English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

I

 

in a bag, put in a bag

o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ (iha okną) - to put into a bag, sack, or pocket o-zhi-ha o-a-knaⁿ (iha okną) - I, o-zhi-ha o-da-knaⁿ (iha odkną) - you, o-zhi-ha oⁿ-ko-knaⁿ-we (iha ǫkknąwe) - we

cf. o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set, put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put upon a surface; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own object on a surface; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put or beneath; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gthoⁿ (u-gthoⁿ) - to put in, putting in, a place of deposit, to inclose, in which to put, to thrust in, to put a stake in a pile when gambling [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (ool̨) - put into, place inside of, pour round items into, add items to cooking, pour liquid into [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ (olⁿ) - put a sitting/inanimate object into something, to put a curvilinear (wide rather than tall) object such as paper, a book, a bandage, cloth, etc. within a receptacle [Kaw]

 

o-zhi-ha o-ki-zhi (iha kii) - to fill ones own bag, sack, or pocket o-zhi-ha o-a-ki-zhi (iha oakii) - I, o-zhi-ha o-da-ki-zhi (iha odakii) - you

cf. o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill ones own; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill something for someone; o-zhi (o) - put into something, plant, fill; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; a-zhi (i) - put small sin objs onto something that serves as a platform; mi-zhi (mi) - put under belt, tuck in; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box

ex: ki-ba-hi a-taⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe o-ki-zhi maⁿ-niⁿ niⁿ i-ya (kibhi attą wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kii mąn̨ nį iy) - she walked around picking up the pieces, filling her sewing bag, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: to-wa o-zhi-ha zhi-ka o-wa-ki-zhi (twa iha ka waki) - he put the four of them (his own) into the little bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gi-zhi (ugzhi) - to put into ones own [Omaha/Ponca]; o-gi-zhu (ogzhu), o-gu-zhu (ogzhu) - put ones own into, as into a bag [Kaw]

 

o-zhi-ha o-koⁿ-he (iha kʔǫhe) - to put a long object into a bag, sack, or pocket o-zhi-ha o-a-koⁿ-he (iha okʔǫh) - I, o-zhi-ha o-da-koⁿ-he (iha odkʔǫh) - you, o-zhi-ha oⁿ-ko-koⁿ-ha-we (iha ǫkkʔǫhawe) - we

cf. o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile; here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile;

ex: ki-ha naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-koⁿ-he (kih ną iha kʔǫhe) - when he finished, he put it (the long object) in the bag [JOD]

ex: o-zhi-ha zhi-ka o-koⁿ-he (iha ka kʔǫh) - he put it (the long object) in the small bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-hiⁿ u-oⁿ-he (mhiⁿ uⁿhe) - knife sheath [Ponca/Omaha]; u-ʰkoⁿ-he (u-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) -  insert, put into, sheathe, place into, put, implies lifting up and putting in [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-he (okhe), o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

 

o-zhi-ha ki-pi ka-xe (iha kppi kγe) - to fill a bag, sack, or pocket o-zhi-ha ki-pi pa-xe (iha kppi ppγe) - I, o-zhi-ha ki-pi shka-xe (iha kppi kγe) - you, o-zhi-ha ki-pi ka-xe (iha kppi kγe) - he/she, o-zhi-ha ki-pi aⁿ-ka-xa-we (iha kppi ąkγawe) - we

cf. o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket; ki-pi ka-xe (kppi kγe) - to fill [JOD]; o-ki-pi (okppi) - be full, as a container; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; naⁿ-pe o-ki-pi (nąp kkipp) - handful; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard; pi-ki-zhi (ppkkii) - to put away ones own [JOD]; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; pi-ki-zhi (ppkii) - to put away ones own [JOD]; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii), zhoⁿ-pi-zhi (ǫppi) - wooden box, truck; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]

ex: o-zhi-ha ki-pi ka-xe (iha kppi kγe) - he filled the bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gi-ʰpi ga-xe (u-g-pi ga-xe) - to fill [FL-Osage]; u-ki-pi (kipi) - full, brim full [Omaha]; u-gi-pi (u-g-p̣i) - full, will contain no more, replete [FL-Osage]; o-kiu-ʰpiu (okʰp), o-ku-ʰpi (kuʰpi) - full of, have a fullness of, be filled with, be full, be flooded, full amount, houseful [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-pi (ogpi) - be full, filled, full as a box, barrel, kettle, etc., filled as a lodge or room with people, full as with worms, maggots, etc. [Kaw]

 

in a bundle, fold or wrap in a bundle

o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle o-bdi-shiⁿ (obdį) - I, o-ti-shiⁿ (ottį) - you, oⁿ-ko-di-shiⁿ-we (ǫkdiįwe) - we

cf. niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers; wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron; we-do-di-shiⁿ (wdodį) - pie; pa-hi o-di-shiⁿ, pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (pah-hŭ-odischih) - bonnet (bonnet) [GI]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shiⁿ (uthshiⁿ) - cover, to cover, as with a garment [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shiⁿ (u-th-shiⁿ) - to wrap anything up [FL-Osage]; o-thi-shi (oi) - wrap, cover for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc. [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-shiⁿ (yishiⁿ) - to bundle up in a cloth or blanket [Kaw]; o-yu-shiⁿ (oyshiⁿ) - bundle something up, cover something by surrounding it [Kaw]

 

in a circle, in circles

bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle pi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ppkkowįγe) - I, shpi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (pkkowįγe) - you

cf. ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: bi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (bi-k͓-wiⁿ-xe) - to turn an object around in a horizontal plane by pressing, leaning, or blowing against [JOD-Omaha]; ba-ʰki-wiⁿ-xe (ba-ḳ-wiⁿ-xe) - to make an object turn by pushing, to make a horse turn by driving [FL-Osage]; ʰkoiⁿ-xe (ʰkįγe) - turn, turn around [CQ-Osage]; bo-ko-mi-ghe (bkomghe) - blow around in a circle, spin by blowing; to make revolve by blowing on with the mouth, as a paper wheel (pinwheel) or windmill [Kaw]; bu-ko-mi-ghe (bukmighe) - turn around in ones seat [Kaw]

 

bi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bikkwįγγa) - push or blow something in circle pi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (ppkkowįγγa) - I, shpi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (pkkowįγγa) - you

cf. ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bakkwįγγa) - push round and round; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, "fire makes him/her/it go around and around"

 

ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around   

    cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round

 

o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle o-bdi-shaⁿ (obdą) - I, o-ti-shaⁿ (ottą) - you, oⁿ-ko-di-shaⁿ-we (ǫkdįwe) - we

cf. o-di-shaⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (odą mąn̨) - stay close by

ex: i-di-shaⁿ (idį) - he went around it [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - around, around someone or something, moving circularly like the hands of a clock, go around, circle, to go around in a circle, to go around something  [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - circle, encircle, surround, cycle, round [Omaha]; u-thi-shoⁿ (u-th-shoⁿ) - marching around in a circle [FL-Osage]

 

            o-do-ba-ki-xe (odbakxe) - around in a circle, within it [JOD]

cf. o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - going all around in a circle, go around something at a distance

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti o-do-ba-gi-xe di-xe naⁿ i-ya-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke di-ze i-ya-we (kįttą tti odbakxe dix ną iywe, mat̨ke diz iywe) - then he chased the rabbit around in a circle within the lodge, and caught the rabbit, they say [JOD]

 

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - going all around in a circle [JOD]

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - go around something at a distance o-a-ka-ki-xe (okakixe) - I, o-da-ka-ki-xe (odkakixe) - you

