English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

L

 

look at animate objects

o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at pl/an/ob o-a-toⁿ-we (aT̨we) - I, o-da-toⁿ-we (daT̨we) - you

o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at sg/an/ob

cf. a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter

Dhegiha: u-daⁿ-be (u-dⁿ-be) - a sight, spectacle [JOD-Omaha]; u-doⁿ-be (udⁿbe) - sight, spectacle [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰtoⁿ-be (u-ṭⁿ-be) - to investigate [FL-Osage]; o-ʰtoⁿ-be ga-xe (o-ṭoⁿ-be ga-xe) - to examine, to inspect, to probe, to inquire into, to test by questions [FL-Osage]; wa-wiu-doⁿ-be (wa-wi-doⁿ-be) - umpire [FL-Osage]; u-ʰtoⁿ-ba (-ṭoⁿ-ba) - to be noticed, identified [FL-Osage]

 

look at ones own

ki-toⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]

cf. a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter

ex: ki-toⁿ-we a-kdi (kit̨we akd) - she returned, came back to look at her own [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come see me (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

Dhegiha: gi-taⁿ-be (gi-t͓ⁿ-be) - to look at or see his own [JOD-Omaha]; gi-taⁿ-be (g-t͓aⁿ-be) - to look to another for aid; to trust [JOD-Omaha]; ki-taⁿ-be (ki-tⁿ-be) - to look at each other or at one another [JOD-Omaha]; ki-taⁿ-be (k͓i-t͓ⁿ-be) - to look at himself [JOD-Omaha]; gi-doⁿ-be (gi-dⁿ-be) - to view ones own property [FL-Osage]; ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-be (ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - looked over ones self [FL-Osage]; ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkʰtǫpe) - look at ones own; look at oneself [CQ-Osage]; ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰt̨pe) - watch ones own things, look at ones own things [CQ-Osage]; ki-toⁿ-pe (kit̨pe) - see someone; look with regard to someone, look down on (benevolently), watch over [CQ-Osage]; ki-toⁿ-pe (ktǫpe) - look at something that belongs to someone [CQ-Osage]; i-ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰtǫpe), i-ki-ʰtoⁿ-e (kiʰtǫe) - visit a relative or ones own family [CQ-Osage]; gi-doⁿ-be tsi (gidⁿbe c) - visit, go/come to see someone [Kaw]

 

look at repeatedly

toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]

cf. a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; to-iⁿ (toį) - look; contraction of toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we); wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - she looked at him repeatedly [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫ-n̨ wak̨ kd ǫ-n̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

 

look at something

toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something taⁿ-we (tt̨we) - I, shtaⁿ-we (t̨we) - you, taⁿ-we (t̨we) - he/she

toⁿ-we (tǫ́we) - look, looking [MR, AG]

cf. a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkitt̨we tʰi) - visit, go/come to see someone; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; to-iⁿ (toį) - look; contraction of toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we); toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: wi-toⁿ-we (wit̨we) - I'm looking at you [MR]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka aⁿ-toⁿ-we koⁿ-bda (nkkaka ąt̨we kkǫbd) - I want people to look at me [JOD]

ex: toⁿ-we (t̨we) - she looked at him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we d-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals-she did it-when-she looked at him-she sent it off-so she lay awhile-they say [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ, e taⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą, t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him! [JOD]

ex: o-zha taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka toⁿ-we koⁿ-da (a tą nkkaka t̨we kǫd) - when he dances, he wants the people to look at/watch him [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-toⁿ-wa-i (ąt̨wai) - they look at me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-toⁿ-we-naⁿ-we (ąt̨we-ną-w) - they usually look (watch) at me [JOD]

Dhegiha: doⁿ-be (dⁿbe) - see, look at, perceive [Omaha/Ponca]; doⁿ-be (doⁿbe) - look [Omaha]; doⁿ-be (doⁿ-be) - to see; to perceive; to scrutinize; to watch [FL-Osage]; toⁿ-be (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch [CQ-Osage]; doⁿ-be (dⁿbe) - look, look at, on or upon; see, look at [Kaw]

 

look at them, watch them, scout, reconnoiter

wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter

cf. toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-daⁿ-be (wa-dⁿ-be) - to see them [JOD-Omaha]; wa-doⁿ-be (wa-dⁿ-be) - the act of seeing; applied to a runner in search of buffalo [FL-Osage]; wa-toⁿ-pe (wat̨pe) - see or watch people or events, look on at an event, speactators, onlookers, audience, public [CQ-Osage]; wa-ʰtoⁿ-pe (waʰt̨pe) - onlookers [CQ-Osage]; wa-doⁿ-be (wadⁿbe) - watch; to look at them, see them [Kaw]

 

wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoiter

cf. wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; de (de) - go

Dhegiha: wa-daⁿ-be the (wadⁿbe ) - to go to see, to go out as a scout to find the range of the buffalo herd [JOD-Omaha]

 

look for anothers for him

o-ki-te (oktte) - look for anothers for him o-a-ki-te (okitte) - I, o-da-ki-te (odkitte) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-ta-we (ǫkkittawe) - we

cf. o-te (ott), (ot) - look for, hunt, search; o-ki-te (oktte) - look for ones own

Dhegiha: o-ki-tse (okce) - look for or search for something or someone for another [CQ-Osage]

 

look for ones own

o-ki-te (oktte) - look for ones own o-a-ki-te (okitte) - I, o-da-ki-te (odkitte) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-ta-we (ǫkkittawe) - we

cf. o-te (ott), (ot) - look for, hunt, search; o-ki-te (oktte) - look for anothers for him

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe kdi-ze naⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-ki-te de i-ya (waxʔik nįkʰe wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kdze ną mat̨ke oktte d iy) - the old woman took her sewing bag and went to look for rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD)]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi kʰi-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-shoⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe o-ki-te de koⁿ-da i-ya (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti ttįhi kʰi-i iy mat̨ke, ę ek̨ nįkʰe oktte d kǫd iy) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say), then his grandmother wanted to go look for him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-ta-shti-te a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxtąi ke oktte ttą dekid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them and she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gi-ne (-gi-ne) - to hunt for them, his own relations, friends, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-dse (u-g-dse) - to hunt for ones own [FL-Osage]; o-ki-tse (okce) - look for or search for something or someone lost or misplaced, often something or someone belonging to oneself [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-je (ogje) - look for ones own [Kaw]

