English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

I

 

Indian

            zho zhi-te (otte) - Indian (recent term)

            zho zhi-te (otte) - Indian [MS, AB, AG, OM]

            zho zhi-te (jŭ-gitteh) - Indian (indien) [GI]

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat; zhi-te (tte) - red; zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude; zho-i-ka (oka) - body, self; zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever; i-ha-zho (ha) - lip

                        ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS]

Dhegiha: ni-ka zhi-de (nkazhide) - red people [Omaha]; ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga xiⁿ ha zhi-de (nikashiⁿga xiⁿ ha zhide) - red skinned people [Omaha]; ni-ʰka zhu-dse (n-ḳa zhu-dse) - Indian, red man [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka zhu-tse (nʰka uce) - Indian, Indians, lit., red man, red people [CQ-Osage]; ni-ka zhu-je (nka zhje) - red man, Indian, seemingly a modern compound, suggesting that this is a translation of the term red man that white men used in reference to Indians [Kaw]

 

Indian agent

wa-jhi-ni ka-hi-ke (waǰni kahike) - President; Indian agent

wa-jhi-ni ga-hi-ge (waǰni gahge) - President, Indian Agent [OM]

cf. wa-jhi-ni (waǰni) - white people, white man, white race [MS, MR, OM]; ka-hi-ke (kahke), ga-hi-ge (gahge) - chief; i-ti-kaⁿ-da-we (ittkądwe) - President of the U.S., they have him as a grandfather

Dhegiha: i-tha-di-tha i (idia) - agent [JOD-Omaha]; i-tha-ti-di-tha zhiⁿ-ga (ithatiditha zhiⁿga) - Indian agent [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ ʰtoⁿ-ga ga-hi-ge (mⁿ-hiⁿ ṭoⁿ-ga ga-hi-ge) - Indian agent, (knife-big-chief) [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ ʰtaⁿ (m̨ąhį ʰt̨ą), maⁿ-hiⁿ ʰtaⁿ-ka (mąhį ʰt̨ka) - superintendant as of the Osage Agency, officer or other white person of rank, the government, lit., big knife, white person (archaic or rare) [CQ-Osage]; wa-gi-hi-ge (wgihge) - chief, ruler, Indian agent [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ti-gaⁿ-tha-i (iʇgaⁿa) - grandfather, president [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtsi-go a-bi wa-ʰtoⁿ-ga (ṭs-go a-bi wa-ṭoⁿ-ga) - grandfather to all, this is the Osage term for President of the United States [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-ko-a-pi (iʰckoap) - president of the United States, lit., grandfather of all [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-go-ya-be (icgoybe) - Washington, the President, wi-tsi-go-ya-be (wicgoybe) -  possessive form, lit. we have him as our grandfather, this may also refer to the Secretary of the Interior, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, etc. the head of any agency that had authority over the Kaw [Kaw]

 

Indian doctor

ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga xu-be (n-ka-ciⁿ-ga qu-b) - a mysterious person, prob. answering to popular medicine man of white writers [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ʰka xo-be (n-ḳa xo-be) - the holy man [FL-Osage]

 

Indians, Caddo

so-de (sde), su-de (sde) - Caddo Indians

su-de (sdĕ) - Kwapa name for the Caddo Indians [JOD]

su-de (sŭdeh) - Caddo Indians (cadeau) [GI]

Dhegiha: pa-thiⁿ wa-sa-be (pathiⁿ waabe) - Caddo Tribe [Omaha]; hiⁿ-sha (hiⁿ-sha) - Caddo Indians [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-sha (hįį) - Caddo tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; hi-sha (hish) - Caddo tribe or people, they dwell south of the Osage and near the Wichitas [Kaw]

 

Indians, Cherokee

sha-da-ki (adkki), sha-da-ke (adkke) - Cherokee

sha-da-ki (adkki) - Cherokee Indians [OM]

sha-da-ki (ca-d-ki) - Kwapa name for the Cherokee Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: che-thu-ki (ch-thu-ki) - Cherokee [Omaha]; sha-la-ki (laki), sha-ke (ake) - Cherokee tribe, or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-ya-ki (shayki), tse-le-ki (celek) - Cherokee tribe [Kaw]

 

Indians, Cheyenne

sha-haⁿ (ca-haⁿ́) - Kwapa name for the Cheyenne Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: sha hi-e-the (sha hethe) - Cheyenne Tribe [Omaha]; ʰta-tse o-maⁿ-i (ʰtaceom̨i) - Cheyenne tribe ot tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-hi (shah), sha-ya-niⁿ (shayniⁿ), sha-ya-ni (shayni) - Cheyenne; Cheyenne tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Chickasaw

ti-ka-zha (ti-k-jă) - Kwapa name for the Chickasaw Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtsi-ge-shi (ṭs-ge-shi) - the Osage name for the Chickasaw Tribe [FL-Osage]; tsi-ka-sa (ckasa) - Chickasaw tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Choctaw

ta-xta (t-qta) - Kwapa name for the Choctaw Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: tsa-ta (cat) - Choctaw tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Comanche

pa to-ka (p-tu-kă) - Kwapa name for the Comanche Indians [JOD]

cf. pa (ppa) - nose; to-ka (tkka) - wet

Dhegiha: pa doⁿ-ka (pdoⁿka) - Comanche, Paducah [Omaha/Ponca]; pa duⁿ-ka (pduⁿka) - Comanche Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa doⁿ-ʰka (p̣-doⁿ-ḳa) - the Osage name for the Comanche Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpa to-ʰka (ʰp toʰka) - Comanche tribe or tribal member, Kiowa tribe or tribal member, lit., wet noses, dew on the head [CQ-Osage]; pa do-ka (pdoka) - Comanches or Padocah, Paducah Indians, tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Creek

ma-shko-ki (makki) - Creek Indians [MS]

ma-shko-ki (mo-ck-k͓i) - Kwapa name for the Creek or Muskoki Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shko-ge (moⁿ-shk-ge) - the Osage name for the Creek Tribe of Indians [FL-Osage]; mu-sko-ke (muskke) - Creek Indians [CQ-Osage]; moⁿ-shko-ge (moⁿshkge) - Creek tribe, Muskogee [Kaw]

