English to Quapaw Dictionary

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Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

L

 

length, at length

e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length

e-shaⁿ (ą) - then or at length [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe, iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ o-kʰe a-da-shtaⁿ-taⁿ (ę okʰ datąttą) - and when he stopped talking to him....

ex: e-shoⁿ e-ti pa-ze he-be hi a-kde (ę ett ppze hbe h akd) - so already (that) evening I started home

ex: e-shaⁿ e-ti shi-a-pe da-we (ą ett ipe dwe) - then or at length-there-ashore-they went [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - still, yet; at all events, at any rate; and so; thus [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - by and by, after awhile, eventually [Kaw]

 

e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at lengthe-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that timee-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eǫh nąh̨ ik h t̨ ną) - then, after some time, she grew a little larger (a little older) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-kniⁿ (kįttą eǫh ąkn̨) - then after awhile we camped [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: ni o-ha naⁿ kde e-shoⁿ-hi ki i-ya-we (n oh ną kd ǫhi k iywe) - she followed the course of the stream/water heading home, after some time she reached home, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - still, yet; at all events, at any rate; and so; thus [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - by and by, after awhile, eventually [Kaw]

 

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (h̨tʰąhi), haⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (h̨tʰąhi) - then, at length

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi, nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was nįkʰ) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they said) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ nįkʰ, iy) - then the rabbit sat there, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi maⁿ-te kdi-ze naⁿ e-ti de i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨tʰąhi m̨tte kdze-ną tti d iy matįke) - but the rabbit took his bow and went there, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

length, half in length

o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length), middle

cf. ski-ke o-skaⁿ-ska (skke osk̨ska) - one half pound, 1/2 lb; pe o-skaⁿ-ska (p osk̨ska) - midsummer; sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter; pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ (sippzosk̨ską) - middle or third toe; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe; naⁿ-piu-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąpzskąsk), naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąp zoskąsk) - middle finger, second finger; naⁿ-pe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska (nąp zoskąsk opttą) - third finger, ring finger, next to the middle finger; haⁿ-skaⁿ-ska (h̨skąska) - midnight

ex: o-ka-ki-xe hi o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi o-a-zha aⁿ-maⁿ (okkixe h osk̨ską h a ąm̨) - I usually dance, going around in the middle [JOD]

ex: o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi na-zhiⁿ tʰaⁿ (osk̨ską hi ną tʰą) - he stood in the middle, he was standing in the middle [JOD]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

length, half that length

miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd-) - half (of that measure); de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this (much); ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth; miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (wiⁿdtʰoⁿ) - half, half full, as a glass, pail, or barrel; half the length [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (wiⁿdetoⁿ) - half [Omaha]; mi i-doⁿ-be wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (mi idoⁿbe wiⁿdetoⁿ) - half hour [Omaha]; hoⁿ wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (hoⁿwiⁿde toⁿ) - midnight [Omaha]

 

length, long enough, a certain length

she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

cf. de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this (much); ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ) - half that length

 

length, of equal length

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this (much)

 

length, that long, of that length

ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length

cf. de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this (much); kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ) - half that length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

 

length, waist length breast

ma-ze ste-te (maz stett) - giant woman, hair to waist; waist length breast carried over her shoulders for suckling stolen children

cf. ma-ze (maz) - breast; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long; ma-ze zhi-ka (maz ka) - little breasts [MS]

Dhegiha: ma-ze (maz) - breast, udder [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿ-) - womans breast [FL-Osage]; ba-ze (ba-) - a woman's breast, udder [FL-Osage]; pa-ze (paaz) - breast, udder [CQ-Osage]; ba-ze (baz) - breast [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zne-de (znde) - long [Omaha/Ponca]; zne-de (nede) - long [Omaha]; zne-de (s͓nde) - long [JOD-Omaha]; zne-de (sned) - tall [JOD-Omaha]; stse-dse (stse-ds), stse-e (stse-e)  - tall, a tall man, long [FL-Osage]; stse-tse (scce) - tall, long [CQ-Osage]; stse-je (scje) - long, tall [Kaw]

 

lengthwise, cut lengthwise

so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise a-so i-he-a-de (as ihade) - I, da-so i-he-da-de (das ihdade) - you; oⁿ-so i-he-oⁿ-da-we (ǫs ihǫdawe) - we

cf. i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

Dhegiha: su (su) - to cut in strips [Omaha/Ponca]; su (u) - to cut or make a slit in a hide [FL-Osage]; so (so) - cut a strip, as making in making a thong [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

lengthwise, put lengthwise

o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand o-a-kde (okde) - I, o-da-kde (dakde) - you, oⁿ-ko-kda-we (ǫkkdawe) - we

Dhegiha: u-gthe (ugth) - an upright stand or receptacle; the part of a bean or pea where it joins the pod [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gthe (u-gth) - a socket, to use as supports for [FL-Osage]; o-le (ol) - put a standing/inanimate object into something [Kaw]

 

 

lessen

di-zhiⁿ-ka (dįka) - lessen, diminish, make small bdi-zhiⁿ-ka (bdįka) - I, ti-zhiⁿ-ka (ttįka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig), zhiⁿ-ka (įk, ̨ka) - small, little, young; o-zhiⁿ-ka (įk) - smaller part, something small

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-ga (thizhiⁿga) - condense, make small [Omaha]

Dhegiha: zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿga) - small, little, a child, the young of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿga) - small, little [Omaha]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿ-ga) - small, little, young, little children [FL-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ka (įk, ̨ka) - (be) little small, child(ren), little one(s), kid(s) [CQ-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿga) - small, the young of an animal, a child [Kaw]

 

di-zho-wa (diow) - lessen bdi-zho-wa (bdowa) - I, ti-zho-wa (ttowa) -you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; zho-wa (ow) - few, insufficient, some; zho-wa (jwa) - little [JOD]

Dhegiha: ju-ba (jba) - a few, a small quantity [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-pa (zhupa) - few [Omaha]; dsu-ba (ds-ba) - few, scant, not sufficient [FL-Osage]; cho-pa (čopa) - little, few, a small amount or number, a little bit [CQ-Osage]; jo-ba (jba) - some, few, a little, small quantity, diminutive form of dba some [Kaw]

 

lest

na-ha (nah) - prohibitive, beware lest..., follows verb

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-he naⁿ (tti tt nah ih ną) - you do not go there!, Ive been saying [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there!, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-yi i-ya e-kaⁿ-ki-dai (tti tt nah iy iy ek̨kdai) - you do not go there, said his grandmother, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: da-xa-ke naⁿ-ha (daγke nąh) - beware lest you cry out [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-shpi-ta na-ha (̨pitta nah) - beware lest you lean on me!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

ex: a-da-ka-xdi-we da-na-zhiⁿ na-ha (dakaxdwe danį nah) - beware lest you stand gazing on it!

ex: ka-she-naⁿ na-ha (kaną nah) - don't do that! [AB]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ha (naⁿha), noⁿ-ha (noⁿha) - imperative [Kaw]; na-ha-o (nahao) - imperative, masculine singular [Kaw]

 

let go, free

di-shtaⁿ de-de (dit̨ ded) - let go, free

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ the-the (thishtoⁿ thethe) - turn loose, release [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ ga-xe (thi-shtⁿ ga-xe) - to discharge one employed [FL-Osage]; thi-shtoⁿ gthe ga-xe (thi-shtⁿ gthe ga-xe) - to release one from confinement, to let one go free who has been under arrest, to liberate a captive [FL-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ ye-ye (yushtⁿ yye) - to drop or let go of something suddenly [Kaw]

 

wa-di-haⁿ-zhi (wadhąi) - he let them go [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke wa-di-haⁿ-zhi (kak ke wadhąi) - those-he let them go [JOD]

 

let slip, fumble

di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold bdi-kdoⁿ-da (bdkdǫda) - I, ti-kdoⁿ-da (ttkdǫda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: thi-gthoⁿ-tha (th-gthoⁿ-tha) - fail to get a good grip, to drop by accident [FL-Osage]; yu-laⁿ-ya (yulⁿya), yu-laⁿ-ye (yulaⁿye) - miss or fumble in trying to grasp or pull an object which is too large to be handled [Kaw]