 

look for, hunt, search

o-te (ott), (ot) - look for, hunt, search o-a-te (otte) - I, o-da-te (odtte) - you

cf. o-ki-te (oktte) - look for anothers for him; o-ki-te (oktte) - look for ones own

ex: i-ka-pʰe o-a-te miⁿ-kʰe (kapʰe otte mįkʰ) - looking for old comb (Im looking for a comb) [MS]

ex: naⁿ-zha a-shi o-a-te naⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ tʰi (n̨a i oatt ną tt̨̨ tʰi) - then when I looked back (searching), he appeared in sight, he had come [JOD]

ex: o-da-te (odtte) - you seek him [JOD]

ex: hi naⁿ naⁿ-zha haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke o-te naⁿ i-ya-we (h ną n̨a h̨ka ęke ott ną iywe) - then when he arrived he looked for (sought) Haⁿ-kas son, they said [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de iywe) - then he found/saw him, they said, after he had sought him for some time, he found/saw him, they said [JOD]

ex: o-te niⁿ i-ya-we, i-de i-ya-we (ott nį iywe, de iywe) - he was looking for it, they said, he found/saw it, they said [JOD]

ex: o-te niⁿ i-ya-we, e-hoⁿ i-de i-ya-we (ott nį iywe, eh̨ de iywe) - he was looking for it, they said, he found/saw it too, they said [JOD]

ex: o-wa-te (watte) - seeking them [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ne (u-n) - to hunt, as an animal or any inanimate object [JOD-Omaha]; u-ne (ne) - search, hunt [Omaha]; u-ʰtse (u-ṭs), (u-ds) - to search for, to hunt, to seek [FL-Osage]; o-tse (oc) - look for or search for something or someone, for one's own purposes, not because it or he/she was previously lost, hunt for, go hunting for small game [CQ-Osage]; o-tse (ce) - search, search for stuff, look for things [CQ-Osage]; o-je (oj) - look for something [Kaw]

 

look like, similar to

e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so

e-koⁿ (kǫ), (ek̨) - like

a-kaⁿ (ką) - like, as, so

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since; e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]; e-kaⁿ xti (ką xt), e-koⁿ xti (ek̨ xti) - really, just so; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ekǫkʰde), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - I will make it like that [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

 

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike

cf. koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-go (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (k͓ŭⁿ́-s͓e -k͓ŭⁿ) - alike, resembling something else referred to [JOD-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

 

kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in

cf. kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians [JOD]; kaⁿ-ze (k̨ze), koⁿ-ze (k̨ze) - pretend, feign, to pretend by being equal to, to pretend by being similar to, to pretend by acting as, to pretend being like; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ekǫkʰde), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; ki-koⁿ-ze (kkǫze), ki-kaⁿ-ze (kkąze) - teach someone something, to teach by being similar to, to teach by acting as, to teach by doing as; wa-kaⁿ-ze (wak̨ze) - teacher, to act as them, to be similar to them, to be like them, to do as them; e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite; e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]; goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-toⁿ-ha (goⁿ- ḳi-toⁿ-ha) - equal in height [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- 'thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]; go-ze ei-ki-khaⁿ (gze kikhaⁿ) - equal length [Kaw]; go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

look or watch out for

a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from a-a-ki-toⁿ-we (akkitt̨we) - I, a-da-ki-toⁿ-we (dakkitt̨we) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-toⁿ-wa-we (̨kakkittǫwawe) - we

cf. a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

Dhegiha: a-gi-doⁿ-be (-gi-doⁿ-be) - watches over whatever is his own [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-be (-ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - discreet; to guard ones self against trouble [FL-Osage]; a-ki-toⁿ-pe (kitǫpe) - watch over, tend someone who is not a family member or not close [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkiʰtǫpe) - watch over oneself, watch oneself, look at oneself, look after oneself, watch over each other, watch over things for oneself, watch over ones own things [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰtǫpe) - watch over, look after, look at ones own things or people, watch over, look after, look at ones own [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-doⁿ-be (gidoⁿbe) - look at something, examine something, watchover [Kaw]; a-ki-doⁿ-be (kidoⁿbe) - to examine for oneself [Kaw]; a-ki-toⁿ-be (kitoⁿbe) - see for oneself; look at an object closely to understand for oneself; to scrutinize [Kaw]

 

look upon

a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon a-a-taⁿ-we (attąwe) - I, a-da-taⁿ-we (datt̨we) - you

a-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - to look upon [MR]

cf. a (a) - on, upon; for; at; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkitt̨we tʰi) - visit, go/come to see someone; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter

ex: a-toⁿ-we (at̨we) - I looked at him [JOD]

ex: a-toⁿ-wa-zhi (at̨wai) - I did not look at him [JOD]

ex: i-shta a-toⁿ-we miⁿ-kʰe (it t̨we mįkʰ) - Im looking at it [MS]

ex: a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ ta-miⁿ-kʰe (wittąwe ątta mįkʰe) - I will lie watching you

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ąkaze h k̨ hi ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: a-toⁿ-we-ki-de di-knaⁿ (at̨wekid dkną)- he planned/tried to make me look at him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals-she did it-when-she looked at him-she sent it off-so she lay awhile-they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-daⁿ-be (-daⁿ-be) - to look straight at, as an arrow or the sight of a gun, so as not to miss the mark; to look to, to look at; to oversee; to look after [JOD-Omaha]; a-doⁿ-be (-doⁿ-be) - to watch over with care; to guard; to aim carefully; to escort [FL-Osage]; a-toⁿ-pe (tǫpe) - watch over, watch, tend, take care of some entity, such as a baby or a purse, or some process, such as cooking [CQ-Osage]; a-doⁿ-be (doⁿbe) - oversee, look to or at; watch over [Kaw]

 

look, see, find

i-de (de) - see, find i-da-de (idde) - I, i-da-de (dade) - you, oⁿ-noⁿ-da-we (ǫn̨dawe) - we

cf. i-ki-de (kide) - see ones own, recognize ones own, find ones own; i-de-ki-de (dekkid) - to cause ones self to find something

ex: si-kde a-shi-ti i-da-de (sikd itti idde) - I saw some footprints outside my house [MS]

ex: i-da-de (dade) - did you see it? [AG, OM]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here?, he said to him [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe si-ka i-ta i-de tʰaⁿ (waxʔ nįkʰe sikk itt de tʰą) - the woman found/saw a chicken egg [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de iywe) - then, after he had sought him for some time, he found him, they said [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka ki-te niⁿ taⁿ i-de (wąka kktte nį t̨ de) - he was shooting birds when he found/saw him [JOD]

ex: o-te niⁿ i-ya-we i-de i-ya-we (ott nį iywe, de iywe) - he was looking for it, he found/saw it, they said [JOD]

ex: o-te niⁿ i-ya-we e-hoⁿ i-de i-ya-we (ott nį iywe, eh̨ de iywe) - he was looking for it, he found it too, they said [JOD]

ex: i-de (de hde) - he looked this way and saw her [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de (ąn̨de) - he sees me, he saw me [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe i-xa koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe e-ni-te o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi (waxʔ nįkʰe xa k̨da nįkʰe nitte, dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąmį idxa-i) - the woman wanted to laugh, although she thought he will see/find me, I won't laugh [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa- iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-de hi-de naⁿ aⁿ-di-xe (ką ną ąn̨de hde n̨ ądixe) - so when he saw me, he chased me [JOD]

ex: i-de-ki-de (dekkid) - she caused herself to find it [JOD]

ex: i-da-ki-de (idkide) - I find him, my own [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te i-ye niⁿ i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte iy nį iy waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke o-ki-te a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxt̨i ke oktte ttą dekkid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them, she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

ex: i-wi-ki-de  (wkide) - I see you, my own

ex: i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wkide ą́dakn) - Im glad to see you [AB, OM]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, Im glad to see you [FR]

Dhegiha: i-the (ithe) - discover, find [Omaha]; i-the (-the) - to see, to find, to discern [FL-Osage]; i-the (ie) - see, find [CQ-Osage]; i-ye (ye) - see, watch, find, discover [Kaw]

