the name is small mouth; it is near the u-zu (u-u) or woods, what is known as Bartlesville, Kans. This was the site of the fourth camp in the fisrt trail, also of the third trail [FL-Osage]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber, the name of a village, literally, they live in the timber. JOD identifies this as a proper town, that is, it refers to a specific village, also called cexliⁿ village on a highland or lowland level, destitute of trees. The second name seems to contradict the first name but MRs comments might be intended to clarify: There used to be three branches, like Pawhuska, and some of them lived in that and some of them lived along the creek, Gaxoliⁿ and Zaⁿjliⁿ. Those people lived in the [_?_], why they used to live north of Kaw there, at Washunga there. And those others, they used to [_?_] on top of the hill. And I think they called Waxga-oliⁿ where the cactus grows. Zaⁿjliⁿ is where they live in the timber, zaⁿj. And Gax-oliⁿ, they used to live along the edge of [creek?] over there at Washunga. [Kaw]

 

on credit, buy on credit

ni-zhi di-ze (ni diz) - buy on credit ni-zhi bdi-ze (ni bdze) - I, ni-zhi ti-ze (ni ttze) - you

cf. ni-zhi (ni) - credit, a debt; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive; ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone; wa-di-ze (wadze) - credit, debt; wa-di-ze di-ze (wadze diz) - to get goods on credit

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ze (wa-th-e) - to seize, to default, or failure to catch up with ones debts; wa-thu-ze a-thiⁿ (wa-th-e a-thiⁿ) - indebted [FL-Osage]; we-u-ze (weuze) - debt, something owed, w + uuz [CQ-Osage]

 

on edge

ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge pa-zi-pa (ppzippa) - I, shpa-zi-pa (pzippa) - you

cf. bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of ones own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit or lie on the edge, to perch pi-zi-pa (ppzippa) - I, shpi-zi-pa (pzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of ones own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

di-saⁿ (dis̨) - side, edge, on its side

 

on end, make ones hair stand on end

ki-kdi-sha-ka (kkikdakʔa) - make ones hair stand on end a-ki-kdi-sha-ka (akkkdiakʔa) - I, da-ki-kdi-sha-ka (dakkkdiakʔa) - you

cf. di-sha-ka (diakʔ) - bristle up, cause by handling

 

on high, talks on high

maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit. talks on high

cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - upward, heaven; o-ki (ok), o-ki-e (okkie), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki niⁿ-kʰe (m̨i okk nįkʰ) - pray (he/she is praying) MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above

ex: mo-sho-ki (mokki) - church [AG]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

ex: jhi-e mo-sho-ki da-kde (ǰe mokki dakd) - did you go to church yesterday? (you to church?) [AG]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-shi (mⁿ-ci) - above; high in the air (with no connection between the object and the ground) [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-goⁿ-ze wa-koⁿ-du kʰi-e (wagⁿze wakⁿdukʰe) - minister, missionary, teacher who talks to God [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ki-e (u-k-e) - to speak or talk with [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-ye (ukiye) - talk with, talk to (Omaha]; u-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-e) - to speak or to talk to one another, to hold an interview [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-e (oʰke) - get together, meeting of a group of people to converse [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰki-e (oʰke), o-ʰki (oʰk) - call on the phone, converse with, interview, talk with or to [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-e (oke) - speak to, talk to [Kaw]

 

on one side then on the other

i-ki-di-toⁿ (ikdittǫ) - first on one side then on the other [JOD]

cf. i-ki-di-toⁿ-toⁿ (kkidttǫttǫ) - back and forth, interchange

ex: shi-naⁿ-naⁿ i-ki-di-toⁿ o-pʰe niⁿ i-ya-we (in̨ną ikdittǫ opʰ nį iywe) - again and again, first on one side then on the other, he was paddling, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi i-ki-thi toⁿ-ga (thi ikithi toⁿga) - reverse, convert [Omaha]; i-ʰki-thi-ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-ḳi-thi-ṭoⁿ-ga) - to interchange, permutation [FL-Osage]

