English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

O

 

onion

shiⁿ-ka (įk) - onion

shiⁿ-ka (įk) - onion [MS, OM]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-zhoⁿ-xe (moⁿzhoⁿxe) - onion [Omaha]; ma-zhaⁿ-xe (majⁿqĕ) - onion [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ-xe (moⁿ-zhⁿ-xe) - onion, garlic; garlic was plentiful on the praries, but until the Indians saw white men using it for food they did not use it because its odor was offensive  [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-zhaⁿ-xe (m̨ąąxe) - garlic, onion [CQ-Osage]; mo-zhoⁿ-xe (mzhoⁿxe), ma-zhaⁿ-xe (mzhaⁿxe) - onion, so called because the onions are buried in the ground mo-zhⁿ - earth, o - at that place, xe - bury [Kaw]

 

only

naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka naⁿ-xti wa-da-tʰe-we, i-ya (was ke nkkaka ną-xti wdatʰwe, iy) - the black bears only ate people, it is said (they say) [JOD)]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in future [JOD]

Dhegiha: hnaⁿ-xti (hnaⁿqti) - only [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: e-na-xti (enqti), e-na-xshti (enqcti) - only, that only, he only, it only, very alone, alone, that alone, he alone, it alone [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ-xji (enoⁿxji) - only, single [Omaha]; e-noⁿ-xtsi (e-nⁿ-xtsi) - he, she, or it alone [FL-Osage]

 

only five

sa-taⁿ-hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

cf. sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five; hi (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only; naⁿ-pa-hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba-hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two; da-bni-hi (dabnhi) - only three; just three; to-wa-hi (towhi) - four only, just four

 

only four

to-wa-hi (towhi) - four only, just four

cf. to-wa (twa) - four; hi (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only; naⁿ-pa-hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba-hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two; da-bni-hi (dabnhi) - only three; just three; sa-taⁿ hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

 

only I

wi-naⁿ (wną), wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - only I, I alone

wi-e naⁿ-hi (we nąh) - I only [JOD]

cf. wi (wi) - I, me pronoun; naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone; wi-e (we) - I, me; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; di-naⁿ (dną) - you only; oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną) - only we, only us

ex: wi-e naⁿ-hi (we nąh) - I-only [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-noⁿ (wnoⁿ) - only I [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-naⁿ (w-naⁿ), wi-hnaⁿ (w-hnaⁿ) - only I, I only, I alone [JOD-Omaha]; wi-naⁿ  (wną) - only I, it is only I [CQ-Osage]

 

only one

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one, exactly one, only one, just one

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one [MS, MR, FR, AG, OM]

miⁿ-xti (milchtih) - 1 [GI]

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one [FV]

cf. miⁿ (mį) - one, a, an, indefinite article; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (m̨xti knį) - eleven

ex: kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbnąttą́ m̨xti knį) - eleven, 10 when 1 sitting on, same as miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (mįxti aknį), the contracted and more common form

ex: kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-pa miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbdą n̨pa m̨xti aknį) - twenty one

ex: ma-ze-ska miⁿ-xti (mze ska m̨xti) - dollar, one dollar [MS, OM]

ex: de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime [MS, OM]

ex: miⁿ-xti o-shte (m̨xti ot) - just one remained [JOD]

ex: mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ (mįba mxtiną) - monthly

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: ni-ka miⁿ-xti wa-xo miⁿ-xti, naⁿ-pa o-ka-shte, i-ya (nkka m̨-xti waxʔ m̨-xti, n̨pa okt, iy) - one male and one female, two remained after the striking down of the others, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka miⁿ-xti bdi-ba-xa taⁿ a-wa-ki aⁿ-maⁿ (wąka m̨xti bdbax tą awkʔi ąm̨) - I usually give them just one bird, I twist its head off [JOD]

ex: wa-zho-kte miⁿ-xti wa-taⁿ-ka a-niⁿ (waokte m̨xti watt̨ka an̨) - so they dance, one leader, special leader [MS]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿ--qtci) - just one; one [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wiⁿ́-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

 

only that, him, her, it

e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, the aforementioned; naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this; naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]; naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance [MS]

ex: e-naⁿ (en̨) - she only [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there alone [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (ĕnⁿ mⁿnⁿ) - masculine name, Walks Alone, refers to the buffalo bull (tetka) [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - female personal name, The Only Precious, Difficult One [OM]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ tʰaⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tʰą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-hi (en̨h) - only [JOD]

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi e-naⁿ-hi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - they only [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-hnaⁿ (e-hnⁿ), e-naⁿ (-naⁿ), e-na (en) - that only, he only, only he, alone, that alone, it alone, he alone [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (-noⁿ) - that only, only one, alone, sole, exclusive, special [FL-Osage]; e-naⁿ (eną), e-na (ena), e-ʰna (ʰna) - he/she/it only, it is only he/she/it [CQ-Osage]

 

only this

de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this

cf. de (de) - this; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ, she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą, mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then, I only brought back this little girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-hnaⁿ (-hnaⁿ) - this only [JOD-Omaha]; the-noⁿ (th-noⁿ) - this much [FL-Osage]; ye-naⁿ (ynaⁿ), ye-noⁿ (ynoⁿ) - this many, this much, this number [Kaw]

 

only three

da-bni-hi (dabnhi) - only three; just three

cf. da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three; hi (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only; naⁿ-pa-hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba-hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two; to-wa-hi (towhi) - four only, just four; sa-taⁿ hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

 

only two

naⁿ-pa-hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba-hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; hi (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only; da-bni-hi (dabnhi) - only three; just three; to-wa-hi (towhi) - four only, just four; sa-taⁿ hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

 

only we

oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną), aⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ąkną) - only we, only us

cf. oⁿ-ko (ǫk), aⁿ-ko (ąk) - we, pronoun; naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone; wi-naⁿ (wną) - only I, I alone; wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - only I, I alone; di-naⁿ (dną) - you only

Dhegiha: aⁿgu-hnaⁿ (ag-hnaⁿ) - we alone [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ąkną), aⁿ-ko-na (ąkna) - we only, it is only we [CQ-Osage]

 

only you

di-naⁿ (dną) - you only

cf. di (di) - you pronoun; naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone; di-e (de) - you; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; wi-naⁿ (wną), wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨) - only I, I alone; oⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ǫkną), aⁿ-ko-naⁿ (ąkną) - only we, only us

Dhegiha: thi-hnaⁿ (-hnaⁿ) - thoe alone [JOD-Omaha]; thi-e noⁿ (thi-e noⁿ) - youself [FL-Osage]; thi-naⁿ (ną), thi-na (na) - you only, it is only you [CQ-Osage]

 

only, alone

naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

cf. naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]; de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

 

only, alone, all alone

naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only [JOD]

naⁿ-hi (nąh) - alone, all alone

cf. naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]; hi (hi) - very; with numerals: just, only; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]; de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: wa-sa tʰaⁿ xa-ke naⁿ-hi tʰaⁿ, i-ya (was tʰą γak nąh tʰą, iy) - he alone was crying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-hi-we (nąhwe) - only/plural [JOD]

ex: e-da-te naⁿ-hi a-kda-niⁿ o-shte (edtte nąh akdnį ot) - her father-only-keeping his own-remained [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-zha do-taⁿ naⁿ-hi de niⁿ (tti a dttą nąh de nį) - and then he was going straight all by himself [JOD]

ex: e-te e-hi, i-ye naⁿ-hi wa-xo kʰe (tte hi, iye nąh waxʔ kʰe) - well, but then ., is all the woman said [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰaⁿ-zi da-tʰe pa naⁿ (watʰ̨zi nąh datʰ ppa ną) - the only ate corn [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ, she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą, mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then, I only brought back this little girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ (naⁿ), hnaⁿ (hnⁿ) - only, alone [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - the [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), na (na) - only, just, soley, not anything else than, not anything but [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

 

only, alone, just

naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]

cf. naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]; de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

ex: ke naⁿ (ke ną) - the plural-only [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke naⁿ (mika i ke ną) - only the other girls  [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ (naⁿ), hnaⁿ (hnⁿ) - only, alone [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - the [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), na (na) - only, just, soley, not anything else than, not anything but [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