 

look, to look for him

i-toⁿ-we (it̨we) - to look for him [JOD]

cf. a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of; take great care of; refrain from; ki-taⁿ-we (kit̨we) - to look at ones own [JOD]; ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkitt̨we tʰi) - visit, go/come to see someone; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; toⁿ-we-ki-ki (t̨wekik) - to look at repeatedly [JOD]; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter

ex: i-toⁿ-we de (it̨we d) - he went to look for him [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-daⁿ-be (-daⁿ-be) - to look through as a spy glass; to examine, survey, or spy with [JOD-Omaha]; i-daⁿ-be (-daⁿ-be) - to be caused to see, or look at or look after what another person has [JOD-Omaha]; mi i-doⁿ-be (mi idoⁿbe) - time; watch; clock [Omaha]; i-doⁿ-be ga-xe (-doⁿ-be ga-xe) - to imitate, to endeavor to do like someone else; a facsimile [FL-Osage]

 

look!

toⁿ-wa (t̨w) - look!, command form of toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we)

toⁿ-wa (t̨w) - look! [AG, OM]

toⁿ-wa ni (tǫ́w ni) - look! [AG]

cf. toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something

Dhegiha: daⁿ-ba ga (dⁿba-ga) - look at, imperative [JOD-Omaha]; doⁿ-ba (doⁿba) - command: see (F) [Omaha]; toⁿ-pa (t̨pa) - look! [CQ-Osage]

 

loon

ni-taⁿ i-ki-he (nitt̨ ikih) - aquatic wader, loon, snipe, etc.

cf. ni-taⁿ i-ki-he taⁿ-ka (nitt̨ ikih tt̨ka) - snipe, jack snipe

 

loose, kick loose

naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose a-naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (an̨ǫdada) - I, da-naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (dan̨ǫdada) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

 

loose, pull loose

di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose bdi-kda (bdkda) - I, ti-kda (ttkda) - you

cf. bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - unravel, unbraid, separate with the hand; straighten coiled wire by pulling; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

 

loose, push or blow loose

bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose pi-kda (ppkda) - I, shpi-kda (pkda) - you

cf. da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; ka-kda (kakd) - sway; naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen, come undone, as a shoelace

Dhegiha: thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - unravel, unbraid, separate with the hand; straighten coiled wire by pulling; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gththa) - unbraided, unwoven, unraveled [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gth-tha) - to unbraid or untie [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ba-gtha (bagth) - to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc.[Omaha/Ponca]; ga-la-ya (galya) - comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids; cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire [Kaw]; naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿlya) - straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick; to come undone, as a moccasin string [Kaw]

 

loosen by working back/forth

di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth bdi-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (bdǫǫda) - I, ti-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (ttǫǫda) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened, loosened in its socket, as a fence post or a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - loosened [Omaha]

 

loosen or destabilize by pushing at

ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at pa-shoⁿ-da-da (ppǫdada) - I, shpa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdada) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

 

loosen, come undone

naⁿ-kda (nąkd) - loosen; come undone, as a shoelace a-naⁿ-kda (an̨kda) - I, da-naⁿ-kda (dan̨kda) - you

cf. bi-kda (bikd) - press out, push/blow loose; da-kda (dakd) - undo with the mouth, teeth; di-kda (dikd) - undo, untie, pull loose; ka-kda (kakd) - sway

Dhegiha: naⁿ-la-ya (naⁿlya) - straighten with the foot, as a crooked stick; to come undone, as a moccasin string [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-gtha (thigtha) - unroll, untie [Omaha]; ba-gtha (bagth) - to undo braided hair, plaited rope, etc.[Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gtha-tha (thi-gth-tha) - to unravel, unbraid [FL-Osage]; yu-la-ya (yulya) - unravel, unbraid, separate with the hand; straighten coiled wire by pulling; pull open or separate, as the leaves of a book, by turning with the hand; open out, spread out, as the hand [Kaw]; ga-la-ya (galya) - comb out, cause hair to come undone by running a comb through, such as braids; cause to uncoil by throwing or striking, as a spool of thread or wire [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gtha (gtha) - unbraided, unwoven [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gththa) - unbraided, unwoven, unraveled [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-tha (gth-tha) - to unbraid or untie [FL-Osage]

 

loosen, untie, open

di-shke (dik) - untie, loosen, open bdi-shke (bdke) - I, ti-shke (ttke) - you

Dhegiha: thi-shke (thishke) - untie [Omaha]; thi-shke (thi-shke) - to untie a knot [FL-Osage]; yu-shke (yushk) - untie something, as a knot [Kaw]

 

loquacious person, talker

i-ye-shtaⁿ (yet̨) - talker, loquacious person

cf. i-ye (ye), i-e (e) - talk, speak, word, language; shtaⁿ (tą) - habitual aspect suffix; ha-te shtaⁿ (hątʔ tą) - sickly [JOD]; wa-maⁿ-da-shtaⁿ (wam̨dat̨) - thief, who steals habitually

Dhegiha: i-e-shtoⁿ (-e-shtoⁿ) - a talkative person [FL-Osage]; i-e-shtaⁿ (etą) - talker, one who talks too much, is mouthy, or interrupts, lit., talks constantly [CQ-Osage]; i-e-shtaⁿ (eshtaⁿ) - a great talker, one who likes to talk [Kaw]

 

lose grip, slip over

di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over bdi-kʰiⁿ-te (bdkʰįtte) - I, ti-kʰiⁿ-te (ttkʰįtte) - you

cf. ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte) - miss, slip pushing something; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface; da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte) - strike at and miss; kiⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (kk̨kkįtt) - slippery; naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it; po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting

Dhegiha: thi-kshiⁿ-dse (thi-kshⁿ-dse) - failure to get a good grasp or hold [FL-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-tse (ik̨ce) - miss, fail at, be incorrect at, not get right, drop, let slip, let slip away [CQ-Osage]; yu-khiⁿ-je (yukhⁿje) - slip in grasping or holding, drop something; miss when reaching for something [Kaw]

 

lose ones footing, slip

naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (nąn̨da) - lose ones footing, slip a-naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (an̨nǫda) - I, da-naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨nǫda) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ba-shnoⁿ-da (ban̨da) - push at and fail or miss; bi-shnoⁿ-da (bin̨da) - fail, miss applying pressure; da-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨da) - slip in eating, talking, etc.; di-shnoⁿ-da (din̨da) - let slip, fumble something; ka-shnoⁿ-da (kan̨da) - miss the mark striking at something; pa-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - fail to cut something with a knife; po-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - miss a target shooting

Dhegiha: zhnoⁿ (zhnoⁿ) - verb root, to miss, let fall, zhnoⁿ-tha (c͓naⁿa), ba-zhnoⁿ (bac͓naⁿ), bu-zhnoⁿ (buc͓naⁿ), tha-zhnoⁿ (ac͓naⁿ), thi-zhnoⁿ (ic͓naⁿ), ga-zhnoⁿ (gac͓naⁿ), ma zhnoⁿ (mac͓naⁿ), mu-zhnoⁿ (muc͓naⁿ) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

lose ones own by death

ni-ka ki-te (nkka kitʔe) - widow, to lose ones husband

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man, husband, male animal; ki-te (kitʔ) - die, said of one's kin; te (tʔe) - die

ex: wa-xo ki-te (waxʔ kitʔ) - widower, to lose by death one's woman, become a widower

ex: wa-xo ki-te niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ kitʔ nįkʰ) - the widower

ex: shoⁿ-ke ki-te (̨ke kitʔ) - his/her dog died

Dhegiha: gi-te (g-tse) - to lose a relative by death [FL-Osage]; gi-tse (gits) - ones own (kinsman or animal) to die on one [Kaw]