 

di-shnoⁿ-da (din̨da) - let slip, fumble something bdi-shnoⁿ-da (bdnǫda) - I, ti-shnoⁿ-da (ttnǫda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-shnoⁿ-da (ban̨da) - push at and fail or miss; bi-shnoⁿ-da (bin̨da) - fail, miss applying pressure; da-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨da) - slip in eating, talking, etc.; ka-shnoⁿ-da (kan̨da) - miss the mark striking at something; naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (nąn̨da) - lose ones footing, slip; pa-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - fail to cut something with a knife; po-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - miss a target shooting

Dhegiha: zhnoⁿ (zhnoⁿ) - verb root, to miss, let fall, zhnoⁿ-tha (c͓naⁿa), ba-zhnoⁿ (bac͓naⁿ), bu-zhnoⁿ (buc͓naⁿ), tha-zhnoⁿ (ac͓naⁿ), thi-zhnoⁿ (ic͓naⁿ), ga-zhnoⁿ (gac͓naⁿ), ma zhnoⁿ (mac͓naⁿ), mu-zhnoⁿ (muc͓naⁿ) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

let, to let one suckle

ma-ze ki (maz kʔ) - to let one suckle [JOD]

cf. ma-ze (maz) - breast; ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

ex: ma-ze ki (maz kʔ) - breast-give to her

ex: ma-ze ki, xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (maz kʔ, γak nįkʰ) - let her suckle, shes crying [JOD]

ex: xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe, ma-ze ki, i-he miⁿ-kʰe (γak nįkʰ, maz kʔ, ih mįkʰ) - shes crying, let her suckle (give her your breast), I said [JOD]

 

lets

te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall, will

ex: aⁿ-ka-de te (ąkde tt) - let us go thither, let us (two) go [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-ska ki-kiⁿ di-kna, aⁿ-ka-de te (k̨ska kikʔ̨ dikn, ąkde tt) - quickly decide what you will pack, lets go [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-ki-a-naⁿ te (ǫkkiną-tte) - let us race

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, aⁿ-ka-kde te, i-ke tʰaⁿ (įkn̨, ąkkde tt, ik tʰą) - first son, lets go home, he said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: te (te) - will, let, please [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]

ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets (the speaker and one other person); che (che) - exhortative; the exhortative ending ta che (ta che) is more like definitely will or surely will, but functions similarly to the English lets or let it be so [Kaw]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

te-a (tte) - will or let [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (ąkkde tte) - let us go homeward, lets go home [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-aⁿ-de [te-aⁿ-da-we] aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (wąka hi h tʔęde [tʔądwe] ąkkde tte) - we have killed many birds, lets go home [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-tʰe te-a (ądtʰe tta) - let us eat it [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-tʰe te-a, i-yi i-ya-we (ądtʰe tta, iy iywe) - she said, lets eat it, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a (wikkdakʔ̨ tte) - I will carry you on my back [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtse-a (ṭse-) - shall [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: te (te) - will, let, please [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]

ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets (the speaker and one other person); che (che) - exhortative; the exhortative ending ta che (ta che) is more like definitely will or surely will, but functions similarly to the English lets or let it be so [Kaw]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

lets, we shall

ta-i (ta) - we shall, lets, will (plural) [JOD]

cf. ta-i-tʰe (taitʰ), ta-i-te (taitt) - shall (plural), they shall [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - let us (lets) kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔa ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there!, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi ta-i, wa-xo-zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔik ik nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i (tai) - will, plural [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i (ta-i) - we shall, lets [Omaha]; ʰtai (ʰtai) - lets, clause final element conveying an extortion or suggestion for a group including the speaker and at least two other persons [CQ-Osage]

 

letter, book, paper

i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter

i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - paper [MS, FR, AG, OM]

i-ka-zo-zo (ika-zŭzŭ) - write (ecrire) [GI]

cf. i-ka-zo-zo da-te (kazzo dat) - school, school house, read aloud books [MS]; i-ka-zo-zo i-ka-xe (kazzo ikγe) - pencil [MS]; i-ka-zo-zo i-ka-xe (kazzo ikγe) - pen, writing instrument; i-ka-zo-zo i-koⁿ (kazzo kǫ) - cards, playing cards, paper with which to gamble or bet; i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe kniⁿ (kazzo kγe knį) - clerk, he who sits writing; i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe o-ti (kazzo kγe ott) - school, school house; i-ka-zo-zo ni (kazzo n) - ink; i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw; i-ka-zo i-ka-xe (kazo ikγe) - pencil, writing instrument; i-ka-zo-ye (kazye) - to have written

ex: i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi (kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h) - he wrote/made a letter and took it thither to her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

 

level, a low level

o-zaⁿ-te (ozątt) - broad, as a field, a low level

cf. o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom, same as o-zo-ti-o-we (ozttiow), name of a Quapaw town in Arkansas; o-zo-ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: zaⁿ-de (zaⁿ-de) - a forest, a dense forest, a highland covered with trees [JOD-Omaha]; zoⁿ-dse (oⁿ-dse) - upland forest [FL-Osage]; zaⁿ-tse (z̨ące) - prairie, country, rural area, countryside; a valley with trees, a grove of trees [CQ-Osage]; zaⁿ-je (zaⁿj), zoⁿ-je (zoⁿj) - timber, highland covered with trees; woods [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber [Kaw]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber (the name of the village) [Kaw]

 

level, flat

bda-da (bdda) - flat, level

cf. bda-ska (bdska) - flat; bda-xa (bdxa) - wide, as a road; bda-bda (bdbda) - raised

Dhegiha: btha-tha (bththa) - level [Omaha/Ponca]; btha-tha (bth-tha) - broad, wide [FL-Osage]; bra-tha (braa) - broad, wide and smooth, as a prairie, smoothed out [CQ-Osage]; bla-ya (blya) - level, without cuts or hills [Kaw]

 

lever

bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end pi-ha-ta de-a-de (pphatta dade) - I, shpi-ha-ta de-da-de (phatta ddade) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing; ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it

 

lice, louse

he (he) - louse

he (heh) - lice (pou) [GI]

he (he) - lice, louse [FS]

Dhegiha: he (he) - louse, lice [Omaha/Ponca]; he (he) - head lice, lice [Omaha]; he (he) - louse [FL-Osage]; he (he) - lice, louse [CQ-Osage]; he (he) - louse [Kaw]

 

he-saⁿ (hes̨) - lice [JOD]

he-saⁿ (heh-sion) - lice, body lice (pou de corps morp) [GI]

ex: o-ta-shti-te a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

Dhegiha: he-soⁿ (hoⁿ) - nits, gnits, head lice, gnats [Omaha]; he-soⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (he-ⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - little white louse, a nit [FL-Osage]

 

lick, taste

da-shta (dat) - lick, taste bda-shta (bdta) - I, ta-shta (ttta) - you

Dhegiha: tha-shta-be  (tha-t-be) - to taste; to lick, as sugar off a cookie; to lick, as with the tongue; tasted [FL-Osage]; tha-shta-pe (aatpe) - lick [CQ-Osage]; ya-shta-be (yashtbe) - taste something, lick something [Kaw]

 

lid

i-ka-bnaⁿ (kabną) - lid, covered

i-ka-bnaⁿ (kabną) - lid, covered up [MS]

 

lie down to sleep

zhoⁿ-ki-de (̨kkid) - lie down to sleep zhoⁿ-a-ki-de (̨akkid) - I, zhoⁿ-da-ki-de (̨dakkid) - you

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; zhaⁿ i-de (̨ id) - sleep; zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down; zhaⁿ-kʰe (ąkʰ), zhoⁿ-kʰe (ǫkʰ) - continuative be lying, reclining; a-zhaⁿ (ą) - bed, bedstead; naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday, lit. two sleeps; da-bni zhoⁿ (dbni ǫ) - Wednesday, three sleeps; a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on ones stomach; ti o-zhaⁿ (tt ǫ) - household, family; o-zhaⁿ wa-kniⁿ-zhi (ą wakn̨i) - enemy within the tribe, a bad person to sleep among

