English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

I

 

insufficient, few, some

zho-wa (ow) - few, insufficient, some

zho-wa (jwa) - little [JOD]

cf. di-zho-wa (diow) - lessen; zho-hi (hi) - much, many

ex: e-koⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zh-ka da-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (kǫ nį ow hi ate ka dad k̨ mįkʰ) - so, I uriniated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

Dhegiha: ju-ba (jba) - a few, a small quantity [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-pa (zhupa) - few [Omaha]; dsu-ba (ds-ba) - few, scant, not sufficient [FL-Osage]; cho-pa (čopa) - little, few, a small amount or number, a little bit [CQ-Osage]; jo-ba (jba) - some, few, a little, small quantity, diminutive form of dba some [Kaw]

 

insult, criticizes

da-zho-zhi (dai) - insult, criticize bda-zho-zhi (bdoi) - I, ta-zho-zhi (ttoi) - you

Dhegiha: tha-zhu-zhi (tha-zh-zhi) - to insult by word, to speak of one with contempt [FL-Osage]; tha-zho-zhi (aai) - insult by word, speak ill of, slander, malign, belittle [CQ-Osage]

 

intelligible, clear

            wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible

                        cf. ska (ska) - white

                        ex: da-wa-ska (dawska) - clearly, plainly

                        ex: haⁿ-ba wa-ska-de (hąb waskde) - daylight

ex: i-shta wa-sko-knaⁿ (it waskkną) - glasses, eye glasses, lit., eyes-clear-put on [MS]

ex: i-ye-wa-ska (iywaska) - interpreter, lit. talk clear

                        ex: wa-ska-ha (waskha) - whitened, white

Dhegiha: wa-ska (wa-k) - intelligible, clear to the understanding, lucid [FL-Osage]; wa-ska (wask) - clear, as weather, water, writing, or speaking plainly, clearly [Kaw]

 

intensely, dislike something intensely

ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely aⁿ-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (̨hottą ttahi) - I, di-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (dhottą ttahi) - you

cf. ho-taⁿ (httą) - good; ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - like; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much; zhi (i) - not, negation

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo koi (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it [MS]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-de gi-u-doⁿ (noⁿde giudoⁿ) - merry, satisfy, be of good cheer; gi-tha-gthiⁿ (g-tha-gthiⁿ) - happy, pleased [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-liⁿ (kilį) - be glad, feel good, also used as an equivalent of thank you, like, enjoy, be happy about, be pleased with [CQ-Osage]; gi-ya-le (gyale) - be happy [Kaw]

 

intensifier

xti (-xti) - very, real, fully, intensifier suffix

ex: miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one [MS, MR, FR, AG, OM]

ex: o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect

ex: o-she-xti (exti) - full

ex: a-na-hi-te-xti (anhittxti) - many, a great many

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka-xti (waxʔikaxti), wa-xo zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - aged woman

ex: te-xti (tʔxti) - dead, stone cold

ex: shiⁿ-xti (įxt) - fat, very, really

ex: sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

ex: e-koⁿ xti (ek̨ xti), e-kaⁿ xti (ką xt) - really, just so

ex: e-shoⁿ-xti (ęxti) - just so [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-be xti (hǫb xti) - moccasins, real shoes

ex: we-sa-xti (wsʔaxti) - rattlesnake, real snake

ex: mi xti (m xti) - myself, I indeed

ex: o-ka-xpa xti (okxpa xti) - town name, Real Quapaws

ex: shi-ke-xti (kext) - very bad

ex: hoⁿ-a-bde a-tʰaⁿ-he, shi-ke-xti i-da-hoⁿ-bde (h̨abde tʰąh, kext idhǫbd) - Ive had a dream, I dreamed a very bad dream [JOD]

ex: za-ni-xti (zanxti) - every single one

ex: za-ni-xti te-a-wa-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde (zanxti tʔewadawe idhǫbd) - every single one, they killed us all, I dreamed that [JOD]

ex: a-kda-xti (kdaxti) - to suffer exceedingly

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti (akʰknį-xti) - in a great crowd, crowding together upon one another, sitting upon one another [JOD]

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ta hi-we i-ya (akʰknį-xti tti tʰetta hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, they say' (JOD)]

ex: e-naⁿ-xti (nąxti) - nothing but that, only that

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka naⁿ-xti wa-da-tʰe-we i-ya (was ke nkkaka-nąxt wdatʰwe iy) - the black bears only ate people, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-xti-shka naⁿ-xti ta-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha waxtka-nąxt ttatʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in future [JOD]

Dhegiha: xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

            hi (hi) - very, intensifier; only or just when used with numbers

cf. hi-zhi (hi) - not very, negation of hi (hi); e-naⁿ hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; naⁿ hi (nąh) - alone, all alone; kde-bdaⁿ hi (kdbdą h), kde-bdaⁿ hi zhi-ka (kdbdąhik), kde-bdaⁿ hi zhi-ka miⁿ-xti (kdbdąhik m̨xti) - hundred

ex: a-pe hi (apphi) - very silent

ex: a-shka hi (ak hi) - very close/near [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka hi (bdka hi) - entire [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ hi (ek̨ hi) - very much like that [JOD]

ex: ha-ha hi (hha hi) - light (not heavy), very light [MS]

ex: ho-taⁿ hi (httą hi) - good, very good [MS]

ex: ho-taⁿ hi (httą hi) - really good, very good [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi (̨čʰǫ hi) - right now

ex: ka-te hi (kktte h) - hot, very hot [OM]

ex: ta-ka-te hi (tkkatte h) - hot, very hot [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi (kki hi) - way off, far away, very far away [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative, very high

ex: pa hi (ppah) - bitter, very bitter

ex: sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - very old, aged, old man, elder

ex: shpoⁿ hi (pǫ hi) - wet, very wet [MS]

ex: shte-ka hi (tka hi) - short, very short [MS]

ex: ski-ke hi (skke h) - heavy, very heavy [MS]

ex: sni hi (sn hi) - cold very cold [MS, OM]

ex: sni-wa-te hi (snwatte hi) - cold, very cold [MS]

ex: so-te hi (stte h) -very fast/rapidly [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (mąn̨ sott hi) - walk fast walk very fast [MS]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (ttą́nį sott hi) - run fast run very fast [MS]

ex: ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-zhi hi (ttįi h) - not a long time, very soon [JOD]

ex: wa-ko zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - woman, aged, very old woman

ex: wa-shkaⁿ hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ hi (wak̨hi) - very hard, with great effort

ex: wa-sha-ke hi (wak hi) - big, very large [AG]

ex: ni wa-sha-ke hi (n waʔke h) - bay, large body of water

ex: pe-te wa-sha-ke hi (pptte waʔke hi) - big fire, very large fire [MS]

ex: si-po-za wa-sh'a-ke hi (sippza waʔke hi) - big toe, very large toe [MS]

ex: ta wa-sha-ke hi (tta waʔke hi) - buck deer, very large deer [MS]

ex: wa-tʰi-shka wa-sha-ke hi (watʰka waʔke hi) - big river, very large creek [MS]

ex: xwiⁿ hi (xwį h) - smell really bad/offensive [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one, everyone, all

ex: zho-hi hi (hi hi) - a lot, very many [MS]

ex: zho-hi hi (hi hi) - a lot, many, a great many [JOD]

ex: de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da (d ye m̨kʰe hi k̨da) - this (one) wants to tell/speak only the truth [JOD]

ex: ko-zhi da-zhi hi (kki di hi) - it didnt go very far

ex: koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (kǫbdi h) - I really didn't want to [JOD]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several, many, more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots of, large amount of [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very