 

on ones back

maⁿ-da (m̨da) - on ones back

ex: maⁿ-da kdi-he (mⁿ-da kti-h) - female name of the Kwapa Elk gens; Falls Backwards; wife of ka-hi-ka ste-e (kahike stĕtĕ), Lies suddenly on her back [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-da kdi-he (maⁿda ktihĕ́) - zha-we mi-te-xi (jwe m teq) another name for maⁿ-da kdi-he (maⁿda ktihĕ́) wife of ka-hi-ka ste-e (k͓ahik͓e stĕ́tĕ) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-te maⁿ-da (iⁿ-t mⁿ-da) - female name of the Kwapa Elk gens; Face up [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-te maⁿ-da (iⁿ́tĕ́ mⁿda) - female name (deer) with its Face Raised (to browse), Julia Shapp [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-te maⁿ-da (ⁿtĕ́ mⁿda) - (elk) holds face up (in browsing) or Mrs. Peter Shapp, also Minnie Josette, dau of naⁿ-ka to (naka t) [JOD]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ąkaze h k̨ hi ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-da kaⁿ-iⁿ zhaⁿ e-shoⁿ te kaⁿ-ze ke i-ya-we (m̨da ką̨ ą ę tʔe k̨ze k iywe) - she laid there on her back pretending to be dead, they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-da a-bi-saⁿ-te naⁿ i-ya (m̨da bisątte ną, iy) - he held him down on his back, it is said

Dhegiha: maⁿ-a-tha (mⁿ-a-a) - on the back [JOD-Omaha]; maⁿ-a-tha (mⁿ-a--a) - on the back again and again [JOD-Omaha]; ba-moⁿ-tha i-the-the (ba-mⁿ-tha i-the-the) - to push a person backward [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thu-ma-tha (uma) - lift, hold high, raise, turn up [CQ-Osage]

 

on ones back, to carry ones own on ones back

ki-kda-kiⁿ (kkdakʔ̨) - to carry ones own on ones back

cf. kda-kiⁿ (kdakʔį) - carry ones own bundle or pack; ki-kiⁿ (kikʔ̨) - carry on ones own back, pack; kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ (ąkkdakʔ̨) - he/she carry me, her own (around) on his/her back [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ koⁿ-bda (ąkkdakʔ̨ kk̨bda) - I want her to carry me around on her back [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ te kaⁿ (ąkkdakʔ̨ tte k̨) - about to carry me on her back [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ (wikkdakʔ̨) - I carry you, my own (around) on my back [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a, i-ke (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tte, ik) - All right! I will carry you (on my back), she said to him [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te iⁿ, i-yi (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tt ̨, iy) - All right! I will carry you (on my back), he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-iⁿ (gi-ⁿ) - carry ones own on ones back [JOD-Omaha]; gi-kiⁿ (gi-kⁿ) - to carry something belonging to him, to carry his child, or his gun [FL-Osage]; gi-kiⁿ (gi-kⁿ) - to carry on ones back, pack ones own property on the back [Kaw]

 

on ones own back, carry or pack on ones own back

ki-kiⁿ (kikʔ̨) - carry on ones own back, pack a-ki-kiⁿ (akkʔį) - I, da-ki-kiⁿ (dakkʔį) - you

cf. kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back; kda-kiⁿ (kdakʔį) - carry ones own bundle or pack; ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load; wa-kiⁿ tʰe (wakʔ̨ tʰe) - the carrying of something; we-kiⁿ (wkʔį) - pack, bundle carried on back; i-kiⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders [MS]; maⁿ-o-zhi i-kiⁿ (m̨oi kʔį) - quiver strap