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de ta miⁿkʰe (̨kkid  tta mįkʰ) - I want to lay down (I am going to lie down to sleep) [MS]

ex: zhaⁿ-ki-da-wi (ąkkidwi) - they lay down in order to go to sleep [JOD]

ex: kda-tʰe ki-ha-i naⁿ zhaⁿ-ki-da-wi i-ya-we pa-ze de naⁿ (kdatʰ kiha ną ąkidwi iywe ppze d ną) - when they were finished eating (their own food), they went to sleep after dark, they say [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de aⁿ-ki-wi-taⁿ (ą̨kkid ąkiwitt̨) - lets go to bed [MS]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

lie on ones stomach

ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on ones stomach ki-kda-shaⁿ da-zhaⁿ (kkikdą dą) - you

cf. ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over

Dhegiha: thi-a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thi akigthashoⁿ) - turn over [Omaha]; ba-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (ba-ḳ-gtha-shoⁿ) - to push upside down [FL-Osage]; ba-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (ba--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - to turn an object upside down by pushing [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (noⁿ--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - kick over, as to upset; upset with the foot [FL-Osage]; ba-ku-la-shaⁿ (baklashaⁿ) - turn upside down, push over [Kaw]; bo-ku-la-shaⁿ (bkulashaⁿ) - knock upside down by shooting [Kaw]; bu-ku-la-shaⁿ (buklashaⁿ) - turn upside down, overturn by pressure; to turn an object upside down by pushing with the hands alone, with nothing in them, by weight or presssure [Kaw]; ga-ku-la-shaⁿ (gaklashaⁿ) - knock upside down; turn somersaults [Kaw]; yu-ku-la-shaⁿ (yuklashaⁿ) - roll over, turn upside down; to turn an object such as a boat bottom upward by pulling [Kaw]; naⁿ-ku-la-shaⁿ (naⁿklashaⁿ) - kick over, to upset [Kaw]

 

lie on something

a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something a-pi-saⁿ-te (ppisątte) - I, a-shpi-saⁿ-te (pisątte) - you, oⁿ-ka-pi-saⁿ-ta-we (ǫkpisąttawe) - we

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects

ex: ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe aⁿ-bi-saⁿ-te (kakkkdattie ̨bisątt) - he tumbled over and lay on me

ex: maⁿ-da a-bi-saⁿ-te naⁿ i-ya (m̨da bisątte ną iy) - he held him down on his back, it is said

ex: wa-bi-saⁿ-ta-we (wbisąttawe) - he or they lay on us

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - mash, push down on, shut, close, hold down [CQ-Osage]; a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on with the hands, as in catching a bird or rabbit; to press or bear hard on, as with a chair leg; to run and jump on something, wrestle [Kaw]; a-ki-bu-saⁿ-je (kbusaⁿje) - to wrestle each other [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-soⁿ-de (basoⁿde) - push, to push together with the hand against something which is on something else, as a pen on paper [Omaha/Ponca]; i-bi-soⁿ-de (bisⁿde) - narrow, a narrow place, as a ledge at the base of a cliff above a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-soⁿ-de (baoⁿde) - crease, press together [Omaha]; u-bi-soⁿ-de (ubioⁿde) - compact, crowded [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze a-noⁿ-soⁿ-de (moⁿe anoⁿoⁿde) - brassiere [Omaha]; soⁿ-soⁿ-de (oⁿoⁿde) - close together [Omaha]; a-ba-soⁿ-dse (-ba-oⁿ-dse) - to push one against a tree or a door, to lace up a shoe [FL-Osage]; a-thi-soⁿ-dse (-thi-oⁿ-dse) - to hold firmly between the hands or fingers, to squeeze; to clasp ones legs around a horse when riding bareback, [FL-Osage]; i-noⁿ-soⁿ-dse (-noⁿ-oⁿ-dse) - to take shelter behind someth, as protection [FL-Osage]; a-ba-saⁿ-je (basaⁿje) - push against something, as a door to keep it closed; have sex with [Kaw]; a-ga-saⁿ-je (gasaⁿje) - to make tight by nailing on, as tarred paper on the inside of a house; nail down tight [Kaw]; a-naⁿ-saⁿ-je (naⁿsⁿje) - stamp on something (to anchor it), to bring down the feet suddenly on a paper, etc., to keep it from being blown away [Kaw]; a-ya-saⁿ-je (yasaⁿje) - hold firmly with the teeth [Kaw]; a-yu-saⁿ-je (yusaⁿje) - clamp something, hold firmly [Kaw]; iⁿ-yaⁿ-o-bu-saⁿ-je (iⁿyⁿobusⁿje) - gorge, narrow defile with stream [Kaw]

 

lie or sit on the edge, to perch

bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit or lie on the edge, to perch pi-zi-pa (ppzippa) - I, shpi-zi-pa (pzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of ones own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

Dhegiha: bu-zu-be (buzbe) - lean against, sit or lie on the edge of [Kaw]

 

lie, recline, sleep

zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline a-zhaⁿ (ą) - I, da-zhaⁿ (dą) - you

zhoⁿ (jon) - sleep (dormir) [GI]

cf. zhaⁿ i-de (̨ id) - sleep; zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down; zhaⁿ-kʰe (ąkʰ), zhoⁿ-kʰe (ǫkʰ) - continuative be lying, reclining; zhoⁿ-ki-de (̨kkid) - lie down to sleep; a-zhaⁿ (ą) - bed, bedstead; naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday, lit. two sleeps; da-bni zhoⁿ (dbni ǫ) - Wednesday, three sleeps; a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on ones stomach; ti o-zhaⁿ (tt ǫ) - household, family; o-zhaⁿ wa-kniⁿ-zhi (ą wakn̨i) - enemy within the tribe, a bad person to sleep among

ex: a-zhoⁿ (ą) - I sleep [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį) - Im going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ąkaze h k̨ hi ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: tʰi naⁿ te paⁿ-ze shkoⁿ-zhi hi a-zhaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (tʰi ną tʔe pp̨ze k̨i hi ą mįkʰ) - when he arrived, I pretended to be dead, I lay there motionless [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

ex: a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ ta-miⁿ-kʰe (wittąwe ątta mįkʰe) - I will lie watching you

ex: da-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tį) - sleepy (you feel like laying down) [MS]

ex: da-zhaⁿ i-te da-hoⁿ-bde (dą itt dah̨bde) - when you go to sleep, you dream [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-ki pa-ze de taⁿ aⁿ-kniⁿ-ti a-zhaⁿ (kįttą ąkki ppze d tą ąkn̨-tti ą̨) - then-we were coming back (or home)-after night-when-we camped-when(where)-we slept [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-da kaⁿ-iⁿ zhaⁿ e-shoⁿ te kaⁿ-ze ke i-ya-we (m̨da ką̨ ą ę tʔe k̨ze k iywe) - she laid there on her back pretending to be dead, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze naⁿ zhoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi i-ya-we ki-ha-ti (kįttą h̨nąppze ną ǫ kǫda iywe kihtti) - then when it was dark, she did not want to sleep at the bottom, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti zhoⁿ-wi (ett ̨wi) - they (the two of them) laid down there [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

lie, tell a lie

iⁿ-xo-we (̨xowe) - lie, tell a lie iⁿ-bda-xo-we (̨bdaxowe) - I, iⁿ-ta-xo-we (̨ttaxowe) - you

ex: iⁿ-ta-xo-we a-ta-ha-we, i-yi (̨ttaxw attahwe, iy) - you (plural) lied-altogether (plural)-said he [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-xo-we taⁿ-ka (̨xowe ttąk) - hes telling a big lie [JOD]

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ, de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da a-kʰe (d įxowi h ną, d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd akʰ) - this (one) tells no lies, this (one) wants to tell/speak the truth, it is the one [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xu-be (-qu-b) - to have a mysterious mouth, to say just what happens subsequently [JOD-Omaha]; i-xo-be (-xo-be) - to fib, to tell a falsehood; to perjure ones self [FL-Osage]; i-xo-pe (xope) - lie, fib, untruth, tell untruths, falsehood [CQ-Osage]; i-xo-be (xobe), i-xo-we (xowe) - lie, be untruthful; liar; a lie [Kaw]