                        ex: aⁿ-si-si a-ta-ha (ąssi attah) - me very active [JOD]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

                        ex: naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha-wi (nąpphi attahwi) - they were very hungry [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: e-ti-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttą ttįi h htʔe kkatte ttaha) - then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

  ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha (nkkaka bn̨ attah) - sure enough smells like a human being [JOD]

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

Dhegiha: a-ta (-ta) - beyond, more than, extreme, excessive [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta shoⁿ (ata shoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

e-de (ed), de (d) - really, indeed

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke tʰi ed mat̨ke tʰi ed keywe n̨ iy) - the rabbit has come!, the rabbit has come! they (black bears) said to one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

                   ► ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e te-a-de e-de (įkk-e tʔede ed) - O grandmother, I have really killed him [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-ba de aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨ba de ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am really tired of it [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe aⁿ-di-xe niⁿ e-de, wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (dotʰe ądxe nį ed, wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, the man eater is sure enough chasing me, she said to him [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are surely telling the truth [JOD]

Dhegiha: the (the) - an oral stop used by females [FL-Osage]; the (e) - indeed; sentence-final declarative marker, oral period; probably once limited to female speech but now optionally used by males as well [CQ-Osage]; e-ye (ey) - female emphatic particle, indeed [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-e-he (nąhe) - exceedingly, very very

 

intercept, head off

a-na-se (nase) - intercept, head off a-a-na-se (anse) - I, a-da-na-se (danse) - you

cf. a-na-se-ta (nastta) - isthmus; wa-na-se (wnase) - attack

Dhegiha: a-na-se (nasĕ) - to fasten a door or gate, to check, hinder, impede, cut off the retreat of, to prevent [JOD-Omaha]; wa-na-se (wanse) - surrounding of a herd, to surround them, as a herd of buffalo or elk [Omaha/Ponca]; a-noⁿ-se (noⁿe) - closed, shut, enclose, block, shutter [Omaha]; a-noⁿ-se (-noⁿ-e) - to intercept, to cut off a retreat, to surround [FL-Osage]; a-na-sa (nasa), a-naⁿ-sa (naⁿsa) - to head off, cut off the retreat or anything; to surround [Kaw]

 

interchanged, back and forth

i-ki-di-toⁿ-toⁿ (kkidttǫttǫ) - back and forth, interchanged

cf. i-ki-di-taⁿ (ikkdittą) - first on one side then on the other [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi i-ki-thi toⁿ-ga (thi ikithi toⁿga) - reverse, convert [Omaha]; i-ʰki-thi-ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-ḳi-thi-ṭoⁿ-ga) - to interchange, permutation [FL-Osage]

 

intercourse

chʰi (čʰi), tshi (t) - coire, coiit, copulate, sex, intercourse a-chʰi (ačʰ) - I, da-chʰi (dačʰ) - you, aⁿ-chʰi-we (ąčʰwe) - we

ex: wi-chʰi (wchʰi) - I with you

ex: aⁿ-da-chʰi (ądchʰi) - you with me

ex: di-chʰi (dičʰ) - you being

Dhegiha: chʰi (chʰi) - copulate, sex, intercourse [Omaha/Ponca]; tsʰu (cʰ), tsʰu-e (cʰe) - copulate with, have intercourse with, screw [CQ-Osage]; wa-tsʰu (wacʰ), wa-tsʰu-e (wacʰe) - copulate, have intercourse, have sex [CQ-Osage]; chu (chu) - copulate, have intercourse with a female [Kaw]

 

interior of animal, insides

o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal

cf. kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out; maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; zhaⁿ xdo-xa (ą xdxʔa) - hollow tree

Dhegiha: o-xtho-ʰka (o-xth-ḳa), u-xtho-ʰka (u-xth-ḳa), u-xthu-ʰka (u-xth-ḳa) - hollow, a hollow place, an oven, a hollow tree or log [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, baggy; intestines, guts, innards, everthing inside the abdominal cavity, including intestines, etc.; hollow places above the hips [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-ʰka (xthu-ḳa), xthu-a (xth-a) - hollow, any kind of hollow in a tree or log [FL-Osage]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

interjection

a-che-zha (ačča) - goodness!

a-che-zha (ačča), e-che-zha (ečča) - goodness! [AG, OM]

ex: e-che-zha de-kʰe (ečča dkʰe) - my goodness, this one! [AG]

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand [AG]

Dhegiha: e-she-she (ecce) - you say it often [Omaha]; e-she (ee) - golly, slang [CQ-Osage]; e-she-she (ee) - you keep saying [CQ-Osage]

 

e (e) - fie!; express disgust, disapproval, or outrage [JOD]

 

ko (k) - why!, interjection [JOD]

 

haⁿ haⁿ haⁿ (h̨hąh̨) - oh! oh! oh!, cry of pain

 

ho-hoo (hoho) - interjection of wonder, surprise

 

ho-ho-xo (hohox) - interjection of wonder, male

 

hoa (hoʔ) - interjection of surprise

 

hoⁿ (hǫǫ) - interjection of surprise, female

 

o (o) - pshaw! [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

 

interlaced, crisscrossed

a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.

cf. a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - cross roads; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream

ex: a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-thi-te u-ga-doⁿ (kʰithte ugdoⁿ) - to nail on crosswise, to crucify [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-thi-tse (-ḳi-thi-tse) - that which lies across the breast [FL-Osage]

 

interpreter

i-ye-wa-ska (iywaska) - interpreter, lit. talk clear

cf. i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible

Dhegiha: i-e-ska (iskă) - interpreter, speak well, interpret, to speak a language plainly, to act as an interpreter [Omaha/Ponca]; i-e-ska (ika) - interpreter [Omaha]; i-e-wa-ska (-e-wa-ka) - an interpreter, translator [FL-Osage]; i-e wa-ska (e wask) - clear words, interpreter [CQ-Osage]; i-e-ska (eska), i-e-wa-ska (ewask) - speak clearly, clear words, clear language [CQ-Osage]; i-e wa-ska (e wask) - talk clearly, intelligibly, plainly, to interpret, interpreter [Kaw]

 

interval, space, crack

o-ta-na (ottna) - space, crack, interval

cf. o-ka-ta-na (okttana) - crack something by handling it; o-naⁿ-ta-na (on̨ttana) - crack something by walking on it

Dhegiha: u-taⁿ-na (utaⁿna), u-taⁿ-noⁿ (utaⁿnoⁿ) - between [Omaha]; u-tʰoⁿ-na (utʰⁿna) - between [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰta-noⁿ (u-ṭa-noⁿ) - between [FL-Osage]; o-ʰtaⁿ-naⁿ (oʰt̨ną) - between, in between, the space between things [CQ-Osage]; o-ta-naⁿ (otnaⁿ) - space between two things, e.g. between furrows [Kaw]

 

intervals

a-ta-pa-xti (ttapaxt) - off and on, at regular intervals [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