 

Indians, Delaware

wa-paⁿ-da-kya (w-paⁿ-da-kyǎ) - Kwapa name for the Delaware Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ba-ni-ʰki (w-ba-ni-ḳi) - the Osage name for the Delaware Tribe [FL-Osage]; wa-ba-ni-ʰka ga-xa (w-ba-ni-ḳa ga-xa) - the name given Delaware Creek, Okla., by the Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-pa ni-ʰka (wpa nʰka) - Delaware tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-ba-ni-ke (wbanke) - Delaware tribe and people, the Abenaki [Kaw]

 

Indians, Ho-chunk, Winnebago

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago Indian [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga), hu ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person, these are related to the Dhegiha (Kansa, Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Quapaw), the Chiwere (Ioway, Otoe, Missouria, and including Winnebago/Hochank) and the Dakotan (Lakota, Dakota, Assiniboine, Stoney), it is also a name used by the Assiniboine and the Hochank in reference to themselves, where it is interpreted as big voice, loud voice, or rough voice [Kaw]

 

Indians, Iowa

pa-xo-te (pqutĕ) - Kwapa name for the Iowa Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-qu-de (mqude) - the Iowa tribe, an Iowa person [Omaha/Ponca]; ma-xu-de (mxude) - Iowa Tribe, corruption of paxude grey head [Omaha]; ʰp-xo-dse (p̣-xo-dse), ba-xo-dse (b-xo-dse) - the Osage name for the Iowa Indians [FL-Osage]; pa-xo-tse (pxoce) - Ioway or Iowa Indians, a tribe living in Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma and in earlier days Iowa, lit., gray snow [CQ-Osage]; pa-xo-je (pxoje), pa-xo-tse (pxoce) - Ioway tribe; Ioway person or people, a tribe of the Chiwere group, the other tribes being the Otoe and Missoria. They were the ancient allies of the Ponca and Omaha, to whom they are related [Kaw]

 

Indians, Kaw

kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-ze (koⁿe) - Kansa Tribe, Kaw Tribe [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-ze (ḳⁿ-e) - Kaw Indians [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-ze (ʰk̨ąze) - Kaw, Kansa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-ze (kaⁿze) - Kansa tribe, clan, the Kaws, a Kaw person [Kaw]

 

Indians, Kickapoo

ki-ka-po (k͓ik͓pu) - Kwapa name for the Kickapoo Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-ga-bu (hgabu) - Kickapoo Tribe [Omaha]; i-ʰka-ʰpu (-ḳa-p̣u), i-ga-bu (-ga-bu) - a Kickapoo Indian, Kickapoo Indian [FL-Osage]; ki-ʰka-po (kiʰkpo) - Kickapoo Indians [CQ-Osage]; ki-ka-bu (kikbu), ki-gha-bo (kighbo) - Kickapoo tribe or people [Kaw]

 

 

Indians, Miami

ma-me (ḿ-mĕ) - Kwapa name for the Miami Indians [JOD]

 

Indians, Modoc

maⁿ-ta (maⁿ́t͓a) - Kwapa name for the Modoc Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-to-we (mⁿtowe) - a tribe living east of the Kaws in Indian Territory, their hair was short, reaching a little below the ears [Kaw]

 

Indians, Nez Perce

i-na-shpe (nacpĕ) - Kwapa name for the Nez Perc Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: pe-ga zuⁿ-de (pega uⁿde) - Nez Perce Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-de (p̣e-g-on-de) - the Nez Perc Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-dse (p̣e-g-oⁿ-dse), ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-dsi (p̣e-ga oⁿ-dsi) - Crow Tribe, so called by the Osage Indians [FL-Osage]; pe-ga-zaⁿ-je (pegzaⁿje), pe-ga zaⁿ-de (pegzaⁿde) - Nez Perce or Sahaptin tribe or people, lit. hair in braids over the forehead [Kaw]

 

Indians, Osage

wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage

wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage Indians [MS]

wa-zha-zhe (wajje) - Kwapa name for the Osage Indians [JOD]

wa-sha-zhi (wai)  - Osage Indians [OM)]

Dhegiha: wa-zha-zhe (wazhazhe) - an Osage, the Osage Tribe, the Osages, they belong with the K͓aⁿze, Ugaqpa, Umaⁿhaⁿ, and Paka, to the egiha group of the Siouan Family [Omaha]; wa-zha-zhe (wa-zh-zhe) - name of the Osage Tribe, corrupted by the French to Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage [CQ-Osage]; wa-zha-zhe (wazhzhe) - Osage tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Otoe-Missouria

wa-zho-xda (wajqdă) - Kwapa name for the Missouria and perhaps the Otoe Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zho-xtha (wa-zh-xtha) - Oto Tribe [FL-Osage]; wa-zho-la (wala) - Oto tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-zho-xla (wazhxla), wa-sho-xla (washxla) - Otoe tribe or people [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ta-da (wathtada) - Oto Tribe [Omaha]; wa-do-ta-ta (wadtata), wa-do-ta-aⁿ (wadtadaⁿ) - Otoe tribe or people, according to MR, this is a synonym for washxla [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni u-ta-chi (nitachi) - Missouri Tribe [Omaha]; ni-sho-je (nishje) - Missouri tribe or people, the Missouri people call themselves Nita Ci, but the early French travelers called them Emissourites, Missourites, and Missouris [Kaw]

     

Indians, Ottawa

ta-wa (t-wa) - Kwapa name for the Ottawa Indians [JOD]

 