 

only, if only

taⁿ-he (tąh) - if only, irrealis modal, postposed to verb phrase

 

only, just

hi (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only

ex: naⁿ-pa-hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba-hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two

ex: da-bni-hi (dabnhi) - only three; just three

ex: to-wa-hi (towhi) - four only, just four

ex: sa-taⁿ hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

 

onto, drip onto an object

a-ka-che-chee (kačʔčʔe) - drip onto an object, drop by drop

cf. di-tse (ditsʔ) - drip liquid; di-tse-tse (ditsʔtsʔe) - drip periodically; o-tse (otsʔ) - drop of any liquid; o-tse-kʰi-de (otsʔkʰide) - cause to drip

Dhegiha: u-ga-e (uge) - to drip, to drop a small amount of liquid [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-e-e (gaee) - drip, dripping, dribble of water [Omaha]; a-ga-ʰtse (a-g-ṭse) - to drop, as water; to drop water on some object [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ke (okʔe) - drop something into [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-tse-tse (gatsetse) - cause to drip, fall in drops; sprinkle [Kaw]; a-yu-tse-tse (yutsetse) - drip from the hand, through fingers [Kaw]; o-tse-tse (otstse) - whatever is dripping, in reference to liquids [Kaw]

 

onto, put small objects onto something that serves as a platform

a-zhi (i) - put small scattered, inanimate objects onto something; put small objects onto something that serves as a platform a-a-zhi (ai) - I, a-da-zhi (dai) - you, oⁿ-ka-zhi-we (ǫkiwe) - we

cf. sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place; e-ti-zhi (etti) - put them on [JOD]; mi-zhi (mi) - put under belt, tuck in; o-zhi (o) - put collection into something, plant, fill; o-zhi (o) - filled [JOD]; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill something for someone; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill ones own; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; pi-ki-zhi (ppkii) - to put away ones own [JOD]; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]

ex: a-zhi (i) - put on her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again

Dhegiha: a-zhi (ji) - to spread a number of small objects on [JOD-Omaha]; a-zhi (a-zhi) - scattered upon, scattered about [FL-Osage]; a-zhu (-zhu) - to put a number of articles on a rack [FL-Osage]; a-zhu (u) - put out, set out (multiple items); place, array, display (multiple items) on top of something else [CQ-Osage]; a-zhu (zhu) - put many objects on a surface of any thing [Kaw]

 

onto, rub onto

bi-xtaⁿ (bixt̨) - rub onto pi-xtaⁿ (ppxtą) - I, shpi-xtaⁿ (pxtą) - you

cf. si-di i-bi-xtaⁿ (sid bixtą) - tattoo marks, rubbed in with gunpowder

 

ooze

po-xdo (pxdo), po-xto (pxto) - ooze, as water from the ground

Dhegiha: a-xthu-e (-xthu-e) - to exude, to ooze, as sap from a tree; dripping of sap; to discharge, as fluids [FL-Osage]; xto-e (xtoe) - be snotty, filled with mucus [CQ-Osage]; ʰpa-ʰli-xto-e (ʰpaʰlxtoe) - mucus, runny nose [CQ-Osage]

 

open

di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open bdi-shi-we (bdiwe) - I, ti-shi-we (ttiwe) - you

cf. i-di-shi-we (diwe) - key; o-naⁿ-taⁿ di-shi-we (on̨ttą diwe) - door knob; o-shi-we (owe) - slipped off of its own accord; mi-aⁿ-pa di-shi-we (mįpa diwe) - eclipse of the moon

Dhegiha: thi-shi-be (thishibe) - open, unlock, uncap, unhitch [Omaha]; thi-shi-be (thi-sh-be), thi-shu-be (thi-sh-be) - to open anything that has a lid or a door, to open a covered box, to open as a door, to open or unfasten a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-pe (iipe), thu-shu-pe (uupe) - open, unlock and open [CQ-Osage]; yu-shu-be (yushbe), yu-shu-we (yushwe) - open, as a door or a sacred bundle, unlock, gate [Kaw]

 

open a barrel

ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel a-shto-te (totte) - I, da-shto-te (dtotte) - you

cf. o-shto-te (ottte) - broken in, caved in; o-di-shto-te (odtotte) - to pull off; di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth; hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-te (hǫp kidittte) - to pull off someones moccasins; kdi-shto-te (kdittte) - take off, remove ones own; o-naⁿ-shto-te (on̨totte) - to kick off, remove by kicking [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-shnu-de (ga-c͓n-de) - to knock off or out; blow off; to fall out; to dislodge; to pull out; to moult; to pull up [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ-de thi-zhnu-de (sho ⁿd thizhnde) - to castrate, to pull out the contents of the scrotum [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-zhnu-de (wthizhnde) - tack drawer, something for pulling out [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-thi-zhnu-de (giɔnde) - he pulled out for him [JOD-Omaha]; gthi-zhnu-de (gɔnude) - pulled off his [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-zhnu-de (bazhnde) - push off, shove off, as ones coat [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-zhnu-de (thazhnde) - to pull out a splinter or small nail with the teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-stsu-dse (-noⁿ-stsu-dse) - kick off, as a shoe [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-be a-gthi-stsu-dse) - I pulled off my moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be tha-gthi-stsu-dse (hoⁿ-b tha-gthi-stsu-dse) - you pulled off your moccasins [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

open ones own

kdi-a-ze (kdize) - to open ones own [JOD]

cf. di-a-ze (dize) - pull open

ex: o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze (ppii kʰe kdize) - she opened the box (her own) [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-a-ze (thi--e) - to uncover, to remove the cover of a tent or the lid of a box [FL-Osage]; thu-a-ze (uuze) - open (e.g., a door, a window, the lid on a box) [CQ-Osage]

 

open the hand

naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand pa-kda (ppkda) - I, shpa-kda (pkda) - you

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank; di-ki-kda-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; ka-kda-hi (kakdhi) - stretched out; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: ba-gtha (bagth) - to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gtha-tha (gththa) - unbraided, unwoven, unraveled [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gtha-tha) - to unravel [FL-Osage]; la-ya (lay) - opened out, untied, uncoiled, undone
[Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-gtha (ga-gth) - untangle; to make ones hair become undone by accident [FL-Osage]; ga-la-ya (galya) - cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire; wind or other natural force to cause an object to fall and spread out (coming undone); comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids [Kaw]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿlya) - to come undone, as a moccasin string; straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - open out, spread out, as the hand; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-wa (thi-gth-wa) - to stretch a rope, to stretch [FL-Osage]; thu-la-wa (uulwa) - spread, spread out (e.g., a tarpaulin, a blanket, corn to be dried) [CQ-Osage]

 

open the mouth

i-ka (ka) - open the mouth i-da-ka (idka) - I, i-da-ka (daka) - you, oⁿ-naⁿ-ka-we (ǫn̨kawe) - we

cf. i-a-da (ida) - yawn, gape

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

 

open up

ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up a-wa-di-shta (wadita) - I, da-wa-di-shta (dwadita) - you

cf. wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be something; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand

Dhegiha: ga-wa-thi-shna (ga-w-i-c͓na) - to make visible by digging, as something buried under ground, snow, etc.; to blow off the sand or snow, causing what was covered to appear [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-shna (wa--c͓na) - to be visible, clear, plain [JOD-Omaha]; shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring it out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

open, break or burst open

ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open a-to-xi (ttoxi) - I, da-to-xi (dttoxi) - you

cf. ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching or pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure or weight; di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - to cause to burst by burning

Dhegiha: tu-shi (tshi) - to snap; to make a snapping sound [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-shi (tush) - shooting sound, the sound of a gun shooting [Omaha/Ponca]

 

open, lift off as a door or plank

di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank bdi-ki-kda (bdkkikda) - I, ti-ki-kda (ttkkikda) - you

cf. naⁿ-pe ba-kda (nąp bakd) - open the hand; bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; di-ki-kda-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; ka-kda-hi (kakdhi) - stretched out; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - open out, spread out, as the hand; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha-wa (thi-gth-wa) - to stretch a rope, to stretch [FL-Osage]; thu-la-wa (uulwa) - spread, spread out (e.g., a tarpaulin, a blanket, corn to be dried) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: gtha-tha (gththa) - unbraided, unwoven, unraveled [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gtha-tha) - to unravel [FL-Osage]; la-ya (lay) - opened out, untied, uncoiled, undone
[Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-gtha (bagth) - to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: ga-gtha (ga-gth) - untangle; to make ones hair become undone by accident [FL-Osage]; ga-la-ya (galya) - cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire; wind or other natural force to cause an object to fall and spread out (coming undone); comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids [Kaw]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿlya) - to come undone, as a moccasin string; straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick [Kaw]