 

i-shta xi-xi-te (it xixtte) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes at intervals [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we d-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals-she did it-when-she looked at him-she sent it off-so she lay awhile-they say [JOD]

 

i-da-de (idda) - showing at intervals [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-de i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

 

intestines

shi-we (we), shiu-we (́we), shu-we (we) - guts, entrails

cf. ma-ni-ka shi-we (monikka-chiweh) - worm, bowels of the soil (ver un) [GI]

Dhegiha: shi-be (shbe) - entrails, intestines, guts, innards [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be (shbe) - bowels, intestines [Omaha]; shi-be (sh-be), shiu-be (shi-be), shu-be (sh-be) - entrails, the viscera, intestines [FL-Osage]; shu-pe (pe) - intestines, appendix, colon, entrails, insides, stomach area, stomach [CQ-Osage]; shu-we (shwe), shu-be (shbe) - guts, intestines, entrails [Kaw]

 

into or beneath, put

o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc.

cf. o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into, put inside; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set ones own, put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; mi-knaⁿ (mkną) - put inside, tuck in, stick in; pi-knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away

Dhegiha: u-gi-gthaⁿ (u-g-gaⁿ) - to put a cv. ob. belonging to himself, into a barrel or cv. box; to put his book, paper, etc., into his pocket [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-gthoⁿ (u-g-gthoⁿ) - to put something of your own in a pile [FL-Osage]; o-gi-laⁿ (oglaⁿ) - put something in a container; put a sitting object into something [Kaw]

 

into pieces, in pieces

ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up pa-to-we (ppttowe) - I, shpa-to-we (pttowe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu-be (batube) - crush, to crush on something by punching, pounding, or ramming [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-to-be (batbe) - grind, pound fine [Kaw]

 

bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces pi-to-we (ppttowe) - I, shpi-to-we (pttowe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: bi-tu-be (bitbe) - crumble, to make something crumble by weight or pressure, as an old log or stump [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces a-to-we (ttowe) - I, da-to-we (dttowe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter; ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: ga-tu-be (gtube) - crush [Omaha]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]

 

pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces pa-a-to-we (pattowe) - I, pa-da-to-we (pdattwe) - you

cf. pa (p)  - by cutting with a knife; ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: ba-ʰto-be (b-ṭo-be) - to slice, to cut up [FL-Osage]; wa-ba-ʰto-be (w-ba-ṭo-be) - to cut skin into pieces for making moccasins [FL-Osage]

 

di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces bdi-shpa-shpa (bdpapa) - I, ti-shpa-shpa (ttpapa) - you

cf. di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; pa-shpe (pap) - cut out a piece with a knife, to cut it out with a knife (that portion) [JOD]

ex: zho-i-ka bdo-ka di-shpa-shpa taⁿ aⁿ-da-we i-ya (oka bdka dippa attą ądwe iy) - tearing his entire body to pieces and scattering the pieces all around, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ di-shpa-shpa ke (tti hi ną dippa ke) - when she arrived there, the torn pieces were scattered about [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-shpa-shpa-i (thishpshpai) - pieces pulled apart, scattered in english translation [JOD-Omaha]; thi-shpa-shpa (thi-shp-shpa) - torn to pieces, to tear to pieces [FL-Osage]; u-thi-shpa-shpa (uthshpashp) - to break or crumble into pieces with the hands, as crackers into soup [Omaha/Ponca]; shpa-shpa (shpashpa) - fragment [Omaha]; u-shpa-shpa (ushpshpa) - piece, remnant [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-shpa-shpa (ga-shp-shpa) - hack to pieces, to injure badly [FL-Osage]; ga-shpa-shpa (gashpshpa) - chip off many pieces [Kaw]

 

pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces pa-a-shpa-shpa (pappa) - I, pa-da-shpa-shpa (pdappa) - you

cf. pa-shpe (pap) - cut out a piece with a knife, to cut it out with a knife (that portion) [JOD]; di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; o-shpe (op) - fragment; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump

Dhegiha: ba-shpa-shpa (b-shpa-shpa) - to cut to pieces, to cut an apple or a potatoe into many pieces with a knife [FL-Osage]; ma-shpa-shpa (mshpashpa) - to cut off many large pieces with a knife or saw [Omaha/Ponca]; shpa-shpa (shpashpa) - fragment [Omaha]; u-shpa-shpa (ushpshpa) - piece, remnant [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-shpa-shpa (thashpshpa) - to bite off piece after piece from the outside of an object [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-shpa-shpa (ga-shp-shpa) - hack to pieces, to injure badly [FL-Osage]; ga-shpa-shpa (gashpshpa) - chip off many pieces [Kaw]

 

pa-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (pǫǫ) - cut into small pieces with knife pa-a-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (paǫǫ) - I, pa-da-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (pdaǫǫ) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical

 

into slivers, shreds

da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers bda-sta-ste (bdsteste) - I, ta-ste-ste (ttsteste) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; ka-ste-ste-ye (kaststeye) - to have cut to shreds; naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces; pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers

 

di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers bdi-ste-ste (bdsteste) - I, ti-ste-ste (ttsteste) - you

cf. di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; ka-ste-ste-ye (kaststeye) - to have cut to shreds; naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces; pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers

Dhegiha: thi-stse-stse-ge (thi-sts-stse-ge) - to tear into shreds [FL-Osage]; yu-stse-stse-ge (yuscscege) - cut into strips, pull to shreds [Kaw]

 

ka-zi-zi-di (kazzid) - snip into shreds (with scissors) a-zi-zi-di (zizidi) - I, da-zi-zi-di (dzizidi) - you

cf. ka-zi-zi-te (kazzitte) - fringe; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge

 

into something

di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - dip hand into something bdi-xdi-we (bdxdiwe) - I, ti-xdi-we (ttxdiwe) - you

cf. i-di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - mix, mess with, make gooey; di-xdi-xdi-we (dixdxdiwe) - sticky, make from handling

 

ma-ze snaⁿ-ka o-ka-taⁿ (mze sn̨kka okttą) - drive a nail into something ma-ze snaⁿ-ka o-a-ka-taⁿ (mze sn̨kka okattą) - I, ma-ze snaⁿ-ka o-da-ka-taⁿ (mze sn̨kka odkattą) - you

cf. ma-ze snaⁿ-ka (mze sn̨kka) - nail; o-ka-taⁿ (okttą) - drive in, as nails in a board

Dhegiha: o-ga-doⁿ (ogadoⁿ) - pound [Omaha]; u-ga-doⁿ (u-g-doⁿ) - to nail down a board or nail up a box, peg down [FL-Osage]; o-ga-daⁿ (ogdaⁿ) - drive a nail into something [Kaw]

 

  o-di-zhiⁿ-te (odįtt) - stick something into something o-bdi-zhiⁿ-te (obdįtte) - I, o-ti-zhiⁿ-te (ottįtte) - you

                        cf. naⁿ-pe o-di-zhiⁿ (nąp dį) - gloves; o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ iⁿ-zhe aⁿ-di-zhiⁿ-te (kįttą ̨e ądiįtt) - then he thrust his hand/finger into my vagina [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-zhe o-di-zhiⁿ-te i-ya-we (n̨ ̨e odįtte iywe) - he thrust his hand/or fingers into her vagina again, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-dse (thi-zhⁿ-dse) - to thrust a finger or arm into a hole [FL-Osage]