Indians, Pawnee

pa-ni-ma-ha (ppanimha) - Pawnee

pa-ni-ma-ha (ppanimha) - Pawnee Indians [MS]

pa-ni-ma-ha (pnimaha) - kwapa name for the Pawnee Indians, very probably this name refers to the Skidi alone [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-thiⁿ-ma-hoⁿ (pthiⁿmhoⁿ) - Skidi or Pawnee Loups, a tribe of the Pawnees [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpa-iⁿ moⁿ-hoⁿ (p̣a-iⁿ moⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for a band of the Pawnees known as Shki-thi [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thiⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (p̣-thiⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for the Pawnee Indians [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thi-ma-ha (ʰpamaha), ʰpaiⁿ-ma-ha (ʰpįmaha) - Pawnee Indians [CQ-Osage]; pa-yiⁿ-ma-haⁿ (pyiⁿmhaⁿ) - Skidi Pawnee, Pawnee Loup [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-thiⁿ (pthiⁿ) - Pawnee; the Pawnees [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-thiⁿ (pthiⁿ) - Pawnee Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa-iⁿ (p̣a-iⁿ) - the Osage name for the Pawnee Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thiⁿ (p̣-thiⁿ) - a general term for tribes not related to the Osage [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thiⁿ (ʰpį), ʰpaiⁿ (ʰpį) - western tribe or tribal member, refers to any tribe from the western United States, Pawnee tribe or tribal member, Kiowa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; pa-yiⁿ (pyiⁿ) - Pawnee [Kaw]

 

Indians, Peoria

i-to-ka (-t͓u-ka) - Kwapa name for the Peoria Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: tho-thoⁿ (th-thoⁿ) - Peoria Indian Tribe [FL-Osage]

 

Indians, Ponca

poⁿ-ka (p̨ka) - Ponca Indians [MS]

poⁿ-ka (pōⁿ́-ka), (pa′-kă) - Kwapa name for the Ponka Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: poⁿ-ka (pⁿka) - Ponca, a Ponca person [Omaha/Ponca]; poⁿ-ka (poⁿa) - Ponca Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpoⁿ-ʰka (p̣oⁿ′-ḳa) - Ponca Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpoⁿ-ʰka (ʰp̨ʰka) - Ponca Tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; paⁿ-ka (pⁿka) - Ponca tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Potawatomi

wa-ho-wa-ha (wahwah) - Kwapa name for the Pottawatami Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-hi u-tha-xa (wahi uthaxa) - Potawatomi Tribe [Omaha]; wa-ho-wa-ha (wahwah) - Potawatomi tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-hi o-ya-ha (whiyaha) - Potawatomi tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Quapaw

o-ka-xpa (okxpa), o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw [MS, AB, OM]

o-ka-xpa  (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream, Quapaw gens (clan) of the same tribe, Dwelt on right side of tribal circle

o-ka-xpa (o ̇GxBa) - Quapaw [person or tribe] [FS]

cf. o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; o-ka-xpa-ki-de (okxpakkde) - be adopted as a Quapaw; o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages; spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, The down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

Indians, Sac & Fox

sa-ki-a (s-ki-) - Kwapa name for the Sac and Fox Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ge (zge) - the Sak, or Sauk tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ge (ge) - Sauk Tribe [Omaha]; sa-ge-wa (a-g-wa) - Sac and Fox, this term is used when speaking of these tribes by the Osage, Sac Indians, Fox Indians [FL-Osage]; sa-ki-wa (sakwa), sa-ki-wo (sakwo), sa-ki ho (sak ho) - Sac and Fox tribe or tribal member, lit., making it tight [CQ-Osage]

 

Indians, Seminole

si-mi-no-ni (s-mi-n-ni) - Kwapa name for the Seminole Indians [JOD]

 

Indians, Seneca-Cayuga

si-ni-ke (sink͓e) - Kwapa name for the Senecas and Cayugas in Indian Terr. The Kwapa name is identical in sound with si nik͓e, wanting a foot [JOD]

 

Indians, Shawnee

sha-waⁿ-naⁿ (aw̨ną) - Shawnee

sha-waⁿ-naⁿ (aw̨ną) - Shawnee, Shawnee Tribe [OM]

sha-wa-na (ca-w-na) - Kwapa name for the Shawnee Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: sha-wa-na (shah-wah-nah) - Shawnee tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-wa-niⁿ (wanįį) - Shawnee tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-wa-ne (shwane) - Shawnee tribe or people [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ni (zhoⁿ-n) - Shawnee Tribe [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-niⁿ (shoⁿnⁿ) - Shawnee tribe or people [Kaw]

 

Indians, Sioux

su (su) - Kwapa name for the Dakota Indians, formed from Sioux [JOD]

Dhegiha: shauⁿ (shauⁿ) - Sioux Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa-ba-wa-xoⁿ (p̣-ba-wa-xoⁿ) - Sioux Indian, the Osage name for the Sioux Tribe of Indians, it means Head-Cutters [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-pa-xoⁿ (ʰppaxǫ) - Sioux tribe or tribal member, cutthroats, lit., nose cutter, head cutter, nose cutter, personal name for a second son [CQ-Osage]; sha-haⁿ (shahⁿ) - Dakota, Dakota tribe or people; Sioux, these form a group which is related to the Dhegiha as well as to the Chiwere. See Paⁿka (Ponca) and Paxoje (Ioway), the term, Sioux includes the Lakota, also called Teton Sioux [Kaw]

 

Indians, Tonkawa

taⁿ-ka-wa (tákawă) - Kwapa name for the Tonkaway (Tonkawa) Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka tha-te (nikathate) - Tonkawa Tribe [Omaha]; wa-tha-hni (wa-th-hni) - Tonkawa Tribe, a devourer, swallower [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ni (wanii) - Tonkawa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]

 

Indians, Towakarehu

ta-ho-ka-ni (tahkan) - Kwapa name for the Towakarehu, a clan of the Wichita Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: tu-ka-tha (tu-k-a) - the name of some Indians dwelling near the Wichitas, whose language they speak: probably the To-wa-ka-re-hu, a Wichita gens [JOD-Omaha]; to-la-le (tkale) - Towakarahu, a Wichita clan [Kaw]

 

Indians, Waco

wi-ko (w-ku) - Kwapa name for the Waco Indians, a clan of the Wichita [JOD]

 