 

lie, to decieve

ma-xi-de (maxde) - to deceive [JOD]

ex: ma-xi-wa-de (maxwad) - he deceived them [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-di-shto-te o-ba-haⁿ a-taⁿ ma-xi-wa-de tʰaⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke i-niⁿ-aⁿ-we ke i-ya-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ i-ya-we (h̨ka ęke h kʰe odtotte obhą att̨ maγwad tʰ̨ iywe, h̨ka ęke etʰ̨ inį̨we k iyw, mat̨ke etʰ̨ iywe) - he skinned Haⁿ-kas son, put on his skin and tricked them, they thought that rabbit was Haⁿ-kas son, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xe-the (moⁿ-x-the) - to deceive, swindle, hoodwink, delude or defraud [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xi-the (mąγe) - deceive, trick, lie, swindle, defraud, fool [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ghi-ye (maⁿghye) - fool someone, deceive, tease, trick [Kaw]

 

lie, to sink and lie or lay

o-spe (osp) - it sank and lay, to sink and lay/lie [JOD]

cf: spe (spe) - sink

ex: o-da-kdo tʰaⁿ o-spe ke (odkdo tʰ̨ osp ke) - gnawed holes in it and it sank [JOD]

ex: iⁿ ni-ti spe (į nitti spe) - a stone sinks in water

Dhegiha: u-spe (u-sp) - to sink in water of its own accord, as a person, animal, boat, or tool [JOD-Omaha]; u-spe (uspe) - sink [Omaha]

 

life

ni tʰaⁿ, ni toⁿ (ni-ton) - life, existence (vie) [GI]

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

Dhegiha: ni ta (nta) - alive, life [Omaha]; ni ta i-bthaⁿ (n-t͓a baⁿ) - to have ones fill of life, to live a long time [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ ta (nⁿ-t͓a) - to be alive, living; to live [JOD-Omaha]

 

ni oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (ni-unkani) - live, exist (vivre) [GI]

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį) - we, continuative moving; aⁿ-ka-niⁿ (ąkan̨) - we have, we keep; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; aⁿ-kniⁿ (ąkn̨) - we be in a place, camp, sit, reside

 

ni (ni) - alive, conscious

cf. ni-de (nde) - save a life, cause to live; ni tʰaⁿ, ni toⁿ (ni-ton) - life, existence (vie) [GI]; ni o-kniⁿ (ni-unkani) - live, exist (vivre) [GI]

Dhegiha: niⁿ (niⁿ) - to live [JOD-Omaha]; ni (ni) - to exist, to live, alive [FL-Osage]; ni (n) - live, be alive, be living, be well or all right, be in good health [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - live, to be alive [Kaw]

 

life, come to life again

ki-ti-ta (kititt) - come to life again, alive again [JOD]

cf. ti-ta (titt) - live, be alive

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ki-ti-ta, i-ya (mat̨ke kititt, iy) - the rabbit came to life again, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

life, save a life, cause to live

ni-de (nde) - save a life, cause to live ni-a-de (nade) - I, ni-da-de (ndade) - you

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; de (de) - cause to, to cause

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-ĕ) - to cause to live; to save one from death; to preserve him [JOD-Omaha]; ni-the (n-the) - to permit to live; when captives are brought in, it is the ṭsi-zhu wa-shta-ge gens that makes the decision as to which one may live [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - allow to live [CQ-Osage]

 

lift

di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something bdi-ha-ta (bdhatta) - I, ti-ha-ta (tthatta) - you

cf. ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it

 

di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly bdi-ha-ta de-a-de (bdhtta dade) - I, ti-ha-ta de-da-de (tthtta ddade) - you

cf. ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

 

naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot a-naⁿ-ha-ta de-a-de (an̨hatta deade) - I, da-naⁿ-ha-ta de-da-de (dan̨htta ddade) - you

cf. ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

 

po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it po-a-ha-ta de-a-de (pahatta dade) - I, po-da-ha-ta de-da-de (pdahatta ddade) - you

cf. ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

 

lift off as a door or plank

di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank bdi-ki-kda (bdkkikda) - I, ti-ki-kda (ttkkikda) - you

cf. di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe (kakkkdattie) - tumble over

 

lift someone up (causing them to groan)

di-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (dikatʰǫ) - lift someone up bdi-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (bdikatʰǫ) - I, ti-i-ka-tʰoⁿ (ttikatʰǫ) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; i-ka-toⁿ (kattǫ) - grunt, groan, moan

Dhegiha: thi-i-ga-tʰoⁿ (thigatʰoⁿ) - to make a sick person grunt or groan by lifting him or her [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: i-ga-tʰoⁿ (-ga-taⁿ) - to grunt, snivel; to labor, as a woman in travail [JOD-Omaha]; i-ga-toⁿ (igatoⁿ) - moan, groan [Omaha]; i-ga-ʰtoⁿ (-ga-ṭoⁿ) - to groan, to moan [FL-Osage]

 

light

taⁿ-ba (t̨ba), toⁿ-ba (t̨ba) - a light

cf. haⁿ-ba (hąb), hoⁿ-ba (hǫb) - light, the morning light; haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; di-aⁿ-ba (dįba) - sheet lightning; o-ki-aⁿ-ba (kkiąba) - flash; aⁿ-ba (̨ba) - morning, before daybreak

 

light a fire, kindle

te-de (tde) - light a fire, kindle te-a-de (tade) - I, te-da-de (tdade) - you, te-oⁿ-da-we (Tǫdawe) - we

te-de (tde) - make a fire (kindle) [OM]

cf. o-te-de (ottde), (otde) - fireplace; pe-ti-te-de (ppettttede) - match, pe-te (pptte) - fire + te-de (tde) - light a fire, kindle

ex: ma-ze te-de (mze tde), ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove [MS]

Dhegiha: ne-the (n-ĕ) - to kindle a fire [JOD-Omaha]; dse-the (ds-the), ʰtse-the (ṭs-the) - to kindle as a fire, to kindle the fire, to kindle a fire [FL-Osage]; jhe-ye (ǰye), (djeyĕ) - to kindle a fire [JOD-Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ne-the (unethe) - hearth, fireplace [Omaha]; u-ne-the (u-n-ĕ) - the firplace of a lodge or tent [JOD-Omaha]; u-dse-the (u-ds-the) - a place hollowed out in the ground in which to place or kindle a fire, put fire into [FL-Osage]; o-tse-the (oce) - build a fireplace or fire, fireplace or fire for cooking or warming oneself, place to build a fire, stove [CQ-Osage]; o-jhe-ye (oǰye) - fireplace [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-dse-the (-dse-the) - to build a fire on [FL-Osage]; a-tse-the (cee) - build a fire on [CQ-Osage]; a-je-ye (jeye) - kindle a fire on an object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ne-the (inthe) - burn, to set something on fire, burn something, cause something to burn [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ne-the (inethe) - kindle fire [Omaha]; i-je-ye (ijye) - kindle, build a fire at/in a place [Kaw]

 

light frost

xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke zhi-ka (x̨įke ka) - frost, light frost

cf. xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke (x̨įke) - frost, killing frost; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig), zhiⁿ-ka (įk, ̨ka) - small, little, young; xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke (qaⁿ́iⁿk͓ĕ) - masculine name, Frost [JOD]

Dhegiha: xe-woⁿ-ge (qewⁿge) - frost on the ground, but not on vegetation, be frost on the ground, but not on any vegetation that can be damaged [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-woⁿ-ge (xwoⁿge) - frost [Omaha]; xe-moⁿ-ge (x-moⁿ-ge) - frost, hoarfrost [FL-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ke (xmąke) - dew, frost [CQ-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ge (xmaⁿge) - frost [Kaw]

 

light red color

ma-hiⁿ-xta zhi-te (mah̨xta tte) - red, light red color

cf. ma-hiⁿ-xta (mah̨xta) - flower; ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass; xta (xta), xda (xd) - blossom, bud; zhi-te (tte) - red; zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - pink