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe ki-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (waxʔik nį wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kikʔ̨ kd, iy) - the old woman carried her sewing bag upon her back and went homeward, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-ska ki-kiⁿ di-kna, aⁿ-ka-de te (k̨ska kikʔ̨ dikn, ąkde tt) - quickly decide what you will pack, lets go [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ za-ni hi ki-kiⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ da-wi (tttą zan hi kikʔ̨ ̨tą dwi) - she carried everything on her back when they went [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ (ąkkdakʔ̨) - he/she carry me, her own (around) on his/her back [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ koⁿ-bda (ąkkdakʔ̨ kk̨bda) - I want her to carry me around on her back [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-kiⁿ (ądkikʔ̨) - you carry for me (your own) [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe i-niⁿ-ha aⁿ-da-kdi-ze taⁿ ta-xaⁿ-da-ki-de taⁿ aⁿ-da-ki-kiⁿ da-kde te, i-ke naⁿ (ppah nįkʰ inįh ądkdiz tą txʔądkid tą ądkikʔį dakd tte, ik ną) - you take my head and you barbecue it (for me), you carry/pack it (for me) when you go home, he said to her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo niⁿ kde, i-ya-we, nika ti-te-ki-de kʰe ki-kiⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ kde, i-ya-we (kįttą n̨a waxʔ nį kd, iywe, nkka tttekid kʰe kkʔį ̨ttą kd, iywe) - then the woman started homeward, they say, when she had cooked her husband, she started home packing him on her back, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ (wikkdakʔ̨) - I carry you, my own (around) on my back [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a, i-ke (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tte, ik) - All right! I will carry you (on my back), she said to him [JOD]

ex: ko-he, wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te iⁿ, i-yi (koh, wikkdakʔ̨ tt ̨, iy) - All right! I will carry you (on my back), he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-iⁿ (gi-ⁿ) - carry ones own on ones back [JOD-Omaha]; gi-kiⁿ (gi-kⁿ) - to carry something belonging to him, to carry his child, or his gun [FL-Osage]; gi-kiⁿ (gi-kⁿ) - to carry on ones back, pack ones own property on the back [Kaw]

 

on ones own, sit on ones own

a-ki-kniⁿ (kikn̨) - to sit on ones own [JOD]

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ki-kniⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ ba-ha-ha-ta ho-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ de (̨keknį akknį ̨tą bahhatta httą k̨į d) - horse-she sat on her own-when-trotting-good-so-she went [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kde taⁿ hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-wi (kįttą ̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨ tą k̨į kd tą hǫp kidtottwi) - then-horse-to the std.-she sat on her own-when-just as she was starting home-when-shoe-they pulled it off from her [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthiⁿ (-gi-giⁿ) - to sit on his horse or chair [JOD-Omaha]; a-gi-gthiⁿ (-gi-gthiⁿ) - to sit on ones own [FL-Osage]; a-gi-liⁿ (giliⁿ) - sit on ones own [Kaw]

 

on ones stomach, crawl on ones stomach

ki-kdi-sto-we (kkikdstowe) - crawl on ones stomach a-ki-kdi-sto-we (akkkdistwe) - I, da-ki-kdi-sto-we (dakkkdistwe) - you

cf. a-sto-we (stowe) - slide; di-sto-we (distwe) - lead, pull along

Dhegiha: we-thi-znu (wthiznu) - something to pull or drag along by, as a lariat fastened to a sled [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-znu (thinu) - drag, pull, tow [Omaha]; a-ga-stu-e (a-ga-tu-e) - slides [FL-Osage]

 

on ones stomach, lie on ones stomach

ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on ones stomach ki-kda-shaⁿ da-zhaⁿ (kkikdą dą) - you