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - to circumambulate at a distance [JOD]

cf. o-do-ba-ki-xe (odbakxe) - around in a circle, within it [JOD]; ho we-ki-xe (ho wkixe) - fish net

ex: o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - they walked all around in a large circle [JOD]

ex: o-shta-tʰi, o-shta wa-sha-ke, o-shta taⁿ o-ka-ki-xe hi a-taⁿ-we ki-we (ottʰi, ot waʔak, ot tą okkixe h tąwe kwe) - they arrived at the large smooth place forming a circle to watch him [JOD]

ex: o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - he was going around it [JOD]

ex: o-ka-ki-xe hi o-shkaⁿ-shkaⁿ hi o-a-zha aⁿ-maⁿ (okkixe h osk̨ską h a ąm̨) - I usually dance, going around in the middle [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd  ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - when the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-xe (-gi-xe) - all around a place [FL-Osage]; a-thi-gi-xe (-thi-gi-xe) - a circle [FL-Osage]; a-ki-xe (kiɣe) - move around, be all around, encircle a place or a person, be around especially in a bothersome way, pass by, circle around as in a tipi meeting go clear around, avoiding the center, around, skirting the edge of something [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-ghe (gighe) - all around, a roll of something [Kaw]; o-gi-ghe (gighe) - surround something [Kaw]; yu-gi-ghe (yugghe) - tie something up by tying all around the object [Kaw]; ba-gi-ghe (bgighe) - cut around with a knife [Kaw]

 

in a curvilinear clump, trees in a curvilinear clump

zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (ą ott̨ op), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; o-shpe (op) - fragment; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (ą ott̨ oppa), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

Dhegiha: u-shpe (u-shp) - a fragment [FL-Osage]; o-shpe zhiⁿ (opį) - fragment, small piece, chip, bit, bits and baubles, ones small things, change left over after a purchase, coins, small change, pennies [CQ-Osage]; yu-shpe (yushp) - pinch off, pull off a piece [Kaw]

 

in a group, in a heap, in a pile

sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather sto-a-de (stade) - I, sto-da-de (stdade) - you

cf. ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place pl/an objects in one place; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather

Dhegiha: sto-the shu (to-th shu) - gathered them together [FL-Osage]

 

sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped

 

sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group

cf. sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped; naⁿ-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

 

sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group

cf. a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

 

sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps sto-a-de a-knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stode aknąkną) - I, sto-da-de da-knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stdade daknąkną) - you

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put

 

sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap sto-de-a-zhi (stoda) - I, sto-de-da-zhi (stodda) - you, sto-de-oⁿ-zhi-we (stodǫwe) - we

cf. sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place

 

a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up

 

a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile; here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile

cf. a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something

Dhegiha: a-ku-ko-he (kukohe) - lay ones own object on a surface for ones own benefit [Kaw]; a-gu-ko-he (gukohe) - lay ones own horizontal object on a surface; lay something on surface for someone [Kaw]; a-koⁿ-he (koⁿhe), a-ko-he (kohe) - lay something on top of something else [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhe-oⁿ-he (zhoⁿhe) - roast, to place a long object, such as an ear of corn, in front of the fire to roast [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay into [CQ-Osage]; ko-he (khe) - lay down an inanimate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ʰkoⁿ-he (-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe), o-ko-he (okhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰki-koⁿ-he (oʰkkʔǫhe) - interrupt, lit., insert oneself into [CQ-Osage]

 

            a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books

                   ► cf. i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in

 

            koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]; a-zhi (i) - put small sin objs onto something that serves as a platform; mi-zhi (mi) - put pl/sin under belt, tuck in; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; e-ti-zhi (etti) - put them on [JOD]

 

in a lg. line

            tʰi-he (tʰih) - becomes in a lg. line [JOD]

cf. i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; tʰi-de (tʰid) - to begin, suddenly [JOD]; tʰi-kde (tʰikd) - become suddenly; tʰi-kda-kda (tʰkdakd) - repeat a sudden action

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ tʰi-he (h̨ba s̨hą tʰih) - dawn, daybreak

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ tʰi-he taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (h̨ba s̨hą tʰih tą odkdaxʔxʔ ta) - as soon as you perceive that the day is breaking, youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰi-he (tʰi-h) - marks sudden action, to have become suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ba soⁿ tʰi-he (oⁿba oⁿtihe) - daybreak, dawn [Omaha]

Dhegiha: tʰi-the (tʰith) - to begin, commence, or start suddenly, to come forth at birth [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-the (ṭsi-th), ʰtsi-e (ṭsi-e) - suddenly, denoting sudden action, he hastened, he began [FL-Osage]; chi-ye (chiy) - suddenly, action in this direction [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰi-gthe (tʰgthe) - suddenly [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭsi-gth) - denoting sudden action, sudden, suddenly [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: tʰi-gtha-gtha (tʰigthagtha) - suddenly, repeatedly [Omaha/Ponca]

 

in a little while, presently

            e-koⁿ-te zhi-ka (ek̨tte ik) - in a little while, presently

cf. e-koⁿ-te (kǫtt) - wait, imperative, this and the following are probably not imperatives, they appear to be adverbs, e.g., in a while, presently [RR]; e-koⁿ-te-he (kǫtteh) - wait, imperative

 

in a location, be in a location, exist

niⁿ (nį) - be in a location, exist bniⁿ (bn̨) - I, tiⁿ (tt̨) - you, oⁿ-niⁿ-we (ǫn̨we) - we

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - to be [Omaha/Ponca]; niⁿ (n̨), thiⁿ (̨) - be a certain way, live as, exist as, be characterized by the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - to be, to be so, to be such a one, indicates permanent or long-term condition [Kaw]

 

in a lying position, horizontal

i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

cf. i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; aⁿ-he (̨he) - lay a long/inanimate object on something; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something, put

ex: a-ka-zi i-he a-taⁿ di-ze (kazi he ttą diz) - to stretch out on an object and take something else

ex: a-ka-zi i-he a-zhaⁿ-taⁿ bdi-ze (kazi he ąttą bdiz) - I stretch, etc.

zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down

Dhegiha: i-he (i-h) - after verbs, to be placed or laid [JOD-Omaha]; i-he (ih) - lying object acted upon, post-verbal [Kaw]

 

in a mortar, pound something in a mortar

            pʰe (pʰe) - pound something in a mortar a-pʰe (apʰ) - I, da-pʰe (dapʰ) - you, oⁿ-pʰa-we (ǫPwe) - we

                    ► cf. wa-pʰe (wapʰ) - pound, grind corn in a mortar

ex: a-pʰe a-taⁿ wa-ske pa-x[e]a-taⁿ bda-tʰe e-shoⁿ a-ni-he (pʰe ttą wske ppaγ[e]ttą bdatʰ ę anhe) - I pounded and made bread and then I ate it [JOD]

Dhegiha: pshe (pshe) - to pound corn into fine meal [FL-Osage]; pʰe (ph) - pound in a mortar, as corn or wheat [Kaw]

 

            wa-pʰe (wapʰ) - pound, grind corn in a mortar a-wa-pʰe (awpʰe) - I, wa-da-pʰe (wadpʰe) - you

                    ► cf. pʰe (pʰe) - pound something in a mortar

Dhegiha: pshe (pshe) - to pound corn into fine meal [FL-Osage]; pʰe (ph) - pound in a mortar, as corn or wheat [Kaw]

 

in a place, sit or be in a place

kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, be sitting a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - I, da-kniⁿ (dakn̨) - you, kniⁿ (knį) - he/she, aⁿ-kniⁿ (ąkn̨) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-kniⁿ-we (ąkn̨we), oⁿ-kniⁿ-we (ǫkn̨we) - we, kniⁿ-wi (kn̨wi) - they

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to get on and sit, to come to and sit upon, to reach/arrive and sit on [JOD]; a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

ex: kniⁿ (knį) - sit down! (command) [MS, AB, OM]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi kaxtta kitta kn̨ iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, they said [JOD]

                        ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

                        ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (kkihi akn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I going to live far away [MS]

