English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

O

 

our, ours (plural)

aⁿ-ko-ta-we (ąkttawe), oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine (alienable); di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, (alienable); di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, you alls (alienable); i-ta (itt) - his, hers, its (alienable); i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; aⁿ-ko-ta (ąktta), oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, (dual)

ex: ka-hi-ke oⁿ-ko-ta-we, te-wa-ki-da-we i-ya, i-ya-we, i-ya wa-sa ke (kahke ǫkttawe, tʔwakidwe iy, iywe, iy was ke) - our chief, they have killed our relation, he (rabbit) said, the black bears said, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-gu-ta-i (agʇai) - our [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-ko-ʰta-pi (ąkʰtapi) - ours; our (belonging to two or more of us) [CQ-Osage]

 

our, the two of ours

aⁿ-ko-ta (ąktta), oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, (dual)

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine (alienable); di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, (alienable); di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, you alls (alienable); i-ta (itt) - his, hers, its (alienable); i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; aⁿ-ko-ta-we (ąkttawe), oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: shoⁿ-ke aⁿ-ko-ta (̨ke ąktta) - our dog

Dhegiha: aⁿ-gu-ta (agʇa) - our own [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-gu-ʰta (oⁿ-gu-ṭa) - our [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ko-ʰta (ąkʰta) - ours; our (belonging to two or more of us; we ourselves (emphatic) [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-go-ta (aⁿgta) - our, ours, be ours [Kaw]

 

out in the country

ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (mą i) - out in the country [MS]

cf. ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on, over; a-shi-ti (itti) - outside, outdoors; a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - outside of (an enclosure)

ex: ha-zi ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (hzi mą i) - grapes, out in the country [MS]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿzhoⁿ) - world, country, land [Omaha]; ma-zhoⁿ (mazhⁿ) - land [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿ-zhoⁿ) - earth, country, farm, world, land [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-zhaⁿ (m̨ą), moⁿ-zhoⁿ (m̨ǫ) - land, country, countryside, earth, world, allotment, farm [CQ-Osage]; mo-zhoⁿ (mozhⁿ), ma-zhaⁿ (mazhⁿ), moⁿ-zhaⁿ (moⁿzhⁿ) - land, earth, country [Kaw]

 

out in, far out in

ka-haⁿ (khą) - far out in [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te o-a-ki-kniⁿ, ni ka-haⁿ a-kʰi taⁿ, kʰi o-do-tʰe niⁿ (mątt okiknį, ni khą akʰ tą, kʰ odotʰ nį) - I sat in my canoe, when I reached far out in the stream, the man eater reached (the shore) again [JOD]

 

out of line

di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line bdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bdkkowįγe) - I, ti-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ttkkowįγe) - you

cf. di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-de (dikkwįγe hde) - spin someone off balance; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: thi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (thi wiⁿxe) - turn [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-koiⁿ-xe (iiʰkįɣe) - turn someone or something around [CQ-Osage]; yu-ko-miⁿ-ghe (yukmiⁿghe) - turn something around and around with the hands, to crank [Kaw]

 

out of sight, invisible

taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight

cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight; zhi (i) - not, negation

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ a-zhi (ṭoⁿ-ⁿ a-zhi) - invisible, not visible, not to be seen [FL-Osage]; wa-tiⁿ-zhi (watⁿzhi) - invisible, not in sight [Kaw]

 

out, break out

i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out

cf. di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; pa-shpe (ppĕ) - to cut out a piece or portion with a knife [JOD]; pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

Dhegiha: thi-shpe (thishpe) - wound, gouge [Omaha]; thi-shpe (thshpe) - to break off a piece [FL-Osage]; yu-shpe (yushp) - pinch off, pull off a piece; to shell (corn) [Kaw]

 

out, clean out the house

i-ti-ze (ttize) - clean out the house i-da-ti-ze (idttize) - I, i-da-ti-ze (dattize) - you

cf. kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house; i-ki-ti-ze (kittize) - leave, abandon ones own; ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move ones possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet; po-ti-ze (pttize), po-tʰi-ze (ptʰize) - move something by punch-/shooting

Dhegiha: thi-dsi-ze (thi-ds-e) - remove from office (strictly speaking means remove only, no mention of office [FL-Osage]; thi-tsi-ze (icze) - dust or clean e.g., the house, move, remove, take away [CQ-Osage]

 

out, close the lips and stick out the mouth

i a-da-zo-ka ( dazokka), a-da-zo-ka (dazokka) - point with the lips; close the lips and stick out the mouth i a-bda-zo-ka ( bdazokka) - I, i a-ta-zo-ka ( ttazokka) - you, i oⁿ-ka-da-zo-ka-we ( ̨kadazkkawe) - we

cf. i () - mouth, lips; a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at; da (da) - by mouth

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

 

i-ha we-da-ba-zo (ha wdabzo) - point with the lips i-ha we-bda-ba-zo (ha wbdabazo) - I, i-ha we-ta-ba-zo (ha wttabazo) - you

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth; we-da-ba-zo (wdabzo) - pointer, index or forefinger; a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at

Dhegiha: i-ha i-tha-ba-zu (-ha i-tha-ba-u) - to point at with the lips [FL-Osage]; i-ha i-ya-ba-zo (ha iybazo) - point at something with the lips [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-zu (bazu) - point, to point at with the finger [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-zu (abazu) - point [Omaha]; a-ba-zu (-ba-u) - to indicate, to point at; to select [FL-Osage]; a-pa-zo (pazo) - point at, point to, select by pointing to[CQ-Osage]; a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at with the finger [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-a-ba-zu (w-a-ba-u) - a pointer, the index or first finger [FL-Osage]; we-a-pa-zo (wapazo) - index finger, pointing finger, lit., with which to point at things [CQ-Osage]; we-ba-zo (webzo) - pointer, pointing finger [Kaw]

 

out, cry out

ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar

ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

cf. ho (ho) - voice; o-ho (oho) - bark, as a dog [MS]; ga-ho-taⁿ (gahttą) - whirr, roar; ga-ho-taⁿ-de (gahttąde) - whirr, hum, roar; naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; ho toⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ka (htąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago tribe or person big voice, loud voice, or rough voice. [Kaw]

 

xa-ke (γak) - cry, weep a-xa-ke (aγke) - I, da-xa-ke (daγke) - you

xa-ke (hah-kieh) - cry, weep (pleurer) [GI]

cf. di-xa-ke (diγke) - cry, cause by squeezing; wa-zhiⁿ aⁿ-xa-ke (wą ̨γak) - mocking bird, lit. crying bird

ex: da-xa-ke naⁿ-ha (daγke nąh) - beware lest you cry out [JOD]

ex: xa-ke haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi niⁿ (γak h̨ęi n̨) - he cried out-not a little-the moving one [JOD]

Dhegiha: xa-ge (xag) -cry, squeal [Omaha/Ponca]; xa-ge (xa-g) - to weep or to cry, lamentation [FL-Osage]; xa-ke (γaak) - cry [CQ-Osage]; gʰa-ge (gʰag) - cry, weep [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on a-naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (an̨hottą) - I, da-naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (dan̨hottą) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ho (ho) - voice; ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar; ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]; ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-naⁿ-hu-taⁿ (wanⁿhutaⁿ) - to make them cry by treading [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw]

 

zi-we (ziw) - scream, cry out as a woman a-zi-we (azwe) - I, da-zi-we (dazwe) - you, oⁿ-zi-wa-we (ǫzwawe) - we

 

bda-se (bdas) - shout, cry out (human) a-bda-se (abdse) - I, da-bda-se (dabdse) - you, oⁿ-bda-sa-we (ǫbdsawe) - we

cf. bda-se de-de (bdas ded) - shout to one at a distance

 

out, cut out a piece or portion with a knife

pa-shpe (ppĕ) - to cut out a piece or portion with a knife [JOD] pa-a-shpe (pape) - I

cf. pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces; di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

ex: pa-a-shpe (pape) - I cut out the piece with a knife [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-a-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-bde naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-ye, i-yi, i-ya-we (̨įtte xw̨ nįkʰ pape ną ǫbd ną httą tt, iy, iy, iywe) - well, when I cut out the bad/offensive smelling part and I throw it away, then it will be good, he said that, she said, they say [JOD]

ex: pa-shpe (ppe) - to cut it out with a knife (that portion) [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫde ną httą tte, iy, iywe) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said that, they say [JOD]

ex: pa-shpe (pap) - cut out a piece with a knife [JOD]

ex: wa-sa zho pa-shpe a-niⁿ kdi (was o pap an̨ kdi) - she cut a piece of the black bear meat/flesh and brought it home [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-shpe (mshpe) - to cut off a large piece with a knife or handsaw [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpe (b-shpe) - to cut a piece of fruit or vegetable with a knife [FL-Osage]; pa-shpe (paap), pa-shpu (paap) - cut corn, fresh corn cut off the cob [CQ-Osage]; ba-shpe (bshpe) - cut off a piece of something with a knife or saw [Kaw]; ba-shpe (bashp) - push off a piece of something; push a piece off of the edge of an object by holding the end of a stick or something similar firmly against it [Kaw]

 

out, dig out

di-ko-te (diktte) - dig out, probe bdi-ko-te (bdkotte) - I, ti-ko-te (ttkotte) - you

Dhegiha: yu-go-je (yugje) - pick, probe [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-gu-de (bagde) - probe, dig, take out, dig out [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-gu-dse (ba-g-dse) - to probe into a hole, as cleaning a pipe with a stick; to probe a wound; to clean a pipestem [FL-Osage]; ba-go-je (bagje) - pick, probe, pick the teeth [Kaw]