Indians, Wichita

wi-si-ta (wsită) - Kwapa name for the Wichita Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-chi-ta (wichita) - Wichita Tribe [Omaha]; wi-tsi-ʰta (w-tsi-ṭa) - a Wichita, Wichitas, Wichita tribe of Indians [FL-Osage]; wi-tsi-ʰta (wciʰta) - Wichita tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; mi-tsi-ta (mtsit) - Wichita people or tribe [Kaw]

 

Indians, Winnebago, Ho-chunk

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago Indian [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga), hu ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person, these are related to the Dhegiha (Kansa, Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Quapaw), the Chiwere (Ioway, Otoe, Missouria, and including Winnebago/Hochank) and the Dakotan (Lakota, Dakota, Assiniboine, Stoney), it is also a name used by the Assiniboine and the Hochank in reference to themselves, where it is interpreted as big voice, loud voice, or rough voice [Kaw]

 

Indians, Wyandotte

waiⁿ-ta (waiń-t͓ă) - Kwapa name for the Wyandot Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: woⁿ-da (wⁿ-da) - Wyandotte [FL-Osage]

 

indicates wrong act

niⁿ de (nį d) - indicates wrong act

                        cf. niⁿ-kʰe de (nįkʰe d) - impermissive, done without permission

 

indigestion

i-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (ikįkik) - indigestion, gastric discomfort aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (ąn̨kįkik) - I, i-di-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (dikįkik) - you

cf. ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (kįkika) - feel uncomfortable inside

 

indirectly, not even second hand

a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - indirectly, not even second hand

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events; a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley

ex: a-ki-kde-kde a-na-xoⁿ (kkikdekde anxʔǫ) - I heard it indirectly

 

indistinct or distant color

saⁿ (są) - white in the distance

                    ► cf. saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - white in the distance; ska (ska) - white, white nearby

ex: xi-da pa saⁿ (xid ppa s̨) - bald eagle

ex: zhoⁿ saⁿ (̨ są) - sycamore, Platanus occidental

Dhegiha: soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

            saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - white in the distance

            saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - whitish, grayish [JOD]

                   ► cf. saⁿ (są) - white in the distance; ska (ska) - white, white nearby

                   ► ex: ma-xe o-ta-saⁿ-haⁿ (maγe ottasąhą) - aurora

                   ► ex: to soⁿ-ha (tu soⁿho) - pale green [JOD]

                   ► ex: tu sa-ho (tu s-ho) - pale green [OM]

                   ► ex: zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - scarlet, pink

                   ► ex: zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - pink [OM)]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-de i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

                    ► ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he h̨ba s̨hą tih) - dawn, daybreak [JOD]

                    ► ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he taⁿ (h̨ba s̨hą tih tą) - when it is daybreak [JOD]

                    ► ex: haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight

Dhegiha: soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

            sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

cf. sha-pe (pe) - black, distant or indistinct; sha-we (awe) - dark; sa (sa) - black, black that is near, distinct

                   ► ex: i-shta o-sha (it oa), i-shto-sha (ita) - pupil of the eye, dark part in the eye

                   ► ex: i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - African American, negro, dark Frenchman [MS, MR]

                   ► ex: ma-kaⁿ sha (makk̨a) - coffee, dark medicine [MS, AB, MR, AG, OM]

                   ► ex: pi-de sha hi (ppde hi) - white oak, named for the color of its acorns

                   ► ex: ta siⁿ-te sha (tta sįtt ) - black tailed deer

                   ► ex: wa-sha (wa) - black mole (on the skin) [MS]

                  ► ex: zhaⁿ sha (ą ), zhoⁿ sha (ǫ) - black oak, Q. velutina

 

sha-pe (pe) - black, distant or indistinct

cf. sha (a) - dark, indistinct black; sha-we (awe) - dark; sa (sa) - black, black that is near, distinct

Dhegiha: sha-be (shbe) - dark [Omaha/Ponca]; sha-be (shabe) - dark [Omaha]; sha-be (sh-be) - dark in color [FL-Osage]; sha-pe (pe) - dark in color, shaded, darkened [CQ-Osage]; sha-be (shbe) - dark, a distant black, brown [Kaw]

 

infant

shi-zhi-ka (ikka) - baby

shi-zhi-ka (ika) - baby [AG]

shi-zhiⁿ-ka (schehjinka) - baby, child (enfant) [GI]

shi-zhiⁿ-ka (i˙̨Ga) - baby, child [FV]

shi-shi-ka (i˙˙Ga) - baby, child [VG]

shi-zhi-ka (ika) - baby, boy

shi-zhi-ka (ikʔ) - baby

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ka-kaⁿ (ika kakką) - baby powder [MS]

ex: shi-zhi-ka i-ta-de kʰe (ika ttade kʰ) - that baby was born [MS]

ex: jhi-e shi-zhi-ka a-tiⁿ ni-she (jhe ikka att̨ ni) - do you have any children? [AG]

ex: shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka  wa-x′o kai i-kʰe shi-zhi-ka  (nkkaka waxʔ kaikʰ ikka) - men, women, and the children [AG]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (shⁿgazhⁿga) - baby, child, infant [Omaha/Ponca]; shiⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (shiⁿga zhiⁿga) - child, baby, infant, children [Omaha]; zhiⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿ-g zhiⁿ-ga) - baby [FL-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ (įką) - child(ren), little one(s), kid(s), childhood [CQ-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿg zhⁿga), hiⁿ-ga hiⁿ-ga (hiⁿg hⁿga) - child, infant, children [Kaw]

 

infant, weaken an animal or infant

di-te-ka (ditʔka) - weaken an animal or infant bdi-te-ka (bdtʔeka) - I, ti-te-ka (tttʔeka) - you

cf. di-te-ka (ditʔkka) - injure, hurt someone; naⁿ-te-ka (nątʔka) - injure by kicking or trampling

