English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

I

 

in-law, a mans brother-in-law

i-ta-haⁿ (itthą), e-ta-haⁿ (eThą) - brother-in-law wi-ta-haⁿ (witthą) - my, di-ta-haⁿ (ditthą) - your

Dhegiha: i-ta-hoⁿ (ithoⁿ) - brother-in-law [Omaha]; ta-haⁿ-ha (tahⁿha) - brother-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰta-hoⁿ (i-ṭa-hoⁿ) - brother-in-law, his sisters husband, his fathers sister or his wifes brother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtaⁿ-ha (iʰt̨ha) - his brother-in-law (his wifes brother or his sisters husband, his/her fathers sisters husband (his/her paternal uncle by marriage, more precise than English his/her uncle) [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) - mans brother-in-law, his wifes brother, his wifes sisters, aunts, or nieces husband (lists all the men who could be called i-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) in the traditional Kaw kinship system [Kaw]

 

      ► wi-ta-haⁿ (witthą) - my

Dhegiha: wi-ta-haⁿ (withaⁿ) - my brother-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtaⁿ-ha (wiʰt̨ha), ʰtaⁿ-ha (ʰt̨ha) - my sisters husband, my wifes brother, used only when speaker is male, more precise than my-brother-in-law; my fathers sisters husband, my paternal uncle by marriage, used when speaker is male or female, more precise than English my uncle [CQ-Osage]

 

      ► di-ta-haⁿ (ditthą) - your

Dhegiha: thi-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) - your brother-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰtaⁿ-ha (iʰt̨ha) - your wifes brother, your sisters husband, used only when speaking to a man, more precise than English brother-in-law; your fathers sisters husband, your paternal uncle by marriage, used when speaking to a man or a woman [CQ-Osage]

 

i-ta-haⁿ-de (itthąde) - to have as brother-in-law

Dhegiha: i-ta-haⁿ-ye (ithaⁿye) - to have for a brother- in-law, to call someone i-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) [Kaw]

 

in-law, a mans daughter-in-law

i-ti-ni (ittni), e-ti-ni (eTni) - a mans daughter-in-law, etc. wi-ti-ni (wittni) - my, di-ti-ni (dittni) - your

Dhegiha: i-ti-ni (itni) - daughter-in-law [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-ni (i-ṭs-ni) - daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-ni (iʰcni) - his/her daughter-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-ni (icni) - his/her daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-ni (wittni) - my daughter-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-ti-ni (witni) - my daughter-in-law [Omaha]; wi-ʰtsi-ni (wi-ṭs-ni) - my daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsi-ni (wiʰcni) - my daughter-in-law (used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-ni (wicni) - my daughter-in-law, JOD gives the masculine form of address, wi-tsi-ni e (wicni ), followed by, (if ever used). He is referring to the fact that a man traditionally avoided speaking directly to his daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

di-ti-ni (dittni) - your daughter-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsi-ni (thi-ṭs-ni) - your daughter-in-law [FL-Osage]; thi-tsi-ni (iʰcni) - your daughter-in-law, your sons wife [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-ni (yicni) - your daughter-in-law [Kaw]

 

i-ti-ni-de (ittnide) - to have as a daughter-in-law i-ti-ni-a-de (ittniade) - I, i-ti-ni-da-de (ittnidade) - you

Dhegiha: i-tsi-ni-ye (icniye) - to have as a daughter-in- law, to call someone i-tsi-ni (icni) [Kaw]

 

in-law, a mans sister-in-law

i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka), i-ho-ka (ih̨ka), e-haⁿ-ka (eh̨ka), e-hoⁿ-ka (eh̨ka) - a mans sister-in-law wi-haⁿ-ka (wih̨ka) - my, di-haⁿ-ka (dih̨ka) - your

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ-ga (-hoⁿ-ga) - sister-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka) - his brothers wife or his wifes sister, more precise than English his sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ-ga (ihⁿga) - sister-in-law, mans wifes sister, therefore his potential wife [Kaw]