 

o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill o-a-zhi (oi) - I, o-da-zhi (odi) - you, oⁿko-zhi-we (ǫkiwe) - we

cf. o-zhi (o) - filled [JOD]; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill ones own; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill something for someone; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer; pi-ki-zhi (ppkii) - to put away ones own; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box, wooden box; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]

ex: maⁿ o-zhi (m̨o) - quiver for arrows

ex: zi-hi o-zhi (zhi i) - jug

ex: ma-ze o-zhi (mze i) - tin plate

ex: zhoⁿ o-zhi (̨ o) - dipper or cup of wood

ex: o-zhi ska wa-noⁿ-bde (i ska wan̨bde) - bowl [MS]

ex: ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle [MS]

ex: ma-ze ni o-zhi (maz ni o) - milk bottle [MS]

ex: o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka o-zhi-ha (wąka oha) - birds nest

ex: te-zhe-ni o-zhi-ha (teni iha) - bladder

ex: shi-o-zhi-ha (oha) - uterus

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi zhoⁿ-pi-zhi o-zhi taⁿ ki-ki (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą tttą hott̨ hi ǫppi o tą kikʔ) - so then when they went back (the other girls), he gave his own (his daughter) a wooden box filled with something very good [JOD]

ex: pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde (ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde) - flour-barrel-filled-set up in a row [JOD]

ex: o-zhi-ha zhi-ka e-ti o-wa-zhi naⁿ (iha ik tti wai ną) - he put them in there, in the little bag [JOD]

ex: to-wa o-zhi-ha zhi-ka o-wa-ki-zhi (twa iha ka waki) - he put the four of them (his own) into the little bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-zhi (uzh) - to fill with water, grain, or any bulky substance, to fill with any quantity of small objects, to plant or sow grain, seed, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - a pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (uzhi) - luggage, packet, suitcase, load, gardener, container, contain [Omaha]; u-zhi (zhi) - cabinet, bin, baggage [Omaha]; u-zhi (-zhi) - to plant [FL-Osage]; u-zhi (u-zhi), o-zhi (-zhi) - a hollow receptacle [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - put stuff in, plant stuff, pocket, bottle, container, vessel [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone, put in, plant or sow, put in, receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder, for pourable dry or liquid substances [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]; o-zhu (ozh) - put or pour something into something, put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]

 

into the brush

            o-xda-ti (oxdtti) - into the brush [JOD]

                        cf. o-xda (oxd) - thicket, bushes; tti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

                        ex: o-xda-ti ho-ho-wi da-wi (oxdtti hohwi dawi) - they went into the brush barking [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-de i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-xtha-be (uxthbe) - forest, timber, in the woods [Omaha]; o-xtha-be (o-xtha-be), u-xtha-be (u-xth-be) - thicket, a dense forest, a grove, woods [FL-Osage]; o-xla-be (oxlbe) - brush, bushes, undergrowth, a thicket [Kaw]

 

into the eyes

o-i-naⁿ (iną) - fly against or into, as insects fly into the eyes

 

into the head

ni-shki-ta (niktta) - into the head [JOD]

cf. ni-shki (nik) - back of the head; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: ni-ski-ta a-ba-xda-te i-tʰe-de (niktta baxdtte itʰde) - he stuck it (the pin) into his hair (upright on the back of his head) [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-shki (noⁿshki) - head, not including the face [Omaha]; noⁿ-shki zhi-de (noⁿshki zhide) - red head [Omaha]; te na-shki-ha (te nashkha) - buffalo head hair, hair on the head of a buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]

 

into the house

ti-a-ti (ttitti) - in the house, into the house

ex: ti-a-ti (ttitti) - in the lodge, into the house [JOD]

ex: ti-a-ti kda (ttatti kd) - go in the house! [MS]

ex: ti-a-ti o-ka-xnaⁿ-xnaⁿ (ttitti kaxnąxn̨) - different articles in the lodge [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

ex: to-si a o-doⁿ-de a-taⁿ ti-a-ti a-niⁿ kdi (tos a od̨de [on̨de] ttą ttitti an̨ kdi) - under the arms-he locked arms-and-to the lodge-he brought her back [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-a-di (tadi) - in house, in the house or lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-a-di (tadi) - inside a house [Omaha]

 

into trouble, to get into trouble

shi-ke o-ki-knaⁿ (ik okkkną) - get into trouble, to get into trouble shi-ke o-a-ki-knaⁿ (ik okkikną) - I, shi-ke o-da-ki-knaⁿ (ik odkkikną) - you

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc.; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set, put

Dhegiha: u-gi-gthaⁿ (u-g-gaⁿ) - to put his book, paper, etc., into his pocket; to put a cv. ob., belonging to himself, into a barrel or cv. box [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-gthoⁿ (u-g-gthoⁿ) - to put something in a pile [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-laⁿ (ʰkilą) - that which one puts oneself into, clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ), o-ʰki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oeself or dress in, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-laⁿ (oglaⁿ) - put something in a container; put a sitting object into something [Kaw]

 

into view, into the open

ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view pa-naⁿ-pe (ppnąpe) - I, shpa-naⁿ-pe (pnąpe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

Dhegiha: hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open pi-naⁿ-pe (ppnąpe) - I, shpi-naⁿ-pe (pnąpe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

Dhegiha: hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet a-naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (an̨nąpe) - I, da-naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (dan̨nąpe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

Dhegiha: hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - made to appear, to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise, sun appears, comes into view

cf. ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet

Dhegiha: mi i-thoⁿ-be (m-i-thoⁿ-be) - sunrise, the sun appears [FL-Osage]; miⁿ i-thoⁿ-pe (m̨į ǫpe) - sunrise, the emergence of the sun, lit., sun appears [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-oⁿba i-yoⁿ-be (mⁿoⁿba yoⁿbe) - sunrise [Kaw]

 

ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view pa-wa-di-shta (ppwadita) - I, shpa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

Dhegiha: shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi-wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

po-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - punch, shoot into view po-a-wa-di-shta (pawdita) - I, po-wa-di-shta (pdawdita) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; ba-wa-di-shta (bawdita) - knock into view da-wa-di-shta (dawdit) - declare a thing to be; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

    ► Dhegiha: shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna)

Dhegiha: shi-wa-thi-shna (shwathishna) - appear [Omaha]; thi-wa-thi-shna (thi wathishna) - reveal, show, bring out [Omaha]; wa-yu-shta (wayshta) - visible, to be in sight [Kaw]

 

into, changed into, turned into

o-do-hi (odhi) - changed into, turned into [JOD]

cf. o-do-hi (odhi) - become or come up [JOD]

ex: wa-hi-ka zhi-ka ta-sha-knaⁿ o-do-hi ka-xe (wahkka ka takn̨ odhi kγe) - he made her into a small pin [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xo o-do-hi-ki-de (nkkaka waxʔ odhikid) - he made (caused her) to change into a female human being [JOD]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe (wsʔa odhi kʰe) - she changed into a serpent [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe taⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a spotted real snake (rattlesnake) with/having a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: e-haⁿ kʰe we-sa o-do-hi kʰe taⁿ-ha naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (eh̨ kʰe wsʔa odhi kʰe t̨ha n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - her mother-the recl.-serpent-was changed into-the recl.-because-fearing to see her-was crying (as she sat) [JOD]