 

inflate, blow into

o-bi-xoⁿ (obγǫ) - blow into, inflate o-pi-xoⁿ (oppγǫ) - I, o-shpi-xoⁿ (opγǫ) -you

            cf. bi-xoⁿ (biγ̨) - blow on something; a-bi-xoⁿ (biγǫ) - squirt, spit on

ex: ki-baⁿ o-bi-xoⁿ (kibą obγǫ) - flute-blowing on [JOD]

ex: o-zha a-di-shtaⁿ ki-baⁿ o-bi-xoⁿ pa naⁿ (a ditą kbą obγǫ pp ną) - they quit dancing when a flute was blown [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-bi-xoⁿ (ubxoⁿ) - blow [Omaha]; u-bi-xoⁿ (u-b-xoⁿ) - any kind of wind instrument, as a flute or horn [FL-Osage]; o-pi-xaⁿ (opɣą) - blow into or on, blow inside, play a horn or other wind instrument [CQ-Osage]

 

inform, cause to know

i-ba-haⁿ-kʰi-de (bahąkʰde) - inform, cause to know i-ba-haⁿ-a-kʰi-de (bahąkʰide) - I, i-ba-haⁿ-da-kʰi-de (bahądkʰide) - you

            i-ba-hoⁿ-ki-de (bahǫkde) - teach me (to cause to know) [OM]

                        cf. i-ba-haⁿ (bahą), i-ba-hoⁿ (bahǫ) - know how, recognize; kʰi-de (kʰde) - to cause

Dhegiha: i-pa-haⁿ-kʰi-the (-pa-ha-ki-ĕ) - to cause purposely one, not a relation, to know how to do any thing [Omaha/Ponca]; i-pa-haⁿ-ki-the (-pa-ha-k͓i-e) - to cause himself to know how to do, to learn how to do any thing [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: i-pa-hoⁿ (pahoⁿ) - know how, to know how to do something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ba-hoⁿ (bahoⁿ) - know, to know a person or thing [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ba-hoⁿ (ibahoⁿ) - know [Omaha]; i-ba-hoⁿ (-ba-hoⁿ) - to know [FL-Osage]; i-pa-hoⁿ (pahǫ) - know, understand, know as a person, be acquainted with, recognize, know someone as being a certain way or a certain type of person, guess [CQ-Osage]; i-ba-hoⁿ (bahoⁿ) - to know, understand [Kaw]

 

ingredients, to mix ingredients

i-ka-hi (kahi) - mixed with, to mix ingredients [JOD]

cf. ta-ni-ka-hi (tankahi) - sumac, lit. mix with tobacco; o-do-ka-hi (odokhi) - to stir, to stir up, to paddle; pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River

ex: i-ka-hi-xti (ikahixti) - fully mixed with [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke i-ka-hi (hǫbn̨ke kahi) - mixed with beans [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-ga-hi (gahi) - blanch, mix [Omaha]; i-ga-hi (-ga-hi) - the mixing of several ingredients [FL-Osage]; i-ga-hi (gahi) - mix together, mixed with [Kaw]

 

inhale something, smell something

o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something o-bdi-bnaⁿ (obdbną) - I, o-ti-bnaⁿ (ottbną) - you

cf. bnaⁿ (bną) - smell, emit any odor; di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands); ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning; xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables; bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good; bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - he sniffed/smelt [JOD]

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ, i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (odbną, iywe, hǫhǫ xwį h, iy) - he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

ex: o-wa-di-bnaⁿ (wadbną) - he smelled them [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-bthoⁿ (uthbthoⁿ) - scent an odor, smell an odor, inhale an odor [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-bthoⁿ (u-th-bthoⁿ) - to smell [FL-Osage]; o-thi-braⁿ (obrą) - smoke, cause to smell, as in making cedar smoke for a cleansing or a blessing, lit., wherein one causes there to emanate an odor [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-blaⁿ (oyblaⁿ) - smell something, sniff at something [Kaw]

 

injure someone with bare hands

naⁿ-ka-de (n̨kkade) - injure someone with bare hands naⁿ-ka-a-de (n̨kkaade) - I, naⁿ-ka-da-de (n̨kkadade) - you

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ka (nⁿka) - get hurt, injured [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰka-the (wa-nⁿ-ḳa-the) - to maim, to injure [FL-Osage]

 

injure, hurt someone

di-te-ka (ditʔkka) - injure, hurt someone bdi-te-ka (bdtʔekka) - I, ti-te-ka (tttʔekka) - you

cf. di-te-ka (ditʔka) - weaken an animal or infant; naⁿ-te-ka (nątʔka) - injure by kicking or trampling

 

injure, hurt, harm, wound

i-o (io), i-yo (yo) - wound someone or something i-do (id) - I, i-do (do) - you

i-o-wi (i-ŭ-wih) - wound, injure, hurt, harm (blesser) [GI]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi-ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi-ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: i-yo-wi taⁿ a-kda-niⁿ kdi kʰe (yowi-ttą akdnį kd kʰe) - when he was wounded they (his relations) brought him (or his body) home

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi-ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

Dhegiha: i-u (-u) - to wound with a weapon, to wound with an arrow or other weapon [FL-Osage]; i-o (i) - wound with something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u () - wound [Omaha/Ponca]; u (), u (u) - wound [JOD-Omaha]; u (u) - wound, to hurt, wound from a cut [FL-Osage]; o (o) - wound [Kaw]

 

injure, sin, to do wrong

e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-oⁿ (ek̨i waʔ̨) - to do wrong, injure, sin e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-moⁿ (ek̨i wam̨) - I, e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-zhoⁿ (ek̨i wą) - you, e-kaⁿ-zhi oⁿ-maⁿ-we (ek̨i ǫm̨we) - we

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; zhi (i) - not, negation; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use, have (as a disease); e-koⁿ-zhi ka-xe (ek̨i kγe), e-kaⁿ-zhi ka-xe (ek̨i kγe) - wrong, do accidentally, err

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ a-zhi (egoⁿazhi) - wrong, illegal, inaccurate, incorrect, false [Omaha]; e-goⁿ-zhi (e-goⁿ-zhi) - like-not [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - not be like this or that, be not thus, be otherwise, unseemly, inappropriate, not right, unsuitable, unfitting, ill-advised, wrong [CQ-Osage]