cf. ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over

Dhegiha: thi-a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thi akigthashoⁿ) - turn over [Omaha]; ba-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (ba-ḳ-gtha-shoⁿ) - to push upside down [FL-Osage]; ba-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (ba--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - to turn an object upside down by pushing [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (noⁿ--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - kick over, as to upset; upset with the foot [FL-Osage]; ba-ku-la-shaⁿ (baklashaⁿ) - turn upside down, push over [Kaw]; bo-ku-la-shaⁿ (bkulashaⁿ) - knock upside down by shooting [Kaw]; bu-ku-la-shaⁿ (buklashaⁿ) - turn upside down, overturn by pressure; to turn an object upside down by pushing with the hands alone, with nothing in them, by weight or presssure [Kaw]; ga-ku-la-shaⁿ (gaklashaⁿ) - knock upside down; turn somersaults [Kaw]; yu-ku-la-shaⁿ (yuklashaⁿ) - roll over, turn upside down; to turn an object such as a boat bottom upward by pulling [Kaw]; naⁿ-ku-la-shaⁿ (naⁿklashaⁿ) - kick over, to upset [Kaw]

 

on oneself, bring trouble on oneself

e-wa-ki-koⁿ ka-xe (wakikʔǫ kγe) - bring trouble on oneself e-a-wa-ki-koⁿ pa-xe (awakikʔǫ ppγe) - I, e-wa-da-ki-koⁿ shka-xe (ewadakikʔǫ kγe) - you

cf. e-maⁿ (mą), e-waⁿ (wą), e-woⁿ (wǫ) - to be cause of trouble, be blameworthy; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; e-wa-ki-koⁿ (wakkikʔ̨), e-wa-ki-kaⁿ (wakkikʔ̨) - do something for onself

Dhegiha: e-wa-ki-aⁿ (-wa-k͓-aⁿ) - of e-waⁿ (ewaⁿ) - to bring trouble on himself; to cause trouble to happen to himself; to be the only one to be blamed; to get himself into difficulty; to deserve or merit punishment or suffering [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: e-woⁿ (woⁿ) - cause to happen [Omaha]; e-woⁿ-xti (woⁿxti) - cause sin [Omaha]; e-waⁿ (-waⁿ) - to be the cause of trouble to another; to be worthy of blame [JOD-Omaha]; e-woⁿ (-woⁿ) - motive, reason for doing a thing [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ a-ka (-woⁿ a-ka) - to blame; the causer, one who caused the mischief [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ (ewǫ), e-waⁿ (ewą) - he does it, he did it [CQ-Osage]; e-moⁿ (moⁿ) - be to blame, be culpable, be at fault [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-kaⁿ (-aⁿ) - to put trouble on one, to be the cause of trouble, to be blameworthy [JOD-Omaha]; o-kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - to be the cause, to be to blame for
[Kaw]

 

on sticks or spits, small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits

wa-sa i-ba-xdo-xdo (was baxdoxd) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits [JOD]

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; i-ba-xdo (baxdo) - stuck in him [JOD]; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. something to stick food with; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring; ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd), ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus plant; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear

ex: wa-sa i-ba-xto-xto we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (was baxtoxt wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks with the fat around it [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole in meat, put on both sides of a horse, to be carried, fastening an end of a cord to each hole; to pierce; to punch holes in moccasins [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

on that side of

ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]; i-di-shaⁿ (idį) - to go around an object [JOD]; e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of; o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle

Dhegiha: gu-da-thi-shaⁿ (g-da-i-caⁿ), gu-a-thi-shaⁿ (g-a-i-caⁿ) - beyond, on that side of [JOD-Omaha]; go-da thi-shoⁿ (g-da thi-shoⁿ) - on the other side [FL-Osage]

  Dhegiha: gu-da-tʰe-ta (g-da-tĕ́-t͓a), gu-a-tʰe-ta (g-a-tĕ́-t͓a) - to the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-tʰe (g-da-tĕ), gu-a-tʰe (g-a-tĕ) - the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-thi-shoⁿ-ha (-thi-shoⁿ-ha) - to detour, to go around [FL-Osage]; i-thi-shaⁿ-ha (iąha) - detour around, go around, avoid [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - around, around someone or something, moving circularly like the hands of a clock, go around, circle, to go around in a circle, to go around something  [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - circle, encircle, surround, cycle, round [Omaha]; u-thi-shoⁿ (u-th-shoⁿ) - marching around in a circle [FL-Osage]