 

into, cut into, gash

ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash pa-ste (ppste) - I, shpa-ste (pste) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; o-ste (oste) - crack, cracked, split; o-ste-ke (ostke) - crack, split; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; o-di-ste (odste) - split by pulling a knife through; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; o-ka-ste (okste) - split something by striking; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

Dhegiha: ba-zne (ba-s͓n) - to slit the skin by pushing the hand against a splinter, or, by pushing the stick lengthwise along the hand, without penetrating the flesh [JOD-Omaha]; ba-stse-ge (b-stse-ge) - to gash the skin with a knife [FL-Osage]; ba-stse-ge (bascge) - slit, cut by pushing [Kaw]; ba-stse-ge (bscege) - gash the skin with a knife [Kaw]

 

into, down into

maⁿ-tʰa-ha (mątʰha) - into, down into (as water)

cf. maⁿ-tʰe (m̨tʰe) - inside, in, within, under; ni maⁿ-tʰe (n mątʰ) - under the water; ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]; maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (mą́tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]; maⁿ-tʰe wa-tʰe (m̨tʰe watʰ) - slip, undergarment [OM]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-tse-ʰta-ha (moⁿ-ts-ṭa-ha) - inward, toward the center [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe-ʰta-ha (mącʰʰtaha) - inward, toward the center [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-che-ha (maⁿchha) - under, motion into or inward [Kaw]

 

into, put into

o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put singular, sitting, inanimate object or cloth, paper into o-a-knaⁿ (okną) - I, o-da-knaⁿ (odkną) - you, oⁿ-ko-knaⁿ-we (ǫkknąwe) - we

cf. knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put a singular inanimate object; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate, curvilinear object or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. upon a surface; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set ones own, put ones own; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put singular, sitting, inanimate object into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc.

ex: iⁿ-te o-kdaⁿ (̨tte kdą) - mask, lit. put the face in it

ex: i-yo-knaⁿ (iykną) - put something in the mouth, ha + kną

ex: ma-ze o-knaⁿ (maz okn̨) - bridle

ex: pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną), pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat, cap, head is put inside

ex: wa-pa-hi o-knaⁿ (wapphi okn̨) - headdress of woven yarn

ex: wa-xo pa-hi-o-knaⁿ (waxʔ pphikną) - bonnet

ex: o-kdaⁿ-ke (kdąke) - hat or cap

ex: xi-da oknaⁿ-ke (xid okn̨ke) - headdress made of eagle skins

ex: o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ (iha okną) - to put it in a bag [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gthoⁿ (u-gthoⁿ) - to put in, putting in, a place of deposit, to inclose, in which to put, to thrust in, to put a stake in a pile when gambling [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (ool̨) - put into, place inside of, pour round items into, add items to cooking, pour liquid into [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ (olⁿ) - put a sitting/inanimate object into something, to put a curvilinear (wide rather than tall) object such as paper, a book, a bandage, cloth, etc. within a receptacle [Kaw]

 

o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill o-a-zhi (oi) - I, o-da-zhi (odi) - you, oⁿko-zhi-we (ǫkiwe) - we

cf. o-zhi (o) - filled [JOD]; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill ones own; o-ki-zhi (kii) - fill something for someone; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer; pi-ki-zhi (ppkii) - to put away ones own; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box, wooden box; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]; e-ti-zhi (etti) - put them on [JOD]; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; mi-zhi (mi) - put pl/sin under belt, tuck in; a-zhi (i) - put small sin objects onto something that serves as a platform; koi-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

ex: maⁿ o-zhi (m̨o) - quiver for arrows

ex: zi-hi o-zhi (zhi i) - jug

ex: ma-ze o-zhi (mze i) - tin plate

ex: zhoⁿ o-zhi (̨ o) - dipper or cup of wood

ex: o-zhi ska wa-noⁿ-bde (i ska wan̨bde) - bowl [MS]

ex: ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle [MS]

ex: ma-ze ni o-zhi (maz ni o) - milk bottle [MS]

ex: o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka o-zhi-ha (wąka oha) - birds nest

ex: te-zhe-ni o-zhi-ha (teni iha) - bladder

ex: shi-o-zhi-ha (oha) - uterus

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi zhoⁿ-pi-zhi o-zhi taⁿ ki-ki (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą tttą hott̨ hi ǫppi o tą kikʔ) - so then when they went back (the other girls), he gave his own (his daughter) a wooden box filled with something very good [JOD]

ex: pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde (ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde) - flour-barrel-filled-set up in a row [JOD]

ex: o-zhi-ha zhi-ka e-ti o-wa-zhi naⁿ (iha ik tti wai ną) - he put them in there, in the little bag [JOD]

ex: to-wa o-zhi-ha zhi-ka o-wa-ki-zhi (twa iha ka waki) - he put the four of them (his own) into the little bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-zhi (uzh) - to fill with water, grain, or any bulky substance, to fill with any quantity of small objects, to plant or sow grain, seed, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - a pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (uzhi) - luggage, packet, suitcase, load, gardener, container, contain [Omaha]; u-zhi (zhi) - cabinet, bin, baggage [Omaha]; u-zhi (-zhi) - to plant [FL-Osage]; u-zhi (u-zhi), o-zhi (-zhi) - a hollow receptacle [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - put stuff in, plant stuff, pocket, bottle, container, vessel [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone, put in, plant or sow, put in, receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder, for pourable dry or liquid substances [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]; o-zhu (ozh) - put or pour something into something, put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]

 

into, run into, to butt, collide

a-ki-pa-i-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt a-a-ki-pa-bnaⁿ (akkippbną) - I, a-da-ki-pa-taⁿ (dakkipptt̨) - you

cf. a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-pa (-ḳi-pa) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

 

into, to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in

            o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in [JOD];

cf. hi (hi) - come, be coming here, not own; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to get on and sit, to come to and sit upon, to reach/arrive and sit on [JOD]; a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-hi-gthiⁿ (u-h-gthiⁿ) - he came to and sat at the [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-hi (u-h) - to reach and to enter [FL-Osage]; o-hi (oh) - arrive at a place [Kaw]

 

into, to push into

o-ba-haⁿ (obhą) - to push into

ex: o-ba-haⁿ (obhą) - he pushed into it [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-di-shto-te o-ba-haⁿ a-taⁿ ma-xi-wa-de tʰaⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke i-niⁿ-aⁿ-we ke i-ya-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ i-ya-we (h̨ka ęke h kʰe odtotte obhą att̨ maγwad tʰ̨ iywe, h̨ka ęke etʰ̨ inį̨we k iyw, mat̨ke etʰ̨ iywe) - he skinned Haⁿ-kas son, put on his skin and tricked them, they thought that rabbit was Haⁿ-kas son, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ha kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-ba-haⁿ (kįttą h kʰe mat̨ke obhą) - then the rabbit put the skin on [JOD]

ex: ki-di-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ tʰaⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tʰą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he started to run back towards the water, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ba-haⁿ (u-b-haⁿ) - to push his way in (at the entrance) [JOD-Omaha]; o-ba-hoⁿ moⁿ-iⁿ (o-b-hoⁿ-moⁿ-iⁿ) - Walking Within, personal name [FL-Osage]; o-pa-haⁿ (opahą) - raise up, hold up, put on, don as clothing [CQ-Osage]; o-ba-haⁿ (obhaⁿ) - wear [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-hoⁿ (bahⁿ) - push up, to push up [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-hoⁿ (ba-hⁿ) - to raise an object by pushing, to lift up, pushes up [FL-Osage]; pa-haⁿ (paah̨) - raise, hold up [CQ-Osage]; ba-haⁿ (bahⁿ) - push up, raise by burrowing [Kaw]