 

open, pick or pull open

di-zha-ke (dike) - pick, pull open, peel bdi-zha-ke (bdake) - I, ti-zha-ke (ttake) - you

cf. ma-ze di-zha-ke (mze dike) - cock a gun

Dhegiha: thu-sha-ke (uuake) - pull out multiple pieces from or of something; husk, pick or pluck, peel; strip, denude [CQ-Osage]; yu-zha-ge (yuzhge) - split something or tear a larger hole, using the hands or by cutting with scissors [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zha-ge (zhge) - verb root, made larger, enlarged, as a hole [Omaha/Ponca]; zha-ge (zhge) - verb root, to be opened wider, as a hole or split
[Kaw]

 

open, pull open

di-a-ze (dize) - pull open bdi-a-ze (bdaze) - I, ti-a-ze (ttaze) - you

cf. kdi-a-ze (kdize) - to open ones own [JOD]

ex: di-a-ze (dize) - she pulled it aside [JOD]

ex: ti-zhe di-a-ze (tti dize) - she pulled the door flap aside, she opened the door [JOD]

ex: ki-di-a-ze (kdiaz) - he raised it for her, he pulled it off from her [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-hiⁿ-taⁿ ki-di-a-ze (m̨h̨ttą kidiaz) - he raised the blanket for her, he pulled the blanket off from her [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-a-ze (thi--e) - to uncover, to remove the cover of a tent or the lid of a box [FL-Osage]; thu-a-ze (uuze) - open (e.g., a door, a window, the lid on a box) [CQ-Osage]

 

open, pull open a box

di-xde (dixd) - pull open a box bdi-xe (bdxde) - I, ti-xde (ttxde) - you

cf. di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash; ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object; ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle; xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

Dhegiha: thi-xthe-xthe-ge (thi-xth-xthe-ge) - to shatter glass or other brittle substances with the hand [FL-Osage]; thu-le-ke (uulke) - cause to break, cause to shatter, break or shatter with the hands (e.g., a dish, an egg, a light bulb, a window) [CQ-Osage]; yu-xle-ge (yuxlge) - crack something like an egg [Kaw]

 

open, pull open a cache

o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache

cf. o-xe (xe) - cache; xe (xe) - bury; di-xto (dixt), di-xdo (dixd) - pull open, peel back; o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache; di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface; xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab; xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord

Dhegiha: u-xe (uxe) - cellar, grave, tomb [Omaha]; u-xe (-qĕ) - a pit for burying provisions; a cache [JOD-Omaha]; o-xe (xe) - grave, ditch, burial place [CQ-Osage]; o-xe (xe) - cache, grave in the ground, this is in contrast to burials above ground, such as on a scaffold or in a tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xe (qe) - to bury a corpse; to bury or cache food such as corn or dried meat [Omaha/Ponca]; xe (xe) - bury [Omaha]; xe (qe) - bury, cache, to bury a corpse, to bury or cache food such as corn or dried meat [Omaha/Ponca]; xe (xe) - to bury, to inter, to place in a grave [FLOsage]; xe (xe) - bury [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-xthu (thi-xth) - to exhume [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse), thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse) - to pull the bark off a tree, to peel with the bare hands; to peel, as the peeling of potato [FL-Osage]; thi-lo-tse  (iilce) - peel [CQ-Osage]; yu-xlo-je (yuxlje) - peel something; peel with the hand [Kaw]

 

open, pull open or apart

di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - pull open, pull apart bdi-zaⁿ (bdzą) - I, ti-zaⁿ (ttzą) - you

cf. ba-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (baz̨zą) - comb, run fingers through hair

 

open, pull open or out

di-sti-te (disttte) - pull out, pull open, to milk bdi-sti-te (bdstitte) - I, ti-sti-te (ttstitte) - you

cf. kdi-sti-te (kdstitte) - pull out ones own (bow, etc.); kdi-sti-sti-te (kdstisttte) - pull out ones own repeatedly, as arrows from a quiver; di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot

ex: ma-ze-ni di-sti-te (mazni disttte) - to milk an animal

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze-ni thi-zni-de (moⁿe ni thinide) - milk a cow [Omaha]; ba-ze-ni thi-stsu-e (ba--ni thi-stsu-e) - to milk [FL-Osage]; pa-ze-ni thi-stsu-e (paaznii iisce) - to milk [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gthi-sniⁿ-de (gsninde) - pulled his out [JOD-Omaha]; gthi-sniⁿ-sniⁿ-de (gsniⁿsnińde) - pulled out several off his own [JOD-Omaha]

 

open, pull open or peel back

di-xto (dixt), di-xdo (dixd)  - pull open, peel back bdi-xto (bdxto) - I, ti-xto (ttxto) - you

cf. o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache; o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache; di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface; xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab; xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord

Dhegiha: thi-xthu (thi-xth) - to exhume [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse), thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse) - to pull the bark off a tree, to peel with the bare hands; to peel, as the peeling of potato [FL-Osage]; thi-lo-tse  (iilce) - peel [CQ-Osage]; yu-xlo-je (yuxlje) - peel something; peel with the hand [Kaw]

 

open, push out into the open

bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open pi-naⁿ-pe (ppnąpe) - I, shpi-naⁿ-pe (pnąpe) - you

cf. ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

open, untie, loosen

di-shke (dik) - untie, loosen, open bdi-shke (bdke) - I, ti-shke (ttke) - you

Dhegiha: thi-shke (thishke) - untie [Omaha]; thi-shke (thi-shke) - to untie a knot [FL-Osage]; yu-shke (yushk) - untie something, as a knot [Kaw]

 

opening of the ear

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - inner ear, opening of the ear

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - ear, the ear hole [MS]

ni-xe-te (ni˙x˙tte) - ear [VG]

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - hearing

cf. ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient; ni-xi-te niⁿ-ke (niqtĕ nik͓), (naqtĕ nik͓) - masculine name, was father of mhita [JOD]; ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de (noⁿxide) - ear, the inner hearing organ [Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse (noⁿ-x-dse) - the internal ear, that which holds the hearing orifice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse (nąąγce) - ear, inner ear, act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je (nighje) - the external ear, sense of hearing [Kaw]

 

opening, an artificial opening

o-kdo (okd) - hole, an artificial opening

cf. o-da-kdo (odkdo) - gnaw holes in [JOD]; o-po-kto (opkto), o-po-xdo (opxdo) - shoot through something; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate

Dhegiha: ba-gthu (bagth) - to thrust at ice, in order to make a hole in it for horses, etc., to drink [Omaha/Ponca]

 

opening, natural opening

o-xo-te (oxʔtte), o-xo-de (oxʔde) - hole, natural opening

cf. na-xi-te o-xo-te (naxtte oxʔtte), na-xi-te o-xo-de (naxtte oxʔde) - meatus of the ear, the external opening; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-xo-te (ppąe oxʔtte) - nostril(s); o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

Dhegiha: u-u-de (ude) - hole [Omaha/Ponca]; u-u-te (uute) - hole [Omaha]; u-ʰku-dse (u-ḳ-dse) - a hole, perforation, orifice [FL-Osage]; o-ko-tse (okʔce), o-ko (okʔ) - hole [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-je (okje) - hole, aperture [Kaw]

 

opening, the external opening of the ear

na-xi-te o-xo-te (naxtte oxʔtte), na-xi-te o-xo-de (naxtte oxʔde) - meatus of the ear, the external opening

cf. ni-xi-te (niγtte) - inner ear, opening of the ear, hearing; o-xo-te (oxʔtte) - hole, natural opening; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-xo-te (ppąe oxʔtte) - nostril(s); o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de (noⁿxide) - ear, the inner hearing organ [Omaha]; na-xi-de (naxde) - ear [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse (noⁿ-x-dse) - the internal, that which holds the hearing orifice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse (nąąγce) - ear, inner ear, act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je (nighje) - the external ear, sense of hearing [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-u-de (ude) - hole [Omaha/Ponca]; u-u-te (uute) - hole [Omaha]; u-ʰku-dse (u-ḳ-dse) - a hole, perforation, orifice [FL-Osage]; o-ko-tse (okʔce), o-ko (okʔ) - hole [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-je (okje) - hole, aperture [Kaw]