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ tu (moⁿ-hⁿ tu) - grass [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ (moⁿ-hⁿ) - grass [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (mąąh̨) - grass, hay [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (maⁿhⁿ) - grass, weeds [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xtha (xtha) - blossom [Omaha]; xtha (xtha) - blossoms of any kind [FL-Osage]; xla (xla) - flower, bud on a tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi-de (zhde) - red [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi-de (zhde) - red [Omaha]; zhiu-dse (zhiu-dse), zhu-dse (zhu-dse) - red, scarlet, vermilion (FL-Osage); zhu-tse (uce) - red [CQ-Osage]; zhu-je (zhje) - red [Kaw]

 

light, lantern, lamp, candle

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), ha-ta-kaⁿ (hattką, hatkką) - lamp, lantern, light, candle

a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), a-ta-koⁿ (ttakkǫ) - lantern, light [MS, AB]

ex: a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil

ex: ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-da-ʰkoⁿ (-da-ḳoⁿ) - a light, articial light [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaⁿ (taʰką) - lamp, light [CQ-Osage]; a-da-kaⁿ (dakaⁿ) - shine on, to give forth a light on an object; candle; light something up, illuminate [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-kaⁿ (n-k͓aⁿ) - to shed a light, as a prarie-fire at night, or as a lamp or candle after dark [JOD-Omaha]; na-koⁿ (nakoⁿ) - when a light is on [Omaha]; da-ʰkoⁿ(d-ḳoⁿ) - light, luminous [FL-Osage]; da-kaⁿ (dkaⁿ) - light; be a light [Kaw]

 

light, not heavy

ha-ha (hha) - light, not heavy

ex: ha-ha hi (hha hi) - very light, not very heavy [MS]

Dhegiha: ha-ha-da (hahada) - lightweight [Omaha]; ha-ha-daⁿ (hhadⁿ) - light [JOD-Omaha]; ha-ha (h-ha) - light weight [FL-Osage]; ha-ha (hha) - light, lightweight [Kaw]

 

light, the morning light

haⁿ-ba (hąb), hoⁿ-ba (hǫb) - light, the morning light

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day; haⁿ-ba wa-ska-de (hąb waskde) - daylight; ha-pa haⁿ-ke (hąp͓a h̨ke) - nearly day [JOD]; haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke-te (h̨ba h̨kette) - nearly dawn; haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke-te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day; haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe (h̨ba ittγe), haⁿ-pa iⁿ-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight; haⁿ-pa ska (h̨pa ska) - First Light of Day; Daylight, male name [MS]; haⁿ-pa ska-de (h̨pa skde) - daylight [JOD]; haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he (h̨ba s̨hą tih) - dawn, daybreak [JOD]; ti o-haⁿ-ba-de (tt oh̨bade) - window, what admits light; ti o-haⁿ-ba-de o-zhi (tt oh̨bade o) - window opening or hole; aⁿ-ba (̨ba) - morning, before daybreak; di-aⁿ-ba (dįba) - sheet lightning; o-ki-aⁿ-ba (kkiąba) - flash; taⁿ-ba (t̨ba), toⁿ-ba (t̨ba) - a light

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba (ⁿba) - day [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-ba (hⁿ-ba) - day [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-pa (hą́ąpa) - day [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ba (hⁿba) - day [Kaw]

 

light, what admits light

ti o-haⁿ-ba-de (tt oh̨bade) - window, what admits light

cf. ti o-haⁿ-ba-de o-zhi (tt oh̨bade o) - window opening or hole

Dhegiha: wi-u-goⁿ-ba (wugⁿba) - window, what light can be seen through; window glass [Omaha/Ponca]; we-u-goⁿ-ba (wugoⁿba) - window glass [Omaha]; u-ga-hoⁿ-ba (u-g-hoⁿ-ba) - window, a window glass, pane of glass [FL-Osage]; o-ka-haⁿ-pa (okhąpa) - window, pane of glass, window glass, lit., place where by sudden action daylight [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-haⁿ-ba (oghaⁿb), o-ga-hoⁿ-ba (oghoⁿb) - window, glass, glass generally [Kaw]

 

light, white light

ma-xe o-ta-saⁿ-haⁿ (maγe ottasąhą) - aurora, upper world which shines with white light

cf. ma-xe (mxe) - sky, cloudless, also the upper world; saⁿ (są) - white in the distance

saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - whitish, grayish, white in the distance; siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ (sįtte s̨hą) - whitish grayish tail (of a rabbit) [JOD]; zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - scarlet, pink; zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - pink [OM)]; haⁿ-pa iⁿ-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight; haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he (h̨ba s̨hą tih) - dawn, daybreak [JOD]; to soⁿ-ha (tu soⁿho) - pale green [JOD]; tu sa-ho (tu s-ho) - pale green [OM]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xe (moⁿxe) - sky [Omaha]; moⁿ-xe (mⁿ-xe) - the sky [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xe (m̨ąɣe) - sky, weather, the upper world [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ghe (mⁿghe) - sky, weather, the upper world [Kaw]

Dhegiha: soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

lightly

i-we-pi-aⁿ (weppį) - hit softly, lightly i-we-pi-maⁿ (weppim̨) - I, i-we-shpi-zhaⁿ (wepį) - you

cf. i-we-pi-aⁿ-hi (weppįhi) - pull, bite, tug gently on something

 

ki-zho-wa-zhi (kkiwai) - pull lightly on something a-ki-zho-wa-zhi (akkowai) - I, da-ki-zho-wa-zhi (dakkowai) - you

cf. a-zho-wa hi (aow hi) - as fast as possible [JOD]; a-zho-wa xti (ow xti) - with a great effort, with all ones might [JOD]; ki-zho-wa (kiwa) - quick, handy; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation

 

lightning, forked lightning

di-kdi-ze (dikdze) - lightning, forked lightning

di-kdi-ze (dikdze) - lightning [MS]

di-kdi-ze (di-kt-ze) - masculine name of the Kwapa taⁿ-daⁿ (taⁿdaⁿ́) or taⁿ-daⁿ wa-taⁿ-ka (taⁿdaⁿ waⁿták͓a) gens; Forked lightning; Lightning (of Elk?) [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-gthi-ze (thigthze) - lightening, forked lightening [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gthi-ze (thgthie) - electricity [Omaha]; thi-gthi-ze (thi-gth-e) - to make striped marks [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-gthe-gthe-ze (thi-gth-gthe-e) - the lightning that breaks into branches, forked lightning [FL-Osage]; thi-le-le-ze (illeze) - forked lightning, lit., making repeated stripes [CQ-Osage]; yu-le-le-ze (yulleze) - forked lightning [Kaw]

 

lightning, sheet lightning

di-aⁿ-ba (dįba) - sheet lightning

di-aⁿ-ba i-de (dįba id) - lightning, to sheet, to strike

cf. o-ki-aⁿ-ba (kkiąba) - flash

Dhegiha: thi-oⁿ-ba (thiⁿba) - lightening, sheet lightening [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-oⁿ-ba (thiⁿba) - lightning [Omaha]; thi-hoⁿ-ba (thi-hⁿ-ba) - lightning [FL-Osage]; yu-oⁿ-ba (yuⁿba) - sheet lightning [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-oⁿ-ba (uthoⁿba) - flash; to flash as lightning; to wave a mirror, making it flash in the sunlight; to reflect, as light from a pail of water set in the sun [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-oⁿ-oⁿ-ba (uthoⁿⁿba) - to flash repeatedly [Omaha/Ponca]

 

like or equal

kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in

cf. kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians [JOD]; kaⁿ-ze (k̨ze), koⁿ-ze (k̨ze) - pretend, feign, to pretend by being equal to, to pretend by being similar to, to pretend by acting as, to pretend being like; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ekǫkʰde), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; ki-koⁿ-ze (kkǫze), ki-kaⁿ-ze (kkąze) - teach someone something, to teach by being similar to, to teach by acting as, to teach by doing as; wa-kaⁿ-ze (wak̨ze) - teacher, to act as them, to be similar to them, to be like them, to do as them; e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite; e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]; goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-toⁿ-ha (goⁿ- ḳi-toⁿ-ha) - equal in height [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- 'thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]; go-ze ei-ki-khaⁿ (gze kikhaⁿ) - equal length [Kaw]; go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

like or equal depth

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

 

like or equal height

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

like or equal in quantity or number

kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity; mi-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity

Dhegiha: go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]

 

like or equal length

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

 

like or equal size

kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; de-na-ska (denask) - of this size; ka-na-ska (kanask) - of that size; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; she-na-ska (enask) - big enough size, of that size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big/small, what size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each, distributive; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big is each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

like this, this sort, this kind

de-kaⁿ (dką) - this-like [JOD]

de-kaⁿ (dek̨) - this sort [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this, now; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, like that, as, so, thus

Dhegiha: the-goⁿ (th-goⁿ) - like this, this kind [FL-Osage]; the e-koⁿ (e ek̨) - this way, that way, thus, like this, like that [CQ-Osage]

 

de-ke-kaⁿ (dekek̨) - this kind [JOD]

cf. de-ke (dke) - these st/an; de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this ly/in; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, like that, as, so, thus

Dhegiha: the-goⁿ (th-goⁿ) - like this, this kind [FL-Osage]; the e-koⁿ (e ek̨) - this way, that way, thus, like this, like that [CQ-Osage]

 

like, feel like

ti-aⁿ (tį) - to feel like, somewhat

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (ate tį ttaha) - I feel a strong urge to urintate [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe te-zhe ti-aⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nįkʰ te tį nįkʰ) - the woman was feeling the urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (hį tį) - feel a sneeze coming on

ex: a-ki-zhi ti-aⁿ (kkii tį) - feel like farting

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I'm going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

ex: da-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tią́) - sleepy (you feel like laying down) [MS]

 

a-ki-zhi ti-aⁿ (kkii tį) - feel like farting a-ki-zhi ti-aⁿ (akkii tį) - I feel like farting, a-da-ki-zhi ti-aⁿ (dakkii tį) - you feel like farting

cf. a-ki-zhi (kkii) - fart, break wind; ti-aⁿ (tį) - to feel like, somewhat

Dhegiha: thi-zhi-tse (ice) - break wind, fart with a small noise, by letting the air out slowly [CQ-Osage]; a-yu-zhiⁿ-je (yuzhⁿje) - break wind, fart (with noise) [Kaw]

 

like, I sure like it

a-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - I sure like it [MS]

 

like, it will be like that

e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall

ex: e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so-will be [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te (te) - future sign, will, let, please [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, let, allow, have, tell, lets; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

like, like that, as, so, thus

e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so

e-koⁿ (kǫ), (ek̨) - like

a-kaⁿ (ką) - like, as, so

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since; e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]; e-kaⁿ xti (ką xt), e-koⁿ xti (ek̨ xti) - really, just so; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ekǫkʰde), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - I will make it like that [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ hi pa-xe te (ek̨ hi ppγe tte) - so or like that-very-I make it-will (JOD)]

ex: e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - did so (3rd. person) [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-koⁿ za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke nkkaka odwakki ek̨ zan-xti tʔewade k̨da ną iy) - therefore the rabbit, who sided with the people (Indians) wanted to kill all of the black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti e-koⁿ pa naⁿ i-ya-we (ttiątt ek̨ p ną iywe) - in the olden times they were like that, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

 

like, love

o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love o-xta-a-de (xtaad) - I, o-xta-da-de (xtadad) - you

cf. o-xta (xta) - good, desirable; o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect; xta-de (xtad) - love; xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love ones own

Dhegiha: u-xta-the (qta-ĕ) - to be very fond of, to have a deep love for [JOD-Omaha]; u-xta-the (-xta-the) - to be fond of a person [FL-Osage]; o-xta-ye (xtaye) - like someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-xta (qta) - good, excellent, desirable [JOD-Omaha]; u-xta (-xta) - marvelous, pleasing, mysterious, lovable, to prize highly, to hold a thing precious or valuable [FL-Osage]; o-xta (xta) - precious, dear or beloved, valuable, marvelous, important, special, right, respectable [CQ-osage]; o-xta (xta) - pleasing [Kaw]

 

like, similar

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike

cf. koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-go (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (k͓ŭⁿ́-s͓e -k͓ŭⁿ) - alike, resembling something else referred to [JOD-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

 

like, smell like

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell, emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell [OM]

cf. di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands); o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something; xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]; ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning; bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad; bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ (nkkaka bn̨) - smells like a human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, emit odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - odor, scent [FL-Osage]; braⁿ (brą́) - smell, emanate an odor, give off a fragrance, scent [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ (blaⁿ) - smell, odor, emit an odor, exhale [Kaw]

 

like, to like or prize them

wa-saⁿ-de (was̨de) - to like or prize them

ex: wa-saⁿ-de (was̨de) - she liked/prized them [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ she-mi ke wa-ki-shka-te haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi wa-saⁿ-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą em ke wkiktte h̨eą was̨de tʰ̨ ną) - then-girl-the plural-played with them-a great deal-she liked (prized) them-the standing-past sign [JOD]

 

like, to like, happy, pleased

ki-da-kni  (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like aⁿ-da-kni  (̨dakni) - Im, di-da-kni  (ddakni) - youre

cf. ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased; wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; da-kni (dkni), da-kniⁿ (dknį) - archaic word for good, used primarily in Quapaw personal names; i-shta we-de da-kniⁿ-zhi (it wde dakn̨i) - be nearsighted

ex: i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wkide ą́dakn) - Im glad to see you [AB, OM]

ex: aⁿ-da-kni wi-tʰi-koⁿ (ą́dakni witʰkǫ) - Im glad its (my) grandpa [MS]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, Im glad to see you [FR]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: i-e ki-da-kni (i kidkni) - he likes to talk [MS]

ex: te ki-da-kniⁿ pa naⁿ (tʔe kidknį pa ną) - they liked to die

Dhegiha: gi-tha-gthiⁿ (g-tha-gthiⁿ) - happy, pleased [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-liⁿ (kilį) - be glad, feel good, also used as an equivalent of thank you, like, enjoy, be happy about, be pleased with [CQ-Osage]; gi-ya-le (gyale) - be happy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ) and the Kansas ya-liⁿ(yaliⁿ). Used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid, to be pleased [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį) - be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, good, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good oe well-behaved person, or good food [Kaw]

 

ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - to like, pleased

cf. ho-ta (httą) - good; ki-ho-taⁿ  (khottą) - convalesce, improve

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo koi (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it [MS]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

Dhegiha: gi-tha-gthiⁿ (g-tha-gthiⁿ) - happy, pleased [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-liⁿ (kilį) - be glad, feel good, also used as an equivalent of thank you, like, enjoy, be happy about, be pleased with [CQ-Osage]; gi-ya-le (gyale) - be happy [Kaw]

 

like, to not like

ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely aⁿ-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (̨hottą ttahi) - I, di-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (dhottą ttahi) - you

cf. ho-taⁿ (httą) - good; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly; zhi (zhi) - negative, negation, not; ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo koi (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it, lit., that woman liked it [MS]

 

ki-shoⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - to be displeased aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi (ą̨i) - I, di-shoⁿ-zhi (dįi) - you

cf. ki-wa-shoⁿ (kwaǫ) - to be happy

ex: aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi tʰe aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi a-ta-pa (̨kidi h tʰe ą̨i ttapp) - I did not like it much that he did not tell me at all

Dhegiha: gi-shoⁿ-zhi (g-shoⁿ-zhi) - to dislike, disagree, to disapprove [FL-Osage]; ki-shoⁿ-zhi (k͓-cŭⁿ-c͓i) - to dislike, to disagree with, to disapprove of [JOD-Osage]; gi-zu a-zhi (g-u a-zhi) - he is not happy over it, disconsolate [FL-Osage]; ki-zo-zhi (kzoi) - be lonesome, unhappy, sad, disconsolate [CQ-Osage]; gi-zo-zhi (gzozhi) - to be unhappy [Kaw]

 

koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - to not want, not like koⁿ-bda zhi (kkǫbd i) - I, shkoⁿ-ta zhi (k̨tta i) - you, koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - he/she