 

on the back, pack or carry on the back

kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back a-kiⁿ (akʔį) - I, da-kiⁿ (dakʔį) - you, kiⁿ (kʔį) - he/she/it, aⁿ-kiⁿ (ąkʔį) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-kiⁿ-we (ąkʔįwe) - we

cf. kda-kiⁿ (kdakʔį) - carry ones own bundle or pack; ki-kiⁿ (kikʔ̨) - carry on ones own back, pack; ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load; wa-kiⁿ tʰe (wakʔ̨ tʰe) - the carrying of something; we-kiⁿ (wkʔį) - pack, bundle carried on back; i-kiⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders [MS]; maⁿ-o-zhi i-kiⁿ (m̨oi kʔį) - quiver strap

ex: pa-te taⁿ kiⁿ kde, i-ya (ptte tą kʔį kd, iy) - she butchered the carcass, packed it on her back, and carried it home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: kiⁿ kʰi-taⁿ a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de naⁿ i-ya (kʔ̨ kʰttą itti itʰde ną iy) - when he reached home carrying (the meat) on his back, he piled it outside (the lodge), it is said

Dhegiha: iⁿ (ⁿ) - carry, carrying [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; kiⁿ (kiⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

on the ground, down below

ki-ha-ti (kihtti) - down below, below, on the ground [JOD]

cf. ki-ha (kih) - down [JOD]; ti (-tti) - at, by, in; ki-ha-knaⁿ (kihkną) - helped her off (the horse) [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didn't want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze naⁿ zhoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi i-ya-we ki-ha-ti (kįttą h̨nąppze ną ǫ kǫda iywe kihtti) - then when it was dark, she did not want to sleep at the bottom, they say [JOD]

ex: ki-ha-ti ti maⁿ-tʰe ki-we (kihtti tt m̨tʰe kwe) - down below within the lodge, they arrived there [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-ha (kih) - down, downward, down into [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-ha-di (kihdi) - down below [JOD-Omaha]; ʰki (ḳi) - down upon the ground [FL-Osage]

 

on the hill

a-ni a-shi (ni i) - on the hill

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on

ex: a-ni a-shi (ni i) - up on a hill [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ni a-shi tʰaⁿ, i-bniⁿ-aⁿ (̨keaknį ni i tʰ̨, bnį̨) - I think the horse is standing on the hill

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

 

on the ice

to-xa-ta (toγtta) - on the ice

cf. to-xe (tγe) - ice

Dhegiha: nu-xe (nxe) - ice [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-xe (nxe) - ice, iceberg, icicle, icy [Omaha]; noⁿ-xe (nⁿ-xe) - ice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xe (n̨γe) - ice [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-ghe (nⁿghe), na-ghe (nghe) - ice [Kaw]

 

to-xa-ta (toγtta) - ice [MS]

cf. to-xe (tγe) - ice; a-ta (tta) - freeze, freeze on, freeze to

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xe a-da (nⁿ-xe a-da) - iciness, icy [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xe a-ta (n̨γe taa) - iced over, iced (e.g., referring to an iced road or river); iciness, icy [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-da (-da) - to freeze, as water on some object [FL-Osage]; a-ta (taa) - freeze to, freeze sticking to something [CQ-Osage]; a-da (da) - freeze, as water, or a green buffalo hide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: nu-xe (nxe) - ice [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-xe (nxe) - ice, iceberg, icicle, icy [Omaha]; noⁿ-xe (nⁿ-xe) - ice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xe (n̨γe) - ice [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-ghe (nⁿghe), na-ghe (nghe) - ice [Kaw]

 

on the one hand

oⁿ-ko-we-zha (ǫkwea) - we (contrastive), we, on the one hand

cf. wi-e-zha (wea) - I, but I, whereas I; di-e-zha (dea) - you, contrastive

Dhegiha: wi-e-zha (wezha) - I, in contrast to others, marks a contrast between the speaker and someone else [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-e-zha (thezha) - you on the one hand, you on the other [Omaha/Ponca]