 

di-ko-ko (dikko) - digs out often [JOD]

cf. di-ko-te (diktte) - dig out, probe; di-ko (dikʔ) - dig with knife, spade or paws

ex: ti xe-tʰe-ti ma-ni-ka di-ko-ko a-taⁿ e-ti o-kniⁿ naⁿ (tt xetʰtti mankka dikko ttą tti okn̨ ną) - in the corner of the lodge, he (toad) digs out the dirt and lives there [JOD]

 

out, drive or flush out with the feet

naⁿ-zhi-we (nąwe) - drive, flush out with the feet a-naⁿ-zhi-we (an̨iwe) - I, da-naⁿ-zhi-we (dan̨iwe) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ba-zhi (ba) - drive something or someone off; ba-zhi de-de (ba dde) - scare out, flush out; wa-ba-zhi (wba) - drive them off [MS, FR]

Dhegiha: ba-si (bas) - to drive one animal [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-si (ba-) - to drive away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-zhiⁿ (ga-zhⁿ) - to drive a team of horses or an automobile [FL-Osage]; ka-zhi (kaa), ka-zhiⁿ (kaą) - drive a vehicle, herd animals; make or force someone to do something, commnd someone to do something; blow with force [CQ-Osage]; ga-zhiⁿ (gazhⁿ) - whip, drive a horse; blow to nose [Kaw]

 

out, dry out by pulling up

di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot bdi-ta-xe (bdttaxe) - I, ti-ta-xe (ttttaxe) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

out, dry out from breaking

di-xe-ka (dixka) - dry out from breaking (limbs) bdi-xe-ka (bdxeka) - I, ti-xe-ka (ttxeka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; xe-ka (xka) - dry, without sap; pa-hi xe-ka (ppah xka) - skull, lit. dried head

Dhegiha: xe-ga (qga) - dried, dead, as a branch or tree [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-ga (x-ga) - dead, as tall grass or tree [FL-Osage]; xe-ka (xka) - dead from drying up, e.g., a vegetable, dried [CQ-Osage]

 

out, empty by pulling contents out

di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out bdi-kdo-xa (bdkdoxʔa) - I, ti-kdo-xa (ttkdoxʔa) - you

cf. kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa), maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal

Dhegiha: yu-xlo-ka (yuxlka) - empty by pulling out the contents, as a quiver or a basket [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xthu-a (qthua) - hollow, baggy [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (qthua) - intestines, guts, innards, everything inside the abdominal cavity, hollow places above the hips [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-xa (qthqa) - empty, emptied of its contents [Omaha/Ponca]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xthu-ʰka (xth-ḳa), xthu-a (xth-a) - any kind of a hollow in a tree or log [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

out, get out of the way

she-do (ed) - get out of the way!, imperative function

she-do (ed) - get away! [MS]

cf. she-do (do) - yonder, there

Dhegiha: she-thu (sh-thu) - yonder, there where you are [FL-Osage]; she-tho (eeo), she-thoⁿ (eę) - there where you are, right there where you are, that person there [CQ-Osage]; she-yo (shy) - there in the distance, yonder [Kaw]

 

out, give out or fail

di-sha (diʔ) - fail, fall short bdi-sha (bdʔa) - I, ti-sha (ttʔa) - you, di-sha-wi (diʔawi), di-sha-i (diʔai) - they

cf. da-sha-a (daʔ) - fail to finish eating; o-di-sha-ke (odʔake) - refuse, be unwilling, decline

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą waxʔ ik nį diʔ) - then the old woman gave out [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-naⁿ-pa niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą nąp͓ nį diʔ) - then the second one gave out [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-da-bniⁿ di-sha (etttʰą dabnį diʔ) - then the third one gave out [JOD]

ex: di-sha (diʔ) - he failed [JOD]

ex: shi-noⁿ di-sha (nǫ diʔ) - he failed again [JOD]

ex: ka-xe di-sha (kaγ diʔ) - he failed to make it [JOD]

ex: ha-te naⁿ di-sha i-ki-ba-haⁿ (hatʔ ną diʔ kibah̨) - he knew he would fail because of his sickness [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti mi-zhi-ka za-ni hi i-ki-ta-i taⁿ di-sha-wi (kįttą tti mika zan hi kʔita tą diʔawi) - then, every single one of the girls there tried it and they failed [JOD]

ex: di-sha-i taⁿ za-ni di-sha-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ niⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki de-da-wi (diʔai tą zan diʔa tą wah̨nįk nįkʰ kikʔ dedwi) - they all failed, when they failed, they gave it back to the orphan [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-a (thi) - to be unable [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-a (thia) - fail, miss, unable, I could not, could not make it [Omaha]

Dhegiha: thu-ʰtsa-ge (thu-ṭs-ge) - unable, inability to do, failure to to a thing, work left unfinished, to fail [FL-Osage]; thu-tsa-ke (uucʔke) - be unable to do, fail at [CQ-Osage]; yu-tsa-ge (yutsge) - unable to do, not to work, fail to act [Kaw]

 

out, go out

ki-kde-zhe (kkikde) - go out, as a fire

cf. kde-zhe (kde) - spotted

ex: ta-xde ki-kde-zhe (taxd kikde) - firecoal/spotted(=dead) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-gthe-zhe (ga-gth-zhe) - to put out a fire, the act of putting out a fire by striking with a wet blanket [FL-Osage]; gi-gthe-zhe (gi-gth-zhe) - fade, to lose color [FL-Osage]

 

out, go out of the way to help

i-we-de-naⁿ (weden̨) - go out of the way to help i-we-bde-maⁿ (webdem̨) - I, i-we-te-naⁿ (wetten̨) - you

 

out, hire oneself out

di-zho (di) - work, hire oneself out bdi-zho (bdo) - I, ti-zho (tto) - you

Dhegiha: wa-shi (wa-c) - one who is employed; to pay one for work; to employ a person; to ask one to do something for another [JOD-Omaha]; wa-shi (wa-sh) - a hireling, a person serving for hire with pay or the equivalent; to employ one to run on an errand or to do some work [FL-Osage]; wa-shi (wa) - hired person, worker, employee, hired hand; hire, employ, ask a favor of someone, prevail upon someone to do something, ask someone to help out [CQ-Osage]

 

out, ladle out

ka-te (katt) - dip or ladle out, as food a-te (tte) - I, da-te (date) - you

cf. ni-da-ta-iⁿ-yaⁿ ka-tʰe (nidttąiy̨ katʰ) - ladle out with a cup

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtse (ga-ṭs) - to skim, to skim grease off the surface of water in a kettle [FL-Osage]; ga-tse (gac) - skim a liquid, skim grease [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ga-ʰtse (-ga-ṭse) - an implement for skimming grease from food that is cooking [FL-Osage]; o-yo-ga-tse (oygace) - skim a liquid with an instrument [Kaw]

 

ni-da-taⁿ-i-yaⁿ ka-tʰe (nidttąiy̨ katʰ) - ladle out with a cup

cf. ni i-da-taⁿ (ni dattą́) - cup, with which to drink water [MS]; i-aⁿ (į), i-yaⁿ (iy̨) - with, by means of, i + ʔǫ; ka-te (katt) - dip or ladle out, as food

Dhegiha: ni i-tha-toⁿ (ni ithatoⁿ) - cup [Omaha]; ni i-tha-ʰtoⁿ (n i-tha-ṭoⁿ) - cup, mug, drinking glass, drinking cup, tankard, dipper [FL-Osage]; ni i-tha-ʰtaⁿ (niaaʰtą) - dipper, lsdle, lit., with which to drink water [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni i-ya-taⁿ (zhⁿni iytaⁿ) - dipper, cup made of wood [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-ʰtse (ga-ṭs) - to skim, to skim grease off the surface of water in a kettle [FL-Osage]; ga-tse (gac) - skim a liquid, skim grease [Kaw]

 

out, lay out

kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out

cf. a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze aⁿ-taⁿ ki-kaⁿ-he (kattttize ̨ttaⁿ kkʔąh) - when he swept away/cleared a spot, he put it down (his own item) [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhe-oⁿ-he (zhoⁿhe) - roast, to place a long object, such as an ear of corn, in front of the fire to roast [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay into [CQ-Osage]; ko-he (khe) - lay down an inanimate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-koⁿ-he (koⁿhe), a-ko-he (kohe) - lay something on top of something else [Kaw]; a-ku-ko-he (kukohe) - lay ones own object on a surface for ones own benefit [Kaw]; a-gu-ko-he (gukohe) - lay ones own horizontal object on a surface; lay something on surface for someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ʰkoⁿ-he (-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe), o-ko-he (okhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰki-koⁿ-he (oʰkkʔǫhe) - interrupt, lit., insert oneself into [CQ-Osage]

 

out, peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals

i-shta xi-xi-te (it xixtte) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes at intervals [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals-she did it-when-she looked at him-she sent it off-so she lay awhile-they say [JOD]

 

out, pour out

ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something a-xtaⁿ (xtą) - I, da-xtaⁿ (dxtą) - you

cf. a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize; di-xtaⁿ (dixt̨) - pull at, pull over, upset; naⁿ-xtaⁿ (nąxt̨) - kick over, spill

ex: a-shi-ti a-niⁿ a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (itti an̨ hi ttą kaxt̨) - she took it outside and poured it out [JOD]

ex: wa-di-si, ka-xtaⁿ, a-shi-ti aniⁿ hi a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (wadis, kaxt̨, atti an̨ hi att̨ kaxt̨) - throw it away, pour it out, take it outside and pour it out! [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke o-ki-te a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxtąi ke oktte ttą dekid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them and she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