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-bda zhi (kkǫbd i) - I dont like it (I don't want it) [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I don't want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde ta, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tta, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ taⁿ (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą tą) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: koⁿ-da zhi e (kǫd i e) - she didn't like it [MS]

 

o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik), o-koⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ika) - hate

cf. o-kaⁿ-shi-ka-wa-de (okk̨ikwade) - hateful, abominable; o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - be hateful

ex: o-wi-kaⁿ-shi-ka (owkkąik) - I hate you

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkk̨ik) - white man didnt like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

 

limit, to the limit

hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ (hnįh ʔ̨) - to do ones utmost; to the limit

ex: di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (dissike hnįh ̨w)  - they all abuse one as much and as often as they can [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe: dissike hnįh ̨w) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were very cruel to mankind [JOD]

 

limp, walk badly

maⁿ-niⁿ shi-ke (mąn̨ ke) - limp, walk badly maⁿ-niⁿ aⁿ-shi-ke (mąn̨ ąke) - I, maⁿ-niⁿ di-shi-ke (mąn̨ dike) - you

cf. maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk; shi-ke (ke) - bad; bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad; ho-xpe shi-ke (hxpe ke) - tuberculosis, lit. bad cough; ma-zhaⁿ shi-ke (mą ike) - war, lit. bad land; naⁿ-te shi-ke (n̨tte ke) - sad, grieved, lit. bad heart; ni shi-ke (ni ke) - whiskey, lit. bad water; wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿthⁿ) - to walk [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ-thiⁿ (maⁿiⁿ́) - to walk, to go; used also to express continued action [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿ-thiⁿ), moⁿ-iⁿ (moⁿ-ⁿ) - to walk; to exist [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-thiⁿ (mą̨), maⁿ-iⁿ (m̨į) - walk, go by walking, go by foot, go away, go, go on, get moving, go ahead, approach, move in closer, stay, act or live a certain way, go around a certain way [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ (maⁿyⁿ) - walk; move [Kaw]

 

line

ti-he (tih) - becomes in a lg. line [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he (h̨ba s̨hą tih) - dawn, daybreak [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he taⁿ (h̨ba s̨hą tih tą) - as soon as you perceive that the day is breaking [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he taⁿ (h̨ba s̨hą tih tą) - day/whitish/becomes in a lg. line/when [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he taⁿ, o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (h̨ba s̨hą tih tą, odkdaxʔxʔ ta) - when it is daybreak, youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-he (ti-h) - marks sudden action, to have become suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ba soⁿ-ti-he (oⁿba oⁿtihe) - daybreak, dawn [Omaha]

 

line, draw a line

di-xo (diγ) - mark, scratch, draw line bdi-xo (bdγo) - I, ti-xo (ttγo) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xu (thix) - draw, mark; to draw; to make marks on paper; to make marks such as are made on arrows [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xu (thixu) - sketch, mark [Omaha]; thi-xu (thi-x) - to scratch marks on rocks or draw lines on paper; to draw a line [FL-Osage]; yu-gho (yugh) - make scratch marks [Kaw]

 

line, fishing line

wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line

cf. wa-hi ko-ke (wah kkke) - fish hook, lit. bent bone; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line, vein, artery

ex: wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ tʰe (wah kkke kk̨ tʰe) - the fishing line

Dhegiha: koⁿ (koⁿ) - sinew, root, string [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel, veins, artery, root, string [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ʰkoⁿ) - a vein or blood vessel, roots of trees or plants, sinew [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kʔą) - root [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein, artery, root, sinew, string [Kaw]

 

line, pull out of line

di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line bdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bdwkkowįγe) - I, ti-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ttkkowįγe) - you

cf. di-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-de (dikkwįγe hde) - spin someone off balance; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: thi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (thi wiⁿxe) - turn [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-koiⁿ-xe (iiʰkįɣe) - turn someone or something around [CQ-Osage]; yu-ko-miⁿ-ghe (yukmiⁿghe) - turn something around and around with the hands, to crank [Kaw]

 

line, string, rope

koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant; sinew, string, line

cf. ta-kaⁿ (ttakk̨) - thread, deers sinew; maⁿ-te-kaⁿ (m̨ttekk̨) - bow string; wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line; hoⁿ-be-koⁿ (hǫbkkǫ) - shoelaces, moccasin strings; maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de (mąt-kkąde) - canoe string/rope [JOD]; maⁿ-te kaⁿ (mąt-kką) - canoe string/rope [JOD]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root; wa-pa-iⁿ kaⁿ (wappą kką) - vein, artery; i-ki-kaⁿ-de (kikk̨de) - string ones bow; i-kaⁿ-de (kkąde) - lariat

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe a-ba-xe (mątt-kką nįkʰe baγ) - I cut the canoe string/rope (with the hatchet) [JOD)]

Dhegiha: koⁿ (koⁿ) - sinew, root, string [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel, veins, artery, root, string [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ʰkoⁿ) - a vein or blood vessel, roots of trees or plants, sinew [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kʔą) - root [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein, artery, root, sinew, string [Kaw]

 

lion, mountain lion, panther, puma, cougar

iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ (įtt̨dą), taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion, cougar, similar terms are widespread in North America

iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttnątt̨ka) - panther

iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttną ttą́ka) - mountain lion, panther, cougar, puma [MS]

taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka (tt̨dą tt̨ka) - mountain lion, puma

taⁿ-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (tonon-tunkah) - tiger or panther (tigre ou panthre) [GI]

taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion

taⁿ-daⁿ e-ni-ka-shi-ka (taⁿdⁿ nikacka), taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka e-ni-ka-shi-ka (tⁿdaⁿ tk͓a nikacka) - the Panther or Mountain Lion gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

cf. iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe (įtt̨dą kde) - cat, domestic cat spotted; iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe zhi-ka (įtt̨dą kde ka) - kitten; iⁿ-taⁿ kde-zhe (įttą́ kde) - cat, speckled cat [MS, AG]; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ kde-zhe (įttaną kdze) - bobcat; taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat; taⁿ-ke kde-she (DąGeGaD˙e) - cat, domestic [FS]

 

lip

i-ha zho (ha) - lip

i-ha zho (˙hao) - lip(s), mouth flesh [FS]

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth; zho (o) - flesh, meat; i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; i-ha shka (ha k) - be hare lipped; i-ha we-da-ba-zo (ha wdabzo) - point with the lips; i-ha hiⁿ (hah̨) - mustache; i-ha ki-kde (ha kikd) - kiss

ex: i-ha-zho kʰe (ha kʰe) - the lip

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-ha (ha) - lip [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha (ha) - mouth, lips [FL-Osage]; i-ha (ha) - lips [Omaha]; i-ha (haa) - mouth, lip [CQ-Osage]; i-ha (ha) - mouth, or top of the mouth; lips [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhu (zhu) - flesh, body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu (zhu) - flesh or body [FL-Osage]

 

lip, be hare lipped

i-ha shka (ha k) - be hare lipped i-ha aⁿ-shka (ha ąk) - I, i-ha di-shka (ha dik) - you, i-ha wa-shka-we (ha wakwe) - we

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth

Dhegiha: i-ha se (hae) - harelip [Omaha]; i-ha zha-ta (iha zhata) - harelip, split lip [Omaha]; i u-zne-ge ( uznge) - hare-lipped, cleft lip [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha zha-ta (-ha zha-ta) - harelip, broken lip [FL-Osage]; i-ha zha-ʰta (haa ʰta) - broken or split lip, harelip [CQ-Osage]

 

lip, lower lip

i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip

cf. i-ha zho (ha) - lip; to-shi (to) - low, lower

ex: i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid

ex: to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something

ex: di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window

ex: i-ha-zho to-zhi kʰe (ha to kʰe) - the lower lip

Dhegiha: nu-shi (n-ci) - low [JOD-Omaha]; nu-shi (nshi) - low [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha (nshiha) - low, short, below, down below [Omaha/Ponca]

 

lip, point with the lips

i-ha we-da-ba-zo (ha wdabzo) - point with the lips i-ha we-bda-ba-zo (ha wbdabazo) - I, i-ha we-ta-ba-zo (ha wttabazo) - you