 

opening, window opening or hole

ti o-haⁿ-ba-de o-zhi (tt oh̨bade o) - window opening or hole

cf. ti o-haⁿ-ba-de (tt oh̨bade) - window, what admits light; ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling, lodge; o-zhi (o) - put collection into something, plant, fill; o-zhi (o) - filled [JOD]; haⁿ-ba (hąb), hoⁿ-ba (hǫb) - light, the morning light; haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day; aⁿ-ba (̨ba) - morning, before daybreak; di-aⁿ-ba (dįba) - sheet lightning; o-ki-aⁿ-ba (kkiąba) - flash; taⁿ-ba (t̨ba), toⁿ-ba (t̨ba) - a light; hoⁿ-ba-de (h̨bade) - today

Dhegiha: u-hoⁿ-ba thiⁿ-ge (u-hⁿ-ba thiⁿ-ge) - in which the light of day enters not (refers to the black bears cave chosen for hibernating [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba (ⁿba) - day [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-ba (hⁿ-ba) - day [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-pa (h̨ąpa) - day [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ba (hⁿba) - day [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zhi (uzh) - to fill with water, grain, or any bulky substance, to fill with any quantity of small objects, to plant or sow grain, seed, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - a pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (uzhi) - luggage, packet, suitcase, load, gardener, container, contain [Omaha]; u-zhi (zhi) - cabinet, bin, baggage [Omaha]; u-zhi (-zhi) - to plant [FL-Osage]; u-zhi (u-zhi), o-zhi (-zhi) - a hollow receptacle [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - put stuff in, plant stuff, pocket, bottle, container, vessel [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone, put in, plant or sow, put in, receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder, for pourable dry or liquid substances [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]; o-zhu (ozh) - put or pour something into something, put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]

 

opinion, form an opinion

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan i-bdi-kdaⁿ (bdikdą) - I, i-ti-kdaⁿ (ttikdą) - you

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately

cf. di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - wise, be, have sense

ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

ex: wa-bdi-knaⁿ (wptik͓naⁿ́) - I am planning something [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ (tik͓naⁿ) - you plan [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ (tik͓naⁿ) - you decide [JOD]

ex: i-di-knaⁿ ni-ka (dik͓naⁿ́ nik) - they were deciding [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell, slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legend, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about, have on one's mind, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

opossum

siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum

siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum [MS]

siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum [JOD]

siⁿ-te shta (sinteschtah) - opossum (oppossum) [GI]

cf: siⁿ-te (s̨tte) - tail; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; xo-te (xtte) - gray

Dhegiha: siⁿ-e-sta (ⁿ-e-sta) - opossum, the opossum is used by the Osage for food [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-shta (s̨taa) - possum, lit., smooth squirrel [CQ-Osage]; siⁿ-je shta (sⁿje shta) - opossum, lit. smooth tail; hairless tail [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-xa-shtoⁿ (qashtoⁿ) - opossum, the laugher [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shtiⁿ-pa (iⁿshtⁿpa) - opossum [Omaha]

 

opposite

e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite

cf. e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel; e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; kaⁿ-ze (k̨ze), koⁿ-ze (k̨ze) - pretend, feign, to pretend by being equal to, to pretend by being similar to, to pretend by acting as, to pretend being like; ki-koⁿ-ze (kkǫze), ki-kaⁿ-ze (kkąze) - teach someone something, to teach by being similar to, to teach by acting as, to teach by doing as; wa-kaⁿ-ze (wak̨ze) - teacher, to act as them, to be similar to them, to be like them, to do as them; kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians; Kansa, Kanse, Kanze, Kanza, Kaw Tribe [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha gthiⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha gthiⁿ) - to sit side by side; to sit beside [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha moⁿ-thiⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha moⁿthiⁿ) - to walk side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha zhoⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha zhoⁿ) - to lie side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha shkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ- shkoⁿ) - simultaneous [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-toⁿ-ha (goⁿ- ḳi-toⁿ-ha) - equal in height [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- 'thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]; go-ze ei-ki-khaⁿ (gze kikhaⁿ) - equal length [Kaw]; go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

cf. e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite; e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; kaⁿ-ze (k̨ze), koⁿ-ze (k̨ze) - pretend, feign, to pretend by being equal to, to pretend by being similar to, to pretend by acting as, to pretend being like; ki-koⁿ-ze (kkǫze), ki-kaⁿ-ze (kkąze) - teach someone something, to teach by being similar to, to teach by acting as, to teach by doing as; wa-kaⁿ-ze (wak̨ze) - teacher, to act as them, to be similar to them, to be like them, to do as them; kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians; Kansa, Kanse, Kanze, Kanza, Kaw Tribe [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha gthiⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha gthiⁿ) - to sit side by side; to sit beside [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha moⁿ-thiⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha moⁿthiⁿ) - to walk side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha zhoⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha zhoⁿ) - to lie side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha shkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ- shkoⁿ) - simultaneous [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-toⁿ-ha (goⁿ- ḳi-toⁿ-ha) - equal in height [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- 'thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]; go-ze ei-ki-khaⁿ (gze kikhaⁿ) - equal length [Kaw]; go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

opposite side

ma-sa-ni (masni) - opposite side, on, across; a horizontal object, a road or river

ex: ma-sa-ni (masni) - on one side [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then-just as they started home-when-shoe-other one-on one side-pull ye it off from her-he was saying it to them-it is said-police [JOD]

ex: ma-sa-ni-taⁿ (masantą) - from the other side [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-sa-ni (masni) - the other side; on the other side; half of a pair; on one side of [JOD-Omaha]; ma-sa-ni-a-ta (masniaʇ) - on the other side of [JOD-Omaha]; ma-sa-ni-a-ta (masniaʇa), (masniat͓a)  - to the other side; to the other side of [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-soⁿ--ʰta (mⁿ-oⁿ--ṭa) - at the other side [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-soⁿ--ʰta (moⁿ-ⁿ-thiⁿ-ṭa) - on one side [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-siⁿ-ha (mąs̨ha) - to or on the other side, opposite [CQ-Osage]; ma-siⁿ (masⁿ), mo-siⁿ (mosⁿ) - other side of something, as a stream; in the direction of the other side; on one of two sides; half of something 
[Kaw]

 

opposite, directly opposite

o-niⁿ-hi (onįh) - directly opposite [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha shi-naⁿ o-niⁿ-hi a-ba-zo i-ya-we (n̨a in̨ onįh abaz iywe) - then-again-directly opposite-pointed-they say [JOD]

 

opposite, on the opposite side from, of a house, tent, etc.

i-ki-xa-ta (ikkixtta) - on the opposite side from, of a house, tent, etc.

cf. i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of something; ka-xa (kax) - to outdistance, surpass, excel, exceed, go ahead or beyond a person or place, outrun, outstrip, beat someone in a race, get the better of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction;

Dhegiha: ga-xa-ta gthiⁿ (gaqat͓a giⁿ) - to sit elsewhere or apart from the rest [JOD-Omaha]

ga-xa-ta xtshi (gaqʇaqtci) - at one side [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ta (ga-q-t͓a) - aside; back from the stream or fire; to go back or aside; to retire or withdraw [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ʰta (ga-x-ṭa) - at a distance away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-xa (gaq) - surpass, excel, exceed, go beyond [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xa (ga-q) - to excel, surpass, go ahead or beyond a person or place; said of two men or chiefs, one excels at first in activity or bravery, but by and by the inferior one outstrips him; said of two men running or walking, when one gets ahead; said of two brothers, when the younger excels the older (who is lazy, etc.) in activity [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa (ga-x) - to outdistance; to excel; outrun; outstrip [FL-Osage]; ka-xa (kaxa) - beat someone in a race [CQ-Osage]; ga-xa (gax) - surpass, excel, get the better of [Kaw]

 

opposite, on the opposite side of something

i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of something

cf. ka-xa (kax) - to outdistance, surpass, excel, exceed, go ahead or beyond a person or place, outrun, outstrip, beat someone in a race, get the better of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; i-ki-xa-ta (ikkixtta) - on the opposite side from, of a house, tent, etc.

ex: i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of the lodge [JOD]

ex: i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ (kaxtta kitta kn̨) on the opposite side of the lodge/in that place/sit thou [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-xa-ta gthiⁿ (gaqat͓a giⁿ) - to sit elsewhere or apart from the rest [JOD-Omaha]

ga-xa-ta xtshi (gaqʇaqtci) - at one side [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ta (ga-q-t͓a) - aside; back from the stream or fire; to go back or aside; to retire or withdraw [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa-ʰta (ga-x-ṭa) - at a distance away [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-xa (gaq) - surpass, excel, exceed, go beyond [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xa (ga-q) - to excel, surpass, go ahead or beyond a person or place; said of two men or chiefs, one excels at first in activity or bravery, but by and by the inferior one outstrips him; said of two men running or walking, when one gets ahead; said of two brothers, when the younger excels the older (who is lazy, etc.) in activity [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xa (ga-x) - to outdistance; to excel; outrun; outstrip [FL-Osage]; ka-xa (kaxa) - beat someone in a race [CQ-Osage]; ga-xa (gax) - surpass, excel, get the better of [Kaw]

 

oral stop

iⁿ (į) - period, oral stop [JOD]

iⁿ (į) - declarative particle, female speech, also male?