Dhegiha: pe ni a-ga-xtoⁿ (pni agaxtoⁿ) - baptize, anoint [Omaha]; xtoⁿ (qtoⁿ) - drip, pour [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xtoⁿ (thixtoⁿ) - drain [Omaha]; ni ga-xtoⁿ (n-ga-xtoⁿ) - to pour water, to spill water [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-xtoⁿ (wagxtoⁿ) - the act of pouring water [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xtaⁿ (okxtą), o-ka-xta (okxta) - pour or dump out [CQ-Osage]; thi-xtaⁿ (ixt̨) - pour, draw water or run water [CQ-Osage]; ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtⁿ) - pour out, empty out, throw out dirt [Kaw]; xtaⁿ (xtⁿ) - leak in, drip out, empty out, spill [Kaw]

 

out, press out

bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push or blow loose pi-kda (ppkda) - I, shpi-kda (pkda) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; ka-kda-hi (kakdhi) - stretched out; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gtha-tha (gththa) - unbraided, unwoven, unraveled [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gtha-tha) - to unravel [FL-Osage]; la-ya (lay) - opened out, untied, uncoiled, undone
[Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-gtha (bagth) - to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: ga-gtha (ga-gth) - untangle; to make ones hair become undone by accident [FL-Osage]; ga-la-ya (galya) - cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire; wind or other natural force to cause an object to fall and spread out (coming undone); comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - open out, spread out, as the hand; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-wa (thi-gth-wa) - to stretch a rope, to stretch [FL-Osage]; thu-la-wa (uulwa) - spread, spread out (e.g., a tarpaulin, a blanket, corn to be dried) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿlya) - to come undone, as a moccasin string; straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick [Kaw]

 

out, pull or pluck out

o-ka-shte (okte) - pull out, pluck grass, hair o-a-ka-shte (okate) - I, o-da-ka-shte (odkate) - you

 

out, pull out ones own

kdi-sti-te (kdstitte) - pull out ones own (bow, etc.) a-kdi-sti-te (akdstitte) - I, da-kdi-sti-te (dakdstitte) - you

cf. kdi-sti-sti-te (kdstisttte) - pull out ones own repeatedly, as arrows from a quiver; di-sti-te (disttte) - pull out, pull open, to milk; ma-ze-ni di-sti-te (mazni disttte) - to milk an animal

Dhegiha: gthi-sniⁿ-de (gsninde) - pulled his out [JOD-Omaha]

 

kdi-sti-sti-te (kdstisttte) - pull out ones own repeatedly, as arrows from a quiver a-kdi-sti-sti-te akdstisttte) - I, da-kdi-sti-sti-te (dakdstistitte) - you

cf. kdi-sti-te (kdstitte) - pull out ones own (bow, etc.); di-sti-te (disttte) - pull out, pull open, to milk; ma-ze-ni di-sti-te (mazni disttte) - to milk an animal

Dhegiha: gthi-sniⁿ-sniⁿ-de (gsniⁿsnińde) - pulled out several off his own [JOD-Omaha]

 

out, pull up and out of

a-shi ki-knaⁿ (i kikn̨) - pull up out of; pull something out of water, mud, a hole, etc. a-shi a-knaⁿ (i kną) - I, a-shi da-knaⁿ (i dkną) - you, a-shi oⁿ-knaⁿ-we (i ̨knąwe) - we

cf. a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on, over; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put

Dhegiha: gi-laⁿ (glaⁿ) - replace a sitting inanimate object [Kaw]

 

out, push out into the open

bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open pi-naⁿ-pe (ppnąpe) - I, shpi-naⁿ-pe (pnąpe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

out, scare or flush out

ba-zhi de-de (ba dde) - scare out, flush out pa-zhi de-a-de (ppi dade) - I, shpa-zhi de-da-de (pi ddade) - you

cf. ba-zhi (ba) - drive something or someone off; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; naⁿ-zhi-we (nąwe) - drive, flush out with the feet

ex: wa-ba-zhi (wba) - drive them off [MS, FR]

Dhegiha: ba-si (bas) - to drive one animal [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-si (ba-) - to drive away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-zhiⁿ (ga-zhⁿ) - to drive a team of horses or an automobile [FL-Osage]; ka-zhi (kaa), ka-zhiⁿ (kaą) - drive a vehicle, herd animals; make or force someone to do something, commnd someone to do something; blow with force [CQ-Osage]; ga-zhiⁿ (gazhⁿ) - whip, drive a horse; blow to nose [Kaw]

 

out, scratch or brush out

di-kdi-kdi-da (dikdkdida) - scratch out, brush out as animals

 

out, second-hand but not worn out

a-di-xdi-ke (dixdke) - worn, well worn; soiled from use; second-hand but not worn out

cf. di-xdi-ke (dixdke) - worn, soiled, second hand

Dhegiha: thi-xthi-ge (thi-xth-ge) - old, worn out [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-xthi-ge (wa-th-xthi-ge) - worn, faded, secondhand goods [FL-Osage]

 

out, smooth out

ka-sto-de (kastde) - smooth out, as feathers a-sto-de (stode) - I, da-sto-de (dstode) - you

cf. di-sto-de (distde) - flatten from pulling something

 

out, spill out and scatter

a-da-hi o-a-ze ka-xe (dahi oze kγe) - spill out and scatter

 

out, spread out

di-xa-taⁿ (dixatt̨), di-xa-tʰaⁿ  (dixatʰ̨) - spread out, as a turkeys tail

cf. di-xa-ta (diγttą) - stretch apart

 

out, spread out one object on another

a-di-bda (dibda) - spread out one object on another, as a robe on a horse or a table cloth on a table a-bdi-bda (bdibda) - I, a-ti-bda (ttibda) - you, oⁿ-ka-di-bda-we (ǫkdibdwe) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; di-bda (dibd) - pull apart, separate

Dhegiha: u-zhoⁿ a-thi-btha (uzhoⁿ athibtha) - cover [Omaha]; wa-tha-te a-thi-btha (wathate athibtha) - table cloth [Omaha]; a-thi-btha (-thi-btha) - spread oilcloth [FL-Osage]; a-thu-bra (ubra), a-thi-bra (ibra) - spread upon, spread over [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-btha (thibtha) - unfold [Omaha]; thi-btha (thi-bth) - to spread a robe or blanket [FL-Osage]; thi-bra (bra), thu-bra (bra) - spread, spread out, as a cloth [CQ-Osage]; yu-bla (yubl) - spread out or hang up to dry, corn, clothes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: btha (ba) - open, spread out [JOD-Omaha]; btha (btha) - to open, to spread out; to be opened or spread out [Omaha/Ponca]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

 

out, stretch hand out to someone

da-ki-a-tiⁿ (dakkiatt̨) - hand, stretch out to someone

cf. noⁿ-pe da-ki-a-ti (nǫp dakkiatt̨) - extend the arm towards person

 

out, stretch out on something

a-ka-zi (kazi) - stretch out on something

ex: a-ka-zi i-he a-taⁿ di-ze (kazi he ttą diz) - to stretch out on an object and take something else

ex: a-ka-zi i-he a-zhaⁿ-taⁿ bdi-ze (kazi he ąttą bdiz) - I stretch, etc.

Dhegiha: ki-gtha-zi (kigthzi) - stretch, to stretch; stretch ones arms upward [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰki-gtha-zi (ḳi-gth-i) - to stretch oneself [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-zi (thizi) - stretch [Omaha]; thi-zi-tha (thi--tha) - to stretch, as distend [FL-Osage]; thi-zi-the (iizie) - stretch [CQ-Osage]

 

out, stretched out

ka-kda-hi (kakdhi) - stretched out

cf. naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: ga-gtha (ga-gth) - untangle; to make ones hair become undone by accident [FL-Osage]; ga-la-ya (galya) - cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire; wind or other natural force to cause an object to fall and spread out (coming undone); comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gtha-tha (gththa) - unbraided, unwoven, unraveled [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gtha-tha) - to unravel [FL-Osage]; la-ya (lay) - opened out, untied, uncoiled, undone
[Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-gtha (bagth) - to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - open out, spread out, as the hand; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-wa (thi-gth-wa) - to stretch a rope, to stretch [FL-Osage]; thu-la-wa (uulwa) - spread, spread out (e.g., a tarpaulin, a blanket, corn to be dried) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿlya) - to come undone, as a moccasin string; straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick [Kaw]

 

out, sweep out ones house

kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house a-kda-ti-ze (akdttize) - I, da-kda-ti-ze (dakdttize) - you

cf. i-ti-ze (ttize) - clean out the house; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; i-ki-ti-ze (kittize) - leave, abandon ones own; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move one's possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet; po-ti-ze (pttize), po-tʰi-ze (ptʰize) - move something by punch-/shooting

Dhegiha: thi-dsi-ze (thi-ds-e) - remove from office (strictly speaking means remove only, no mention of office [FL-Osage]; thi-tsi-ze (icze) - dust or clean e.g., the house, move, remove, take away [CQ-Osage]

 

out, take out a piece of something

di-he-pe (dihep) - take out a piece of something bdi-he-pe (bdhepe) - I, ti-he-pe (tthepe) - you

cf. he-be (hbe), he-pe (hpe) - piece, part

Dhegiha: thi-he-be (thi hebe) - decrease [Omaha]