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you

ex: pʰi a-ni-he naⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ a-kniⁿ (pʰ anhe n̨ ppze d tą akn̨) - I was coming-I who move-when-after dark-when-I camped [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ mi-aⁿ-ba miⁿ a-ki-haⁿ a-kniⁿ (̨čʰǫ mįba m̨ kkihą akn̨) - I have now been (here) over a month

ex: aⁿ-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (̨ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close to me

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wakǫ́ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

                    ► ex: kaⁿ-hiⁿ kniⁿ (kąh̨ knį) - so she sat awhile [JOD]

                    ► ex: didaska kn̨) - he sits close to you

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ niⁿkʰe iy) - then the rabbit sat there, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ naⁿ kniⁿ i-wa-we (kǫttą ppze d tą ną kn̨ iywe) - then, when it became night she camped, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-kniⁿ (ąkn̨) - we sat, we camped, I and one other [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-kniⁿ (kǫttą eǫh ąkn̨) - then after awhile we camped [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-ki pa-ze de taⁿ aⁿ-kniⁿ-ti aⁿ-zhaⁿ (kįttą ąkki ppzĕ d tą ąkn̨-tti ą̨) - then-we were coming back (or home)-after night-when-we camped-when(where)-we slept [JOD]

ex: kniⁿ-wi (kn̨wi) - they camp [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de taⁿ kniⁿ-wi (ppaz d tą kn̨wi) - after dark they camped [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (giⁿ́) - sit, dwell [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ), gliⁿ (glⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside, continue [Kaw]

 

in a place, stand in a place

o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place o-a-na-zhiⁿ (onaį) - I, o-da-na-zhiⁿ (odnaį) - you, oⁿ-ko-na-zhiⁿ (ǫknąwe) - we

cf. na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand upon; iⁿ-ka-bde a-na-zhiⁿ (įkbde anį) - Lovers Leap near Quapaw, OK; a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - floor; a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on ones own; ki-na-zhiⁿ (knaį) - stand with reference to another; ni-a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (nikinį) - have duty of fetching water; i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-ge u-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (shoⁿge unoⁿzhiⁿ) - stable [Omaha]; u-noⁿ-zhi (u-noⁿ-zhi) - standing in [FL-Osage]; o-naⁿ-zhiⁿ (on̨ąį) - stand in there, get in or stay in there, as in a room or place, attend, wear or put on [CQ-Osage]; o-na-zhiⁿ (onzhiⁿ), o-naⁿ-zhi (onⁿzhi) - to stand in or inside [Kaw]

 

in a row or series

            o-ki-kde-kde (kikdkde) - set up in a row [JOD]

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events; a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - indirectly, not even second hand; a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley; ti-kde-kde (ttkdekde kʰe) - line of standing lodges

ex: pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde (ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde) - flour-barrel-filled-set up in a row [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthe-boⁿ kʰi-gthe (gthboⁿ kʰgthe) - ten times in succession, ten times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-koⁿ kʰi-gthe (shⁿkoⁿ kʰgthe) - nine times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; e-shoⁿ ki-gthe (eshoⁿ kigthe) - close together [Omaha]

 

            o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

cf. o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; o-ki-ba-taⁿ kniⁿ (okkbattą knį) - to sit on together; a-ba-taⁿ (battą) - push together, as firebrands when the ends next to the fire are burned; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next

ex: i-ka-she-knaⁿ o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (kaekn̨ okkbatt̨ttą) - breastpins/buttons one after another/several in a row [JOD]

ex: e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-a toⁿ-toⁿ (u-ḳi- toⁿ-toⁿ) - a series, consecutive, one following the other [FL-Osage]

 

            wa-hi kʰe (wah kʰe) - the bones laying in a row

cf. wa-hi (wah) - bone; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; ke (k) - in a line, line of standing [JOD]; ke (ke) - the pl/st/an or pl/st/in, the scattered

Dhegiha: kʰe (kʰe) - the inanimate lying, the inanimate horizontal, be positioned horizontally, an extended action in a lying position [Omaha]; kshe (kshe) - to prostrate, that lies, to lay down, to place flat on the ground or to be prostrate on any surface, the length of time from the beginning of a vigil [FL-Osage]; kshe (ke) - positional article for an entity that is lying down or long; positional article that indicates plurality of an inanimate entity that takes tsʰe (cʰe) standing positional in the singular [CQ-Osage]; kshe (ke) - lying down or long [CQ-Osage]; khe (khe) - the; definite article for lying/inanimate objects [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ge (ge) - the inanimate scattered [Omaha]; ge (ge) - the, these, sign of plural used to qualify plural nouns [FL-Osage]; ke (ke) - positional article for dispersed, scattered, or randomly located entities; around, in dispersed locations or with dispersing action [CQ-Osage]; ge (ge) - the; definite article used with scattered inanimate objects, such as beads, rocks, etc. 2) the, used with cloth-like objects like fabric, hides, thin paper [Kaw]

 

            a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

cf. a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top; a-ni (ni) - hill; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shta (shta) - hairless, destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t), shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

            kde-za-za (kdezza) - striped in rows

                        cf. kde-ze (kdez) - striped; kde-zhe (kde) - spotted

Dhegiha: gthe-za-za (gthezza) - striped, streaked, figured, striped or streaked in many places; figured striped, as calico or dimity [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-za-za (gthe--a) - striped in parts [FL-Osage]; le-za-za (lezza) - striped here and there or with many stripes [Kaw]

 

in a while

            kda-he-he (kdahhe) - often, once in a while

Dhegiha: gtha-he thoⁿthoⁿ (gthahe thoⁿthoⁿ) - frequently [Omaha]

 

in abundance, make in abundance

            ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

cf. wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot; o-she-xti (exti) - full

Dhegiha: u-she (-she) - plenty, plentiful [FL-Osage]; u-sha-zhi (-sha-zhi) - scarce, not plenty [FL-Osage]; o-she (e) - exist plentifully, lots, abundance, plenty, profusion of something [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-she (-she) - abundant [FL-Osage]; i-sha zhi (shazhi) - negation of i-she (ice): poor, not rich [Omaha/Ponca]

 

in addition to

            a-ka-ha-ti (kahtti), a-ka-ha-tsi (kahtsi) - besides, in addition to; ts - suggests an Osage word

Dhegiha:a-ga-ha-di (-ga-h-di) - above, besides, in addition to; lying on something, as one book on another [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-ha-ha-di (-ga-ha-h-di) - in addition to, but in seceral places, here and there [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha:a-ga-ha (-ga-ha) - besides, on, upon: out side of an enclosure [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-ha (-ga-ha) - on top of, or on the outside [FL-Osage]; a-ka-ha (kaha) - on top, top, summit [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-ha (gaha) - on, upon, on top [Kaw]

 

in folds, wrinkled

be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bes̨sǫ) - wrinkled, in folds

cf. be-shoⁿ (bes̨) - wrinkle, fold; be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold

Dhegiha: ga-ba-shoⁿ (gabshoⁿ) - bend, to bend something by hitting it, for instance and axe [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shoⁿ-de (baoⁿde) - crease, press together [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ (ba-shⁿ) - incurve, the bend of a river, crooked [FL-Osage]; ba-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (ba-shⁿ-sho) - in a zigzag way [FL-Osage]; pa-shoⁿ-we (pąwe) - bind as a blanket, using a zigzag pattern on the edges [CQ-Osage]; pa-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (pąǫwe) - bind [CQ-Osage]; ba-shoⁿ (bashⁿ) - close a knife blade, fold shut [Kaw]

 

in front, in advance, ahead

            e-to-ha (ettha) - ahead, in front, in advance

cf. e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction, probably facing forward given the meaning of e-to (etto)

 

in good health

ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health, without sickness ha-te aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - Im, ha-te di-ni-ke (dinke) - youre

cf. ha-te (htʔe) - to be sick, ill; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking; ha-te wa-shkoⁿ (htʔe wak̨) - relapse