 

on the opposite side from, of a house, tent, etc

i-ki-xa-ta (ikkixtta) - on the opposite side from, of a house, tent, etc.

cf. i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of something; ka-xa (kax) - to outdistance, surpass, excel, exceed, go ahead or beyond a person or place, outrun, outstrip, beat someone in a race, get the better of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction;

Dhegiha: ga-xa-ta gthiⁿ (gaqat͓a giⁿ) - to sit elsewhere or apart from the rest [JOD-Omaha]

ga-xa-ta xtshi (gaqʇaqtci) - at one side [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ta (ga-q-t͓a) - aside; back from the stream or fire; to go back or aside; to retire or withdraw [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ʰta (ga-x-ṭa) - at a distance away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-xa (gaq) - surpass, excel, exceed, go beyond [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xa (ga-q) - to excel, surpass, go ahead or beyond a person or place; said of two men or chiefs, one excels at first in activity or bravery, but by and by the inferior one outstrips him; said of two men running or walking, when one gets ahead; said of two brothers, when the younger excels the older (who is lazy, etc.) in activity [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa (ga-x) - to outdistance; to excel; outrun; outstrip [FL-Osage]; ka-xa (kaxa) - beat someone in a race [CQ-Osage]; ga-xa (gax) - surpass, excel, get the better of [Kaw]

 

on the opposite side of something

i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of something

cf. ka-xa (kax) - to outdistance, surpass, excel, exceed, go ahead or beyond a person or place, outrun, outstrip, beat someone in a race, get the better of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; i-ki-xa-ta (ikkixtta) - on the opposite side from, of a house, tent, etc.

ex: i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of the lodge [JOD]

ex: i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ (kaxtta kitta kn̨) on the opposite side of the lodge/in that place/sit thou [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-xa-ta gthiⁿ (gaqat͓a giⁿ) - to sit elsewhere or apart from the rest [JOD-Omaha]

ga-xa-ta xtshi (gaqʇaqtci) - at one side [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ta (ga-q-t͓a) - aside; back from the stream or fire; to go back or aside; to retire or withdraw [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ʰta (ga-x-ṭa) - at a distance away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-xa (gaq) - surpass, excel, exceed, go beyond [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xa (ga-q) - to excel, surpass, go ahead or beyond a person or place; said of two men or chiefs, one excels at first in activity or bravery, but by and by the inferior one outstrips him; said of two men running or walking, when one gets ahead; said of two brothers, when the younger excels the older (who is lazy, etc.) in activity [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa (ga-x) - to outdistance; to excel; outrun; outstrip [FL-Osage]; ka-xa (kaxa) - beat someone in a race [CQ-Osage]; ga-xa (gax) - surpass, excel, get the better of [Kaw]

 

on the other side

i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on the other side

cf. i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

ex: i-maⁿ-ta o-pʰe naⁿ de, i-ke (im̨tta opʰ ną d, ik) - paddle on the other side, he said to him [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then-just as they started home-when-shoe-other one-on one side-pull ye it off from her-he was saying it to them-it is said-police [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ma-ta (ⁿ-ma-ta) - to the other side, in the other direction [JOD-Omaha]; a-maⁿ-ʰta (mąʰta), e-maⁿ-ʰta (mąʰta) - that way, that direction, lit., toward the other [CQ-Osage]; a-moⁿ-ta (moⁿta), o-moⁿ-ta (moⁿta) - to the other side [Kaw]