Dhegiha: he-be (hbe) - partial; to be a part, piece, or portion of something [Omaha/Ponca]; he-be (hebe) - piece, part [Omaha]; he-be (h-be) - a piece, a part, portion [FL-Osage]; he-pe (hpe) - a small amount, approximately half a container; piece, part, some, a bit; he-be zhiⁿ-ga (hbe zhⁿga) - little bit [Kaw]

 

out, throw it out or away

wa-di-si (wadis) - throw it away, lit. do not save it [JOD]

ex: wa-di-si, e-zhi o-do-hi pa-xe te (wadis, i odhi ppγe tte) - throw it out, Ill come up with something different (JOD)]

ex: wa-di-si, ka-xtaⁿ, a-shi-ti aniⁿ hi a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (wadis, kaxt̨, atti an̨ hi att̨ kaxt̨) - throw it away, pour it out, take it outside and pour it out! [JOD]

 

out, toes turned out

si o-bda-koⁿ (si bdakʔǫ) - splayfooted, toes turned out si o-a-bda-koⁿ (si abdakʔǫ) - I, si o-da-bda-koⁿ (si dabdakʔǫ) - you

cf. si (si) - foot

Dhegiha: (i btha-ḳa) - web-footed [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: btha (btha) - to open, to spread out; to be opened or spread out [Omaha/Ponca]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

Dhegiha: btha-ʰka (bth-ḳa) - flat board [FL-Osage]; bra-ka (brkʔa) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ka (blka) - flat on the surface, as boards [Kaw]

 

out, watch out for

a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from a-a-ki-toⁿ-we (akkitt̨we) - I, a-da-ki-toⁿ-we (dakkitt̨we) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-toⁿ-wa-we (̨kakkittǫwawe) - we

cf. toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

Dhegiha: a-gi-doⁿ-be (-gi-doⁿ-be) - watches over whatever is his own [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-be (-ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - discreet, to guard ones self against trouble [FL-Osage]; a-ki-toⁿ-pe (kitǫpe) - watch over, tend someone who is not a family member or not close [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰtǫpe) - watch over, look after, look at ones own things or people, watch over, look after, look at ones own [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkiʰtǫpe) - watch over oneself, watch oneself, look at oneself, look after oneself, watch over each other, watch over things for oneself, watch over ones own things [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-doⁿ-be (gidoⁿbe) - look at something, examine something, watchover [Kaw]; a-ki-toⁿ-be (kitoⁿbe) - see for oneself, look at an object closely to understand for oneself, to scrutinize [Kaw]

 

out, wear out handling

ka-ni-ke ka-xe (kanke kγe) - wear out handling

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water: inner instrumental prefix; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do cause

Dhegiha: ga-yiⁿ-ge (gayⁿge) - wear out by striking, as an ax [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thⁿ-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

out, wear out or away

ba-to-ke (battke) - wear away, wear out pa-to-ke (ppttoke) - I, shpa-to-ke (pttoke) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-to-ke (bittke) - wear away by rubbing or file; da-to-ke (dattke) - dull, wear the teeth, blunt; di-to-ke (dittke) - dull, blunt a tool; ka-to-ke (kattke) - wear down by striking, to dull; naⁿ-to-ke (nąttke) - wear down by walking, as shoes; pa-to-ke (pttoke) - wear away a knife blade; po-to-ke (pttoke) - dull by punching, as a spear

 

outrage

e (e) - fie!; express disgust, disapproval, or outrage [JOD]

 

outside of (an enclosure)

a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - outside of (an enclosure)

ex: te-ska a-shi-oⁿ-he tʰaⁿ a-niⁿ-ki (ttska iǫh tʰą an̨k) - bring the ox standing outside (the fence) here

 

outside, to go out side

a-shi-ti de (atti d) - to go she outside a-shi-ti bde (atti bd) - I, a-shi-ti te (atti tt) - you

cf. a-shi-ti (itti) - outside, outdoors; de (de) - go

ex: a-si-chi bde naⁿ-hi (siči bd nąh) - Im going outside [OM]

ex: a-shi-ti de (atti d) - she went outside [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-shi the (ci ) - to go outside [JOD-Omaha]; a-shi the (-shi the) - exit, to go out [FL-Osage]; a-shi the (i e) - go outside [CQ-Osage]

 

outside, outdoors

a-shi-ti (itti) - outside, outdoors

a-shi-ti (itti) - outside [MS]

a-si-chi (sič) - outside [OM]

a-shi-jhi (iǰi) - outside [AG]

ex: si-kde a-shi-ti i-da-de (sikd itti idde) - I saw some footprints outside my house [MS]

ex: haⁿ-pa ho-ta-iⁿ a-shi-ti (h̨pa httąį itti) - Its a pretty day outside [MS]

ex: ka-te hi a-shi-ti (kktte hi itti) - its awful hot outside [MS]

ex: ta-ka-te a-shi-jhi (tkkatte iǰi) - is it hot outside? (hot outside) [AG]

ex: ma-shte a-shi-ti (mat itti) - its light outdoors (its warm outside) [MS]

ex: a-shi sni-wa-te (i snwatt) - cold outside [AG]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke o-ki-te a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxtąi ke oktte ttą dekid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them and she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

ex: o-ta-shti-te a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - when the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ te-ti ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-shi-ti hi (hǫ tti mat̨ke itti hi) - when it was night, the rabbit went outside [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we, i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe, iy) - all of the people went (outside) again from the interior of the hill, it is said

ex: kiⁿ kʰi-taⁿ a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de naⁿ, i-ya  (kʔ̨ kʰttą itti itʰde ną, iy) - when he reached home carrying (the meat) on his back, he piled it outside (the lodge), it is said

Dhegiha: a-shi-a-di (shidi) - outside of that place, elsewhere, not here [Omaha/Ponca]; a-shi-a-di (ciadi) - on the outside [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: a-shi-a-ta (shiat) - outside, outdoors [Omaha/Ponca]; a-shi-a-ta (ashata) - outdoor [Omaha]; a-shi-a-ta (ciaʇa) - outside, outside of the lodge [JOD-Omaha]; a-shi-ʰta (-shi-ṭa) - outside [FL-Osage]; a-shi-ʰta (iʰta) - outside, outdoors [CQ-Osage]; a-shi-ta (shita) - outside, outdoors [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-shi (shi) - out, outside of the house [Omaha/Ponca]; a-shi (ci) - outside [JOD-Omaha]; a-shi (i) - outside, outdoors [CQ-Osage]

 

outside, to take outside

a-shi-ti a-niⁿ hi (itti an̨ hi) - to take outside

cf. a-shi-ti (itti) - outside, outdoors; a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there

ex: a-shi-ti a-niⁿ a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (itti an̨ hi ttą kaxt̨) - she took it outside and poured it out [JOD]

ex: wa-di-si, ka-xtaⁿ, a-shi-ti aniⁿ hi a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (wadis, kaxt̨, atti an̨ hi att̨ kaxt̨) - throw it away, pour it out, take it outside and pour it out! [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ hi (a-thⁿ hi) - to reach a place with some object; deliver [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ hi (ąhi), a-thiⁿ-a-hi (ąahi) - take there, bring there, deliver [CQ-Osage]

 

outside, went outside

a-shi-ti hi (itti hi) - went outside a-shi-ti pʰi (itti pʰi) - I, a-shi-ti shi (itti i) - you

cf. a-shi-ti (itti) - outside, outdoors; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi, i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h, iywe) - the next morning, the little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke te-de i-ya wa-sa (itti hi otąka hi tą mat̨ke tʔede iy was) - just as soon as the black bear went outside, the rabbit killed him, (shot the black bear, giving him a fatal wound) it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, a-shi-ti hi, i-ya, wa-sa niⁿ (kįttą, itti h, iy, was nį) - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - when the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi (itti hi) - he arrived outside

ex: wa-sa za-ni hi a-shi-ti hi-we, i-ya (was zan hi itti hwe, iy) - all of the black bears came outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - to have been there, reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (h) - to arrive [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; hi (hi) - to be arriving at a place [FL-Osage]; a-hi (ah) - he has been to [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there, motion accomplished, come there, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, become, begin to, start to [CQ-Osage]; (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