 

in it, abound in it

            o-toⁿ (ott̨), o-taⁿ (ott̨) - abound, abound in it

cf. taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

ex: zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest, trees abound

ex: xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. cedars abound in it; near Quapaw, OK

Dhegiha: tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - exist, abound, have, possess, to exist, there is/there are; to abound, to have or possess [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - to possess [FL-Osage]; toⁿ (toⁿ) - have, possess [Kaw]

 

in one place together

            miⁿ-taⁿ (m̨tą) - together, in one place

                        ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (m̨tą nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-daⁿ (wⁿ-daⁿ) - in one place together, refers to two things [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-daⁿ-the (wⁿ-daⁿ-ĕ) - to put things together in one place [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-doⁿ (wiⁿdoⁿ) - unite, both together [Omaha]; gi-wiⁿ-doⁿ (gi-wⁿ-doⁿ) - to reconcile, to come together, to reunite as a family or friends, reconciliation [FL-Osage]

 

in or during forenoon

            hoⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke-ta (hǫba hąkttą) - forenoon, in or during

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost; haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke-te (h̨ba h̨kette), haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke-te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day, nearly dawn; miⁿ haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke (m̨ h̨bahąk) - nearly noon; hoⁿ-ba i-haⁿ-ke (hǫba ihąke) - morning, forenoon; pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - its almost dark [MS]; pa-zi de haⁿ-ke (ppzi d hąk) - nearly night; te-hoⁿ-ke (tʔhǫk) - to be insensible, nearly or almost dead

 

in order

di-ki-ki-za (dikkkkiza) - clean up, put house in order bdi-ki-ki-za (bdkkikkza) - I, ti-ki-ki-za (ttkkikkza) you

cf. di-ki-za (dikkza) - clean up, put things away

 

in quick succession

            a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - indirectly, not even second hand

ex: a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley

ex: a-ki-kde-kde a-na-xoⁿ (kkikdekde anxʔǫ) - I heard it indirectly

 

in same tent

ti-kde (ttikd) - to set housekeeping, to live together in same tent, village, collection of lodges

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde nikʰ ną) - four women were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kda-wi (ttkdawi) - they dwelt in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kde miⁿ ti kʰi (ttkde m̨-tti kʰ) - he arrived at one lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ka niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke nįkʰ ni kihid-nįkʰtti ttkde nįkʰ) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house (JOD)]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

ex: ti-kde-kde (ttkdekde) - different lodges [JOD]

ex: ti-kde-kde kʰe a-kde (ttkdekde kʰe akd .) - I go home to the (line of standing) lodges

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

in scattered clumps, trees in scattered clumps

zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (ą ott̨ oppa), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (ą ott̨ op), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. cedars abound in it; near Quapaw, OK; o-shpe (op) - fragment; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

Dhegiha: shpa-shpa (shpashpa) - fragment [Omaha]; u-shpa-shpa (ushpshpa) - piece, remnant [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpa-shpa (b-shpa-shpa) - to cut an apple or potato into many pieces with a knife [FL-Osage]; ga-shpa-shpa (gashpshpa) - chip off many pieces [Kaw]

 

in short time

            ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - in a short time, not a long time, soon [JOD]

cf. ti-a-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]; ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago; ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-zhi hi (ttįi h) - in a very short time, not a long time, very soon [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te (kįttą ttįi h htʔe) - then in a very short time, he became sick [JOD]

ex: e-ti-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttą ttįi h htʔe kkatte ttaha) - then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

            di-o-za (diza) - just now, a short time ago

                        ex: di-o-za (diza) - in a little while [JOD]

                        ex: o-di-o-za (diza) - in a little while [JOD]

                        ex: o-di-o-za hi (odizah) - in a very little while [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha di-o-za hi o-xde (n̨a diza h oxd) - then in a very short time he overtook her [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka o-di-o-za hi o-wa-xde (bdok odizah waxde) - in a very short time, he overtook the entire group [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

 

in sight, visible

            taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

                        cf. taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight; taⁿ-hi-de (ttąhde) - to have passed by in sight

ex: naⁿ-zha a-shi o-a-te naⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ tʰi (n̨a i oatt ną tt̨̨ tʰi) - then when I looked back, he appeared in sight, he had come [JOD]

                        ex: mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mitt̨į) - sun sure up [MS]

ex: mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mi taⁿ́-iⁿ) - female name of the Kwapa Sun gens, Visible Moon, mother of ka-hi-ke ste-te (k͓ahk͓e stĕ́tĕ) [JOD]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-iⁿ-the (tⁿiⁿthe) - to make something visible or clear, to explain [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿiⁿ), tiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; toiⁿ (t̨į), toⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - pronounced ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į), ʰtiⁿ-e (ʰt̨e) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

ke-da iⁿ, ke taⁿ-iⁿ (ke taⁿ́iⁿ) - female name, Clear Sky, Visible [JOD]

cf. ke-da (kkda) - clear sky; taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

Dhegiha: tu ke-tha e-goⁿ (t ktha egoⁿ) - sky blue, light blue, dark green with an indigo tinge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰke-tha (ḳ-tha) - the sky, the unclouded or clear sky [FL-Osage]; ʰke-tho (ʰko) - clear sky, as after a storm [CQ-Osage]; ke-ya (kya) - be clear, as sky or water [Kaw]

 

wa-koⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ (wa-kŭⁿ́ taⁿ́-iⁿ) - masculine name of the Kwapa oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) or Elk gens; Visible  [JOD]

    ► cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

 

xi-da tiⁿ (qi-d tiⁿ) - female name of the (Kwapa) oⁿpʰŭⁿ gens; Visible Eagle [JOD]

cf. he a-ka-tiⁿ (he k͓atiⁿ) - masculine name, Horns (of young Elk) becoming Visible [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - pronounced ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į), ʰtiⁿ-e (ʰt̨e) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

in something

di-ti-te (dittitt) - tear notches, scallops in something bdi-ti-te (bdttitte) - I, ti-ti-te (ttttitte) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; ti-te (tttte) - notched; ka-ti-te (katttte) - strike notches in something; pa-ti-te (pttitte) - cut notches with a knife

 

ka-ti-te (katttte) - strike notches in something a-ti-te (ttitte) - I, da-ti-te (dttitte) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking; ti-te (tttte) - notched; di-ti-te (dittitt) - tear notches, scallops in something; pa-ti-te (pttitte) - cut notches with a knife

 

o-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (obttątt̨da) - roll something repeatedly in something

cf. o-di-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (odttątt̨da) - roll something over and over

Dhegiha: u-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-tha (u-b-t͓aⁿ-t͓ⁿ-a) - to bear or lean against a heavy log, etc., making it roll over and over [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ga-toⁿ-toⁿ-tha (uga toⁿtoⁿtha) - tumble [Omaha]; bi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (bi-ṭoⁿ-tha) - rolling [FL-Osage]; we-bi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (w-bi-ṭoⁿ-tha) - a rolling pin [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-tha (ʰt̨ąa) - roll, rolling [CQ-Osage]; o-ba-taⁿ-ya (obtaⁿya) - roll something, roll something over, to roll something, to roll an object over by pushing, said of the act of the tumblebug and kindred beetles in making balls of manure [Kaw]