 

into, to push through/into

a-ba-xda-te (baxdtte) - to push through/into

cf. a-ki-da-xda-te (kkidaxdtte) - through; a-ki-da-xda-te de (kkidaxdtte d) - to go through

ex: a-ba-xda-te (baxdtte) - he stuck it into (the hair) [JOD]

ex: i-ka-pʰe a-ba-xda-te (kapʰe baxdtte) - comb that is worn in the hair [JOD]

ex: ni-ski-ta a-ba-xda-te i-tʰe-de (niktta baxdtte itʰde) - he stuck it (the pin) into his hair (upright on the back of his head) [JOD]

Dhegiha: na-zhi-ha we-ba-xtha-de (nazhha wbaqthde) - hairpin [Omaha/Ponca]; we-a-ba-xtha-de (webaqthde) - hairpin [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ki-tha-xtha-de (akthaxthade) - through [Omaha]

 

invisible

taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight

                        cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight; zhi (i) - not, negation

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ a-zhi (ṭoⁿ-ⁿ a-zhi) - invisible, not visible, not to be seen [FL-Osage]; wa-tiⁿ-zhi (watⁿzhi) - invisible, not in sight [Kaw]

 

invitation

ki-we (kiw) - come, come in (invitation)

ki-we (kiw) - come on [MR]

ki-we (kiw) - come here [OM]

ki-we (kiw) - come [AG]

ki-we (kiw) - come in, come back [AB]

cf. ki (ki) - be returning to here

ex: ki-we, wi-he (kiw, wih) - come back younger sister [JOD]

ex: za-ni o-zha ki-we (zan a kiw) - everbody come dance [MS]

ex: o-zha za-ni ki-wa-we (a zan  kiwawe) - everybody come dance [MS]

Dhegiha: gi (gi) - to come back, to come home [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-a (giah) - command: beckon: come here (F) [Omaha]; gi-ga (giga) - command: beckon: come here (M) [Omaha]; gi (gi) - he approaches, he comes [FL-Osage]; gi-a (g-a) - is he coming [FL-Osage]; gi-o (gi-o) - to come [FL-Osage]; kiu (ḱ), ku (k), a-kiu (aḱ), a-ku (ak) - come back here; get, fetch, bring, come here with; initial a is often omitted with 3rd person subject and in imperative [CQ-Osage]; ki (ki) - in, into, at, on [CQ-Osage]; gu (gu) - to be coming back [Kaw]; gi (gi-) - motion back to somewhere; go back, return [Kaw]

 

invite

i-ki-pʰe (kipʰ) - to invite the people to assemble, to invite them [JOD]

cf. o-pʰe (opʰ) - enter, as a lodge

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti toⁿ ko-zhi taⁿ o-zha i-ki-pʰe tʰi-we (kįttą tti tt̨ kko tą a kipʰe tʰwe) - then from a distant village they came to invite them to dance [JOD]

ex: i-ki-pʰe za-ni (kipʰe zan) - he invited everyone to assemble [JOD]

ex: i-tʰi-ki i-ki-pʰe a-ka-zhiⁿ-wi (itʰki kipʰe kaįw) - they ordered the crier to invite the people [JOD]

ex: i-tʰi-ki i-ki-pʰe de a-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka tʰi (itʰki kipʰ d att̨ nkkaka tʰ) - the crier goes to invite the people to come and assemble [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-pe (-pĕ) - to ask a person to go with him [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰpe (-p̣e) - to invite, to invite one to go on a journey, or on a fishing trip, to persuade [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-pe (up͓) - to enter, as a lodge or room [Omaha/Ponca]; ti u-pe (tupe) - caller, company, visit [Omaha]; u-ʰpe (u-p̣) - to enter [FL-Osage]; o-ʰpe (oʰp) - enter or go in/into, enter formally as into a peyote meeting [CQ-Osage]; e-ji o-phe (ji oph) - 1) go with, follow; 2) to be a member of, as a society or club; 3) attend, as school or a meeting [Kaw]

 

ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry [JOD]; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ (ąb̨) - he called to me [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨͓ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ-wi (ąb̨wi) - they called me [JOD]

ex: di-baⁿ (dib̨) - call to you [JOD]

ex: wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I call to them

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-boⁿ (kiboⁿ) - invite [Omaha]; gi-boⁿ (g-boⁿ) - to call from a distance, to summon, to call to appear [FL-Osage]; ki-ʰpaⁿ (kʰpą) - call, invite ones relative(s) [CQ-Osage]; ki-paⁿ (kpą) - call or visit to ask or summon someone to attend or appear before others, invite someone, not a relative [CQ-Osage]; gi-baⁿ (gibⁿ) - call to ones own children, etc. [Kaw]; gi-baⁿ (gbaⁿ) - call to someone, call to another, call to anothers child, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-paⁿ (wap̨) - call, holler for folks, invite people [CQ-Osage]; wa-paⁿ (wapą) - invite folks to appear before others [CQ-Osage]; wa-baⁿ (wabⁿ) - to call to them (not by their request [Kaw]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - scream [Omaha]; poⁿ (poⁿ) - yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [FL-Osage]; paⁿ (p̨) - holler, yell, scream, shout [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

Iowa Indians

pa-xo-te (pqutĕ) - Kwapa name for the Iowa Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-qu-de (mqude) - the Iowa tribe, an Iowa person [Omaha/Ponca]; ma-xu-de (mxude) - Iowa Tribe, corruption of paxude grey head [Omaha]; ʰp-xo-dse (p̣-xo-dse), ba-xo-dse (b-xo-dse) - the Osage name for the Iowa Indians [FL-Osage]; pa-xo-tse (pxoce) - Ioway or Iowa Indians, a tribe living in Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma and in earlier days Iowa, lit., gray snow [CQ-Osage]; pa-xo-je (pxoje), pa-xo-tse (pxoce) - Ioway tribe; Ioway person or people, a tribe of the Chiwere group, the other tribes being the Otoe and Missoria. They were the ancient allies of the Ponca and Omaha, to whom they are related [Kaw]

 

iris of the eye

i-shta o-shaⁿ-shaⁿ (it oą̨) - iris of the eye

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; i-shta o-sha (it oa), i-shto-sha (ita) - pupil of the eye; i-shto-ska (itska) - cornea, i-shta (ita) + o-ska (oska)

 

Irish potato

to-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (tǫǫ) - Irish potato, round potato

to-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (tǫǫ) - Irish potato [MS, AB, OM]

cf. to (to) - potato; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical; to ska (toska) - potato, white potato [MR]; to ste-te (to sttte) - sweet potato, long potato [MS, MR, AB, OM]; to ski-de (to ski-de) - sweet potato [MR]; to taⁿ-ka (tuk-tonkah) - apple of the earth, large potato, prairie turnip (pomme de terre) [GI]; to-kde de (tah-kah-dah-the) - turnips (ravets) [GI]