 

over and over, again, repeatedly

shi-naⁿ (ną), shi-noⁿ (nǫ) - again, over and over, repeatedly

shi-naⁿ (ną), (in̨) - again [JOD]

cf. shi (i) - again, and, also; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic

ex: shi-noⁿ di-sha (nǫ diʔ) - he failed again [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ te a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tte įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ do-ti te-ka-ha ka-xe (ną dtti tte-kha kγe) - again-to come up or forth-he made it [JOD]

ex: ha-niⁿ hi-te shi-naⁿ de (h̨nį htte ną d) - somehow he went again [JOD]

ex: ha-ki i-da-we i-pa-haⁿ-zhi miⁿ-kʰe, shi-naⁿ i-ke (hak idwe ppahą mįkʰ, ną ik) - I dont know where they went, she said to him again [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ miⁿ kdi-ze naⁿ (ną mį kdiz ną) - he took one (of his own) again [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ naⁿ miⁿ kdi-ze (ną ną mį kdiz) - he took one (of his own) again [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ-naⁿ i-ki-di-toⁿ o-pʰe niⁿ, i-ya-we (in̨ną ikdittǫ opʰ nį, iywe) - again and again, first on one side then on the other, he was paddling, they said [JOD]

ex: i-ki-ho-shi a-ti shi-naⁿ naⁿ ta-bde de (kiho-ti in̨-ną tbde d) - after he forbade her (from eating it), he went hunting again [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha shi-naⁿ o-niⁿ-hi a-ba-zo, i-ya-we (n̨a in̨ onįh abaz, iywe) - then-again-directly opposite-pointed-they say [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-naⁿ-bde ki-ha naⁿ to ke da-we (in̨ wan̨bde kih ną t kʔe dwe) - when they finished eating, they went to dig potatoes again [JOD]

ex: e-zhi shi-naⁿ kdi-ze (i in̨ kdiz) - again, he took another (a different one of his own) [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ shka-te de (naⁿ ktte d) - again he went to play [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ shka-te bdeta-ni-he (naⁿ ktte bde ttanhe) - again I will go play [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-wa-xde (ną waxde) - he overtook them again [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club/stick there, yonder again, she said to me [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti shi-naⁿ kdwe, i-ya-we (ksaniti ną kdwe, iywe) - then in the morning, again they started for home, they say [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ kdi hne (ną kdi hn) - come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-noⁿ kjhi (nǫ kǰi) - comeback again [AG)]

ex: jhi-e shi-noⁿ kjhi (ǰe nǫ kǰ) - you come back again [AG]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kas̨nį akd tta mįkʰ) - Ill come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: shi-noⁿ i-ta-de ta niⁿ-kʰe (nǫ ttade tta nįkʰ) - theyre going to have another baby [AG]

Dhegiha: shi-noⁿ (sh-noⁿ) - again and again [FL-Osage]; shi-naⁿ (ną) - over and over, again and again, keep on, continue to do a thing [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shi (shi) - and, and then, again [Omaha/Ponca]; shi (cǐ) - again; and [JOD-Omaha]; shi (shi) - again; and [FL-Osage]; shi (shi) - again, more [CQ-Osage]; shi (shi) - again, and; still [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - customary [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect; usually; always generally; used to, it used to be so [Kaw]

 

over and over, roll something over and over

o-di-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (odttątt̨da) - roll something over and over o-bdi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (obdttątt̨da) - I, o-ti-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (ottttątt̨da) - you

cf. o-di (od) action by pulling; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (ą ditt̨da) - wagon, cart; o-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (obttątt̨da) - roll something repeatedly in something; iⁿ-kde o-ba-toⁿ-da (įkd obttǫda) - tumble bug, dung roller; o-ka-toⁿ-ta (okttǫta) - wheel

Dhegiha: u-thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-th-ṭoⁿ-tha) - anything propelled by rolling: a wagon, buggy; a carriage; anything that is controlled [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ʰtaⁿ (oʰtą) - car, wagon, describes a rolling motion [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-taⁿ-ya (oytaⁿya), (yutaⁿya) - wagon, cart [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (thi-ṭⁿ-tha) - to roll [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-tha (ṭoⁿ-tha) - rolling, to roll or make run [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-tha (ʰt̨ąa) - roll, rolling [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ga-toⁿ-toⁿ-tha (uga toⁿtoⁿtha) - tumble [Omaha]; o-ga-ʰtoⁿ-tha (o-ga-ṭoⁿ-tha) - sent rolling upon the ground [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ba-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-b-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll, as a heavy object [FL-Osage]; o-ba-taⁿ-ya (obtaⁿya) - roll something, roll something over, to roll something, to roll an object over by pushing, said of the act of the tumblebug and kindred beetles in making balls of manure [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-tha (u-b-t͓aⁿ-t͓ⁿ-a) - to bear or lean against a heavy log, etc., making it roll over and over [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (bi-ṭoⁿ-tha) - rolling [FL-Osage]; we-bi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (w-bi-ṭoⁿ-tha) - a rolling pin [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-pa-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-ḳi-pa-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll over and over [FL-Osage]; u-ki-pa-taⁿ (ukpatⁿ) - rolled himself over [JOD-Omaha]; be-taⁿ-taⁿ (betⁿtaⁿ) - rolled up several times [JOD-Omaha]; bu-ʰtoⁿ-tha (bu-ṭⁿ-tha) - to shoot and send rolling [FL-Osage]

 

over there on the opposite side

i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta (kaxtta kitta) - over there on the opposite side

cf. i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of something; ka-xa (kax) - to outdistance, surpass, excel, exceed, go ahead or beyond a person or place, outrun, outstrip, beat someone in a race, get the better of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place; koi (ki) - there, that; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta (kaxtta kitta) - on the opposite side of the lodge/in that place [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, they said [JOD]

 

over there, beyond, yonder

koi-ke (kike) - those remote plural/standing/visible/animate

koi-ke (kike) - yonder ones [JOD-Omaha]

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate

ex: ti koi-ke (tti kike) - lodge/yonder ones [JOD]

ex: ti koi-ke, ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tti kike, niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, those people are disobedient [JOD]

 

koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti (kihidnįkʰe tti) - that remote singular/sitting/visible/at, by, in, locative

koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti (kihidnįkʰe tti) - at yonder distant visible place [JOD-Omaha]

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; continuative aux. sitting; ti (tti) - at, by, in, locative

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd nįkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

 

over there, how do you get over there

ha-ki-wa-de-de (hkiwadede) - how do you get over there?, which road, how do you go? [MS]

cf. ha-ki (hki) - where; ha-ki-de-de (hkidede) - where, which direction; ha-ki-de-de-tʰaⁿ (hkidedtʰą) - where from, from whatever place; ha-ki-tʰaⁿ (haktʰą) - from whatever place; ha-ki e-hi-te (hak ehitt) - anywhere, where+soever [JOD]; ha-ke hi-te (hak hitt), ha-ke i-te (hak itt) - wherever, anywhere

 

over there, thither, in that direction

e-ta-ha (ettah) - over there [JOD]

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: e-ta-ha (e-t͓-ha) - in that direction, thitherward [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta-ha (e ʰtha) - in the direction of, toward that direction, over there, along that way [CQ-Osage]; e-ta-ha (taha), (etha)  - there, over there, thither [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰta-ha (ṭa ha) - toward FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - termination of direction, used with verbs of motion; in different ways or places; so mnay in each place [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of; from [CQ-Osage]

 

over there, yonder

ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead

ex: ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

ex: ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ko-ta-ha (kőtőhah) - that, which, who (qui) [GI]

cf. ko-ha (kha) - in that direction [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: ko-ta-ha (kootha) - (to/from) farther away (in space); farther back, farther ahead (in space or time); beyond; the next to last, the one before last; the one after next, the one past the next [CQ-Osage]; go-da-ha (gdaha) - over there, thither [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: go (go) - there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; that distant person or object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - termination of direction, used with verbs of motion; in different ways or places; so mnay in each place [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of; from [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-the-thiⁿ (g-da-e-iⁿ), gu-a-the-thiⁿ (g-a-e-iⁿ) - that visible one beyond or on that side of a person or place, who has started and is moving [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-the (gda e), gu-a-the (ga e) - to go beyond [JOD-Omaha]; ko-ta the (kota e) - (in the) future, future months (refers to traveling or going along in age, traveling down the road moving into the future) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta the (kota e) - that one over there (beyond speaker and hearer) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-da-taⁿ (g-da-taⁿ), gu-a-taⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-the (gda e), gu-a-the (ga e) - to go beyond [JOD-Omaha]; ko-ta the (kota e) - (in the) future, future months (refers to traveling or going along in age, traveling down the road moving into the future) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta the (kota e) - that one over there (beyond speaker and hearer) [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

cf. niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ), gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ) - the visible an. ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ-ke (g-da-i-k), gu-a-thiⁿ-ke (g-a-i-k)  - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-da thiⁿ-shke (g-da thiⁿ-shke) - the one sitting on the opposite side [FL-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-kshe (kotaįk) - that one sitting over there or yonder (beyond speaker or hearer) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-ke (kootįke) - over there, yonder, farther than another thing, way over there, way back in thime or distance [CQ-Osage]; go-da-yiⁿ-khe (gdayiⁿkhe) - over there; yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-da-taⁿ (g-da-taⁿ), gu-a-taⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; go-da-toⁿ (g-da toⁿ) - that person standing yonder [FL-Osage]

 

over, argue over something

a-ki-ki (kkiki) - to dispute; argue over something such as the division of a thing a-a-ki-ki (akkik) - I, a-da-ki-ki (dakkiki) - you

Dhegiha: a-ki-ki (kiki) - compete against one another; argue with each other; dispute or contest one anothers claims, play against one another; fight each other over something [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ki-ki (-k͓i-k͓i) - to contend together for the possession of something [JOD-Omaha]; a-ki-ki (-ki-k͓) - to dispute, as about the division of any thing [JOD-Omaha]

 

over, beyond, more than

a-ki-haⁿ (kkihą) - more than, beyond, over

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ mi-aⁿ-ba miⁿ a-ki-haⁿ a-kniⁿ (̨čʰǫ mįba m̨ kkihą akn̨) - I have now been (here) over a month

Dhegiha: a-ki-haⁿ (-ki-haⁿ) - beyond, more than, moreover [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰki-hoⁿ (-ḳi-hoⁿ) - to go beyond, to go beyond a certain place [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ha (ʰkiha), a-ʰki-haⁿ (ʰkihą) - beyond another thing, afterward, following, next [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-haⁿ (kihaⁿ) - beyond, past in reference to place, in the distant past in reference to time [Kaw]

 

over, go or pass over

a-pʰe (pʰe) - go over, pass over, walk on a-a-pʰe (apʰe) - I, a-da-pʰe (dapʰe) - you