 

o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something o-a-koⁿ-he (okʔǫh) - I, o-da-koⁿ-he (odkʔǫh) - you, oⁿ-ko-koⁿ-ha-we (ǫkkʔǫhawe) - we

cf. a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile; here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e ti tʰe-ta ki taⁿ ti a-naⁿ-se taⁿ kʰe-ta o-pi-zhi kʰe o-koⁿ-he (kįttą e tt tʰtta k tą tti nąs ttą kʰtta ppii kʰe kʔǫh) - then when she returned to her house, she put the box in (her) room [JOD]

ex: ki-ha naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-koⁿ-he (kih ną iha kʔǫhe) - when he finished, he put it (the long object) in the bag [JOD]

ex: o-zhi-ha zhi-ka o-koⁿ-he (iha ka kʔǫh) - he put it (the long object) in the small bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-hiⁿ u-oⁿ-he (mhiⁿ uⁿhe) - knife sheath [Ponca/Omaha]; u-ʰkoⁿ-he (u-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) -  insert, put into, sheathe, place into, put, implies lifting up and putting in [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-he (okhe), o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something aⁿ-naⁿ-ste (̨nąste) - Im, di-naⁿ-ste (dnąste) - youre

cf. naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; di-ste-ste (distaste) - pull into shreds, slivers; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers

 

in spots or places, red in spots or places

            zhi-zhi-te (itte) - red in spots or places

                        cf. zhi-te (tte) - red

Dhegiha: zhu-zhu-dse (zh-zhu-dse) - splotches of red on the body, measles [FL-Osage]; zhu-zhu-je (zhzhuje) - red here and there, in spots [Kaw]

 

in that case

            koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so, in that case, of that sort, in that manner, in this way [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding; koi-shoⁿ-e (kįe) - no matter what; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą) - then [JOD]; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - that way, in, therefore; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįtta) - thus, accordingly, in that way

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną iywe) - so they did (in the past), they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ a-te i-ya-we, a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-shi kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (ą tte iywe, abakk kį mąi k̨-nįkʰ iywe) - she climbed high up into a crooked tree and sat there, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her (my own) back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ zhaⁿ a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ e-ti kʰe taⁿ a-te bde a-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe (ą ą bakko kį tti kʰ tą tte bd[e]-ttą m̨i mįkʰ) - then, I climbed up high in this crooked (bent, lying there) tree and I sat there [JOD]

 

in that direction

ka-ki (kak) - in that place, yonder, in that direction [JOD]

ex: ka-ki o-zha da-i (kki a d-i) - there-to dance-they went [JOD]

ex: ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder-the moving [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kda-i ke-ni-te ka-ki niⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kʰi a-taⁿ we-da-niⁿ shi-ke he-naⁿ i-da-ki-kda-niⁿ a-taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ki-we (kįttą ett̨nį kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨nį kʰ ttą wdanį ke hną idkikdnį ttą ką-tʰ̨ tą kwe) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters), and she put on her bad clothes and was there awhile when they (her step-sisters) reached home [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka ęke kkid-i k tą h) - then-to dance-there-they went-the pl.-chief-large-his son-they took part with (=danced)-the pl. when-she arrived (JOD)]

 

ka-ki-de-de (kkidde) - in that direction [JOD]

cf. ha-ki-de-de (hkidede) - where, which direction; e-ta de-de o-ka-xde (ett dde okxde) - face the other way; koi-ta de-de (kitta dde) - a little to one side; ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder; ko-ta-de-de tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I will go in this direction [JOD]

ex: di-e ka-ki-de-de da ni-he (de kkidde d nih) - you go in that direction! [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ ka-ki-de-de (deetʰ̨ kkidde) - from this place-going in that direction [JOD]

 

            ka-ki de-da (kki ded) - send (throw) it in that direction!

cf. ka-ki (kak) - in that place, yonder, in that direction [JOD]; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye ) - throw the club there, yonder again! she said to me [JOD]

 

            ko-ha (kha) - in that direction [JOD]

cf. ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there; kaⁿ-ha (kk̨ha), koⁿ-ha (kk̨ha) - near, by; e-to-ha (ettha) - ahead, in front, in advance; i-maⁿ-ha (imąha) - Imaha, a Quapaw village; the up river Quapaw village

ex: ko-ha da-kde ta-i, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (kha dakd tai, ąn̨kiye) - in that direction you two will go homeward, she said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: go (go) - there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side [Kaw]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of, from [CQ-Osage]

 

            o-ha de (ha d) - to go in that direction, go along that path [JOD)]

cf. o-ha (oh) - following, following its course [JOD]; de (de) - go

                        ex: hi-da-ta-kde o-ha de (hidttakde ha d) - she ascended the ladder [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ha (uh) - following [JOD-Omaha]; u-ha u-ga-shoⁿ (uha ugashoⁿ) - tour [Omaha]; u-ha maⁿ-thiⁿ (uh maⁿⁿ) - to walk along the line or course of a stream, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; u-zhaⁿ-ge u-ha (ujage u-h) - to follow the course of a path or road [JOD-Omaha]; wa-chi-shka u-ha (watcicka uha) - to follow the course of a stream [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of, from [CQ-Osage]

 

            ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: tʰe-ta (tʰett) - to the, at the [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ta da-kʰi taⁿ (tt tʰett dakʰ tą) - lodge-to the-you reach home-when [JOD]

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ta hi-we i-ya (akʰknį-xti tti tʰetta hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ta (kʰtta) - at the [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e ti tʰe-ta ki taⁿ ti a-naⁿ-se taⁿ kʰe-ta o-pi-zhi kʰe o-koⁿ-he (kįttą e tt tʰtta k tą tti nąs ttą kʰtta ppii kʰe kʔǫh) - then when she returned to her house, she put the box in (her) room [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: a-kde ta ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta tta mįkʰ) - Im going home [OM]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de taⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]

ex: koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (tt̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke-tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ (̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨) - horse-to the standing-she sat on her own [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

            ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

cf. ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of; e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of

ex: mi-o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset, on the west side

                       

            e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction

cf. ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

Dhegiha: a-ta-thi-shoⁿ (atthishoⁿ) - in that direction, towards, pertaining to [Omaha/Ponca]; e-ta thi-shoⁿ (eta thishoⁿ) - toward [Omaha]; ga-ke ta-thi-shoⁿ (gake tathishoⁿ) - direction [Omaha]; ʰta-thi-shoⁿ (ṭa-thi-shoⁿ) - towards that direction [FL-Osage]; e-ʰta-thi-shoⁿ (e-ṭ-thi-shoⁿ) - in the direction of, toward [FL-Osage]

 

e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction, etta+okaxde, facing forward given the meaning of etto e-ta o-a-ka-xde (etta okaxde) - I, e-to-da-ka-xde (ettodkaxde) - you

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards

Dhegiha: e-ʰta u-ga-xthe (e-ṭ u-ga-xthe) - facing in that direction [FL-Osage]

 

in that manner

            koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]; a-zhi (i) - put small sin objs onto something that serves as a platform; mi-zhi (mi) - put pl/sin under belt, tuck in; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; e-ti-zhi (etti) - put them on [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti ta-zho ta-bi-ze ka-xe koi-shoⁿ-zhi i-ti-kde-kaⁿ ni-kha (kįttą ett tta tbiz kγe koįi tikdką nikʰ) - then-there-venison-dried by heat-made-piling up the pieces in that manner-like a hose-they were (pl. classifier) [JOD]

 

in that place, there

            koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; ta (-tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

in that way

            koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), koi-shoⁿ-ta (kįtta) - then, thus, accordingly, in that way, therefore, so

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; shoⁿ (ǫ) - and, still, yet; shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough; koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding, so, of that sort, in that case; koi-shoⁿ-e (kįe) - no matter what

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

 

in the claws

di-xda-te (dixdtte) - catch in the claws, scratch

Dhegiha: thi-xtha-de (thixthde) - claw, animal claw [Omaha]; we-thi-xtha-de (wthiqthde) - grappling irons [Omaha/Ponca]

 

in the country

            ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (mą i) - out in the country

cf. ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on, back; a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - last of a party or series, behind, after him/her, afterward; a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - outside of; a-shi-ta (atta) - behind; at or to the back or rear; a-shi-ti (itti) - outside, outdoors

                        ex: ha-zi ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (hzi mą i) - grapes, out in the country [MS]