 

wa-xo ki-te (waxʔ kitʔ) - widower, to lose by death ones woman, become a widower

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, wife, female animal; ki-te (kitʔ) - die, said of one's kin; te (tʔe) - die

ex: wa-xo ki-te niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ kitʔ nįkʰ) - the widower

ex: ni-ka ki-te (nkka kitʔe) - widow, to lose ones husband

ex: shoⁿ-ke ki-te (̨ke kitʔ) - his/her dog died

Dhegiha: gi-te (g-tse) - to lose a relative by death [FL-Osage]; gi-tse (gits) - ones own (kinsman or animal) to die on one [Kaw]

 

lose patience

wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi (wą ddai) - to lose patience wa-zhiⁿ de-a-da-zhi (wą dadi) - I, wa-zhiⁿ de-da-da-zhi (wą ddadi) - you

cf. wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will, mind, will power; wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful [MS]; wa-zhiⁿ ska (wa-jĭⁿ́-skă) - masculine name of the (Kwapa) oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) gens; White Disposition, Wise. The csuga or younger brother of wa-kaⁿ-ta ka-hi-ke (wakanta kahike) or John Medicine [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - will power [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wajĭⁿ́) - disposition [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - own will, volition [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - will, mind, idea [CQ-Osage]

 

lose something

o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something oⁿ-xpa-de (̨xpad) - I, o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - you

cf. o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling star; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - fall, cause by pressure/weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter; o-ka-xpa-ki-de (okxpakkde) - be adopted as a Quapaw; o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the the (uxpathe the) - lose [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (uqpĕ) - lost, it be lost; falling from a height [JOD-Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - to become lost; to feel around with the hands in the dark, to grope; to fall [FL-Osage]; o-xpa-the (oxpe) - get lost, become lost, lose; fall from a height [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - get lost, become lost; fall from a height, fall off, to fall from a height [Kaw]

 

lot of noise

xa-naⁿ e-hi (xʔną hi) - make a lot of noise

cf. xa-naⁿ (xʔną) - noise, to make talking, or any noise, etc.; hi (hi) - very

ex: xa-naⁿ-e-hi-we, i-ya (xʔną-hi-w, iy) - they made a lot of noise, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

lot, a lot

o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot

cf. o-she-xti (exti) - full; wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (they have a lot of money) [MS]

Dhegiha: u-she (-she) - plenty, plentiful [FL-Osage]; o-she (e) - exist plentifully, lots, abundance, plenty, profusion of something [CQ-Osage]

 

zho-hi hi (hi hi) - a lot [MS]

zho-hi hi (oh hi) - very many [JOD]

cf. zho-hi (hi) - much, many; hi (hi) - very; zho-hi ka-xe (hi kγe) - to multiply

ex: shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi shkoⁿ-wa-da-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (wtteke nkkaka hi hi k̨wadwe, iy iy mat̨ke niⁿkʰe) - my uncle, many people are here and will dislodge us, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi to-ke-taⁿ wa-bdi-xe a-taⁿ wa-bdi-ze, ko-zhi da-zhi hi bdi-ze (skka tt̨ka hi h toktą wabdxe att̨ wbdze, kki di hi bdze) - there were many turkeys there then, I chased them and I caught them, it didnt go very far, I caught it [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-aⁿ-de aⁿ-ka-kde te-a (wąka hi h tʔęde ąkkde tte) - we have killed many birds, lets go home [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: zho-hi hi ka-xa-we (oh hi kxawe) - they made many [JOD]

 

zho-hi (hi) - much, many

cf. zho-hi ka-xe (hi kγe) - to multiply; zho-hi hi (hi hi) - a lot [MS]; zho-hi hi (oh hi) - very many [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi (nkkaka oh) - person-many [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zho-hi o-zha-naⁿ-we (waxʔ oh a-ną-w) - many/a lot of women danced regularly [JOD]

 

loud rolling thunder, hard thunder, big thunder

ka-niⁿ taⁿ-ka (kanįtt̨ka) - loud rolling thunder, hard thunder, big thunder

ka-ni taⁿ-ka (k͓ani ták͓a) - masculine name, Chas Quapaw, son of xi-da ska taⁿ-ka (qid ska ták͓a); Charles Goodeagles name [FR, JOD]

cf. ka-ni (kan), ka-niⁿ (kanį) - thunder; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large; ka-ni zhi-ka (k͓a-n ji-k͓) - Little Thunder (not, Thunder-being), called Ambrose by the white people: a Kwapa man, living in 1877 [JOD]; ka-niⁿ zhi-ka (kanįka) - distant thunder, little thunder; ka-ni-ni (kanni), ka-niⁿ-niⁿ (kanįn̨) - thunder, thundering

 

loud, aloud

a-da-te (date) - read, say aloud a-bda-te (bdate) - I, a-ta-te (ttate) - you, oⁿ-ka-da-ta-we (ǫkdatawe) - we

cf. da-te (dat) - read aloud, call or name something

Dhegiha: a-tha-de (athade) - nominate [Omaha]; wa-xiⁿ-ha a-tha-de (waxiⁿha athade) - reading [Omaha]; a-tha-dse (-tha-dse) - to nominate, to make a motion [FL-Osage]; a-tha-tse (aace) - repeat or say again, call upon again, name again [CQ-Osage]

 

da-te (dat) - read aloud, call or name something bda-te (bdte) - I, ta-te (ttte) - you

cf. a-da-te (date) - read, say aloud

ex: i-ka-zo-zo da-te (kazzo dat) - school, read books [MS]; Maude Supernaw gives two translations for school house, i-ka-zo-zo da-te (kazzo dat) and wa-kaⁿ-ze ti (waką́ze tti), she says wa-kaⁿ-ze ti (waką́ze tti) is best

ex: da-ta-i (data) - they called [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-de (thad) - call, name, speak, utter, pronounce [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-dse (tha-ds) - to call as by name, to pronounce [FL-Osage]; tha-tse (aac) - say, pronounce, read, call on someone's name, say the name of something or someone, call, define as, assign a name to something or someone, use a name for something or someone [CQ-Osage]; ya-je (yaj) - read, pronounce, to call by name [Kaw]

 

loud, talk loud

i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi (e wak̨hi) - talk louder [MS]

cf. i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort; wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong, with an effort, all ones might

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

Dhegiha: i-e (e) - speech, word, speak, say [JOD-Omaha]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word, language [Omaha]; i-e (-e) - a language, to speak, to talk, speech [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk, speak a language, word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speak, speech, language, sentence [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-shkaⁿ (wa-ckaⁿ́) - to make an effort or attempt; to persevere; be strong, put forth strength; do your best [JOD-Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do one's best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

i-e so-te (e sott) - loud talk (talk fast) [OM]

cf. i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; so-te (sott) - fast, swift of an animal, rapidly; maⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (mąn̨ sott hi) - walk fast [MS]; taⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (ttą́nį sott hi) - run fast [MS]; zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te (ǫ́ dittą́da sott) - train, wagon go fast [MS, JOD]

ex: so-te hi kde niⁿ (stte h kde n̨) - very rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa-xti so-te hi kde kʰe (owxti stte h kde kʰ) - with great effort/with all her might, very fast/rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-niⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