 

on the other side of

ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; ko-to-ka-xde (ktokxde) - facing the other way; ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there; ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there; ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder; ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of; ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder; ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; gu-da (g-da) - facing the opposite direction [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi (uci) - at the front [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-shi-xti (uciqti) - at the very front [JOD-Omaha]; o-tho-shi (oi) - in the way, in front of and blocking [CQ-Osage]; ti u-taⁿ-noⁿ u-thu-shi (tiu taⁿnoⁿ uthushi) - front yard [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ (u-th-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ) - to walk in advance of a group of people [FL-Osage]; o-tho-shi maⁿ-thiⁿ (oimąį) - block someones way or be in the way while moving [CQ-Osage]; go-da o-yo-shi-ha (gda oyshiha) - to the other side, to the other side of [Kaw]; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (kmaⁿhaⁿtha yoshiha) - to the windward of something [Kaw]; a-la-xle-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (laxletha yoshiha) - to the leeward of something, on the leeward side [Kaw]; do-do-yo-shi-ha (ddoyoshiha) - adverb of motion [Kaw]

 

on the right side

ta-te-ta (tatttta) - on the right side

e-ta te-ta (ett ttetta) - at or on the right side

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; tʰe-ta (tʰett) - to the, at the; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction; naⁿ-pe ta-te-ta (nąp tatttta) - right hand; naⁿ-pe da-ta te-ta (nąp dtta tttta) - left hand; ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

 

shtoⁿ-ka (t̨ka) - right side or hand

cf. a shtoⁿ-ka kʰe (a t̨ka kʰe) - the right arm

Dhegiha: i-shnu-ga (iɔnga) - right [JOD-Omaha]; i-sdo-ge (-sdo-ge), i-stu-ge (-stu-ge) - on the right hand or side, the right side, the right hand, the right arm [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-be i-sdo-ge tse (nⁿ-be i-sdo-ge tse) - the right hand [FL-Osage]; i-shtoⁿ-ka (tǫka) - right, on the right, rightward, to the right [CQ-Osage]; i-shtoⁿ-ga (ishtⁿga) - right, on the right side [Kaw]; naⁿ-be i-shtoⁿ-ga (naⁿb ishtⁿga) - right hand [Kaw]

 

on the way home, pass here on the way home

kdi-kde (kdikd) - pass here on the way home a-kdi-kde (kdikd) - I, da-kdi-kde (dkdikd) - you, oⁿ-ka-kdi-kda-we (ǫkakdikdawe) - we

cf. kdi (kdi) - to have come back here; kde (kd) - go home, to start homeward

Dhegiha: gthi-gthe (gthi-gth) - to pass by an object; to pass by [FL-Osage]; li-le (lil) - pass by a place on the way back or homeward [Kaw]

 

on the west side

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset

cf. mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; e-ta-do-shi ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

on this side

to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

on this side

to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that singular/moving/animate object that arrived on this side

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; continuative sitting

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side of a place he has reached

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

on this side

to-ta (tta) - on this side, in this direction, this way, hither

ex: to-ta hi ka ha-o (tta h ka ha) - you come hither! [JOD]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that sg/mv/an object arriving on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: du-da-hi-the-thiⁿ (d-da-hi--iⁿ), du-a-hi-the-thiⁿ (d-a-hi--iⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a great distance (from the speaker), and on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi-the (d-da-hi-), du-a-hi-the (d-a-hi-) - at a great distance from (the speaker), and on this side of a place [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi (d-da-hi), du-a-hi (d-a-hi) - on this side of (it) at a short distance [JOD-Omaha]

 

to-ta-hi-de-tʰaⁿ (ttahdetʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object coming, on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-da-hi-the-taⁿ (d-da-hi--taⁿ), du-a-hi-the-taⁿ (d-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance from (the speaker) and on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi-the (d-da-hi-), du-a-hi-the (d-a-hi-) - at a great distance from (the speaker), and on this side of a place [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi (d-da-hi), du-a-hi (d-a-hi) - on this side of (it) at a short distance [JOD-Omaha]

 

to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ (ddaiⁿ), du-a-thiⁿ (duaiⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. on this side of (the place); what is seen [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ-ke (d-da-i-k), du-a-thiⁿ-ke (d-a-i-k) - the an. ob. st. on this side of (the place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da thiⁿ-kse (d-da thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta-tʰaⁿ (ttatʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-da-taⁿ (d-da-taⁿ), du-a-taⁿ (d-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-toⁿ (d-da toⁿ) - the one standing on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]; i-di-shaⁿ (idį) - to go around an object [JOD]; o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle; e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction; ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