Dhegiha: ma-zhoⁿ (mazhⁿ) - land [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿzhoⁿ) - world, country, land [Omaha]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ (moⁿ-zhoⁿ) - earth, country, farm, world, land [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-zhaⁿ (mą́ą), moⁿ-zhoⁿ (mǫ́ǫ́) - land, country, countryside, earth, world, allotment, farm [CQ-Osage]; mo-zhoⁿ (mozhⁿ), ma-zhaⁿ (mazhⁿ), moⁿ-zhaⁿ (moⁿzhⁿ) - land, earth, country [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-shi (shi) - out, outside of the house [Omaha/Ponca]; a-shi (i), a-shi-ʰta (iʰta) - outside, outdoors [CQ-Osage]

 

            ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (mąatti), ma-zhaⁿ-ti (mątti) - in the country, on the land, on the ground

                        cf. ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

                        ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (skka tt̨ka mąatti) - wild turkey

                        ex: taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

Dhegiha: ma-zhaⁿ-a-di (ma-jaⁿ́-a-di) - on the land [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ dsi (moⁿ-zhⁿ dsi) - on the prairies, on the earth, on the march [FL-Osage]

 

in the direction of, towards

            ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of

cf. ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

                        ex: mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - northeast, towards sunrise

                        ex: o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes

ex: a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream  

                        ex: mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

 

in the future, when

            ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą) - when, in the future

            a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future

                        cf.  ha-thaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time

                        ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

Dhegiha: a-taⁿ-daⁿ (a-tⁿ-daⁿ) - at what time or season (does it generally occur) [JOD-Omaha]; ha-toⁿ-doⁿ (ha-tⁿ doⁿ) - when [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakhⁿda) - when, at what future time [Kaw]

 

a-tʰaⁿ-ta-i te (atʰ̨ttai tte) - at some future time

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever; ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future; ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time

Dhegiha: a-taⁿ-daⁿ (ataⁿ́daⁿ) - at what time (of the day) [JOD-Omaha]; ha-toⁿ-doⁿ (ha-tⁿ doⁿ) - when [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakhⁿda) - when, at what future time [Kaw]

 

ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta mįkʰ) - I, ta niⁿ-kʰe (tta nįkʰ) - you; taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ttąkatʰ̨), ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (tta ǫkatʰ̨) - we, I and one other

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I'll come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta mįkʰ) - Im going home (I will be going home) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - Ill come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

ex: bda-taⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ tta mįkʰ) - I will be drinking

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going?, why are you going? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ sh-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ą́kakd tt[a] ̨katʰą) - we are going home (me and you are going home) [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔak tʰą ni oh watt̨ akid tta tʰ̨ ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river [JOD]

ex: shi-noⁿ i-ta-de ta niⁿ-kʰe (nǫ ttade tta nįkʰ) - theyre (shes) going to have another baby [AG]

ex: ta tʰaⁿ (tta tʰą) - he was about to, future-the standing [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - will, shall, potential or future marker [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta (ṭa) - shall, he shall, you shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - future tense marker, will, be going to, could, so that it could/might be, what if, were it the case that, would be [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - future potential or intentive aspect [Kaw]

 

ta-i (ta) - we shall, lets [JOD]

ta-i (ta) - will (plural) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - let us (lets) kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔ ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi ta-i, wa-xo-zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔik ik nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i (tai) - will, plural [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i (ta-i) - we shall, lets [Omaha]; ʰtai (ʰtai) - lets, clause final element conveying an extortion or suggestion for a group including the speaker and at least two other persons [CQ-Osage]

 

ta-tʰe (ttatʰ) - shall be [JOD]

 

 

ta-i-tʰe (taitʰ) - shall (plural), they shall [JOD]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka e-naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in the future [JOD]

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, and mind [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-da wi-te-ke e-ta-we di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd wtteke ettwe ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i-te (ta te) - shall [Omaha]; ta-i-te (tait) - will surely, shall, shall surely [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i-tʰe (ta-i-tʰe) - shall [Omaha]; ʰta-i-tse (ṭa--tse) - they shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta-i-te (ṭa i te) - they will [FL-Osage]

 

te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall, will be

ex: bda-taⁿ te (bdatt̨ tte) - I will/would drink

ex: pa-hi-o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d!  iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: ni-zhi te (ni tte) - its going to rain [OM]

ex: ni-zhi te (nii tte) - it will rain

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

ex: e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

ex: te-a (tte) - will or let [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a (wikkdakʔ̨ tte) - I will carry you (my own) on my back [JOD]

ex: di-e wi-bda-sniⁿ maⁿ te-a, i-ke (de wbdasn̨ m̨ tta, ik) - I will swallow you, he said to her [JOD]

ex: te kaⁿ (tte k̨) - about to [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ te kaⁿ (ąkkdakʔ̨ tte k̨) - about to carry me on her back [JOD]

Dhegiha: te (te) - will [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets [CQ-Osage]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

in the ground, plant a post in the ground

po-za (pza) - plant a post in the ground po-a-za (paza) - I, po-da-za (pdaza) - you, po-oⁿ-za-we (pǫzawe) - we

cf. zhoⁿ po-za (ǫ pza) - post, fence post

Dhegiha: mu-za (mza) - plant, as a post [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ mu-za (zhoⁿ mua) - tripod [Omaha]; bo-za (b-a) - to plant a post in the ground [FL-Osage]; bo-za (bza) - fence post, marker, monument; plant a post or stick in the ground, to plant a post or stick in the ground, either obliquely, as a tripod for a kettle, or perpendicularly, as a fence post [Kaw]

 

in the hands

di-xaⁿ (diγ̨), di-xoⁿ (diγ̨) - gather up in the hands bdi-xaⁿ (bdγą) - I, ti-xaⁿ (ttγą) - you

Dhegiha: tha-xoⁿ (tha-xⁿ) - to gather up in the mouth in bunches, as a horse does with grass [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-ski-ke (diskke) - clench, pack in the hands bdi-ski-ke (bdskike) - I, ti-ski-ke (ttskike) - you

cf. noⁿ-pe di-ski-ke (nǫp diskke) - clench the fist; di-ski-ski-ke (diskskike) - pack, e.g. snowballs, with hands

Dhegiha: thi-ski-ke (iiskke) - wad up, bring the parts of a whole together with pressure, bring components into contact, make a fist, grind together, gather [CQ-Osage]; yu-ski-ge (yuskge) - clench [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be thi-ski-ge (noⁿ-b thi-ki-ge) - hand folded, the fist [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-pe a-ski-ke (nǫǫp askke) - fist [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-be yu-ski-ge (naⁿb yuskge) - to make a fist, clench the fist [Kaw]

 

di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands bdi-shti-te (bdtite) - I, ti-shti-te (tttite) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; shti-te (ttte) - warm, comfortably; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ta-shti-te ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire; o-ta-shti-te ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm, to warm an object by holding it in the hands [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

 

in the house or lodge

ti-a-ti (ttitti) - in the house, into the house

ex: ti-a-ti (ttitti) - in the lodge, into the house [JOD]

ex: ti-a-ti kda (ttatti kd) - go in the house! [MS]

ex: ti-a-ti o-ka-xnaⁿ-xnaⁿ (ttitti kaxnąxn̨) - different articles in the lodge [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

ex: to-si a o-doⁿ-de a-taⁿ ti-a-ti a-niⁿ kdi (tos a od̨de [on̨de] ttą ttitti an̨ kdi) - under the arms-he locked arms-and-to the lodge-he brought her back [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-a-di (tadi) - in house, in the house or lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-a-di (tadi) - inside a house [Omaha]