Dhegiha: a-pshe (-pshe) - to walk on, or to go from house to house [FL-Osage]; a-pshe (pe) - around, pass around, give around, walk around, go around, circulate [CQ-Osage]; a-phe (phe) - walk on something, ascend, cover over, as a lodge with skins [Kaw]

 

over, hang down evenly over an object

a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

ex: ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: a-ga-bliⁿ (gabliⁿ) - fasten the cover on something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ti hu-ga-bthiⁿ tha (ti hugabthiⁿ tha) - smoke flaps [Omaha]

 

over, jump over

a-zha-ko-i-de (akkid) - jump over something; jump and go over a stream, log, etc. a-a-zha-ko-i-bde (aakkibd) - I, a-da-zha-ko-i-te (daakkitt) - you, oⁿ-ka-zha-ko-i-da-we (ǫkakidaw) - we

cf. zha-ko-i-de (akkide), (akoide) - jump; zha-ka i-de (kka de), zha-ko-i-de (akide) - jump a rope; zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną), zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akkoinąną) - jump, make sudden leaps; zha-ko-i-naⁿ-na ka-xe (akkinąn̨ kaγ) - make a horse prance; a-zha-ki i-de (akki de) - jump rope

 

over, kick over

naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot a-naⁿ-xa-da (an̨xada) - I, da-naⁿ-xa-da (dan̨xada) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

 

naⁿ-xtaⁿ (nąxt̨) - kick over, spill a-naⁿ-xtaⁿ (an̨xtą) - I, da-naⁿ-xtaⁿ (dan̨xtą) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; di-xtaⁿ (dixt̨) - pull at, pull over, upset; ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something; a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize

Dhegiha: xtoⁿ (qtoⁿ) - drip, pour [Omaha/Ponca]; pe ni a-ga-xtoⁿ (pni agaxtoⁿ) - baptize, anoint [Omaha]; thi-xtoⁿ (thixtoⁿ) - drain [Omaha]; xtoⁿ (xtoⁿ) - to spill, to slop over [FL-Osage]; ni ga-xtoⁿ (n-ga-xtoⁿ) - to pour water, to spill water [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-xtoⁿ (wagxtoⁿ) - the act of pouring water [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xtaⁿ (okxtą), o-ka-xta (okxta) - pour or dump out [CQ-Osage]; thi-xtaⁿ (ixt̨) - pour, draw water or run water [CQ-Osage]; xtaⁿ (xtⁿ) - leak in, drip out, empty out, spill [Kaw]; ba-xtaⁿ (baxtⁿ) - spill, push over a container; to push or bump against a barrel or other vessel having water in it, forcing it over, and spilling its contents; to push or bump against a vessel and cause some of the liquid contents to be spilled without upsetting the vessel [Kaw]; ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtⁿ) - pour out, empty out, throw out dirt [Kaw]; a-ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtaⁿ) - powder, baby powder, lit. spill it on [Kaw]

 

over, knock over

po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple po-a-xa-da (paxad) - I, po-da-xa-da (pdaxda) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base

 

over, left over

o-shte (ot) - remain, be left over oⁿ-shte (̨te) - I, o-di-shte (odte) - you

cf. o-ka-shte (okte) - to remain after striking [JOD]; o-po-shte (opte) - remain after a shooting

ex: miⁿ-xti o-shte (m̨xti ot) - just one remained [JOD]

ex: de o-do-ha-ke miⁿ-xti o-shte (de odhake m̨xti ot) - this last one was left; this last one remained [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: e-da-te naⁿ-hi a-kda-niⁿ o-shte (edtte nąh akdnį ot) - her father-only-keeping his own-remained [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe, she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ, tto dbnį ̨kit, emi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive (my own remaining), I have already lost (Im lacking) a boy and a girl [MS]

Dhegiha: u-shte (uct) - to remain, to be left over; the remainder, the balance, the rest; remaining, remainder [JOD-Omaha]; u-shte (ushte) - remainder [Omaha]; u-shtse (u-shts), u-stse (u-sts) - the rest, remainder, remained, remnant, left over [FL-Osage]; o-shtse (oc) - remain, be left or left over, leave (as leftovers), spare, remainder, rest, leftover [CQ-Osage]; o-shtse (shce) - remain, be left, be left over [Kaw]

 

over, on top of, on

a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on

a-shi (i) - on, over [AG]

ex: a-ni a-shi (ni i) - up on a hill [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ni a-shi tʰaⁿ, i-bniⁿ-aⁿ (̨keaknį ni i tʰ̨, bnį̨) - I think the horse is standing on the hill

ex: iⁿ a-shi (į i) - on the stone

ex: ni a-shi (ni i) - on the water

ex: a-shi-niⁿ (inį) - coat, to wear or putt on top of, wear over

ex: a-shi a-kde (ai akde) - to set an object on top of something else

ex: ni kʰe a-shi de kʰe (n kʰe i de kʰ) - the water goes (flows) over (ice formed earlier),

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

ex: a-shi ki-knaⁿ (i kikn̨) - pull up out of; pull something out of water, mud, a hole, etc.

 

over, pull over

di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over bdi-ki-kda-shoⁿ (bdkkikdaǫ) - I, ti-ki-kda-shoⁿ (ttkkikdaǫ) - you

cf. ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on ones stomach

Dhegiha: thi a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thi akigthashoⁿ) - turn over [Omaha]; yu-ku-la-shaⁿ (yuklashaⁿ) - roll over, turn upside down [Kaw]

 

di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip bdi-xa-da (bdxada) - I, ti-xa-da (ttxada) - you

cf. bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

 

di-xtaⁿ (dixt̨) - pull at, pull over, upset  bdi-xtaⁿ (bdxtą) - I, ti-xtaⁿ (ttxtą) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something; a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize; naⁿ-xtaⁿ (nąxt̨) - kick over, spill

Dhegiha: xtoⁿ (qtoⁿ) - drip, pour [Omaha/Ponca]; pe ni a-ga-xtoⁿ (pni agaxtoⁿ) - baptize, anoint [Omaha]; thi-xtoⁿ (thixtoⁿ) - drain [Omaha]; xtoⁿ (xtoⁿ) - to spill, to slop over [FL-Osage]; ni ga-xtoⁿ (n-ga-xtoⁿ) - to pour water, to spill water [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-xtoⁿ (wagxtoⁿ) - the act of pouring water [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xtaⁿ (okxtą), o-ka-xta (okxta) - pour or dump out [CQ-Osage]; thi-xtaⁿ (ixt̨) - pour, draw water or run water [CQ-Osage]; xtaⁿ (xtⁿ) - leak in, drip out, empty out, spill [Kaw]; ba-xtaⁿ (baxtⁿ) - spill, push over a container; to push or bump against a barrel or other vessel having water in it, forcing it over, and spilling its contents; to push or bump against a vessel and cause some of the liquid contents to be spilled without upsetting the vessel [Kaw]; ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtⁿ) - pour out, empty out, throw out dirt [Kaw]; a-ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtaⁿ) - powder, baby powder, lit. spill it on [Kaw]

 

over, pull over and spill

di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ (bdǫ) - I, ti-shoⁿ (ttǫ) - you

di-shaⁿ (dią) - spill, pull over a vessel bdi-shaⁿ (bdą) - I, ti-shaⁿ (ttą) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

Dhegiha: thi-shoⁿ (thi-shⁿ) - to dislocate by pulling [FL-Osage]; shaⁿ (caⁿ) - dislocated; fallen off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - dislocated, fallen, fallen off [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-shoⁿ (noⁿ-shⁿ) - to dislocate, to dislocate a joint in the leg or arm [FL-Osage]

 

di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ-da (bdǫda) - I, ti-shoⁿ-da (ttǫda) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over

Dhegiha: ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; g-shoⁿ-tha (g-shoⁿ-tha) - to droop or fall; to make loose; loose jointed; broken [FL-Osage];  ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it; jolt, as to jostle [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled; upset and spilled; tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-shoⁿ-tha (thashⁿtha) - overturn, spill; to overturn and spill a cup suddenly while drinking from it [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened, loosened in its socket, as a fence post or a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - loosened [Omaha]

 

over, pull over standing object

a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a singular/standing/inanimate object; make an upright object lean by pulling it a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (dikʰą itʰdade), a-ti-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (ttikʰą itʰdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

Dhegiha: a-thi-ʰkoⁿ (-thi-ḳoⁿ) - lay on either side; to recline as when attacking [FL-Osage]; a-thi-kxaⁿ (iikxą) - lie down against; lean up against, recline, rest [CQ-Osage]; a-yu-khaⁿ (yukhaⁿ) - lean on something, as a door [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-kaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-koⁿ (-koⁿ) - to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lean up against; lie against; lie down, as to sleep or rest [CQ-Osage]; a-khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]

 

over, push over and spill

ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill pa-shoⁿ (ppǫ) - I, shpa-shoⁿ (pǫ) - you

cf. ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; di-shoⁿ (dį), di-shaⁿ (dią) - pull over and spill (liquid); spill, pull over a vessel; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

ex: a-ba-shaⁿ (baą) - spilled on [JOD]

ex: ba-shoⁿ de-da (bą de-d) - throw it out! [MS]

Dhegiha: ba-shaⁿ (ba-cⁿ) - to put out of joint, by pushing or punching; to dislocate, as an arm [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shaⁿ-tha (ba-cⁿ-a) - to push a vessel, cup, box, etc., causing the contents to be spilt out [JOD-Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashⁿtha) - push, knock over, spill; to knock over a vessel and spill its contents on someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-shaⁿ-tha (-ba-cⁿ-a) - to push over a vessel accidentally and empty its contents on a person or on the ground [JOD-Omaha]