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth; we-da-ba-zo (wdabzo) - pointer, index or forefinger; a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at

Dhegiha: i-ha i-tha-ba-zu (-ha i-tha-ba-u) - to point at with the lips [FL-Osage]; i-ha i-ya-ba-zo (ha iybazo) - point at something with the lips [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-zu (bazu) - point, to point at with the finger [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-zu (abazu) - point [Omaha]; a-ba-zu (-ba-u) - to indicate, to point at; to select [FL-Osage]; a-pa-zo (pazo) - point at, point to, select by pointing to[CQ-Osage]; a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at with the finger [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-a-ba-zu (w-a-ba-u) - a pointer, the index or first finger [FL-Osage]; we-a-pa-zo (wapazo) - index finger, pointing finger, lit., with which to point at things [CQ-Osage]; we-ba-zo (webzo) - pointer, pointing finger [Kaw]

 

i a-da-zo-ka ( dazokka), a-da-zo-ka (dazokka) - point with the lips; close the lips and stick out the mouth i a-bda-zo-ka ( bdazokka) - I, i a-ta-zo-ka ( ttazokka) - you, i oⁿ-ka-da-zo-ka-we ( ̨kadazkkawe) - we

cf. i () - mouth, lips; a-ba-zo (bazo) - point at; da (da) - by mouth

Dhegiha: i (i) - mouth of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - mouth [Omaha]; i (i) - mouth [FL-Osage]; i (i) - mouth [Kaw]

 

lip, upper lip

i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip

cf. i-ha zho (ha) - lip; maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven; i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit. talks on high; mo-sho-ki (mokki) - church, contraction of maⁿ-shi (mą) - upward, heaven + o-ki (ok) - speak, talk with one [AG]; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above; maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend; di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high; maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff

ex: i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi kʰe (ha mą kʰe) - the upper lip

Dhegiha: i-ha maⁿ-shi-ta (ha maⁿshta) - upper lip [Kaw]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

 

liquid

ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

ni (ni) - water [MR, AG, OM]

ni (nih) - water (eau) [GI]

ni (nih) - river (rivire) [GI]

ni (ni˙) - water [FS]

ex: ni ski-de (niskde) - salt, lit. sweet water

ex: ni sni (nisn) - spring, lit. cold water

ex: ni shi-ke (ni ke) - whiskey, lit. bad water

ex: ni xo-we (ni xwe) - mysterious water, holy/sacred water, the name for two sulpher springs, one on each side of Tar Creek, Indian Terr. [JOD]

ex: ha-zi ni (hazni) - wine, grape juice

ex: i-ka-zo-zo ni (kazzo n) - ink

ex: kaⁿ-te ni (kkąttni) - apple juice

ex: ma-ze ni (mazni) - milk, lit. breast water

ex: te-ska te-zhe-ni (ttesk teni) - beer, cow urine

ex: te-zhe ni (teni) - urine

ex: zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, tree sap

Dhegiha: ni (n) - water [Omaha/Ponca]; ni (ni) - water, liquid, river [Omaha]; ni (ni) - water, river, rivulet, creek [FL-Osage]; ni (ni) - water, any fluid, liquid [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - water, river, any liquid [Kaw]

 

liquid, drip liquid

di-tse (ditsʔ) - drip liquid bdi-tse (bdtsʔe) - I, ti-tse (tttsʔe) - you

cf. di-tse-tse (ditsʔtsʔe) - drip periodically; o-tse (otsʔ) - drop of any liquid; o-tse-kʰi-de (otsʔkʰide) - cause to drip; a-ka-che-chee (kačʔčʔe) - drip onto an object, drop by drop

Dhegiha: u-ga-e (uge) - to drip, to drop a small amount of liquid [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-e-e (gaee) - drip, dripping, dribble of water [Omaha]; a-ga-ʰtse (a-g-ṭse) - to drop, as water; to drop water on some object [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ke (okʔe) - drop something into [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-tse-tse (gatsetse) - cause to drip, fall in drops; sprinkle [Kaw]; a-yu-tse-tse (yutsetse) - drip from the hand, through fingers [Kaw]; o-tse-tse (otstse) - whatever is dripping, in reference to liquids [Kaw]

 

liquid, drop of any liquid

o-tse (otsʔ) - drop of any liquid

cf.; o-tse-kʰi-de (otsʔkʰide) - cause to drip; di-tse (ditsʔ) - drip liquid; di-tse-tse (ditsʔtsʔe) - drip periodically; a-ka-che-chee (kačʔčʔe) - drip onto an object, drop by drop

Dhegiha: u-ga-e (uge) - to drip, to drop a small amount of liquid [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-e-e (gaee) - drip, dripping, dribble of water [Omaha]; a-ga-ʰtse (a-g-ṭse) - to drop, as water; to drop water on some object [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ke (okʔe) - drop something into [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-tse-tse (gatsetse) - cause to drip, fall in drops; sprinkle [Kaw]; a-yu-tse-tse (yutsetse) - drip from the hand, through fingers [Kaw]; o-tse-tse (otstse) - whatever is dripping, in reference to liquids [Kaw]

 

liquid, pull over and spill (liquid)

di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ (bdǫ) - I, ti-shoⁿ (ttǫ) - you

di-shaⁿ (dią) - spill, pull over a vessel bdi-shaⁿ (bdą) - I, ti-shaⁿ (ttą) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

Dhegiha: thi-shoⁿ (thi-shⁿ) - to dislocate by pulling [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - dislocated, fallen off [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ-da (bdǫda) - I, ti-shoⁿ-da (ttǫda) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened, loosened in its socket, as a fence post or a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - loosened [Omaha]

liquor

ni shi-ke (ni ke) - whiskey, lit. bad water

ni shi-ke (ni ke) - whiskey [MS, AG, MW, OM]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid; shi-ke (ke) - bad; ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle

Dhegiha: pe-de ni (pde ni) - whiskey, liquor, alcohol, any alcoholic beverage other than wine, fire water [Omaha/Ponca]; pe-de ni (pde ni) - whiskey, brandy, liquor [Omaha]; pe-de ni ska (pede ni ka) - alcohol [Omaha]; ʰpe-dse ni (p̣e-dse ni), ʰpe-de ni (p̣e-de ni) - fire water, intoxicant [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-dse ni ska  (p̣e-dse-ni-ka) - alcohol [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-tse ni (ʰpecenii) - liquor, lit., fire water [CQ-Osage]; pe-je ni (pjeni) - whiskey, lit. fire water [Kaw]

 

ha-zi ni (hazni) - wine, grape juice

ha-zi ni (hah-zinnih) - wine (vin) [GI]

cf. ha-zi (hzi) - grape; ni (ni) - water, liquid

Dhegiha: ha-zi ni (haini) - wine [Omaha]; ha-zi ni (h-i-ni) - juice of grapes, wine [FL-Osage]; ha-zu ni (hazunii) - grape juice [CQ-Osage]; pe-je-ni sku-we (pjeni skwe) - wine [Kaw]

 

te-ska te-zhe-ni (ttesk teni) - beer, cow urine [OM]

cf. te-ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison-white; te-zhe-ni (teni) - urine

Dhegiha: ka-wa tse-zhe-ni (ʰkwaceenii) - beer, lit., horse urine [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ni a-bi-xe (ni abixe) - beer, boiling water [Omaha]

 

zhoⁿ ni (jonnih) - rum, bourbon (rum) [GI]

zhoⁿ ni (jōn-nīh) - water of life, brandy (eau de vie) [GI]

zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, tree sap

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ni (ni) - water, liquid; zhoⁿ-ni hi (ǫn hi) - maple tree, Acer saccharum

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, syrup, honey; wood water, wood sap [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿni) - sap, candy, fudge, sugar [Omaha]; zhaⁿ ni (jaⁿ-n) - wood water, wood sap, sugar; syrup; strained honey [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, candy, wood water [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (ąąni) - sugar, lit., tree water, originally referring to maple sap or syrup [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (zhaⁿn) - sugar [Kaw]

 

 

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