 

in the middle

o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length), middle

ex: haⁿ-skaⁿ-ska (h̨skąska) - midnight

ex: pe o-skaⁿ-ska (p osk̨ska) - midsummer

ex: si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ (sippzosk̨ską) - middle or third toe

ex: si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe

ex: naⁿ-piu-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąpzskąsk), naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąp zoskąsk) - middle finger, second finger

ex: naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąp zoskąsk opttą) - third finger, ring finger, next to the middle finger

ex: ski-ke o-skaⁿ-ska (skke osk̨ska) - one half pound, 1/2 lb

ex: sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter

ex: pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar

ex: o-ka-ki-xe hi o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi o-a-zha aⁿ-maⁿ (okkixe h osk̨ską h a ąm̨) - I usually dance, going around in the middle [JOD]

ex: o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi na-zhiⁿ tʰaⁿ (osk̨ską hi ną tʰą) - he stood in the middle, he was standing in the middle [JOD]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

in the middle of, among

            o-di-zaⁿ-ti (dizątt) - among, in the middle of

                        cf. o-di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - among; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

Dhegiha: u-thi-zoⁿ-a-di (uthzoⁿadi) - in middle, at, by, in, or to the middle of some other place, not here [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-thi-zoⁿ (uthizoⁿ) - middle [Omaha]; o-thi-zaⁿ (ozą) - be among others in, be a member of, belong to, be a part of, be among [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-zaⁿ (oyzaⁿ) - to be many, to be a lot together [Kaw]

 

in the morning

            ka-sa-ni-a-ti (ksaniti) - morning

ka-sa-ni-a-ti (ksaniti) - on the next morning [JOD]

ka-siⁿ-a-tʰi (kas̨tʰi) - morning, in the morning [MS]

cf. ka-sa-ni (kasni), ka-saⁿ-niⁿ (kas̨nį) - tomorrow; ka-saⁿ-ti (ksątt), ka-soⁿ-te (kas̨tte) - this morning; ka-soⁿ-ti (kas̨tt) - morning, in the morning [AG]; a-ka-sa-ni (kasni) - the next morning [JOD]; e-ka-sa-ni (kasni) - next morning; e-ka-sa-ni-taⁿ (kasnittą) - next morning

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti shi-naⁿ kda-we, i-ya-we (ksaniti ną kdwe, iywe) - in the morning, they started for home again, they say [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-soⁿ-iⁿ-xtsi (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ-xtsi) - dawn, early morning [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ-xtsi (kaas̨xci), ka-siⁿ-e xtsi (kaas̨exci) - in the early morning, morning, this morning [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ-xtsi (gasⁿxci), ga-si-xtsi (gasxci) - morning, in the morning [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-sa-ni (gasni) - tomorrow [JOD-Omaha]; e-ga-sa-ni (gasni) - the morrow [JOD-Omaha]; ga-soⁿ thiⁿ (gaoⁿ thiⁿ) - tomorrow [Omaha]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ) - the morrow, dawn of another day [FL-Osage]; ga-soⁿ iⁿ do (ga-ⁿ iⁿ do) - to-morrow, some time [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ (kaas̨), ka-siⁿ-taⁿ (kaas̨tą) - tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ (gasⁿ), ga-si-daⁿ (gasdaⁿ), ga-si-da (gasda) - tomorrow [Kaw]

 

in the mouth

            da-pʰe (dapʰ) - hold in the mouth bda-pʰe (bdpʰ) - I, ta-pʰe (ttpʰ) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth

Dhegiha: tha-pshe (tha-psh) - to hold an object in the mouth [FL-Osage]; ya-phe (yaph) - hold in the mouth, between the teeth [Kaw]

 

da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth bda-xo-we (bdxowe) - I, ta-xo-we (ttxowe) - you

cf. di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling

Dhegiha: tha-xu-e (tha-x-e) - dragged with his teeth [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-xu-e (thi-x-e) - to drag something on the ground [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-we (thi-x-we) - to drag some dead animal by rope, to lead a horse to water [FL-Osage]; thi-xo-we (iiɣwe), thi-xo-e (iiɣe), thi-xo (iiɣ) - drag [CQ-Osage]; yu-gho-we (yughwe) - drag, pull behind [Kaw]

 

i-yo-knaⁿ (iykną) - put something in the mouth i-yo-a-knaⁿ (iyakn̨) - I, i-yo-da-knaⁿ (iydakn̨) - you

                    ► cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into

Dhegiha: i-u-gthaⁿ (-u-gaⁿ) - to put into the mouth, as food [JOD-Omaha]; i-u-gtha-kshiⁿ (i--gtha-kshiⁿ) - to moisten the fingers in the mouth [FL-Osage]

 

in the mud

            o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - become mired, stuck in mud

cf. kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy; wa-zhoⁿ ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup, molasses, ropy sugar; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux)

                        ex: o-ka-kdo niⁿ (okkdo n̨) - he sank in the hole [JOD]

ex: ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand

 

in the past

            i-te (itt) - potential modality in past

 

in the past, in the olden times

ti-a-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

            cf. ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti taⁿ (ttįtti tą) - in the olden times-when [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti e-koⁿ pa naⁿ i-ya-we (ttiątt ek̨ p ną iywe) - in the olden times they were like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, ti-aⁿ-ti we-da-niⁿ pa naⁿ (kiǫ p ną, ttįtti wdanį p ną) - that is how they did/were, in the olden times thats how they dressed [JOD]

 

ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago

 

ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi ki-zhi i-ya ma-shti-ke (ek̨ n̨kʰtti ttįhi ki iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ-miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

 

in the sand

            pi-za-ti (ppiztti) - in the sand

                        cf. pi-za (ppza) - sand; tti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: ni wa-sha-ke pi-za-ti shka-te niⁿ (n waʔk ppiztti ktte n̨) - he was playing in the sand of the large body of water/river [JOD]

Dhegiha: pi-za (piz) - sand [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpi-za (p̣i-) - sand, silt [FL-Osage]; ʰpu-za (ʰpuz) - sand [CQ-Osage]; pu-za (puz) - sand [Kaw]

 

in the sunshine

            o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shti-te (ttte) - warm, comfortably; ti (tti) - at, by, in, locative; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ta-shti-te ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire; di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm, to warm an object by holding it in the hands [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

 

in the water

            ni-ti (ntti) - in the water, at the water

                        cf. ni (ni) - water; ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: ni-ti o-ka-ha niⁿ-kʰe (ntti okhaha nįkʰ) - he was floating along in the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ ni-ti spe (į nitti spe) - a stone sinks in water

ex: ni-ti n ii-he-de (ntti n ihde) - he laid it in the water [JOD]

ex: wa-xo ni-ti de (waxʔ ntti d) - the woman went into the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

ex: ni-ti naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp͓ ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti k ii-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti k ii-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

 

in this direction

            de shoⁿ-hi (d ̨hi) - this direction [JOD]

ex: de sho-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

 

in two

da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two bda-ba-xe (bdbaγe) - I, ta-ba-xe (ttbaγe) - you

cf. ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

ex: wa-so-so ta-ba-xe e (wasso ttbaγe e) - did you bite the cord in two?