Dhegiha: do-ska (d-ka) - white potatoes, Irish potatoes [FL-Osage]; to-ska (toska) - white potato, Irish potato [CQ-Osage]; do ska (do sk) - potato, commercial potato, Irish potato [Kaw]

 

iron weeding hoe

we-xaⁿ (wxʔą) - hoe, iron weeding hoe

cf. we (we) - with which to; i-xaⁿ (xʔ̨), i-xoⁿ (ixʔ̨) - hoe, cultivate

Dhegiha: i-oⁿ (oⁿ) - cultivate [Omaha]; i-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to cultivate growing corn, beans, and squash [FL-Osage]

 

iron, adze made of iron

iⁿ-spe xa-taⁿ (̨spe xttą) - adze made of iron

                        cf. iⁿ-spe (̨spe), (įsp) - axe; iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet

 

iron, metal, or gun

ma-ze (mze) - iron or gun

ma-ze (mze) - gun, iron, metal [MS]

ma-ze (moseh) - iron (fer) [GI]

maⁿ-ze (m̨ze) - gun also iron [FS]

ex: ma-ze iⁿ-tʰiⁿ (mze ̨tʰį) - sword, lit. iron striker

ex: ma-ze ka-xe (mze kγe) - blacksmith, make metal

ex: ma-ze o-do-ki-aⁿ-da-da (mze odkkiądda) - chain

ex: ma-ze o-knaⁿ (maz okn̨) - bridle

ex: ma-ze o-zhi (mze i) - tin plate, metal bowl or dish

ex: ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, a dollar, white metal

ex: ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ(mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament, from Harrison Quapaw, necklace of pouned metal [MH]

ex: ma-ze-ska miⁿ-xti (mazska m̨xti) - dollar, one dollar

ex: ma-ze snaⁿ-ka (mze sn̨kka) - nail

ex: ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove, metal which causes heat

ex: ma-ze ti-ke (maze ttke) - spoon, metal shell

ex: ma-ze-ti-ta (maztttta) - clock, metal ticking, as tick-tock

ex: ma-ze-ti-ta zhi-ka (maztttta ka) - watch, small clock

ex: ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire, metal string that hears something

ex: ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph, metal string that makes one hear something

ex: ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear, metal with which to pierce or stab

ex: ma-ze we-ka-sta (maz wkast) - hammer, metal with which to pound/beat with

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron, metal [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿe) - nail, iron, metal, female breasts, teats [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron or any kind of metal [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mą́ze) - metal of any kind, lead or iron, wire, cable [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mⁿze) - iron, metal in general [Kaw]

 

iron, to iron, press flat

      ► a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - press down on

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: a-bi-saⁿ-de (-bi-sn-dĕ) - 1. to press down on; 2.to catch an object by pressing the hands down on and around it; 3. usual meaning is a vulgar one [JOD-Omaha]; a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-bi-saⁿ-je (bisaⁿje), a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on, wrestle [Kaw]

 

iron, used to iron clothes

            we-ta-sa-de (wtsde), we-ta-sta-de (wtstde) - iron, like you iron with [MS]

ex: we-ta-sta-de ho-taⁿ hi (wtstde httą hi) - good iron [MS]

Dhegiha: we-na-sa-da-the (wnasdathe) - flat iron [Omaha/Ponca]; we-na-sa-da-the (wenaa dathe) - flat iron [Omaha]; wa-na-sa-de the (wanade the) - iron clothes [Omaha]

 

ironwood tree

zhoⁿ ta-kaⁿ koⁿ (̨ ttakk̨ kǫ) - ironwood tree

Dhegiha: he-tʰa-zhoⁿ-tʰa (htʰazhⁿtʰa) - ironwood [Omaha/Ponca]; he-ta-zhoⁿ-ta (htazhoⁿta) - ironwood tree [Omaha]

 

irritate, pick on

i-si-aⁿ (sį) - irritate, pick on i-da-si-aⁿ (idsį) - I, i-da-si-aⁿ (dasį) - you

Dhegiha: i-si (i) - to dislike, to hate, to abhor, repugnance [FL-Osage]; i-si (isi) - hate, dislike, detest, abhor, despise [CQ-Osage]; i-si (si) - hate, dislike [Kaw]

 

i-si-wa-de (siwde) - irritate, pick on someone i-da-si-wa-de (idsiwde) - I, i-da-si-wa-de (dasiwde) - you

Dhegiha: i-si-wa-the (-i-wa-the) - contemptible, despicable, base, vile, infamous [FL-Osage]; i-si-e wa-the (-i-e wa-the) - a knave; a tricky, deceitful person [FL-Osage]; i-si-wa-the (isiwae) - be mean, hateful, disliked, destestible, contemptible, despicable, base, vile, infamous, spiteful, lit., cause folks to hate him/her [CQ-Osage]; i-si-wa-ye (siwye) - hateful, abominable, no good [Kaw]

 

i-si-si-ke (siske) - mistreat, abuse someone

ex: i-di-si-si-ke (idsiske) - they abuse you [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

 

irritated

o-xnaⁿ (xną) - angry, irritated, cross

o-xnaⁿ (o-hu-nu) - mean [LH]

cf. o-xnaⁿ ka-xe (xną kγe) - to make angry, cross

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - mean dog [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

Dhegiha: u-xthoⁿ shtoⁿ (-xthoⁿ-shtoⁿ) - to be cross, disagreeable [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (lą), (olą), o-loⁿ (ol̨ǫ), o-dla (dla) - pout, sulk, sulky [CQ-Osage]; xthoⁿ (xthoⁿ) - to sulk, pout, peeved [FL-Osage]; loⁿ (l̨), laⁿ (l̨) - mad, angry [CQ-Osage]

 

island

ni doⁿ-ta (n dǫtt), ni naⁿ-ta (n nątt) - island

ni noⁿ-ta (ni-nottah) - island (isle) [GI]

Dhegiha: ni u-thoⁿ-da (n-u-ań-da) - an island [JOD-Omaha]; ni-u-thoⁿ-ta (niu thoⁿta) - island [Omaha]; ni-u-thoⁿ-da (ni--thoⁿ-da) - an island [FL-Osage]; no-oⁿ-ʰta zhiⁿ-ka (nǫʰta ̨ka) - island [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-thoⁿ-da (uthⁿda) - center, middle [Omaha/Ponca]; o-thoⁿ-da (o-thⁿ-da), u-thoⁿ-da (-thoⁿ-da) - in the center [FL-Osage]

 

isthmus

a-na-se-ta (nastta) - isthmus

Dhegiha: a-na-se (nasĕ) - to fasten a door or gate, to check, hinder, impede, cut off the retreat of, to prevent [JOD-Omaha]