 

louse, lice

he (he) - louse

he (heh) - lice (pou) [GI]

he (he) - lice, louse [FS]

Dhegiha: he (he) - louse, lice [Omaha/Ponca]; he (he) - head lice, lice [Omaha]; he (he) - louse [FL-Osage]; he (he) - lice, louse [CQ-Osage]; he (he) - louse [Kaw]

 

he-saⁿ (hes̨) - lice [JOD]

he-saⁿ (heh-sion) - lice, body lice (pou de corps morp) [GI]

ex: o-ta-shti-te a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

Dhegiha: he-soⁿ (hoⁿ) - nits, gnits, head lice, gnats [Omaha]; he-soⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (he-ⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - little white louse, a nit [FL-Osage]

 

love

xta-de (xtad) - love xta-a-de (xtad) - I, xta-da-de (xtdad) - you

cf. xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love ones own; o-xta (xta) - good, desirable; o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love; o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect

ex: xta-wi-de (xtawid) - I love you

ex: xta-aⁿ-da-de (xtaądad) - you love me

ex: xta-di-de (xtadid) - he loves you

Dhegiha: xta-the (qtthe) - to love a person or thing, to like, to think well of [Omaha/Ponca]; xta-the (xtthe), xja-the (xjthe) - like, adore, admire [Omaha]; xta-the (xt-the) - to love; to love children [FL-Osage]; xta-ye (xtye) - love: care for, have concern for: be good to [Kaw]

 

love ones own

xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love ones own (relative, kin) xta-a-ki-de (xtakkide) - I, xta-da-ki-de (xtdakkide) - you

cf. xta-de (xtad) - love; o-xta (xta) - good, desirable; o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love; o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect

Dhegiha: xta-gi-the (qt-gi-ĕ) - to love his own relation, animal, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; xta-ki-the (xjkithe) - love [Omaha]; xta-gi-the (xjgithe) - romance [Omaha]

 

love or affection

wa-pi-de (wappde) - love or affection [OM]

cf. pi-de (ppde) - love, as a woman does a man

Dhegiha: wa-ʰpi-the (wa-p̣-the) - to love [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰpi-the (p̣-the) - the love of a woman for a man or boy [FL-Osage]; pi-ye (pye) - love a man, said of a woman [Kaw]

 

love someone, think well of

ho-taⁿ a-zhaⁿ-i (httą ąi) - love someone, think well of ho-taⁿ a-a-zhaⁿ (httą aą) - I, ho-taⁿ a-da-zhaⁿ- (httą daą) - you

cf. ho-taⁿ (httą) - good; a-zhaⁿ (ą) - think, regard one as being; a-zhiⁿ (į) - think, regard; to treat as

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ a-zhiⁿ (thgthiⁿ a-zhiⁿ) - to think well of a person or thing [FL-Osage]; ya-liⁿ a-zhiⁿ (yliⁿazhiⁿ) - love someone [Kaw]

 

love, as a woman does a man

pi-de (ppde) - love, as a woman does a man pi-a-de (ppade) - I, pi-da-de (ppdade) - you, pi-oⁿ-da-we (ppǫdawe) - we

cf. wa-pi-de (wappde) - love or affection [OM]

Dhegiha: ʰpi-the (p̣-the) - the love of a woman for a man or boy [FL-Osage]; pi-ye (pye) - love a man, said of a woman [Kaw]

 

love, like

o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love o-xta-a-de (xtaad) - I, o-xta-da-de (xtadad) - you

cf. o-xta (xta) - good, desirable; o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect; xta-de (xtad) - love; xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love ones own

Dhegiha: u-xta-the (qta-ĕ) - to be very fond of, to have a deep love for [JOD-Omaha]; u-xta-the (-xta-the) - to be fond of a person [FL-Osage]; o-xta-ye (xtaye) - like someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-xta (qta) - good, excellent, desirable [JOD-Omaha]; u-xta (-xta) - marvelous, pleasing, mysterious, lovable, to prize highly, to hold a thing precious or valuable [FL-Osage]; o-xta (xta) - precious, dear or beloved, valuable, marvelous, important, special, right, respectable [CQ-osage]; o-xta (xta) - pleasing [Kaw]

 

Lovers Leap

iⁿ-ka-bde a-na-zhiⁿ (įkbde anį) - Lovers Leap near Quapaw, OK

cf. iⁿ (į) - stone, rock; a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand upon

Dhegiha: iⁿ (iⁿ) - stone [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ (ⁿ) - rock, stone, rocky cliff  [FL-Osage]; iⁿ (̨į) - stone, rock [CQ-Osage]; iⁿ (iⁿ) - stone, rock [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-na-zhiⁿ (-na-jiⁿ) - to stand on any object; to stand by someone [JOD-Omaha]; a-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (-noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to stand on [FL-Osage]; a-na-zhi (naai), a-naⁿ-zhi (nąąi) - stand on top of; be superior to in some quality; step on, step in [CQ-Osage]; a-na-zhiⁿ (nazhiⁿ), a-no-zhiⁿ (nozhiⁿ) - stand on something; step on something [Kaw]

 

low level, broad, as a field

o-zaⁿ-te (ozątt) - broad, as a field, a low level

cf. o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom, same as o-zo-ti-o-we (ozttiow), name of a Quapaw town in Arkansas; o-zo-ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: zaⁿ-de (zaⁿ-de) - a forest, a dense forest, a highland covered with trees [JOD-Omaha]; zoⁿ-dse (oⁿ-dse) - upland forest [FL-Osage]; zaⁿ-tse (z̨ące) - prairie, country, rural area, countryside; a valley with trees, a grove of trees [CQ-Osage]; zaⁿ-je (zaⁿj), zoⁿ-je (zoⁿj) - timber, highland covered with trees; woods [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber [Kaw]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber (the name of the village) [Kaw]

 

low, lower

to-shi (to) - low, lower

cf. i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip; i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid; to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something; di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window

Dhegiha: nu-shi (n-ci) - low [JOD-Omaha]; nu-shi (nshi) - low [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-shi-xchi (nshiqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-nu-shi (ganshi) - to cut or throw low [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha (nshiha) - low, short, down below [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha-xchi (nshihaqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-nu-shi (thi nushi) - dim [Omaha]

 

lower as water, down

da-xo (daγ) - down, lower as water

cf. da-xo de (daγ d) - decrease, lower

 

lower eyelid

i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid

cf. i-shta-ha (itha) - eyelid; to-shi (to) - low, lower; i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid; i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip; to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something; di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window

ex: i-shta-ha to-shi kʰe (itha to kʰe) - the lower eyelid

Dhegiha: nu-shi (n-ci) - low [JOD-Omaha]; nu-shi (nshi) - low [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-shi-xchi (nshiqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-nu-shi (ganshi) - to cut or throw low [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha (nshiha) - low, short, down below [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha-xchi (nshihaqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-nu-shi (thi nushi) - dim [Omaha]

 

lower in price, cheapen

di-to-ti (ditttti) - cheapen, lower in price bdi-to-ti (bdttotti) - I, ti-to-ti (ttttotti) - you