                    ► Dhegiha: wa-oⁿ (wą) - do stuff, do things [CQ-Osage]

 

ink

i-ka-zo-zo ni (kazzo n) - ink

i-ka-zo-zo ni (kazzo n) - ink [OM]

cf. i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw; i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; ni (ni) - water, liquid

Dhegiha: wa-ba-xu ni (wbaxu n) - ink, water for writing [Omaha/Ponca]; ni we-ba-xu (ni we-ba-xu) - ink [Omaha]; wa-le-ze i-ga-ghe niⁿ (walze igghe nⁿ) - ink [Kaw]

 

inner bark of tree

zhaⁿ-ha o-ska (ąh osk) - inner (white) bark of tree

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ska (ska) - white; zhoⁿ-ha (ǫh), zhaⁿ-ha (ąh) - bark of a tree; zhaⁿ-ha di-sha-sha-ke-hi (ąh dakehi) - blackjack oak, Q. marilandia

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿha) - bark, tree bark (on the tree) [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿ-ha) - the outer bark of a tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-ha (̨ą ha) - outer bark of a tree [CQ-Osage]

 

inner ear, opening of the ear

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - inner ear, opening of the ear

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - ear, the ear hole [MS]

ni-xe-te (ni˙x˙tte) - ear [VG]

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - hearing

ex: ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient; ni-xi-te niⁿ-ke (niqtĕ nik͓), (naqtĕ nik͓) - masculine name, was father of mhita [JOD]; ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de (noⁿxide) - ear, the inner hearing organ [Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse (noⁿ-x-dse) - the internal ear, that which holds the hearing orifice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse (nąąγce) - ear, inner ear, act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je (nighje) - the external ear, sense of hearing [Kaw]

 

inner, chair with inner springs

a-kniⁿ bi-st-sti (knį biststi) - chair with inner springs

cf. a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; bi-sti-sti (biststi) - flatten by pressure/blowing

 

insect, reptile

wa-kdi-shka  (wakdka), wa-xti-shka (waxtka) - insect, reptile

wa-kdi-shka (wakdka) - bug [MS]

cf. wa-kdi-shka bda-ska (wakdka bdska) - bedbug, "flat insects"; wa-kdi-shka taⁿ-ka (wakdka tt̨ka) - alligator, large reptile; wa-kdi (wakd) - worm, maggot

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka e-naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in future [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-gthi-shka (wagthshka) - insect, reptile, snake [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-gthi-shka (wagthshka) - beetle, bug, insect, termite, all worms [Omaha]; wa-gthu-shka (wa-gth-shka) - bug, any kind of bug, a worm, an insect [FL-Osage]; wa-lu-shka (walka) - bug, insect, worm, vermin, joker in a deck of cards [CQ-Osage]; wa-lu-shka (walshka) - insect [Kaw]

 

insecure, fearful

koi-he (kohe) - fearful, insecure aⁿ-koi-he (ąkihe) - I, di-koi-he (dikihe) - you, wa-koi-wa-he (wakoiwahe) - we

cf. koi-he-wa-de (kohewde) - fearful, inspiring fear; o-ko-he (kkohe) - dangerous

Dhegiha: ku-he (khe) - to feel insecure, to dread an unseen or uncertain danger, to be apprehensive, fear [Omaha/Ponca]; gu-he (ghe) - be afraid at night [Omaha]; ko-i-pshe (k-i-pshe) - to fear, as the fear of some unseen danger, misgiving, a feeling of doubt [FL-Osage]

 

insecure, unsteady

shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure

cf. di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd), di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth

ex: ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at

ex: bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing

                    ► ex: da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine

                    ► ex: di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance

ex: ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping

ex: naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose

ex: pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine

ex: po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at

ex: ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

ex: naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted, heart, not unsteady/not insecure

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; gi-shoⁿ-tha (g-shⁿ-tha) - to make loose, to droop or fall, loose jointed, broken [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it [FL-Osage]

 

insensible

te hoⁿ-ke (tʔhǫk) - to be insensible, nearly/almost dead aⁿ-te hoⁿ-ke (ątʔhǫk) - Im, di-te hoⁿ-ke (ditʔhǫk) - youre, wa-te hoⁿ-ke (watʔhǫke) - we dual, I and one other

cf. te (tʔe) - die; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost; te ki-ha (tʔ kih) - certain to die, be terminal; te xti (tʔxti) - stone cold dead

Dhegiha: te (te) - to die, to be dead [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse (ṭse) - to die, decease, demise, defunct, to swoon, to faint [FL-Osage]; tse (cʔ) - die, death, the dead, dead person [CQ-Osage]; tse (tse) - dead, to die, be dead [Kaw]

 

inside, feel uncomfortable inside

ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (kįkika) - feel uncomfortable inside aⁿ-aⁿ-shki-ka (ą̨kika) - I, di-aⁿ-shki-ka (dįkika) - you

cf. i-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka (ikįkik) - indigestion, gastric discomfort

 

inside, in, within, under

maⁿ-tʰe (m̨tʰe) - inside, in, within, under

cf. maⁿ-tʰa-ha (mątʰha) - into, down into (as water)

ex: ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe (niγtte mą́tʰe) - in the ear [MS]

ex: ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (mą́tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]

ex: ki-ha-ti ti maⁿ-tʰe kʰi-we (kihtti tt m̨tʰe kʰwe) - down below within the lodge, they arrived there [JOD]

ex: ni maⁿ-tʰe (n mątʰ) - under the water

ex: maⁿ-tʰe wa-tʰe (m̨tʰe watʰ) - slip, undergarment, within/under dress

Dhegiha: maⁿ-te (mⁿ-te) - in, into, within [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-te (moⁿte) - inside [Omaha]; moⁿ-tse (mⁿ-tse) - in the deepest of secret places [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe (mącʰ) - in the center of something, centrally located, within, underneath [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-che (mⁿche) - underneath, within [Kaw]