 

over, roll over on something

a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨)) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (mat̨ke bisątte ̨) - to throw himself down on a rabbit to catch it

Dhegiha: a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - mash, push down on, shut, close, hold down [CQ-Osage]; a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on with the hands, as in catching a bird or rabbit; to press or bear hard on, as with a chair leg; to run and jump on something, wrestle [Kaw]; a-ki-bu-saⁿ-je (kbusaⁿje) - to wrestle each other [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

over, slip over

di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over bdi-kʰiⁿ-te (bdkʰįtte) - I, ti-kʰiⁿ-te (ttkʰįtte) - you

cf. ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte) - miss, slip pushing something; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface; da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte) - strike at and miss; kiⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (kk̨kkįtt) - slippery; naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it; po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting

Dhegiha: thi-kshiⁿ-dse (thi-kshⁿ-dse) - failure to get a good grasp or hold [FL-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-tse (ik̨ce) - miss, fail at, be incorrect at, not get right, drop, let slip, let slip away [CQ-Osage]; yu-khiⁿ-je (yukhⁿje) - slip in grasping or holding, drop something; miss when reaching for something [Kaw]

 

over, stooped over

ba-xi (baxʔ) - stooped, stooped over

ba-xi (baxʔ) - stooped over [MS]

cf. di-be-xiⁿ (dbexʔ̨) - bend down, pull down; di-ba-siⁿ (dbasʔ̨) - hold gun muzzle downward

Dhegiha: ba-siⁿ (basⁿ) - upside-down, head over heels [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-siⁿ (ba-sⁿ) - upside-down; heels over head [JOD-Omaha]; ba-tsiⁿ (ba-tsⁿ) - head down and feet up, headlong, head foremost [FL-Osage]; pa-tsiⁿ (paacʔ̨) - stoop over, as to touch ones toes, bend down, be crooked [CQ-Osage]; ba-tsiⁿ (batsⁿ) - headlong, head first; stoop over [Kaw]

 

over, stride or pass over something

a-ka-zha-te (katte) - pass over, stride over something a-a-ka-zha-te (akatte) - I, a-da-ka-zha-te (dakatte) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-zha-ta-we (̨kakattawe) - we

cf. ka-zha-te (katte) - straddle, (stand) astride

Dhegiha: a-ga-zha-de (-ga-ja-de) - to stride or straddle over an object; implying to step over, to pass over a person, etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ga-zha-de (ga-j-de) - to stand with the legs wide apart [JOD-Omaha]; ga-zha-je (gazhje) - stand with legs wide apart; to step over something [Kaw]

 

over, tremble all over

di-bdi-bdi-xe (dibdbdiγe) - tremble all over

Dhegiha: zhu thi-bthi-bthi-xe (zhu thbthibthxe) - shiver, shake, tremble; to shiver, to shake all over [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-ga thi-bthi-bthi-xe (zhga thbthibthxe) - shaking, tremor; to be shaking all over, from fright or exertion [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-bthu-bthu-xe (thi-bth-bthu-xe) - to tremble or shake with fear, to shudder with cold [FL-Osage]; thi-bru-bru-xe (ibrbruγe), bru-bru-xe (brbruγe) - shake, quiver, tremble [CQ-Osage]

 

over, tumble over

ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe (kakkkdattie) - tumble over aⁿ-ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe (̨kkikdatti) - I, di-ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe (dkkikdatti) - you

ex: ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe aⁿ-bi-saⁿ-te (kakkkdattie ̨bisątt) - he tumbled over and lay on me

 

over, turn over

a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over a-a-ki-pa-xta-na (akkippxtana) - I, a-da-ki-pa-xta-na (dakkippxtana) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-xta-na-we (̨kakkippxtanawe) - we

cf.a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

ex: a a-ki-pa-xta-na ( kkippaxtana) - to roll up a sleeve

ex: niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ a-ki-pa-xta-na (n̨tte diį kkippaxtana) - to turn (roll up) the legs of pants

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (-ḳi-p̣a) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰki-ba-xtha (ḳ-ba-xtha) - meet face to face [FL-Osage]; u-ʰki-ba-xtha (u-ḳ-ba-xtha) - to meet face to face [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ki-ba-xla (okkibaxla) - meet face to face, coming from opposite directions: said of more than one pair [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pa-toⁿ (ukipatoⁿ) - roll [Omaha]; u-ki-pa-taⁿ (ukpatⁿ) - rolled himself over [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰpa-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-ḳi-pa-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll over and over [FL-Osage]

 

over, watch over someone elses property

a-ki-ta (kkitta) - watch over someone elses property a-a-ki-ta (akkitta) - I, a-da-ki-ta (dakkitta) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-ta-we (ǫkkkittawe) - we

Dhegiha: a-ki-da (kida) - to guard or watch over, as property (not his own) [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰki-da (-ḳi-da) - officer or soldier; grenadier; policeman [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ta (ʰkita) - law enforcement, police, army, armed forces, soldier, armed person, officer, grenadier [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-da (kida) - soldier, policeman, brave [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-gi-ki-da (-gi-k-da) - to watch over his own [JOD-Omaha]; i-gi-ki-da (-gi-k-da) - to watch over his property for him, or by his request [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ki-da (wkida) - a watchman; a shepard; to watch, to guard; to stay alone to guard a house or lodge [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ki-da (wakida) - sentry [Omaha]; wa-gi-ki-da (w-gi-k-da) - to watch over them, his own relation, animals, etc. [JOD-Omaha]

 

over, write over again

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i), kaⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ ai) - I, koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-da-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ dai) - you

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; a-zhi (i) - put small objects onto something that serves as a platform; koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity or number; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal size; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) -  equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]; goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-toⁿ-ha (goⁿ- ḳi-toⁿ-ha) - equal in height [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- 'thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]; go-ze ei-ki-khaⁿ (gze kikhaⁿ) - equal length [Kaw]; go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-zhi (ji) - to spread a number of small objects on [JOD-Omaha]; a-zhi (a-zhi) - scattered upon, scattered about [FL-Osage]; a-zhu (-zhu) - to put a number of articles on a rack [FL-Osage]; a-zhu (u) - put out, set out (multiple items); place, array, display (multiple items) on top of something else [CQ-Osage]; a-zhu (zhu) - put many objects on a surface of any thing [Kaw]

 

overflow

a-biⁿ-te (bįtte) - overflow; said of a flood that washes mud over the ground

 

ni-taⁿ (ntą) - flood, overflow

ni-taⁿ (ntą) - flood [MS]

ni-taⁿ (ni taⁿ́) - male name, Overflow [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-toⁿ (ntoⁿ) - flood [Omaha]; ni-doⁿ (ni-dⁿ) - a flood, the overflowing of a stream, a freshet [FL-Osage]; ni-taⁿ (nitą), ni-ta (nita) - flooding water, running water that is flooding, as over a spillway, elephant [CQ-Osage]; ni-daⁿ (nidⁿ) - flood, high water, freshet [Kaw]

 

overtake

o-xde (oxd) - to overtake [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe o-xde te a-ki-zhaⁿ iⁿ (dotʰe oxd tte akį į) - the man eater would overtake her, she thought to herself' (JOD)]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti ki, i-ya-we, waxo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti ki, i-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k, iywe, waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k, iywe) - they say, he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: ko-zhi hi taⁿ o-xde naⁿ te-da-we, i-ya (kki h-tą oxd ną tʔdaw, iy) - they went a long distance, when they overtook him, they killed him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-xde-wa-zhi (oxdwai) - they did not overtake him [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-xde (̨xde) - he overtook me [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-niⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: o-wa-xde (waxde) - he overtook them [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde o-wa-xde (waxʔ twa ttkde waxde) - he overtook the four women that live together [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-wa-xde (ną waxde) - he overtook them again [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha di-o-za hi o-xde (n̨a diza h oxd) - then in a very short time he overtook her [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka o-di-o-za-hi o-wa-xde (bdok odizah waxde) - in a very short time, he overtook the entire group [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-xthe (uq) - to pursue and overtake a person or animal [JOD-Omaha]; u-xthe (u-xth) - to overtake [FL-Osage]; o-ʰle (oʰl), o-le (ol) - chase, chase away, run off [CQ-Osage]; o-xle (oxl) - overtake, chase [Kaw]

 

owe something to someone

ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone ni-zhi a-ki-bniⁿ (ni kkibnį) - I, ni-zhi a-da-ki-tiⁿ (ni dakitt̨) - you

cf. ni-zhi (ni) - credit, a debt (both JOD); ni-zhi di-ze (ni diz) - buy on credit; wa-di-ze a-ki-niⁿ (wadze kinį) - owe something to someone; a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; a-ki-niⁿ de (kinį de) - take away something for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property; a-ki-niⁿ kde (kinį kd) - to take from someone and go back [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ kdi (kinį kdi) - take away something for someone and come back to this place [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own [JOD]

 

wa-di-ze a-ki-niⁿ (wadze kinį) - owe something to someone wa-di-ze a-ki-bniⁿ (wadze kibnį) - I, wa-di-ze a-da-ki-tiⁿ (wadze dakittį) - you

cf. wa-di-ze (wadze) - credit, debt; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive; a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep wa-di-ze di-ze (wadze diz) - to get goods on credit; ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ze (wa-th-e) - to seize, to default, or failure to catch up with ones debts; wa-thu-ze a-thiⁿ (wa-th-e a-thiⁿ) - indebted [FL-Osage]; we-u-ze (weuze) - debt, something owed, w + uuz [CQ-Osage]