 

lower lip

i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip

cf. i-ha zho (ha) - lip; to-shi (to) - low, lower; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid; to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something; di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window

ex: i-ha-zho to-zhi kʰe (ha to kʰe) - the lower lip

Dhegiha: nu-shi (n-ci) - low [JOD-Omaha]; nu-shi (nshi) - low [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-shi-xchi (nshiqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-nu-shi (ganshi) - to cut or throw low [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha (nshiha) - low, short, down below [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha-xchi (nshihaqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-nu-shi (thi nushi) - dim [Omaha]

 

lower, decrease

da-xo de (daγ d) - decrease, lower

cf. da-xo (daγ) - down, lower as water; de (de) - cause to, to cause

 

lower, pull down

di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; to-shi (to) - low, lower; i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip; i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid; to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something

Dhegiha: thi-nu-shi (thi nushi) - dim [Omaha]

 

lunar calendar

zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, when the buds are red

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te hi (̨xda tte hi) - redbud tree; zhoⁿ-xda (ǫxd) - bud; zhi-te (tte) - red

 

zhoⁿ-shti-we da-tʰe (ǫtwe datʰ) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, shti-we (twe) untranslated, not found elsewhere may mean straight or soft; may refer to the beaver

cf. da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew

 

mi-wa-she shka (miwe k) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, when the wa-xo-ka taⁿ-ka (waxka tt̨ka), 'dewberries' are ripe in Summer

cf. wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot; ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

 

wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn, precedes sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska)

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; zhoⁿ (ǫ), zhaⁿ (ą) - sleep, lie, recline; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

 

sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter, precedes pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska)

cf. sni-wa-te (snwatte) - winter [FR, OM]; sni-wa-te (snwatte) sni-wa-te - cold weather [MS, AG]; (snwatte) - winter, north; sni-wa-te (sniwtte) - power of winter (male); o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length)

Dhegiha: ʰni-wa-ʰtse (ʰn-wa-ṭse) - cold weather, a cold day [FL-Osage]; ni-wa-ʰtse (nwaʰce) - be cold, an impersonal weather expression, not used for people [CQ-Osage]; hni-wa-tse (hniwace) - cold, as the weather, winter, the cold months, approximately September - February [Kaw]

 

pa-de o-skaⁿ-ska (pde osk̨ska) - midwinter, name of one of the months in the Quapaw lunar calendar, precedes zhaⁿ-to ti-te (̨tto tttte)

cf. pa-de (pde) - winter; pa-de taⁿ (pdettą) - wintertime, when it is winter; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half (in length)

Dhegiha: ma-the (mthe) - winter, year [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-the (b-the) - winter [FL-Osage]; pa-the (pa) - winter [CQ-Osage]

 

zhaⁿ-to ti-te (̨tto ttte) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, perhaps Spring, precedes pa-shte ti-te (ppat titt)

cf. zhaⁿ to-hi (ą ttohi) - mulberry tree [MS]; ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked

 

pa-shte ti-te (pat titt) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar

cf. pa-shte-ka (patka) - strawberry; ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked

 

lunar eclipse

mi-aⁿ-pa di-shi-we (mįpa diwe) - eclipse of the moon

cf. mi-aⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-aⁿ-ba (mįba) - moon; di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open; mi di-shi (mi di) - eclipse of the sun; i-di-shi-we (diwe) - key; o-naⁿ-taⁿ di-shi-we (on̨ttą diwe) - door knob; o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle, covering

Dhegiha: thi-shi-be (thishibe) - open, unlock, uncap, unhitch [Omaha]; thi-shi-be (thi-sh-be) - to open anything that has a lid or a door, to open a covered box [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-be (thi-sh-be) - to open or unfasten a door, to open as a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-pe (thiipe) - open, unlock and open [CQ-Osage]; yu-shu-we (yushwe), yu-shu-be (yushbe) - open, as a door or a sacred bundle, unlock, gate [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shiⁿ (uthshiⁿ) - cover, to cover, as with a garment [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shiⁿ (u-th-shiⁿ) - to wrap anything up [FL-Osage]; o-thi-shi (oi) - wrap, cover for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc. [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-shiⁿ (oyshiⁿ) - bundle something up, cover something by surrounding it, covering, a wrapping for something, synonym or variant of a-yi-shiⁿ (yishiⁿ) [Kaw]; a-yi-shiⁿ (yishiⁿ) - to bundle up in a cloth or blanket, synonym or variant of o-yu-shiⁿ (oyushiⁿ) [Kaw]

 

lunar month, one month

mi-aⁿ-pa miⁿ (mįpa m̨) - month, lunar month

cf. mi-aⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-aⁿ-ba (mįba) - moon; miⁿ (mį) - one; a; mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ (mįba mxtiną) - monthly

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ mi-aⁿ-ba miⁿ a-ki-ha a-kniⁿ (̨čʰǫ mįba m̨ kkihą akn̨) - I have now been (here) over a month

Dhegiha: mi-oⁿ-ba the (m-oⁿ-ba the) - this month [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-oⁿ-pa (m̨įǫpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (miǫpa) - moon, month, months time [CQ-Osage]; mi-oⁿ-ba (moⁿba), miⁿ-oⁿ-ba (mⁿoⁿb) - month; celestial orb, the sun or moon [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one, single [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ (wį) - a, an, one, single, any one, one of a group [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - one, a, an; indefinite article [Kaw]

 

mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti (mįba mxti) - one month

cf. mi-aⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-aⁿ-ba (mįba) - moon; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one; mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ (mįba mxtiną) - monthly

ex: mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ ma-ze-ska kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-da (mįba mxtiną mazska kdbnątt̨ nąp akn̨ ąn̨kid) - he paid me twelve dollars a month

Dhegiha: miⁿ-oⁿ-ba miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿoⁿba mⁿxci) - month, lit., one moon [Kaw]

Dhegiha: mi-oⁿ-ba the (m-oⁿ-ba the) - this month [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-oⁿ-pa (m̨įǫpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (miǫpa) - moon, month, months time [CQ-Osage]; mi-oⁿ-ba (moⁿba), miⁿ-oⁿ-ba (mⁿoⁿb) - month; celestial orb, the sun or moon [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wⁿ-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

 

mi wiⁿ-xti (mi w̨xti) - month, lunar month, probably miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one

cf. mi (mi) - sun, moon, orb; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one

Dhegiha: mi wiⁿ (mi wⁿ) - one month [Omaha]; miⁿ the (mⁿ ) - this month [JOD-Omaha]; miⁿ tha-bthiⁿ (mⁿ biⁿ) - three months [JOD-Omaha]; miⁿ sha-pe (miⁿ cape) - six months [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: miⁿ (miⁿ) - a moon, a lunar month [JOD-Omaha]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - month [Omaha/Ponca]; mi (mi) - sun, moon [FL-Osage]; miⁿ (m̨į), mi (mi) - sun, moon [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ), (mⁿ) - sun [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wⁿ-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

 

lungs

da-xi (dγi), da-xiⁿ (dγį) - lungs

Dhegiha: tha-xiⁿ (thxiⁿ) - lung, lungs [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-xi (thxi) - lungs [Omaha]; tha-xi (th-xi), tha-xiⁿ (tha-xⁿ) - the lungs; the lungs of a man or an animal [FL-Osage]; thoⁿ-xu  (̨γu) - lung, lungs [CQ-Osage]; ya-ghu (yghu) - lungs or lights (of an animal) [Kaw]