 

inside, lay or put inside

oⁿ-he (ǫh) - put, lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something o-woⁿ-he (ow̨he) - I, o-doⁿ-he (od̨he) - you, oⁿ-koⁿ-ha-we (ǫk̨hawe) - we

cf. aⁿ-he (̨he) - lay a long/inanimate object on something; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile

ex: sa-ti o-kdaⁿ oⁿ-he (stti kdą ǫh) - joists, cross timbers of house

ex: ma-hiⁿ oⁿ-he (mhį ǫhe) - knife sheath

ex: siⁿ-ti-oⁿ-he (sįttįhe) - crupper (saddle strap)

ex: ta-ti-oⁿ-he ttttįhe, ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind

Dhegiha: oⁿ-he (oⁿh) - classifier for sitting or lying broad object, this is used followng another verb when a large or large and broad object is acted on [Kaw]

 

inside, put inside, tuck in, stick in

mi-knaⁿ (mkną) - put inside, tuck in, stick in mi-a-knaⁿ (mikną) - I, mi-da-knaⁿ (mdakną) - you

cf. knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into, put inside; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set ones own, put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; pi-knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something

ex: me-a-ki-knaⁿ (mekikn̨) - I put my own in my belt [JOD]

Dhegiha: mi-gthaⁿ (m-gaⁿ) - to put a knife or stick under the belt; to put a knife in its sheath under the belt, to put a lariat, etc., under the belt [JOD-Omaha]

 

            mi-zhi (mi) - put pl/sin under belt, tuck in mi-a-zhi (mii) - I, mi-da-zhi (mdai) - you

cf. a-zhi (i) - put small sin objs onto something that serves as a platform; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap

Dhegiha: mi-zhi (m-ji) - to put a number of small things, not his, in his belt [JOD-Omaha]

 

insides, interior of animal

o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal

cf. kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out; maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; zhaⁿ xdo-xa (ą xdxʔa) - hollow tree

Dhegiha: o-xtho-ʰka (o-xth-ḳa), u-xtho-ʰka (u-xth-ḳa), u-xthu-ʰka (u-xth-ḳa) - hollow, a hollow place, an oven, a hollow tree or log [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, baggy; intestines, guts, innards, everthing inside the abdominal cavity, including intestines, etc.; hollow places above the hips [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-ʰka (xthu-ḳa), xthu-a (xth-a) - hollow, any kind of hollow in a tree or log [FL-Osage]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

insist on, pay attention, attend, give heed

a-ki-hi-te (kkihtte) - pay attention, attend, give heed, to insist on a-ki-hi-te (akkihtte) - I, a-da-ki-hi-te (dakkihtte) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-hi-ta-we (ǫkkkihttawe) - we

cf. di-hi-te (dihtte) - meddle with things

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

 

insist, talk back to

i-ho-shi (hoi) - insist, talk back to i-da-ho-shi (idhoi) - I, i-da-ho-shi (dahoi) - you

cf. i-ho-de (hode) - ask, consult about something; i-ho-sa (hosa) - scold, reprove

Dhegiha: i-ho (iiho), i-ho-e (iihe), i-hoⁿ (iih̨ǫ) - aske permission from someone for something, ask or request someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; i-hu-tha-bi (-hu-tha-bi) - From Whom Permission is Obtained, personal name [FL-Osage]; i-hu-sa (husa) - to scold, chide, rebuke, reprove someone [Omaha/Ponca]; i-hu-sa (iua) - scold [Omaha]

 

inspiring fear, fearful

koi-he-wa-de (kohewde) - fearful, inspiring fear

cf. koi-he (kohe) - fearful, insecure; wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them, make one; o-ko-he (kkohe) - dangerous

Dhegiha: ku-he (khe) - to feel insecure, to dread an unseen or uncertain danger, to be apprehensive, fear [Omaha/Ponca]; gu-he (ghe) - be afraid at night [Omaha]; ko-i-pshe (k-i-pshe) - to fear, as the fear of some unseen danger, misgiving, a feeling of doubt [FL-Osage]

 

naⁿ-pe-wa-de (naⁿ́-pĕ-w-dĕ), noⁿ-pe-wa-de (naⁿ́pewadĕ́) - masculine name, Dangerous [JOD]

noⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade) - dangerous

cf. naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something; wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them, make one; maⁿ naⁿ-pa-zhi (maⁿ́naⁿ-p-ji) - masculine name, He Fears Not Arrows [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-pe-wa-the (nⁿpewathe) - One Who is Feared, male name [Omaha]; noⁿ-pe-wa-the (nⁿ-p̣e-wa-the) - Fear Inspiring, personal name [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpe-wa-the (n̨ǫʰpewae) - Fearful One, Henry Pratts name [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-pe-wa-ye (nⁿpewaye) - Dangerous, male name, an ex-chief [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-pe-wa-the (nⁿ-pe-wa-the) - dangerous, formidable, hideous, horrible, terrible, frightful, dreadful [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpe-wa-the (n̨ǫʰpewae) - be scary, make folks fearful, lit., make folks be afraid, fearful thing, something to be afraid of [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-pe-wa-ye (nⁿpewye) - be dangerous [Kaw]

 

instep

si-o-pa-he (sipah) - instep

   ► cf. si (si) - foot

Dhegiha: si u-ba-he (s ubhe) - outside of the foot, side of the foot by the little toe [Omaha/Ponca]; si-koⁿ ma-shoⁿ (sikⁿ mshoⁿ) - instep, where they cut off the foot with a knife [Omaha/Ponca]; si-shto-zha tse (i-sht-zha tse) - instep [FL-Osage]; si a-ga-ha-ta (si gahata) - instep [Kaw]

 

instrument, writing instrument

i-ka-zo i-ka-xe (kazo ikγe) - pencil, writing instrument

cf. i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw; i-ka-xe (ikγe) - with which to make

Dhegiha: i-ga-xe (-ga-xe) - to make out of or by means of [JOD-Omaha]; i-ga-xe (i-ga-xe) - with which to make [FL-Osage]; i-ka-xe (kaaγe) - make out of [CQ-Osage]