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e į, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - there he is, grandmother, said the rabbit [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ iⁿ (̨ į) - that will do [JOD]

 

orange, color

zi-hi (zhi) - orange, color; yellow, color

zi-hi (zhi) - orange, color [FR]

zi-hi (zhi) - yellow [LQ]

cf: zi-hi o-zhi (zhi i) - jug; zi (zi) - yellow; zhi-hi (ih) - reddish yellow

Dhegiha: zi-hi (-hi) - yellow; pallor, an unhealthy color; brown [FL-Osage]; zi-hi (zhi) - brown, yellow [CQ-Osage]; zi-hi (zhi) - yellow, light yellow; this is typical among native speakers of many, if not all, Siouan languages where shades of yellow, orange, and even brown, are concerned [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi) - color between red and yellow; a reddish orange [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (ji) - a color between red and yellow, perhaps an orange-red [JOD-Omaha]; zhi-se-zi e-goⁿ (zhsei egoⁿ) - orange [Omaha]

Dhegiha: zi (zi) - yellow [Omaha/Ponca]; zi (zi) - yellow [JOD-Omaha]; zi (i) - yellow [Omaha]; zi (i) - yellow [FL-Osage]; zi (z) - yellow [CQ-Osage]; zi (zi) - yellow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi-hi (zhi-hi) - reddish; pink [FL-Osage]; zhi-hi (hi) - brown [CQ-Osage]; zhi-hi (zhhi) - brown; orange
[Kaw]

 

orange, fruit

kaⁿ-te hi  (kk̨tte h) - orange, fruit

kaⁿ-te hi (kk̨tte h) - orange, fruit [MS]

koⁿ-te hi (kk̨tte h) - orange, fruit [OM]

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple [MS, OM]; kaⁿ-te si (kkątt si) - peach stone; kaⁿ-te si i-koⁿ (kuⁿ ta sī ī kuⁿ) - peach stone dice (different type), from Lizzie Cedar [MH]; kaⁿ-te zhi-ka (kkątte ka) - cherry; kaⁿ-te zhi-ka (kkątt ka) - plum; kaⁿ-te shta (kkątt ta) - plum; kaⁿ-te shta (konteh-schtah) - pear (poire) [GI]; kaⁿ-te waⁿ-poⁿ-shta (konteh uonponschtah) - plum, prune (prune) [GI]; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (kkątt tt̨ka) - peach, clingstone; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (konteh-tonkah) - peach (pche fruit) [GI]

Dhegiha: she zi-hi (she i hi) - orange fruit [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-dse zi (ḳⁿ-dse-i) - an orange [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-tse zi (ʰk̨ące zi) - orange (fruit) [CQ-Osage]; zi-hi taⁿ-ga (zhitⁿga) - orange, fruit [Kaw]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de (kⁿde) - a plum, plums [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-de (koⁿde) - plum [Omaha]; ʰko-dse (ḳⁿ-dse) - plums, any kind of fruit, as plums, peaches, apples, applied to fruit in general [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-tse (ʰk̨ące) - apple; fruit [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-je (kⁿje) - plum; fruit [Kaw]

 

order, command

a-ka-zhi (kai) - command, tell someone to do something a-a-ka-zhi (akai) - I, a-da-ka-zhi (dakai) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-zhi-we (̨kakiwe) - we

cf: a-kda-zhiⁿ (kdą) - to command ones own; to tell ones relation to do something [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

ex: wa-wi-ka-zhiⁿ (wwikaį) - I tell you to do something [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ (̨kaį) - he told me [JOD]

ex: a-ki-niⁿ kda-i taⁿ, a-ki-de aⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ naⁿ, a-ki-pʰi, a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kin̨ kdi tą, akde ̨kaį ną, akpʰi, kibnį akd) - they took it from him, he told me to go get it, I went there for it, I brought it back to him [JOD]

ex: kda-tʰe ki-ha-i naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka ki-te a-kda-zhiⁿ naⁿ (kdatʰ kiha ną wąka kktte kdą ną) - when they finished eating (their own food), she commanded him (her relation) to go shoot some birds [JOD]

ex: a-ka-zhiⁿ-wi (kaįw) - they ordered him [JOD]

ex: i-tʰi-ki i-ki-pʰe a-ka-zhiⁿ-wi (itʰki kipʰe kaįw) - they ordered the crier to invite the people [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ga-zhi (gaji) - to command; to tell him to do something [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-shi (agashi) - persuade, command [Omaha]; a-ga-zhi (-ga-zhi) - to command, dictate, or order [FL-Osage]; a-ka-zhi (kaai) - force over or through something, order, command, or force someone to do a task, make someone do something [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-zhiⁿ (gazhiⁿ) - order, tell someone to do something [Kaw]

 

order, put house in order

di-ki-ki-za (dikkkkiza) - clean up, put house in order bdi-ki-ki-za (bdkkikkza) - I, ti-ki-ki-za (ttkkikkza) - you

cf. di-ki-za (dikkza) - clean up, put things away

 

ordinal numeral marker

i () - ordinal numeral marker; i () + numeral stem

ex: i-naⁿ-pa (nąpa), i-naⁿ-paⁿ (nąp̨), i-naⁿ-baⁿ (nąb̨) - second, second time, again, i () + naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-naⁿ-pa tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (̨ik nąp͓ tʰą kkikn̨wi) - they put their second pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-naⁿ-pa niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą nąp͓ nį diʔ) - then the second one gave out [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: i-da-bniⁿ (dabn̨) - third, ordinal numeral, i () + da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three

ex: de i-da-bniⁿ (d dabnį) - this third one [JOD]

ex: e-ti shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-da-bniⁿ tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti ̨ik dabnį tʰą kkikn̨wi) - there, they put their third pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-da-bniⁿ di-sha (etttʰą dabnį diʔ) - then the third one gave out [JOD]

ex: i-da-bni-ka (dabnika) - third, fraction

ex: i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral, i () + to-wa (twa) - four

ex: naⁿ-piu-za i-to-wa tʰe (nąpza towa tʰe) - fourth finger [MS]

ex: e-ti i-to-wa tʰaⁿ o-do-ha-ke ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti towa tʰą odhake kkikn̨wi) - they put down the fourth, last born for him [JOD]

ex: i-to-wa-ka (towaka) - fourth, fraction

ex: i-sa-taⁿ (sattą) - fifth, ordinal numeral, i () + sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five

ex: i-sa-taⁿ-ka (sattąka) - fifth, fraction

ex: i-sha-pe (appe) - sixth, i () + sha-pe (app) - six

ex: i-pe-naⁿ-pa (ppen̨pa) - seventh, i () + pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven

ex: i-pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eighth, i () + pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight

ex: i-shaⁿ-ka (ąkk) - ninth, i () + shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine

ex: i-kde-bdaⁿ (kdebd̨) - tenth, i () + kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten

ex: i-kde-bdaⁿ-naⁿ-pa (kdebdąn̨pa) - twentieth, , i () + kde-bdaⁿ-naⁿ-pa (kdebdąn̨pa) - twenty