 

it

e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned

ex: e she-mi ( mi) - that girl [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: e a-di-xe koⁿ-da ( diγ kǫd) - she wanted to marry him, the aforementioned [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ e toⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: e a-niⁿ ni-tʰe ( an̨ nitʰ) - that, the aforementioned, he probably has it [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ( odhake) - that last one [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ni a-shka ki taⁿ pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki-knaⁿ ( odhake n ka k tą ppah nįkʰ kkikn̨) - that-last one-water-near-reached here again-when-head-the (part)-she put down her own for him [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke hi ( h̨ba h̨ke h) - that-day-nearly-very [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ e wa-naⁿ niⁿ (mat̨ke nį waną nį) - rabbit was singing it (the aforementioned) as he was moving along [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

Dhegiha: e () - he, she, that, that one, the afore-said, they, it [JOD-Omaha]; e (e) - he, she, it, or that [FL-Osage]; e (e) - 3rd person emphatic or contrastive pronoun (that one, that person, she/her, he/him; those persons, them; this person or thing, the foregoing, she herself, he himself, they themselves [CQ-Osage]; e (e), e (e), (ee) - that, those, be that, those [Kaw]

 

it is

            a-kʰe (akʰ) - it is the one [JOD]

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ, de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da a-kʰe (d įxowi h ną, d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd akʰ) - this (one) tells no lies, this (one) wants to tell/speak the truth, it is the one [JOD]

 

            e-tʰaⁿ-zhi (etʰ̨i) - it is not he [JOD]

cf. e-tʰaⁿ (etʰ̨) - he was that [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

 

            e-te (ett) - so it is [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are telling the truth [JOD]

 

it is misting

            ni-zhi xo-ta hi-de tʰe (nixott hde tʰe) - it is misting

cf. ni-zhi (ni) - rain, it is raining; ni-zhi xo-ta (nixott) - mist, drizzle; hi-de (hde) - precipitate, as rain, snow; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate, the act

Dhegiha: ni-zhiu xo-dse (ni-zhi xo-dse) - gray rain, drizzle [FL-Osage]; ni-zhu xo-ʰtaⁿ (niu xʰtą) - drizzle, mist, fine raindrops, lit., small rain [CQ-Osage]; nu-zho-xo-ta (nuzhxota) - sprinkle, fine rain mixed with snow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu-the (hi-the) - to cause to come [FL-Osage]; hu-the (he) - relating to weather, coming down, falling; cause to come here, send here, hand over, hand to, pass to by hand or other means, come here [CQ-Osage]; hu-ye (hye) - relating to weather: blowing, precipitating [Kaw]

 

it is raining

            ni-zhi (ni) - rain, it is raining

            ni-zhi (ni)  - rain [MS, AB, AG, OM]

ni-zhi (n˙i) - rain [FS]

                        ex: ni-zhi tʰe (ni tʰe) - the rain

                        ex: ni-zhi te (ni-tte) - it will rain

                        ex: ni-zhi te (ni tte) - its going to rain [OM]

                        ex: jhi-e ni-zhi shkoⁿ-ta (jhe ni kǫtt) - do you want the rain? [AG]

                        ex: ni-zhi koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe (ni kǫd nįkʰ) - they want rain [MS]

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ) - rain, to rain [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-zhi (noⁿzhiⁿ) - rain [Omaha]; ni-zhiu (ni-zhi) - rain [FL-Osage]; ni-zhu (niu) - rain [CQ-Osage]; ni-zhu (nizh), nu-zhu (nuzh) - rain [Kaw]

 

it is said

            i-ya (iy) - it is said or they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

cf. i-ye (ye) - word, talk, speak; i-ye (iy) - quotative, non-hearsay evidential; i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ya-zhi (yai) - he/she spoke not [JOD]; i-ye-ye (iyye) - to have spoken; i-yi-ya (iyya) - to have said, i- + ye; i-yi i-ya (iy iy) - it is said he said, used in myths, quotative embedded

ex: kiⁿ kʰi-taⁿ a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de naⁿ i-ya (kʔ̨ kʰttą itti itʰde ną iy) - when he reached home carrying (the meat) on his back, he piled it outside (the lodge), it is said

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde iy tʰą iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ, etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k, iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell! the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ niⁿkʰe iy) - then the rabbit sat there, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: i-we-ke i-ya (iwke iy), i-we-ki i-ya (iwki iy) - he/she said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya (iwki n̨ iy) - he was saying it to them-it is said [JOD]

 

            i-yi i-ya (iy iy) - it is said he said, used in myths, quotative embedded

cf. i-ya (iy) - it is said or they say, quotative, hearsay evidential; i-ye (ye) - word, talk, speak; i-ye (iy) - quotative, non-hearsay evidential; i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ya-zhi (yai) - he/she spoke not [JOD]; i-ye-ye (iyye) - to have spoken; i-yi-ya (iyya) - to have said, i- + ye

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (pʰi nih, iy iy mat̨ke) - so I have been coming here, replied the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ da-xa-ke e, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke, hǫn̨ttą daγke e, iy iy was nįkʰ) - rabbit, why are you crying? said the bear, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hau, e-koⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-tʰe te-a, i-yi i-ya-we (ądtʰe ttǎ, iy iywe) - she said, lets eat it, they say [JOD]

ex: a-ki kde te-a, i-yi i-ya-we (ak kde tte, iy iywe) - she said, I will go again after it (to get it), they say [JOD]

 

itch

da-xi-xi-ke (daxʔxʔike) - itch one aⁿ-da-xi-xi-ke (̨daxʔxʔike) - Im, di-da-xi-xi-ke (ddaxʔxʔike) - youre

 

di-xi-xi-da (dixʔxʔida) - scratch an itch bdi-xi-xi-da (bdxʔixʔida) - I, ti-xi-xi-da (ttxʔixʔida) - you

 

ki-naⁿ-xʔi-de (kinąxʔide) - to scratch/itch oneself with the foot

ex: ki-naⁿ-xʔi-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (kinąxʔide nįkʰ, ̨ke) - scratching himself, the dog [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-i-i-tha (thiitha) - tickle, to tickle someone [Omaha/Ponca]; yu-ki-ki-ya (yukkiya) - scratch an itch repeatedly, to tickle [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-ʰki-tha (thi-ḳ-tha) - to tickle [FL-Osage]; thi-ki-the (ikʔe), thi-ki-e (ikʔe) - scratch, tickle [CQ-Osage]; yu-ki-ya (yukya) - scratch an itch once [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ki-e (ki) - itch, scratch, hoe, to scratch oneself [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-e (kie), gi-e (gie) - scratch, itch [Omaha]; ki-e (kʔe), ku-e (kʔe) - scratch an itch [CQ-Osage]; ku-ya (kya) - itch, have an itch [Kaw]

 

its

i-ta (itt), e-ta (ett) - his, hers, its, alienable

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my (alienable), mine; di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, alienable; di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, alienable; i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, (dual); oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - husband, her man

ex: wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - wife, his woman

ex: shoⁿ-ke i-ta (̨ke itt) - his/her dog

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttitti ką kdan̨ d) - it was hers-because-she took her own-and-into the house-so-she carried her own [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti ki (tt ett tʰtti k) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-da wi-te-ke e-ta-we di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd wtteke ettwe ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ta (eta) - his or her own [Omaha]; i-ʰta (i-ṭ) - his or hers [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta (ʰta) - be his/hers, theirs, belong to him/her, them [CQ-Osage]; i-ta (it), (ta) - his, her, hers, its, their(s); be ones; belong to [Kaw]

 

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