 

wi-haⁿ-ka (wih̨ka) - my sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-haⁿ-ke (wih̨ka) - my wifes sister, my brothers wife, used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; wi-hoⁿ-ga (wihⁿga) - my sister-in-law, my wifes sister [Kaw]

 

di-haⁿ-ka (dih̨ka) - your sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-haⁿ-ga (ihaga) - your wifes sister [JOD-Omaha]; thi-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka) - your sister-in-law, used only when speaking to a man, referring to his brothers wife or his wifes sister [CQ-Osage]; yi-hoⁿ-ga (yihⁿga) - your sister-in-law, your wifes sister [Kaw]

 

i-haⁿ-ka-de (ih̨kade), e-haⁿ-ka-de (eh̨kade) - to have as a sister-in-law i-haⁿ-ka-a-de (ih̨kaade) - I, i-haⁿ-ka-da-de (ih̨kadade) - you

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ-ga-ye (ihⁿgaye) - to have for a sister-in- law, to call someone i-hoⁿ-ga (ihⁿga) [Kaw]

 

in-law,  mans son-in-law

i-toⁿ-te (itt̨tte), e-toⁿ-te (eT̨Te) - a mans son-in-law wi-i-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my, di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your

Dhegiha: taⁿ-de-ha (tandha) - son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰtoⁿ-de (i-ṭⁿ-de), i-ʰtoⁿ-dse (i-ṭⁿ-dse) - son-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtoⁿ-tse (iʰt̨ce) - his/her son-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-toⁿ-je (itⁿje) - son-in-law, his or her son-in-law [Kaw]

           

      ► wi-toⁿ-te (witt̨tte) - my son-in-law

      ► wi-to-ta (witttta) - son-in-law, my son-in-law [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-de (witⁿde) - my son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-dse (wi ṭⁿ-dse) - my son-in-law [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (wiʰt̨ce) - my son-in-law, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-toⁿ-je (witⁿje) - my son-in-law [Kaw]

 

 

      ► di-i-toⁿ-te (ditt̨tte) - your son-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tse (iʰt̨ce) - your son-in-law, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-toⁿ-je (yitⁿje) - your son-in-law [Kaw]

                       

i-toⁿ-te-de (itt̨ttede), e-toⁿ-te-de (eT̨Tede) - to have as a son-in-law i-toⁿ-te-a-de (itt̨tteade) - I, i-toⁿ-te-da-de (itt̨ttedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-de-tha-i (itndea) - has him for his son-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-toⁿ-je-ye (itⁿjeye) - to have for a son-in-law, to call someone i-toⁿ-je (itⁿje) [Kaw]

 

in-law, a womans brother-in-law, her husbands brother

i-shi-ke (ikʔe) - a womans husbands brother wi-shi-ke (wiikʔ) - my, di-shi-ke (diikʔ) - your

Dhegiha: i-shi-e (ishie) - brother-in-law [Omaha]; i-shi-ke (i-sh-ke) - a womans brother-in-law, her sisters husband or her husbands brother [FL-Osage]; i-shi-ke (ikʔe) - her sisters husband, her husbands brother, or her husbands sisters husband (more precise than English her brother-in-law) [CQ-Osage]; i-shi-ke (ishke) - brother-in-law, woman's husband's brother, this term means (or meant at that) her potential husband, referring to the practice of a man taking his brother's widow as a wife [Kaw]

 

wi-shi-ke (wiikʔ) - my brother-in-law, a womans brother-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-shi-ke (wikʔe) - my sisters husband, my husbands brother, used when speaker is female, more precise than English my brother-in-law [CQ-Osage]

 

di-shi-ke (diikʔ) - your brother-in-law, a womans brother-in-law

       ► Dhegiha: thi-shi-ke (ikʔe) - your brother-in-law, used when speaking to a woman about her sisters husband, her husbands brother, or her husbands sisters husband [CQ-Osage]