 

original Quapaw towns

When the Kwapa were discovered by the French they dwelt in five villages, described by the early chroniclers as the Imaha (Imaham, Imahao), Capaha, Toriman, Tonginga (Doginga, Topinga), and Southois (Atotchasi, Ossouteouez). Three of these village names are known to all the tribe: 1, o-ka-xpa-xti (uʞqpa-qti), Real Kwapa; 2, ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (t-u--di-maⁿ) (Toriman), t-u-a-d maⁿ (of Mrs Stafford); 3, o-zo ti-o-we (u-z-ti--wĕ) (Southois, etc). The fourth was taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (taⁿ́waⁿ jʞa), Small village. Judging from analogy and the fact that the fifth village, i-ma-ha (imaha), was the farthest up Arkansas river, that village name must have meant, as did the term Omaha, the upstream people. [JOD-Quapaw]

 

i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

i-ma-ha (măha) - a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwp, who lived with the Ḱdohad́cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwp were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwp who lived upstream (maha) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. [J. Mooney-Caddo]

ma-ha (maha) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other; i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on the other side

Dhegiha: u-ma-ha (u-m-ha), u-maⁿ-haⁿ (umaⁿ-haⁿ) - those that went upstream, the Omahas, a tribe of the egiha group of the Siouan Family, see Paka, Wajaje, K͓aⁿze, and Ugaqpa [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (u-mⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for Omaha [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-haⁿ (om̨hą) - Omaha (tribe or tribal member) [CQ-Osage]; o-ma-ha (omha), oⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (oⁿmⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha tribe or people, those who went upstream, so called because they (as well as the Ponca, Osage, and Kansa) went up stream when they left the Quapaw [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages; spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.

ga-pa (gappa) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (u-g-qpa) - those who went downstream, the Kwapas or Quapaws, they were known to the Illinois tribes as the Arkansas or Alkansas [JOD-Omaha]; u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, the down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom

o-zo ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: u-zu (u-) - lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - 1) wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber; oz tⁿga ji ay gⁿyabe che a, pahⁿle ch. They first desired to go to an extensive bottom land, abounding in timber, where Junction City now stands; 2) hilltops JOD uses this term in reference to the noⁿnⁿbahu t, a kind of grape or berry found on the oz (hill tops) but the term more commonly refers to lowlands, as in sense 1. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zu u-gthoⁿ (-u-u-gthoⁿ) - lowland forest in the bend of a stream [FL-Osage]; u-zu i-ha zhiⁿ-ga (u--i-ha zhiⁿ-ga) - at one time there was a large bend in the stream, which was nearly closed; the meaning of the name is small mouth; it is near the u-zu (u-u) or woods, what is known as Bartlesville, Kans. This was the site of the fourth camp in the fisrt trail, also of the third trail [FL-Osage]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber, the name of a village, literally, they live in the timber. JOD identifies this as a proper town, that is, it refers to a specific village, also called cexliⁿ village on a highland or lowland level, destitute of trees. The second name seems to contradict the first name but MRs comments might be intended to clarify: There used to be three branches, like Pawhuska, and some of them lived in that and some of them lived along the creek, Gaxoliⁿ and Zaⁿjliⁿ. Those people lived in the [_?_], why they used to live north of Kaw there, at Washunga there. And those others, they used to [_?_] on top of the hill. And I think they called Waxga-oliⁿ where the cactus grows. Zaⁿjliⁿ is where they live in the timber, zaⁿj. And Gax-oliⁿ, they used to live along the edge of [creek?] over there at Washunga. [Kaw]

 

taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - small town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

cf. taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: taⁿ-waⁿ (tⁿ-waⁿ) - a cluster of lodges, a camp, village, or Indian town [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town; cluster of lodges, Indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - a town or city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (ttodimą) - one of the five original Quapaw villages mentioned in early French narratives, often spelled Toriman or Thoriman by the French

 

ornament, silver breast ornament

ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament (gorget)

mazska kast wan̨ʔį (ma zas ka ga sta wŭ nŭ i) - silver breast ornament, from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

cf. ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, a dollar; ma-ze (mze) - iron, metal; ska (ska) - white; ma-ze we-ka-sta (maz wkast) - hammer, with which to strike metal; ka-sta (kast) - strike, fall on; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief; naⁿ-iⁿ (nąʔ̨) - wear around the neck

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze ska (moⁿeka) - money, silver, currency [Omaha]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzĕskă) - money [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-ze ska (mⁿ-e-ka) - white metal, money [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska(m̨zeska) - money, coin, silver, literally white metal [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzeska) - money, esp. silver money [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-ga-sta (w-ga-ta) - a hammer, with which to pound [FL-Osage]; ga-sta (ga-t) - to beat or hammer metal [FL-Osage]; ka-shta (kaat) - hammer, hit or beat, flatten by striking [CQ-Osage]; ga-sta (gast) - hammer flat, beat until flat and long, as when hammering metal or other malleable material [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

 

orphan

wa-haⁿ ni-ke (wah̨nik) - orphan

cf: wa-haⁿ (wah̨) - relation, family [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ wa-xpa-ni-de haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eką n̨ wah̨nįk tʰą waxpnid h̨eą tʰą ną) - then-so-the moving-orphan-the standing-treated her miserably-a great deal-the standing-past sign [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he de (wah̨nįk tʰą iąh d) - the orphan went afterward (behind them, after them) [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: di-sha-i taⁿ za-ni di-sha-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ niⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki de-da-wi (diʔai tą zan diʔa tą wah̨nįk nįkʰ kikʔ dedwi) - they all failed, when they failed, they gave it back to the orphan [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-hoⁿ thiⁿ-ge (wahⁿthiⁿge) - orphan, without relatives [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-hoⁿ thiⁿ-ge (wahoⁿ thiⁿge) - orphan [Omaha]; wa-haⁿ thiⁿ-ge (wa-hⁿ-i-ge) - one without relations; an orphan; to be an orphan [JOD-Omaha]; wa-hoⁿ-iⁿ-ge (wa-hⁿ-iⁿ-ge) - an orphan, literally, no mother, the word was used among the Indians when speaking of a child with neither father nor mother [FL-Osage]; wa-hoⁿ-iⁿ-ke (wah̨įke) - be an orphan [CQ-Osage]; wa-hoⁿ yiⁿ-ge (wahⁿyiⁿge) - orphan, one who has lost one or both parents [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-wa-hoⁿ-e (uwhoⁿe) - kinship system [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-hoⁿ-iⁿ (wah̨į) - address folks with respect, address as friends and relatives [CQ-Osage]; o-wa-haⁿ (wahⁿ) - kin, relation [Kaw]; o-wa-haⁿ-e (wahⁿe) - kinship, relationship [Kaw]

 

Osage Tribe

wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage

wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage Indians [MS]

wa-zha-zhe (wajje) - Kwapa name for the Osage Indians [JOD]

wa-sha-zhi (wai)  - Osage Indians [OM)]

Dhegiha: wa-zha-zhe (wazhazhe) - an Osage, the Osage Tribe, the Osages, they belong with the K͓aⁿze, Ugaqpa, Umaⁿhaⁿ, and Paka, to the egiha group of the Siouan Family [Omaha]; wa-zha-zhe (wa-zh-zhe) - name of the Osage Tribe, corrupted by the French to Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage [CQ-Osage]; wa-zha-zhe (wazhzhe) - Osage tribe or people [Kaw]

 

other side of, on the other side of

ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side, toward the sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; gu-da (g-da) - facing the opposite direction [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi (uci) - at the front [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-shi-xti (uciqti) - at the very front [JOD-Omaha]; o-tho-shi (oi) - in the way, in front of and blocking [CQ-Osage]; ti u-taⁿ-noⁿ u-thu-shi (tiu taⁿnoⁿ uthushi) - front yard [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ (u-th-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ) - to walk in advance of a group of people [FL-Osage]; o-tho-shi maⁿ-thiⁿ (oimąį) - block someones way or be in the way while moving [CQ-Osage]; go-da o-yo-shi-ha (gda oyshiha) - to the other side, to the other side of [Kaw]; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (kmaⁿhaⁿtha yoshiha) - to the windward of something [Kaw]; a-la-xle-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (laxletha yoshiha) - to the leeward of something, on the leeward side [Kaw]; do-do-yo-shi-ha (ddoyoshiha) - adverb of motion [Kaw]