 

i-ka-zo-zo i-ka-xe (kazzo ikγe) - pen, writing instrument

i-ka-zo-zo i-ka-xe (kazzo ikγe) - pencil [MS]

            cf. i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; i-ka-xe (ikγe) - with which to make

Dhegiha: wa-gthe-ze i-ga-xe (wa-gth-e i-ga-xe) - pen [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze wa-le-za i-ga-ghe (mⁿze walze igghe) - pen, lit. iron pencil [Kaw]; wa-le-ze i-ga-ghe (walze igghe) - pencil [Kaw]

 

instrumental

            ba (ba) - by pushing, inner instrumental prefix

                        ex: ba-shi-ke (baik) - ruin by poking a hole in

                        ex: ba-iⁿ-zhi (bąi) - fail or miss pushing at something

                        ex: ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil

                        ex: ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at

Dhegiha: ba (ba) - by pushing [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; ba (ba) - an act of pushing [FL-Osage]; pa (paa) - by pushing away or by hand, by pushing or pressing on something (either compacting or spreading it), by pushing up and away with the hands [CQ-Osage]; ba (ba) - instrumental prefix: by pushing, or with a pointed object [Kaw]

 

            bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing, blow, inner instrumental prefix

                        ex: bi-shi-ke (bike) - ruin by pressing, squash

                        ex: bi-iⁿ-zhi (bįi) - fail/miss pressing/blowing

                        ex: bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry

                        ex: bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing

Dhegiha: bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; bi (bi) - blowing [FL-Osage]; pu (pu) - by pressing down on with movement back and forth, by smoothing [CQ-Osage]; pi (pi) - by blowing, as on a fire to get it started, dust from a table top, dandelion fluff into the wind, anything from the palm of the hand [CQ-Osage]; bu (bu), biu (b) - instrumental prefix: by generalized pressure, by pushing or rubbing [Kaw]

 

            da (da) - by mouth, inner instrumental prefix

                        ex: da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly

                        ex: da-iⁿ-zhi (dąi) - fail using the mouth, voice

                        ex: da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed

                        ex: da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine

Dhegiha: tha (tha) - instrumental prefix, by mouth [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; tha (aa) - by mouth [CQ-Osage]; ya (ya) - instrumental prefix: by mouth, by using the mouth, as in eating, biting, speaking, chewing, singing, etc. [Kaw]

 

            di (di) - by hand, pulling, inner instrumental prefix

                        ex: di-shi-ke (dik) - ruin by tearing, do wrong

                        ex: di-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - fail in pulling, rowing, etc.

                        ex: di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot

                        ex: di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance

Dhegiha: thi (thi) - by hand, pulling [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; thi (thi) - action with the hand, action by pulling [FL-Osage]; thu (u), thi (i) - action by hand; cause, make (not necessarily by hand) [CQ-Osage]; yu (yu), yiu (y) - instrumental prefix: by hand, cause by using the hands; also, a general causative, by unspecified cause [Kaw]

 

            i () - instrumental, comitative, requires special pronominal allomorphs

ex: i-ka-za (kaza) - to hit with, whip; i (i) + ka-za (kaz), ga-za (gaz) - to whip

ex: i-sta-de (stade) - grease with; i (i) + sta-de (stde) - to grease

ex: i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; i (i) + tʰiⁿ (tʰ̨) - verb root, strike, slap, hit

ex: i-te-de (itʔde) - kill with something; i (i) + te-de (tʔede) - kill

Dhegiha: i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - with which to [FL-Osage]; i () - with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to [CQ-Osage]; i () - instrumentive locative: with, using, by means of [Kaw]

 

            ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water, inner instrumental prefix

                        ex: ka-shi-ke (kake) - spoil something by striking it

                        ex: ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking

                        ex: ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn

                        ex: ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - instrumental prefix, by striking, wind, water [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; ga (ga) - by blows, by action of the wind [FL-Osage]; ka (kaa) - by striking, by sudden application of force or sudden movement [CQ-Osage]; ga (ga) - instrumental prefix: by striking or impact, by striking with an instrument, by force of wind or water [Kaw]

 

            naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot, inner instrumental prefix

                        ex: naⁿ-shi-ke nąke) - spoil something by stepping on it

                        ex: naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ną̨i) - fail in walking or with machine

                        ex: naⁿ-ta-xe (nąttxe) - stomp, trample, thump with feet

                        ex: naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ), naⁿ (naⁿ)  - instrumental prefix, by foot, by action of the foot [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - with the foot/feet [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (nąą) - on or with ones foot or feet, by foot [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ (ną) - instrumental prefix: by foot, by using the foot or feet [Kaw]

 

            pa (p)  - by cutting with a knife, outer instrumental prefix

                        ex: pa-shi-ke (pike) - ruin by cutting with a knife

                        ex: pa-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - fail in cutting or sawing

                        ex: pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk

                        ex: pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine

Dhegiha: ma (ma) - by cutting with a knife [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; ba (ba) - a prefix to denote the act of cutting with a knife [FL-Osage]; ba (ba) - a verb prefix denoting an act is done with a stick, spear, or any other sharp thing [FL-Osage]; pa (p) - by use of a sharp edge, by cutting [CQ-Osage]; ba (b) - instrumental prefix: by cutting with a blade [Kaw]

 

            po (po) - by shooting, blowing, outer instrumental prefix

                        ex: po-shi-ke (pike) - spoil something by punching it

                        ex: po-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - to be unsuccessful shooting/punching

                        ex: po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching

                        ex: po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ) - by shooting, blowing [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; po (p) - by means of sudden intrusive action e.g., by shooting, by punching [CQ-Osage]; bo (b) - prt instrumental prefix: by punching, blowing with the mouth, by shooting [Kaw]

 

            ta (t) - by extreme temperature, outer instrumental prefix

                        ex: ta-shi-ke (tke) - ruin something by burning it

                        ex: ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi) - fail in cooking

                        ex: ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

                        ex: ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

Dhegiha: na (n) - by extreme temperature [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - by heat, a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction, to feeze, frozen [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) - by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

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