 

i-shi-ke-de (ikʔede), e-shi-ke-de (ekʔede)  - she, to have as a brother-in-law i-shi-ke-a-de (ikʔeade) - I, i-shi-ke-da-de (ikʔedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-shi-ke-ye (ishk'eye) - call someone brother- in-law or potential husband [Kaw]

 

in-law, a womans sister-in-law

i-shi-kʰaⁿ (ikʰą), e-shi-kaⁿ (eKą) - a womans sister-in-law wi-shi-kʰaⁿ (wikʰą) - my, di-shi-kaⁿ (dikʰą) - your

Dhegiha: i-shi-koⁿ (ishkoⁿ) - sister-in-law, her sister-in-law, her husbands sister ot hr brothers wife [Omaha/Ponca]; i-shi-kaⁿ (ickaⁿ) - her sister-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-shi-ʰkoⁿ (i-sh-ḳoⁿ) - a womans sister-in-law, her brothers wife or her husbands sister [FL-Osage]; i-shi-kxaⁿ (ikxą) - her husbands sister, her husbands brothers wife, her brothers wife, more precise than English her sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; shi-kxaⁿ (kxą) - her brothers wife, her husbands sister, her husbands brothers wife, more precise than English her sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-shi-kʰaⁿ (ishkhaⁿ) - womans sister-in-law, womans husbands sister [Kaw]

 

wi-shi-kʰaⁿ (wikʰą) - my sister-in-law, a womans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-si-kxa (wi-s-kxą) - my sister-in-law, used only when speaker is female [CQ-Osage]; shi-kxaⁿ (kxą) - my brothers wife, my husbands sister, my usbands brothers wife, more precise than English my sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]

 

di-shi-kaⁿ (dikʰą) - your sister-in-law, a womans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-shi-kaⁿ (ickaⁿ) - your sister-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; thi-shi-kxaⁿ (ikxą) - your sister-in-law, used when speaking to a woman about her brothers wife, her husbands sister, or her husbands brothers wife [CQ-Osage]; thi-si-kxaⁿ (iskxą) - your sister-in-law, probably used only when speaking to a woman about her sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; shi-kxaⁿ thi-ʰta (kxą ʰta) - your brothers wife, your husbands sister, your husband;s brothers wife, used when addressee is female, more precise than your sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]

 

i-shi-kʰaⁿ-de (ikʰąde) - she to have as sister-in-law i-shi-kʰaⁿ-a-de (ikʰąad) - I, i-shi-kʰaⁿ-da-de (ikʰądad) - you

Dhegiha: i-shi-kaⁿ-the (i-c-k͓aⁿ-ĕ) - to have another female for her i-shi-kaⁿ (icik͓aⁿ) [ JOD-Omaha]; i-shi-kʰaⁿ-ye (ishkhaⁿye) - woman to call someone sister-in-law; woman to have someone as a sister-in-law [Kaw]

 

in-law, mother-in-law, grandmother

i-kaⁿ (ikk̨), e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - his or her grandmother, mother-in-law iⁿ-kaⁿ (įkk̨) - my, di-kaⁿ (dikk̨) - your

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-yi i-ya e-kaⁿ-ki-dai (tti tt nah iy iy ek̨kdai) - you do not go there, said his grandmother, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi kʰi-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-shoⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe o-ki-te de koⁿ-da i-ya (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti ttįhi kʰi-i iy mat̨ke, ę ek̨ nįkʰe oktte d kǫd iy) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say), then his grandmother wanted to go look for him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ a-kda de (ek̨ akd d) - he went after (his own) his grandmother [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-koⁿ (ikⁿ) - grandmother, mother-in-law, someones grandmother or mother-in-law, his or her grandmother or mother-in-law [Omaha/Ponca]; i-kaⁿ (ik̨) - his grandmother [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰko (i-ḳ) - grandmother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰkoⁿ (i-ḳⁿ) - a mans mother-in-law, his wifes mother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰko (iiʰk) - my/his/her grandmother, fathers mother or mothers mother [CQ-Osage]; i-ko (ik), i-koⁿ (ikⁿ) - his or her grandmother [Kaw]