 

other side, around by the other side

e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side, toward the sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi (uci) - at the front [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-shi-xti (uciqti) - at the very front [JOD-Omaha]; o-tho-shi (oi) - in the way, in front of and blocking [CQ-Osage]; ti u-taⁿ-noⁿ u-thu-shi (tiu taⁿnoⁿ uthushi) - front yard [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ (u-th-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ) - to walk in advance of a group of people [FL-Osage]; o-tho-shi maⁿ-thiⁿ (oimąį) - block someones way or be in the way while moving [CQ-Osage]; go-da o-yo-shi-ha (gda oyshiha) - to the other side, to the other side of [Kaw]; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (kmaⁿhaⁿtha yoshiha) - to the windward of something [Kaw]; a-la-xle-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (laxletha yoshiha) - to the leeward of something, on the leeward side [Kaw]; do-do-yo-shi-ha (ddoyoshiha) - adverb of motion [Kaw]

 

other side, at or on the other side

i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on the other side

cf. i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

ex: i-maⁿ-ta o-pʰe naⁿ de, i-ke (im̨tta opʰ ną d, ik) - paddle on the other side, he said to him [JOD]

ex: i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - other one [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then-just as they started home-when-shoe-other one-on one side-pull ye it off from her-he was saying it to them-it is said-police [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ma-ta (ⁿ-ma-ta) - to the other side, in the other direction [JOD-Omaha]; a-maⁿ-ʰta (mąʰta), e-maⁿ-ʰta (mąʰta) - that way, that direction, lit., toward the other [CQ-Osage]; a-moⁿ-ta (moⁿta), o-moⁿ-ta (moⁿta) - to the other side [Kaw]

 

other side, from the other side

  ma-sa-ni-taⁿ (masantą) - from the other side [JOD]

cf. ma-sa-ni (masni) - opposite side, on, across; a horizontal object, a road or river; ma-sa-ni (masni) - on one side [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-sa-ni (masni) - the other side; on the other side; half of a pair; on one side of [JOD-Omaha]; ma-sa-ni-a-ta (masniaʇ) - on the other side of [JOD-Omaha]; ma-sa-ni-a-ta (masniaʇa), (masniat͓a)  - to the other side; to the other side of [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-soⁿ--ʰta (mⁿ-oⁿ--ṭa) - at the other side [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-soⁿ--ʰta (moⁿ-ⁿ-thiⁿ-ṭa) - on one side [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-siⁿ-ha (mąs̨ha) - to or on the other side, opposite [CQ-Osage]; ma-siⁿ (masⁿ), mo-siⁿ (mosⁿ) - other side of something, as a stream; in the direction of the other side; on one of two sides; half of something 
[Kaw]

 

other way, face the other

e-ta de-de o-ka-xde (ett dde okxde) - face the other way e-ta de-de o-a-ka-xde (ett dde akxde) - I, e-ta-de-de o-da-ka-xde (ett dde dakxde) - you

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ta de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards; e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction, etta+okaxde, facing forward given the meaning of etto; a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream, with his back to the wind; a-shi-to-ka-xde (attokxde) - face the back of the lodge; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; ko-to-ka-xde (ktokxde) - facing the other way; ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind; to-to-ka-xde (ttokxde) - facing this way; o-i-naⁿ-be o-ka-xde (inąb okxde) - facing uphill

Dhegiha: e-ʰta u-ga-xthe (e-ṭ u-ga-xthe) - facing in that direction [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ga-xthe (-ga-qe) - to be facing a certain direction [JOD-Omaha]; o-ka-le (okle) - face a certain direction [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xle (ogxle) - facing, face a direction [Kaw]

 

ko-to-ka-xde (ktokxde) - facing the other way

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards; ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there; ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there; ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder; ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of; ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder; ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

Dhegiha: gu-du-ga-xthe (gdugaqe) - facing the other way [JOD-Omaha]; ko-ta o-ka-la (kota okla) - face the other way! [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; gu-da (g-da) - facing the opposite direction [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ga-xthe (-ga-qe) - to be facing a certain direction [JOD-Omaha]; o-ka-le (okle) - face a certain direction [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xle (ogxle) - facing, face a direction [Kaw]

 

other, crossing each other

a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other

ex: o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - cross roads

cf. a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc; a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish, male personal name [MS, JOD]; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream

Dhegiha: a-ki-thi-te (-ki--t͓e) - to cross each other, crossing each other, to lie across one another; to cross a stream together [JOD-Omaha]; a-kʰi-thi-te u-ga-doⁿ (kʰithte ugdoⁿ) - to nail on crosswise, to crucify [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-thi-tse (-ḳi-thi-tse) - that which lies across [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-te (it͓) - to cross, as a stream [JOD-Omaha]; ni u-thi-ʰtse (ni--thi-ṭse) - to cross a ford [FL-Osage]; yu-tse (yuc) - cross, as a stream [Kaw]

 

other, different, another

e-zhi (i) - another, different, other

cf. e (e) - that, it, he, she, it; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation; e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different; di-e-zhi (die) - change, alter, abrogate

ex: e-zhi ke (i ke) - the others [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke (mika i ke) - the other girls [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there [JOD]

ex: e-zhi pa i p) - the others [JOD]

ex: e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi (ęke i) - step-daughter, his daughter+other [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: e-zhi shi-naⁿ kdi-ze (i in̨ kdiz) - again, he took a different one, another of his own [JOD]

ex: o-zhoⁿ-ke e-zhi o-pa (ǫke i op) - she followed along a different road [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: e-zhi o-do-hi pa-xe te (i odhi ppγe tte) - Ill come up with (make) something different [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-zhi (-zhi) - not that kind [FL-Osage]; e-zhi (ezhi) - odd, unusual, of a different kind, inappropriate, unsuitable, different, other, otherwise, strange [CQ-Osage]; e-zhi (zhi) - other, different, another [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-zhi (azhi) - strange [Omaha]; a-ji (ji) - different, another [JOD-Omaha]

 

other, first on one side then on the other

i-ki-di-toⁿ (ikdittǫ) - first on one side then on the other [JOD]

cf. i-ki-di-toⁿ-toⁿ (kkidttǫttǫ) - back and forth, interchange

ex: shi-naⁿ-naⁿ i-ki-di-toⁿ o-pʰe niⁿ i-ya-we (in̨ną ikdittǫ opʰ nį iywe) - again and again, first on one side then on the other, he was paddling, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi i-ki-thi toⁿ-ga (thi ikithi toⁿga) - reverse, convert [Omaha]; i-ʰki-thi-ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-ḳi-thi-ṭoⁿ-ga) - to interchange, permutation [FL-Osage]

 

other, help each other

o-ki-kaⁿ (kkikk̨) - help each other o-a-ki-kaⁿ (okkikk̨) - I, o-da-ki-kaⁿ (odkkikk̨) - you

cf. o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone; wi-ki-kaⁿ ta (wi-gi-kun-t) - I will help you [LH]

Dhegiha: u-ki-kaⁿ-i (u-k-kaⁿ-i) - to help one another [JOD-Omaha]; o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help another who is not a relative [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-gi-kaⁿ (u-g-kaⁿ) - to help his own [JOD-Omaha]; o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help ones own relative [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-wi-kaⁿ (uwkaⁿ) - I help you [JOD-Omaha]; o-wi-ʰkaⁿ (owʰką) - I help you [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-wa-gi-koⁿ (wagikⁿ) - aid, help, to help them or us, to aid more than one person [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-i-goⁿ (wigoⁿ) - help [Omaha]; u-i-kaⁿ (u--k͓aⁿ) - to aid or help another, not a relation [JOD-Omaha]; u-wi-ʰkoⁿ (u-w-ḳoⁿ) - to help; to give aid in times of distress [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-wa-koⁿ (wakoⁿ) - help, to help them [Omaha/Ponca]; o-wa-kaⁿ (wakaⁿ) - help, to help someone [Kaw]

 

other, lets seesaw each other

aⁿ-ki-pi-za-za (ąkkppizaza) - lets seesaw each other, lets play seesaw

cf. ki-pi-za-za (kkppizza) - to play seesaw

 

other, some kind or other

ta-taⁿ hi-te (tttą hitt) - some kind or other [JOD]

cf. ta-taⁿ (tttą), ta-toⁿ (tttǫ) - what, something; hi-te (hitt), i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever; ta-taⁿ za-ni (tttą zan) - everything, what/something + all; ta-taⁿ-zhi (tttą) - nothing, what/something + not

ex: wa-hiⁿ-ska ta-taⁿ hi-te ho-taⁿ iⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi te a (wah̨ska tttą hitt httą ̨ wikbnį akd tte ) - I will bring you (my own daughter) back some kind of really good calico cloth [JOD]