 

owl

iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl

iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl, horned owl [MS]

i-kha (kha) - owl [OM]

cf. iⁿ-taⁿ (̨ttą), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - nighthawk, bullbat; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-ha (įtʰ̨ha) - owl skin with feathers on; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (įtʰ̨hi), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-he (įtʰ̨he) - owl fan

cf. iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl; iⁿ-taⁿ (̨ttą), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - nighthawk, bullbat; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-ha (įtʰ̨ha) - owl skin with feathers on

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ (-toⁿ) - the horned owl, the horned owl figures in the tribal war rites of the Osage as a symbol [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-ʰtoⁿ (ⁿ-ṭoⁿ) - the snowy/white owl [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-khaⁿ (ⁿkhaⁿ), i-khaⁿ (khaⁿ), iⁿ-thaⁿ (ⁿthaⁿ) - owl [Kaw]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-tchaⁿ-saⁿ (ⁿ-tcaⁿ-saⁿ) - a name given to the p͓anahu during the winter and spring when its feathers change from gray to white, most of the Omahas regard it as a distinct bird [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-chuⁿ suⁿ (iⁿchuⁿ uⁿ) - snowy owl [Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ-ska (-toⁿ-ka) - the snowy owl [FL-Osage]; i-khaⁿ ska (khaⁿ sk) - white horned owl [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ-zi-hi (-toⁿ-i-hi) - the yellow owl [FL-Osage]; i-khaⁿ zi-hi (khaⁿ zhi) - yellow owl, a small owl that stands about 8 [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-khaⁿ xo-je zhiⁿ-ga (khaⁿ xje zhⁿga), i-khaⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (khaⁿ zhⁿga) - small gray horned owl [Kaw]

 

wa-po-ka (wappka) - owl

wa-po-ka (uampŭka) - owl (hibou) [GI]

wa-po-ka (wappoka) - hoot owl [MS]

wa-po-ka (wappoka) - a bad owl [OM]

wa-pʰo-ka (wa˙p'˙Ga) - owl, gray owl [FS]

wa-po-ka (wappka), wa-poⁿ-ka (wapp̨ka) - owl, bogeyman [AG]

cf. wa-po-ka he taⁿ (wappka he tt̨) - great horned owl, Bubo virginianus; wa-po-ka wa-na-xe (wappka wanγe) - eared owl, Asio otus

Dhegiha: wa-pʰu-ga ha-ha-da (wapʰgahahda), wa-pʰu-ga ha-da (wapʰgahada) - short eared owl [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-pu-ga ha-ha-da (wapgahahada) - barred owl [Omaha]; wa-ʰpo-ga (wa-p̣-ga) - the gray owl, the gray owl is an Osage symbol of night, it is also a life symbol, it is a bird that succeeds in bringing its young safely to maturity [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ga ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-p̣-ga ṭoⁿ-ga) - the great gray owl [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ka (waʰpka) - owl [CQ-Osage]; wa-poⁿ-ga (wapⁿga) - small owl, not the screech owl; hoot owl; the small owl whose cry is, Oo! oo! oo! ooooo! [Kaw]

 

owl fan

iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (įtʰ̨hi), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-he (įtʰ̨he) - owl fan

iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-he (in taⁿ hē) - owl feather fan for brushing away evil in medicine tent in mescal (peyote) ceremony, from George Red Eagle  [MH]

iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-he (in taⁿ hē) - fan of (?) tail used to brush away evil in mescal ceremony, from Solomom Quapaw [MH]

cf. iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl; iⁿ-taⁿ (̨ttą), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - nighthawk, bullbat; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-ha (įtʰ̨ha) - owl skin with feathers on

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ (-toⁿ) - the horned owl, the horned owl figures in the tribal war rites of the Osage as a symbol [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-ʰtoⁿ (ⁿ-ṭoⁿ) - the snowy/white owl [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-khaⁿ (ⁿkhaⁿ), i-khaⁿ (khaⁿ), iⁿ-thaⁿ (ⁿthaⁿ) - owl [Kaw]

 

owl skin with feathers on

iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-ha (įtʰ̨ha) - owl skin with feathers on

cf. iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; iⁿ-taⁿ (̨ttą), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - nighthawk, bullbat; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (įtʰ̨hi), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ-he (įtʰ̨he) - owl fan

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ (-toⁿ) - the horned owl, the horned owl figures in the tribal war rites of the Osage as a symbol [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-ʰtoⁿ (ⁿ-ṭoⁿ) - the snowy/white owl [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-khaⁿ (ⁿkhaⁿ), i-khaⁿ (khaⁿ), iⁿ-thaⁿ (ⁿthaⁿ) - owl [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - skin, hide, bark [Omaha/Ponca]; ha (ha) - leather, skin, shell [Omaha]; ha (ha) - skin of any animal, the bark of a tree, shell of nuts, cuticle [FL-Osage]; ha (ha) - hide, skin of an animal, rind, fabric, cloth, surface [CQ-Osage]; ha (ha) - hide, skin [Kaw]

 

owl, eared owl

wa-po-ka wa-na-xe (wappka wanγe) - eared owl, Asio otus

cf. wa-po-ka (wappka) - owl; wa-na-xe (wanγe) - ghost, spirit; wa-po-ka he taⁿ (wappka he tt̨) - great horned owl, Bubo virginianus

Dhegiha: wa-pʰu-ga ha-ha-da (wapʰgahahda), wa-pʰu-ga ha-da (wapʰgahada) - short eared owl [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-pu-ga ha-ha-da (wapgahahada) - barred owl [Omaha]; wa-ʰpo-ga (wa-p̣-ga) - the gray owl, the gray owl is an Osage symbol of night, it is also a life symbol, it is a bird that succeeds in bringing its young safely to maturity [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ga ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-p̣-ga ṭoⁿ-ga) - the great gray owl [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ka (waʰpka) - owl [CQ-Osage]; wa-poⁿ-ga (wapⁿga) - small owl, not the screech owl; hoot owl; the small owl whose cry is, Oo! oo! oo! ooooo! [Kaw]

 

owl, great horned owl

wa-po-ka he taⁿ (wappka he tt̨) - great horned owl, Bubo virginianus

cf. wa-po-ka (wappka) - owl; he (he) - horn, antler; wa-po-ka wa-na-xe (wappka wanγe) - eared owl, Asio otus

Dhegiha: wa-pʰu-ga ha-ha-da (wapʰgahahda), wa-pʰu-ga ha-da (wapʰgahada) - short eared owl [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-pu-ga ha-ha-da (wapgahahada) - barred owl [Omaha]; wa-ʰpo-ga (wa-p̣-ga) - the gray owl, the gray owl is an Osage symbol of night, it is also a life symbol, it is a bird that succeeds in bringing its young safely to maturity [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ga ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-p̣-ga ṭoⁿ-ga) - the great gray owl [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ka (waʰpka) - owl [CQ-Osage]; wa-poⁿ-ga (wapⁿga) - small owl, not the screech owl; hoot owl; the small owl whose cry is, Oo! oo! oo! ooooo! [Kaw]

 

owl, screech owl

po-shiⁿ (ppį) - screech owl

po-shiⁿ (ppį) - screech owl [MS]

Dhegiha: ne-tha-zhi-be (nthazhbe) - screech owl [Omaha/Ponca]; ne-tha-zhi-be (ntha zhibe) - screech owl [Omaha]; hi-tha-da-da-xe (hi-th-da-da-xe) - screech owl, chatterer, to the Osage and the Omaha the screech owl is a bird of ill omen, when the cries of a screech owl are heard near a house the occupants hurry out to scare the bird away [FL-Osage]; hi-ya-da-da-ghe (hiydadghe), hi-ya-da-da-ghe hiⁿ-ga (hiydadghe hⁿga) - screech owl, lit., his teeth chatter [Kaw]

 

owner, to give back to the owner

ki-ki (kkʔi) - give back, return a-ki (kʔi) - I, da-ki (dkʔi) - you

cf. ki-ki (kikʔ) - give to ones own (kin); ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

ex: aⁿ-ki-ki (uk͓kʔi) - give back to me [JOD]

ex: maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: di-sha-i taⁿ za-ni di-sha-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ niⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki de-da-wi (diʔai tą zan diʔa tą wah̨nįk nįkʰ kikʔ dedwi) - they all failed, when they failed, they gave it back to the orphan [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-i (gi) - to give his back, to give back to him [JOD-Omaha]; gi-ki (g-ki) - to give back something to the owner, to restore [FL-Osage]; ki-ku (kkʔu) - give back [CQ-Osage]; gi-ku (gku) - give back someones property [Kaw]; gu-ku (gku), go-ku (gku) - give him his own, return his property [Kaw]

 

ox

te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. cow (bison + white) without balls

cf. te-ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison + white; shoⁿ-te (ǫt) - testicles, scrotum; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking

Dhegiha: tse-ska shoⁿ-je yiⁿ-ge (cesk shⁿje yⁿge) - an ox, lit. cow without testicles [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-de si thiⁿ-ge (shoⁿde i thiⁿge) - castrate [Omaha]; shoⁿ-dse thiⁿ-ge (shoⁿ-ds thiⁿ-ge), shoⁿ-dse-iⁿ-ge (shoⁿ-dse-iⁿ-ge) - gelding, castrate [FL-Osage] 

 

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