 

lying down, be lying down

zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down a-zhoⁿ i-he (ą ih) - I, da-zhoⁿ i-he (dą ih) - you, oⁿ-zhoⁿ i-ha-we (ǫ̨ ihawe) - we

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he (i-h) - after verbs, to be placed or laid [JOD-Omaha]; i-he (ih) - lying object acted upon, post-verbal [Kaw]

 

lying down, to feel like lying down

zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ǫ tį) - to feel like lying down a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį) - I

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; ti-aⁿ (tį) - to feel like, somewhat

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį) - Im going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

lying objects

iⁿ-ke (įk) - lying objects, plural/lying/animate; collocations of lying objects take the sitting art. as a bundle

cf. ke (ke) - the pl/st/an or pl/st/in

ex: ha-na iⁿ-ke (han įk) - some

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (ąkan̨ įk) - we have [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we got some good (stomp dance) leaders here [MS]

ex: o-zha wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (a waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we have good (stomp dance) leaders [MS]

ex: ke-ha-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (keh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

ex: a-zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke (̨ įk) - go to sleep [MS]

 

lying position

i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

cf. i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; aⁿ-he (̨he) - lay a long/inanimate object on something; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something, put

ex: a-ka-zi i-he a-taⁿ di-ze (kazi he ttą diz) - to stretch out on an object and take something else

ex: a-ka-zi i-he a-zhaⁿ-taⁿ bdi-ze (kazi he ąttą bdiz) - I stretch, etc.

ex: zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down

Dhegiha: i-he (i-h) - after verbs, to be placed or laid [JOD-Omaha]; i-he (ih) - lying object acted upon, post-verbal [Kaw]

 

lying there

e-ti kʰe (tti kʰ) - lying there [JOD]

cf. e-ti (tti) - there; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ex: e-shaⁿ zhaⁿ a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ e-ti kʰe taⁿ a-te bde a-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe (ą ą bakko kį tti kʰ tą tte bd[e]-ttą m̨i mįkʰ) - then, I climbed up high in this crooked (bent, lying there) tree and I sat there [JOD]

 

lying, be lying or reclining

zhoⁿ-kʰe (ǫkʰ), zhaⁿ-kʰe (ąkʰ) - continuative, be lying or reclining [JOD]

zhaⁿ-kʰe (ąkʰ) - you lying, 2sg continuative auxiliary lying

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ex: hoⁿ zhoⁿ-kʰe (hǫ ̨kʰ) - what is the matter with you who recline?' (JOD)]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-kʰe (zhoⁿ-kʰe) - lying in a horizontal position [JOD-Omaha]; zhaⁿ-kshe (̨ke) - continuative postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd sg. lying down subject [CQ-Osage]

 

lying, hide someones singular/lying/inanimate object

na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someones singular/lying/inanimate object

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; na-xnaⁿ knaⁿ (naxn̨ kn̨) - hide someone elses singular/sitting/inanimate object; na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide singular/standing/inanimate or collection

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ-ha (noⁿ-xthⁿ-ha) - privacy, retirement, secrecy, underhand, to have a private concultation [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-loⁿ-ha (nąl̨ǫha) - be sneaky, hide, be sly, secretly scheme against someone, go behind someones back, be cunning, hide, conceal, covertly [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ) - hide something [Kaw]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ-le (noⁿxlⁿle) - hide a perpendicular object by standing it upright inside something [Kaw]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ o-laⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ olⁿ) - hide an object such as a book, paper, or garment inside of something [Kaw]

 

lying, lay down a singular/lying/inanimate object

a-i-he-de (ihed) - lay down a singular/lying/inanimate object a-i-ha-de (ihde) - I, a-i-he-da-de (ihedde) - you, oⁿ-ka-hi-oⁿ-de (̨kahiǫd) - we, I and one other, oⁿ-ka-hi-oⁿ-da-we (̨kahǫdaw) - we

cf. i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-toⁿ-wi-he-de (ttǫwihde) - put horizontal object down carefully; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; kaⁿ i-he-de (ką ihde), gaⁿ i-he-de (gą ihde) - prone; na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someones singular/lying/inanimate object; pi i-he-de (ppi ihde) - put down safely; so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise; shoⁿ i-he-de (̨ ihde) - bequeath, will, leave something

Dhegiha: i-he-the (ithĕ) - laid down [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

lying, lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something; put

oⁿ-he (ǫh) - put, lay singular/lying/inanimate inside something o-woⁿ-he (ow̨he) - I, o-doⁿ-he (od̨he) - you, oⁿ-koⁿ-ha-we (ǫk̨hawe) - we

cf. aⁿ-he (̨he) - lay a long/inanimate object on something; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile; wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn, precedes sni-wa-te o-skaⁿ-ska (sniwte osk̨ska); i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

ex: sa-ti o-kdaⁿ oⁿ-he (stti kdą ǫh) - joists, cross timbers of house

ex: ma-hiⁿ oⁿ-he (mhį ǫhe) - knife sheath

ex: siⁿ-ti-oⁿ-he (sįttįhe) - crupper (saddle strap)

ex: ta-ti-oⁿ-he ttttįhe, ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind

Dhegiha: (u-oⁿ-he) - lay [FL-Osage]; o-he (he) - to lay a horizontal object down, such as a pencil or a fork onto a table [Kaw]; oⁿ-he (oⁿh) - classifier for sitting or lying broad object, this is used followng another verb when a large or large and broad object is acted on [Kaw]

 

lying, put horizontal (lying) things in a pile

a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile; here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile

cf. a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something

Dhegiha: a-ku-ko-he (kukohe) - lay ones own object on a surface for ones own benefit [Kaw]; a-gu-ko-he (gukohe) - lay ones own horizontal object on a surface; lay something on surface for someone [Kaw]; a-koⁿ-he (koⁿhe), a-ko-he (kohe) - lay something on top of something else [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhe-oⁿ-he (zhoⁿhe) - roast, to place a long object, such as an ear of corn, in front of the fire to roast [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay into [CQ-Osage]; ko-he (khe) - lay down an inanimate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ʰkoⁿ-he (-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe), o-ko-he (okhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰki-koⁿ-he (oʰkkʔǫhe) - interrupt, lit., insert oneself into [CQ-Osage]

 

lying, that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate

koi-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; koi-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote du/st/vi/in; koi-de (kode) - those things [JOD]; koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote sg/si/vi; koi-ke (kike) - those remote pl/st/vi/an; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote si or ly/vi; koi-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote sg/mv/vi/an; koi-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote sg/si/vi/an or in; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote pl/mv/vi/an; koi-she (kie) - that; that part; aforementioned words or manner; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity; koi-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote sg/st/vi/an; koi-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote sg/st/vi/in; koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

 

lying, that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that sg/mv/an object that arrived on this side; to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that sg/si/an nearby object on this side of a place; to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that sg/st/an object on this side of a place he has reached