Dhegiha: da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what?; something, a thing [JOD-Omaha]; da-doⁿ (ddoⁿ) - what, interrogation; whatever things [FL-Osage]; ta-taⁿ (tatą) - what (interrogative), thing(s), anything, something, what, whatever (indefinite or relative), what kind, what sort, what type, what class of (interrogative), do what (interrogative) [CQ-Osage]; da-daⁿ (ddaⁿ) - what, something, thing, things [Kaw]

 

other, somehow or other

haⁿ-ni-tʰe (h̨nitʰ), haⁿ-niⁿ hi-te (h̨nį htte) - somehow or other [JOD]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ (hąn̨ttą), hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ (hǫn̨ttą) - why or how; hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe hǫnįkʰ), hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you?; haⁿ-ni-haⁿ (h̨nih̨) - why [JOD]; hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?; hoⁿ-tʰe (h̨tʰe), hoⁿ-te (h̨tte) - why, how

ex: haⁿ-ni-tʰe ka-ta-te ka-xdo de (h̨nitʰ katttte kaxd d) - somehow or other he got through (pierced) the mud/mire [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ hi-te shi-naⁿ de (h̨nį htte ną d) - somehow he went again [JOD]

 

other, talk to each other

o-ki-ki-e (okkkkie) - talk to each other or oneself o-a-ki-ki-e (okkikkie) - I, o-da-ki-ki-e (odkkikkie) - you

cf. o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okk), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one; court a girl; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation; i-e (e), i-ye (ye) - word; talk, speak; i-e (i), i-ye (iy), e (e) - say; quotative, non-hearsay evidential

Dhegiha: u-gi-ki-e (u-g-ki-e) - to talk with his own relation or friend [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-ʰki-e (u-g-ḳi-e) - to speak to a friend or some relation [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ʰki-e (okʰkie) - speak to ones own relative, family, or friends [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-ki-ye (ogkiye) - talk with ones own (kinsman or friend) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ki-e (ukkie) - to talk together [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-ki-ye (ukikiye) - court, converse, conversation [Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-ḳi-e) - to speak to one another, to hold a conversation, talk together or to each other, a dialogue [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-ʰki-e (oʰkʰkie) - talk with one another, converse with each other (usually more than two people) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ye (ukiye) - talk to, talk with, date, court [Omaha]; u-ki-e (-ki-e) - to speak or talk with them; to pay a friendly visit to another tribe [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-e (u-ki-) - to speak or talk with; to court a woman [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-e) - to speak or talk to one another; to hold an interview [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-e (oʰke), o-ʰki (oʰk) - call on the phone, converse with, interview, talk with or to; get together, meeting of a group of people to converse [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-e (oke) - speak to, talk to; to court a woman [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-e (e) - to speak, word [JOD-Omaha]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word language [Omaha]; i-e (-e) - a language; to speak [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk, speak a language, word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speak; speech, language, sentence [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - say [FL-Osage]; e (e) - say; ask or tell someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; e (e) - say [Kaw]

 

other, the other

i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other

cf. i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on other side; i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ma (aⁿma), a-ma (ma) - the other one [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-moⁿ (̨-moⁿ) - one of two things [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-maⁿ (̨mą), a-ma (ma), a-maⁿ (am̨) - other (one of two); one of several; one to be chosen among many [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-moⁿ (oⁿmⁿ), aⁿ-ma (ⁿma) - the other one; which one
[Kaw]

 

other, they are married to each other

ki-ki-knaⁿ-ka-we (kikknakwe) - they married each other [JOD]

cf. ki-knoⁿ-ke (kiknǫk) - marriage, married, marry; knoⁿ-ke (knǫk) - marry a woman; miⁿ-knaⁿ (m̨kną) - marry, take a wife, the male term for to marry; wa-knoⁿ-ke (wknǫk) - marry more than one wife

Dhegiha: gi-gthoⁿ (gigthoⁿ) - marriage [Omaha]; ʰki-gthoⁿ-ge (ḳi-gthⁿ-ge) - intermarrying into another tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰki-laⁿ-ke (ʰkil̨ke) - marry each other [CQ-Osage]; ki-laⁿ-ge (klaⁿge) - pair off as mates; marry, intermarry [Kaw]; ki-loⁿ-ge (kloⁿge), ki-laⁿ-ge (klaⁿge) - marry (each other) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - to take a wife; to take someone as ones wife [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ-ge (gthoⁿ-ge) - to take a wife, to marry, refers to a man [FL-Osage]; laⁿ-ke (l̨ke) - marry a woman, take as a wife [CQ-Osage]; laⁿ-ge (lⁿge), loⁿ-ge (lⁿge) - marry, take a wife (male term) [Kaw]

 

other, wider at one end than the other

o-zi-ka (ozkka) - wider at one end than other

cf. ba-zi-ka (bazkka) - sharpen; bi-zi-ka (bizkka) - sharpen by rubbing, hone; da-zi-ka (dazkka) - chew to a point, sharpen; di-zi-ka (dizkka) - sharpen; ki-di-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen something for someone; ka-zi-ka (kazkka) - sharpen, as with an axe, whittle; kdi-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen pulling toward oneself; pa-zi-ka (pzikka) - whittle to a point; ta-zi-ka (tzikka) - burn to a point

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka poi hi zi-ka a-ta-ha (thi ttąk ppi h zkka ttaha) - the large extremely sharp/pointed thorn [JOD]

 

others, smaller than the others

a-ma-ka-ke (makak) - smaller than the others [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-spe a-ma-ka-ke a-ki-te naⁿ kde, i-ya-we (̨spe makak kitte n̨ kd, iywe) - ax-smaller than the others-she took hers in her arm-when-she started homeward-they say [JOD]

 

Otoe-Missouria Tribe

wa-zho-xda (wajqdă) - Kwapa name for the Missouria and perhaps the Otoe Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zho-xtha (wa-zh-xtha) - Oto Tribe [FL-Osage]; wa-zho-la (wala) - Oto tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-zho-xla (wazhxla), wa-sho-xla (washxla) - Otoe tribe or people [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ta-da (wathtada) - Oto Tribe [Omaha]; wa-do-ta-ta (wadtata), wa-do-ta-daⁿ (wadtadaⁿ) - Otoe tribe or people, according to MR, this is a synonym for washxla [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni u-ta-chi (nitachi) - Missouri Tribe [Omaha]; ni-sho-je (nishje) - Missouri tribe or people, the Missouri people call themselves Nita Ci, but the early French travelers called them Emissourites, Missourites, and Missouris [Kaw]

 

otter

to-shnaⁿ-ke (ton̨ke) - otter

to-shnaⁿ-ke (ton̨ke) - otter [MS]

to-shnaⁿ-ke (tuge-nōkĭēh) - otter (loutre) [GI]

Dhegiha: nu-zhnoⁿ (nuzhnⁿ) - otter [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-zhnoⁿ (nuzhnoⁿ) - otter [Omaha]; ʰto-hnoⁿ-ge (ṭo-hnⁿ-ge) - otter, the Osage and the Omaha used the otter skin for making ornamental caps, quivers, collars, etc., the Omahas used the skin of the otter when it was fresh for divining powers, the fur traders dealt extensively with these two tribes for otter skins [FL-Osage]; ʰto-naⁿ-ke (ʰtnąke), ʰto-ʰnaⁿ-ke (ʰtoʰn̨ke) - otter, otter skin, otter hide (e.g., in Osage dance clothes) [CQ-Osage]; do-hnaⁿ-ge (dohnⁿge), to-hnaⁿ-ge (thnaⁿge) - otter [Kaw]

 

otter skin

to-shnaⁿ-ke-ha (ton̨keha) - otter skin

cf. to-shnaⁿ-ke (ton̨ke) - otter; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell;

Dhegiha: nu-zhnoⁿ-ha (nuzhnⁿha) - otter  skin [Omaha/Ponca]; do-haⁿ-ge-xu-ha (dohⁿgexuha) - otter skin [Kaw]

 

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