 

iⁿ-kaⁿ (įkk̨) - my grandmother

iⁿ-koⁿ (įkkǫ́) - my grandmother [MS, MR, OM]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da i-ye naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨ dtteke was niⁿkʰe tta tti d iy ną ąn̨hos naⁿ) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to the black bear, your uncle [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e te-a-de e-de (įkk-e tʔede ed) - O grandmother, I have really killed him! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e į iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - there he is, grandmother, said the rabbit [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi iⁿ-kaⁿ, i-ke (awkda atʰ įkk̨, ik) - he said to her, I have come for you (my own), grandmother [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-kaⁿ (wk͓aⁿ) - my grandmother, mother-in-law [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-kaⁿ (wik̨) - my grandmother [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰko-e (-ḳo-e) - my grandmother, used when addressing her [FL-Osage]; i-ʰko (iiʰk) - my/his/her grandmother, fathers mother or mothers mother [CQ-Osage]

i-koⁿ (ikoⁿ), wi-koⁿ (wikⁿ) - my grandmother, grandmothers mother, great grandmother [Kaw]; i-koⁿ-e (koⁿ-e) - Oh Grandmother! [Kaw]; wi-ko e (wko ) - my grandmother (male speaking) [Kaw]; wi-ko a (wko ) - my grandmother (female speaking) [Kaw]

 

di-kaⁿ (dikk̨) - your grandmother

Dhegiha: thi-kaⁿ (k͓aⁿ) - your grandmother, mother-in-law [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-kaⁿ (thik̨) - your grandmother [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰko (thi-ḳ) - your grandmother [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰko (iiʰk) - your grandmother, paternal or maternal, your mother-in-law used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]

 

i-kaⁿ-de (ikk̨de), e-kaⁿ-de (ek̨de) - to have as a grandmother i-kaⁿ-a-de (ikk̨ade) - I, i-kaⁿ-da-de (ikk̨dade) - you

Dhegiha: i-kⁿ-the (i-k͓aⁿ́-ĕ) - to have one for a grandmother or mother-in-law [Omaha/Ponca]; i-koⁿ-ye (ikⁿye) - to have as a grandmother [Kaw]

 

incessantly

i-ki-he (ikih) - always, incessantly

Dhegiha: i-gi-ha (-gi-ha) - always, ever, often, frequent, incessant [FL-Osage]; i-ki-ha (kiha) - always, repeatedly [CQ-Osage]; i-gi-ha (giha) - always, ever, without stopping [Kaw]

 

incisors

hi pe-shte (hi ppte) - teeth, incisors

hi pe-shte-te (hi pptette) - incisors

                        cf. hi (hi) - tooth, teeth

Dhegiha: hi pʰe-shte (hi pʰshte) - incisors, front teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi shpe-shte (hi shpshte) - the four front teeth [Omaha/Ponca]

 

incommunicative

maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative

maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff

cf: maⁿ-shi (mą) - heaven, upper, upward, high, above; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit. talks on high; mo-sho-ki (mokki) - church, contraction of maⁿ-shi (mą) - upward, heaven + o-ki (ok) - speak, talk with one [AG]; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain; maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid; di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high

ex: da-wa-ta maⁿ-shi (dawatt mą) - pray for up (you pray to heaven) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki niⁿ-kʰe (mą́i okk nįkʰ) - pray (he/she is praying) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wak̨ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakk̨tta mą nįkʰ) - Father (God) is up in heaven [MS]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

ex: jhi-e mo-sho-ki da-kde (ǰe mokki dakd) - did you go to church yesterday? (you go to church?) [AG]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

 

incorrectly, speak incorrectly

      ► da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly bda-shi-ke (bdike) - I, ta-shi-ke (ttike) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; shi-ke (ke) - bad; kda-shi-ke (kdike) - speak ill of ones own