Dhegiha: tha-ba-xe (tha-b-xe) - to bite in two a string or cord [FL-Osage]; ya-ba-ghe (yabghe) - bite in two, pull apart by biting [Kaw]

 

            ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two a-ba-xe (baγ) - I, da-ba-xe (dbaγ)  - you

cf. we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe a-ba-xe (mątt-kką nįkʰe baγ) - I cut the canoe string (with the hatchet) [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

 

pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord pa-a-ba-xe (pabγe) - I, pa-da-ba-xe (pdabγe) - you

cf. ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

 

po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two po-a-ba-xe (poabaγe) - I, po-da-ba-xe (pdabγe) - you

cf. ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord

 

po-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - shoot in two, break punching po-a-xoⁿ (poxǫ) - I, po-da-xoⁿ (pdaxǫ) - you, po-oⁿ-xoⁿ-we (Pǫxǫw) - we

cf. bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break, crush; da-xoⁿ (dax̨) - break by biting; di-xoⁿ (dix̨) - break, as a stick with the hands; ka-xoⁿ (kax̨) - break something by hitting it; a-ka-xoⁿ (kaxǫ) - break something by striking another object; pa-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - cut apart, disjoint

 

            shte-ke (tke) - split in two

cf. o-di-shte (odte) - half (number or quantity); saw, split by sawing; zhoⁿ di-shte (ǫ dte) - plank, split wood; ka-shte (kat) - gash, slit something striking it; ki-kda-shte (kkikdte) - cut, gash ones own; pa-shte (pte) - cut

Dhegiha: stse-ge (sts-ge) - split [FL-Osage]; stse-ge (scge) - gashed [Kaw]

 

a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands

cf. be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral; be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. "twisted tobacco"; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

ex: a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ni thi-be-bthiⁿ (zhoⁿn thibbthiⁿ) - twisted or plaited candy, twisted sugar, striped stick candy, candy cane, candy of any type [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-be-bthiⁿ (thi-b-bthiⁿ) - to twist [FL-Osage]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

in what manner, what, how

            haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner

cf. ha (ha) - indefinite; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use

ex: kʰi naⁿ, haⁿ wa-xo di-ta di-te a-e (kʰ ną, hą waxʔ dtta ditʔ ae) - when he reached home, he was asked, what is the matter with your woman/wife, is she dead (to you)? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ ni-kʰe (hǫ nikʰ) - how are you? [OM]

ex: hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (hǫnįkʰ) - how are you?, greeting

ex: hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she (h̨ datʰ̨e) - what is the matter with you? [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ ǫkʰ (hǫ ǫkʰ) - what is the matter with you? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man (husband), they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e) - is that so? [OM]

ex: haⁿ i-she (hą i) - what did you say? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ i-she naⁿ (hǫi ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ she (h̨ ) - what did you say? [OM]

 

in, at, by; locative

            ti (-tti) - at, by, in; locative

                        cf. e-ti (tti) - there

ex: do-taⁿ-ti (dott̨tti) straight to the; do-taⁿ (dttą) - straight + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-ti aⁿ-da-ska (nąp-tti ̨daska) - it sticks to my hands

ex: ni-ti (ntti) - in the water, at the water; ni (ni) - water + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: ni-ti o-ka-ha niⁿ-kʰe (ntti okhaha nįkʰ) - he was floating along in the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ ni-ti spe (į nitti spe) - a stone sinks in water

ex: ni-ti n ii-he-de (ntti n ihde) - he laid it in the water [JOD]

ex: wa-xo ni-ti de (waxʔ ntti d) - the woman went into the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

ex: ni-ti naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp͓ ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti k ii-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti k ii-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: o-di-zaⁿ-ti (dizątt) - among, in the middle of; o-di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - among + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: o-shta-ti (ottti) - at a smooth place; o-shta (ot) - smooth place + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti a-shi-ti (ottittti atti) - outside in the sunshine

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti (oxdtti) - into the brush; o-xda (oxd) - thicket, bushes + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: o-xda-ti ho-ho-wi da-wi (oxdtti hohwi dawi) - they went into the brush barking [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-da i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

ex: pi-za-ti (ppiztti) - in the sand; pi-za (ppza) - sand + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: pi-za-ti shka-te niⁿ (ppiztti ktte n̨) - he was playing in the sand

ex: tʰe-ti (tʰett) - to the, at the standing object; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti ki (tt tʰtti k) - he arrived to the lodge [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti ki (tt ett tʰtti k) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti kʰi naⁿ, iⁿ-knaⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (tt tʰtti kʰ ną, įkn̨, n̨ppįhi mįkʰ, iy) - when they reached home, she said, first son I am hungry [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti tʰe-ti zho-kde kʰi (kįttą tt tʰett kde kʰ) - then he arrived at the lodge with him [JOD]

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ti (nįkʰtti) - at the curvilinear object, to the curvilinear object; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the sg/si/an or in + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti kʰi-wi (ppze d hąk ttǫ nįkʰtti kʰwi) - it was nearly night, they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi ki-zhi i-ya ma-shti-ke (ek̨ n̨kʰtti ttįhi ki iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ke-ti (kett) - at or to the plural objects; ke (ke) - the pl/st/an or pl/st/in + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttkde kett h-tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttkde kett h ną) - when he arrived at the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ti (kʰett) - at or to the lying object; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pp mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti k ii-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti k ii-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-ti (m̨tti) - at one, to one; miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: ti miⁿ-ti a-kʰi naⁿ (tti m̨tti akʰ ną) - when I arrive back to a lodge [JOD]

                        ex: ti-kde miⁿ-ti kʰi (ttkde m̨tti kʰ) - he arrived at one lodge [JOD]

Dhegiha: di (-di) - in, to, at [JOD-Omaha]; dsi (dsi) - there, designating place [FL-Osage]; tsi (ci) - in, to, at [CQ-Osage]; ji (-ji), jhi (-ǰi) - to, at, in [Kaw]

 

in, locative

o (o) - locative, in, inside, into, at a place, place at which, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place

ex: o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into; o (o) - locative + knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set, put

ex: o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o (o) - locative + kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

ex: o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; o (o) - locative + kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out

ex: o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place; o (o) - locative + na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

ex: o-ti (ott) - house for, house of, house to; o (o) - locative + ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

ex: o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal; o (o) - locative + kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty

ex: o-spe (osp) - to sink and lay/lie; o (o) - locative + spe (spe) - sink

ex: o-shta (ot) - smooth place; o (o) - locative + shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare

ex: o-te-de (ottde), o-te-de (otde) - fireplace; o (o) - locative + te-de (tde) - light a fire, kindle

ex: o-xe (xe) - cache; o (o) - locative + xe (xe) - bury

Dhegiha: u (u) - locative [Omaha]; u (u), o (o) - locative [FL-Osage]; o () - locative, place at which, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place [CQ-Osage]; o (o) - locative: in, inside, into, at a place [Kaw]

 

in, sit in, dwell in, live in, ride in

            o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in o-a-kniⁿ (oknį) - I, o-da-kniⁿ (odknį) - you

cf. kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to get on and sit, to come to and sit upon, to reach/arrive and sit on [JOD]; a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

ex: zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ tʰi-we (̨ditt̨da ik oknį ttą tʰwe) - when they arrived they were riding in small wagon [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

ex: ma-te o-kniⁿ taⁿ da-we (matte okn̨ tą dwe) - they went sitting/riding in a canoe [JOD]

ex: ti xe-tʰe-ti ma-ni-ka di-ko-ko a-taⁿ e-ti o-kniⁿ naⁿ (tt xetʰtti mankka dikko ttą tti okn̨ ną) - in the corner of the lodge, he (toad) digs out the dirt and lives there [JOD]

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti a-ka-sa-ni taⁿ e-ti hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-i niⁿ-kʰe-ta hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe a-niⁿ zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ tʰi-we (kįttą tti kasni tą tti hǫp kidtott-i nįkʰtta hǫp nįkʰ nį ̨ditt̨da ik okn̨ ttą tʰwe) - then-there-the next morning-when-there-shoe-they pulled off from her-to the st. one-shoe-the part-having it-when-wagon-small-sat in-and-they came [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gthiⁿ (ugthⁿ) - sit in, to sit in something, seat, place to sit [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gthiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - ride [Omaha]; u-gthiⁿ (-gthiⁿ) - to occupy a seat, to dwell in [FL-Osage]; o-liⁿ (ol̨į) - live in or at, dwell in, inhabit, live within metaphorically, ride, ride in, sit in, occupy (a seat), be seated on, sit down on, take a seat on [CQ-Osage]; o-liⁿ (olⁿ) - dwell, live in a place, sit in a place, stay in a place [Kaw]

 

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