 

lying, that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those du/st or cl/in objects on this side; to-wa-ke (twak) - those pl/st/an objects on this side; to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those pl/si or lying objects on this side; to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that sg/mv/an object on this side or the nearer of two objects; to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that sg/si object on this side; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those pl/mv/an objects on this side; to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that sg/st or cl/in object on this side

 

lying, that singular/lying/ivisible/inanimate

ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular/lying/ivisible/inanimate

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those du/st/iv/in; ka-ke (kke) - those pl/st/iv/an; ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size; ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those pl/si or ly/iv/an; ka-niⁿ (knį) - that sg/mv/iv/an; ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - that sg/si/iv/an; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those pl/mv/iv/an; ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; ka-tʰaⁿ (ktʰą) - that sg/st/iv/an; ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that st/iv/in or that cl/iv/in

 

lying, that singular/lying/visible object

she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object

cf. she () - that [JOD]; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those du/st/vi/in objects; she-ke (ke) - those non-sg/st/an or in objects; she-na-ska (enask) - size, big enough, of that size; she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those pl/si or ly/vi; she-niⁿ (nį) - that mv/vi/an; she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that si/vi/an. or inan.; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those mv/vi/an; she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that st/vi/an; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height; she-tʰe (tʰe) - this sg or cl/st/in; she-ta (tta) - there, at/to that place

Dhegiha: she (she) - that [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - that one; there [FL-Osage]; she-kshe (sh-kshe) - that long object [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that, near you [CQ-Osage]; she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

 

lying, that yonder singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular/lying/animate or inanimate, yonder

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; ko-wa-da-te (kwadatt) - those du/st/in or collections; ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that sg/st/in, yon; ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived sg/mv/an, the one who has reached; ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those pl/st/an, yon; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those pl/si or ly, yon; ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that sg/mv/an, yon; ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that sg/si/an or in, yon; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those pl/mv/an, yon; ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that sg/st/an, the further one; ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that sg/st/in or collection

 

lying, the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

kʰe (kʰe), (kʰ) - the reclining object; the reclining [JOD]

cf. de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying/inanimate; ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular/lying/invisible/inanimate; koi-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate; ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular/lying/animate or inanimate, yonder; she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object; to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular lying/inanimate object on this side; to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

ex: a-na-zhiⁿ kʰe (naį kʰe) - the floor

ex: a-zhaⁿ kʰe (ą kʰe) - the bed

ex: ma-zhaⁿ kʰe (mą kʰe) - the land

ex: o-pi-zhi kʰe (ppii kʰe) - the box [JOD]

ex: te kʰe (t kʰe) - the lake

ex: wa-xo kʰe (waxʔ kʰe) - the (reclining) woman

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-te kʰe (wzǫtte-kʰe) - the mat

ex: zhaⁿ kʰe (̨ kʰe) - the log

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe taⁿ hi i-ya-we (hipʰ kʰ tą h iywe) - she had fallen when he arrived, they say [JOD]

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (mątt kʰett) - to the canoe, at the canoe [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti ki i-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti ki, i-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k, iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, aⁿ-te taⁿ, si pa-hi naⁿ-pe i-niⁿ-ha ta-x[e]-aⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye kʰe naⁿ (kįttą, ątʔ tą, s ppah nąp inįh tx[e]ąkid-nih, ąn̨kiye kʰe ną) - then, when I die, barbecue may feet, head, and hands, he said to me as he lay [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-kʰe (kąkʰ) - she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing); so she lay awhile]

ex: wa-tʰe naⁿ ki-ka-ze kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (watʰ ną kikze ką-k iywe) - dress-only(?)-it flew up on her-she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing)-they say [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we d-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals-she did it-when-she looked at him-she sent it off-so she lay awhile-they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: kʰe (kʰe) - the inanimate lying, the inanimate horizontal, be positioned horizontally, an extended action in a lying position [Omaha]; kshe (kshe) - to prostrate, that lies, to lay down, to place flat on the ground or to be prostrate on any surface, the length of time from the beginning of a vigil [FL-Osage]; kshe (ke) - positional article for an entity that is lying down or long; positional article that indicates plurality of an inanimate entity that takes tsʰe (cʰe) standing positional in the singular [CQ-Osage]; kshe (ke) - lying down or long [CQ-Osage]; khe (khe) - the; definite article for lying/inanimate objects [Kaw]

 

lying, these sitting or lying/animate

de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying/animate

cf. de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these du/st/in; de-ke (dke) - these st/an; de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying/inanimate; de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; de-niⁿ (dnį) - this mv/an; de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this si/an or in; de-pa (dpa) - these mv/an; de-tʰaⁿ (dtʰą) - this st/an; de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this st/in; de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this much

 

lying, this lying/inanimate

de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying/inanimate

cf. de (de) - this; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these du/st/in; de-ke (dke) - these st/an; de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these si or ly/an; de-niⁿ (dnį) - this mv/an; de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this si/an or in; de-pa (dpa) - these mv/an; de-tʰaⁿ (dtʰą) - this st/an; de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this st/in; de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this much

ex: a-zhaⁿ de-kʰe ho-taⁿ (ą dkʰe httą) - this bedstead is good

ex: e-che-zha de-kʰe (ečča dkʰe) - my goodness, this one! [AG]

Dhegiha: the-kshe (th-kshe) - this that lies here [FL-Osage]; the-kshe (ke) - this lying; that lying [CQ-Osage]; ye-khe (ykhe) - this, singular/lying/inanimate [Kaw]

 

lying, those plural/sitting or lying objects on this side

to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those pl/si or lying objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those du/st or cl/in objects on this side; to-wa-ke (twak) - those pl/st/an objects on this side; to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side; to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that sg/mv/an object on this side or the nearer of two objects; to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that sg/si object on this side; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those pl/mv/an objects on this side; to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that sg/st or cl/in object on this side

 

lying, those plural/sitting or lying/invisible/animate

ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/invisible/animate

cf. ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those du/st/iv/in; ka-ke (kke) - those pl/st/iv/an; ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular/lying/ivisible/inanimate; ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size; ka-niⁿ (knį) - that sg/mv/iv/an; ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - that sg/si/iv/an; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those pl/mv/iv/an; ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; ka-tʰaⁿ (ktʰą) - that sg/st/iv/an; ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that st/iv/in or that cl/iv/in

 

lying, those plural/sitting or lying/visible

she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

cf. she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those du/st/vi/in objects; she-ke (ke) - those non-sg/st/an or in objects; she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object; she-na-ska (enask) - size, big enough, of that size; she-niⁿ (nį) - that mv/vi/an; she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that si/vi/an. or inan.; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those mv/vi/an; she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that st/vi/an; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height; she-tʰe (tʰe) - this sg or cl/st/in; she-ta (tta) - there, at/to that place

Dhegiha: she (she) - that [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - that one; there [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that, near you [CQ-Osage]; she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

 

lying, those remote sitting or lying/visible

koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible

cf. koi-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote du/st/vi/in; koi-de (kode) - those things [JOD]; koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote sg/si/vi; koi-ke (kike) - those remote pl/st/vi/an; koi-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; koi-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote sg/mv/vi/an; koi-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote sg/si/vi/an or in; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote pl/mv/vi/an; koi-she (kie) - that; that part; aforementioned words or manner; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity; koi-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote sg/st/vi/an; koi-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote sg/st/vi/in; koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

 

 

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