Dhegiha: tha-pi-a-zhi (thpazhi) - speak badly, mispronounce, speak evil, to speak a language incorrectly, to pronounce a word or phrase badly, to speak evil of someone [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ʰpi-zhi (tha-p̣-zhi) - execrate [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ʰpi-zhi (wa-th-p̣i-zhi) - to disparage, to speak evil of one [FL-Osage]

 

indeed, I indeed

mi-xti (mxti) - myself, I indeed, emphatic pronoun

cf. xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wi-xti (wqti) - I myself [JOD-Omaha]; zhu-ga wi-xti (zhga wqti) - I myself [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-e-xtsi (wexci) - I myself, more emphatic form of wi-e (we) [CQ-Osage]

 

indeed, really

e-de (ed), de (d) - really, indeed

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke tʰi ed mat̨ke tʰi ed keywe n̨ iy) - the rabbit has come!, the rabbit has come! they (black bears) said to one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

                   ► ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e te-a-de e-de (įkk-e tʔede ed) - O grandmother, I have really killed him [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-ba de aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨ba de ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am really tired of it [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe aⁿ-di-xe niⁿ e-de, wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (dotʰe ądxe nį ed, wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, the man eater is sure enough chasing me, she said to him [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are surely telling the truth [JOD]

Dhegiha: the (the) - an oral stop used by females [FL-Osage]; the (e) - indeed; sentence-final declarative marker, oral period; probably once limited to female speech but now optionally used by males as well [CQ-Osage]; e-ye (ey) - female emphatic particle, indeed [Kaw]

 

indefinite pronoun

hi-te (hitt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever

i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun marker, -ever

ex: ha-ki e-hi-te (hak ehitt) - anywhere, where+soever [JOD]

                        ex: ha-ke hi-te (hak hitt), ha-ke i-te (hak itt) - wherever, anywhere

                        ex: ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big

                        ex: ha-naⁿ-hi-de (han̨hide) - however many/much

                        ex: ha-na-hi-te (hanhitte) - a few, however many

                        ex: ha-na-i-te (han itte) - however much or many

 

indefinite article, a, one

miⁿ (mį) - a, indefinite article, one

            cf. miⁿ-naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one

                    ► ex: miⁿ te (mit-eh) - a death (mort un) [GI]

ex: ta-bde de tʰe taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ tʰi (tbde de tʰ tą nkkaka mį tʰ) - when you went hunting a person came [JOD]

   ► ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka miⁿ kʰe te-da-de (wąka mį kʰ tʔdade) - you kill a bird [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here?, he said to him [JOD]

                   ► ex: miⁿ-ti (m̨tti) - at one, to one, at a, to a [JOD]

ex: ti miⁿ-ti a-kʰi naⁿ (tti m̨tti akʰ ną) - when I arrive back to a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kde miⁿ ti kʰi (ttkde m̨-tti kʰ) - he arrived at one lodge [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ (nkkaka m̨) - one person [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ miⁿ kdi-ze naⁿ (ną mį kdiz ną) - he took one (of his own) again [JOD]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one [Omaha]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one, single, a, indefinite article [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ (wį) - a, an, one, single, any one, one of a group [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - one, a, an; indefinite article [Kaw]

 

index finger

we-da-ba-zo (wdabzo) - index or forefinger, pointer

we-da-ba-zo (wdabzo) - index or forefinger [MS]

we-da-ba-zo (wdabzo) - forefinger [JOD]

            cf. a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at; i-ha we-da-ba-zo (ha wdabzo) - point with the lips

ex: maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-ha we-da-ba-zo maⁿ-shi a-ba-zo (m̨i nįkʰ t̨ha wdabzo mąi bazo) - because she was sitting above (them), the index finger pointed up [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be hi we-a-ba-zu (noⁿbe hi weabau) - index finger [Omaha]; we-a-ba-zu (w-a-ba-u) - the index or first finger, a pointer [FL-Osage]; sha-ge we-a-ba-zu (sh-ge we-a-ba-u) - the index finger, the first finger used to point with [FL-Osage]; wa-a-pa-zo (wapazo) - index finger, pointing finger, literally with

 

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