Dhegiha: du-da-tʰe-ta (d-da-tĕ́-t͓a), du-a-tʰe-ta (d-a-tĕ́-t͓a) - to the std. in. od. or col. of in. objects on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-tʰe-ta-thi-shaⁿ (d-da-tĕ-t͓-i-caⁿ), du-a-tʰe-ta-thi-shaⁿ (d-a-tĕ-t͓-i-caⁿ) - on account of the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; tʰe-ta-thi-shaⁿ (tĕ-t͓-i-caⁿ) - towards, pertaining to, or on account of, the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: du-da-thi-shaⁿ (ddaicaⁿ), du-a-thi-shaⁿ (duicaⁿ) - on this side of [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-thi-shoⁿ (du-d-thi-shoⁿ) - this side, on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-thi-shoⁿ-ha (-thi-shoⁿ-ha) - to detour, to go around [FL-Osage]; i-thi-shaⁿ-ha (iąha) - detour around, go around, avoid [CQ-Osage]

 

to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; to-to-ka-xde (ttokxde) - facing this way; e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side, toward the sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi (uci) - at the front [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-shi-xti (uciqti) - at the very front [JOD-Omaha]; o-tho-shi (oi) - in the way, in front of and blocking [CQ-Osage]; ti u-taⁿ-noⁿ u-thu-shi (tiu taⁿnoⁿ uthushi) - front yard [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ (u-th-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ) - to walk in advance of a group of people [FL-Osage]; o-tho-shi maⁿ-thiⁿ (oimąį) - block someones way or be in the way while moving [CQ-Osage]; go-da o-yo-shi-ha (gda oyshiha) - to the other side, to the other side of [Kaw]; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (kmaⁿhaⁿtha yoshiha) - to the windward of something [Kaw]; a-la-xle-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (laxletha yoshiha) - to the leeward of something, on the leeward side [Kaw]; do-do-yo-shi-ha (ddoyoshiha) - adverb of motion [Kaw]

 

on this side

to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual/standing or collection/inanimate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these dual/standing/inanimate; ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual/standing/invisible/inanimate; she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual/standing/visible/inanimate objects

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-ke (twak) - those plural/standing/animate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: kʰe (kʰe) - the inanimate lying, the inanimate horizontal, be positioned horizontally, an extended action in a lying position [Omaha]; kshe (kshe) - to prostrate, that lies, to lay down, to place flat on the ground or to be prostrate on any surface, the length of time from the beginning of a vigil [FL-Osage]; kshe (ke) - positional article for an entity that is lying down or long; positional article that indicates plurality of an inanimate entity that takes tsʰe (cʰe) standing positional in the singular [CQ-Osage]; kshe (ke) - lying down or long [CQ-Osage]; khe (khe) - the; definite article for lying/inanimate objects [Kaw]

 

to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying/animate; ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural sitting or lying/invisible/animate; koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder; she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative sitting

Dhegiha: to-wa iⁿ-kshe (twa įke) - that one of uncertain or unimportant identity (animate or inanimate); that person sitting; that object or thing sitting there; that group of objects of uncertain or unimportant identity (not animate if plural) [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - continuative aspect marker, plural of niⁿ (nį)

Dhegiha: to-wa a-pa (twa apa) - group of people or single person of unknown or unimportant identity, moving and marked as the subject of a sentence [CQ-Osage]; to-wa pa (twa pa) - group of people of unknown or unimportant identity [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collection/inanimate

Dhegiha: to-wa tsʰe (twa cʰe) - this one (thing) standing here, that one (thing) standing there; those ones, that stuff (a collection of sitting or round inanimate objects (such as a bunch of grapes) whose exact identity is unimportant or unknown) [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

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