English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

S

 

seesaw, to play seesaw

ki-pi-za-za (kkppizza) - to play seesaw

ex: aⁿ-ki-pi-za-za (ąkkppizaza) - lets seesaw each other, lets play seesaw

 

seize, grasp, take hold of

o-naⁿ (on̨) - take hold of, seize, grasp o-bnaⁿ (obn̨) - I, o-taⁿ (ott̨) - you, oⁿ-ko-naⁿ-we (ǫknąwe) - we

ex: o-wa-naⁿ (waną) - he grasped them [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp nikʰ waną iy) - the rabbit took hold of the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-naⁿ (on̨) - he took hold of him [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta on̨ attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

ex: o-naⁿ (on̨) - he seized him [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-ka-ti o-naⁿ taⁿ, wa-pa-iⁿ-ti o-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da niⁿ i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (n̨kka-tt on̨ tą, wappą-tti obttątt̨da n̨ iy mątʰ) - he (Grizzly bear) seized him (Rabbit) by the back and Grizzly bear rolled him over and over in the blood, it is said [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thoⁿ (thoⁿ) - arrest, grab, to take hold of or arrest them [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthⁿ) - grasp, seize, hold, grab, to grasp or seize an animal or inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthoⁿ) - catch, caught, clench, clasp, grasp, hold, handle [Omaha]; u-thoⁿ (u-thoⁿ) - to seize, to hold, to grasp [FL-Osage]

 

self, body

zho-i-ka (oka), (ika) - body, self

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat

ex: zho-i-ka bdo-ka di-shpa-shpa (oka bdka dippa) - body/entire/(they) pulled to small pieces [JOD]

ex: zho-i-ka bdo-ka di-shpa-shpa taⁿ aⁿ-da-we, i-ya (oka bdka dippa attą ądwe, iy) tearing his entire body to pieces and scattering the pieces all around, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: zho-i-ka bdo-ka hi (oka bdka hi) - body/entire/very [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka ha o-ki-pa-tʰe zho-i-ka bdo-ka hi we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya (ę wąka ha okkppatʰe oka bdka hi wnįtʰ̨ ną iy) - and then he clothed his entire body, sewing bird skins together, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu-ga (zhga) - a body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-ga (zhga) - body [Omaha]; zho-i-ga (zh-i-ga), zhu-i-ga (zh-i-ga) - body; flesh [FL-Osage]; zho-i-ka (ika), zhu-o-ka (oka) - human body [CQ-Osage]; zho-ga (zhóga) - body, entire body [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhu (zhu) - flesh, body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu (zhu) - flesh or body [FL-Osage]

 

sell

we-niⁿ (wnį) - sell we-bniⁿ (wbnį) - I, we-tiⁿ (wttį) - you, wi-oⁿ-niⁿ-we (wįnįwe) - we

Dhegiha: we-thiⁿ-wiⁿ (wthiⁿwiⁿ) - to sell [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-wiⁿ (wthiwiⁿ) - sell [Omaha]; we-thi-wiⁿ (we-th-wiⁿ) - to sell or purchase [FL-Osage]; we-thu-wiⁿ (wuwį) - sell something by partering for other stuff; buy or acquire stuff with something [CQ-Osage]

 

Seminole Indian

si-mi-no-ni (s-mi-n-ni) - Kwapa name for the Seminole Indians [JOD]

se-mi-no-ne (seminne) - Seminole Indian [ASG]

se-mi-no-ne-we (seminonwe) - Seminole Indians [ASG]

 

send here

hi-de (hid) - to send here; cause to come here

cf. hi (hi) - come, be coming here, not own; de (d) - cause to, to cause; hi-de (hde) - precipitate, as rain, snow; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere

ex: aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de (̨tee hid) - micturating on me/sends it hither [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe naⁿ, ta-taⁿ ke aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zhe hi-de e-te te, i-ye (ate ną, tttą ke ̨tee hid, mikkxʔe ̨tee hid tte tte, iy) - when I urinated, what is this urinating on me, I wonder if its the stars urinating on me? he said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de hi-de (ąn̨de hde) - he saw me/he sent it (vision) hither [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-de hi-de naⁿ aⁿ-di-xe (ką ną ąn̨de hde n̨ ądix) - so when he saw me, he chased me [JOD]

ex: i-de hi-de (de hde) - he looked this way and saw her [JOD]

ex: ki-baⁿ hi-de (kbą hde) - called to him/sent it hither [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de (ąbą hide) - he calls to me/he sends it hither [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: knoⁿ hi-de (knǫ hde) - reviling him/sent it hither [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ta-ko-iⁿ-xe hi naⁿ, knoⁿ hi-de niⁿ naⁿ (mat̨ke ettkįγe hi ną, knǫ hde nį ną) - rabbit came around (the lake) to him (raccoon), he (rabbit) was cursing him (raccoon) [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-the (-ĕ) - to send hither [JOD-Omaha]; hiu-the (hi-the) - to cause to come [FL-Osage]; hu-the (he) - cause to come here, send here; hand over, hand to, pass to by hand or other means; come here [CQ-Osage]; hu-ye (húye) - relating to weather: blowing, precipitating [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-the (h-ĕ) - to cause him, her, or it to reach there (not his home) [JOD-Omaha]; hi-the (hi-th) - to have gone; to have departed; to cause to reach there; to send thither [FL-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there, lit., cause to arrive there [CQ-Osage]; hi-ye (hiyé) - to have gone (somewhere); send, lit. cause to arrive there [Kaw]; hi-ye (hiyé), i-ye (iyé) - to have gone to a particular place; to have set, as the sun [Kaw

 

send here for or to someone

tʰi-kʰi-de (tʰkʰide) - send here for or to someone tʰi-a-kʰi-de (tʰiakʰide) - I, tʰi-da-kʰi-de (tʰidakʰide) - you

cf. tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here; kʰi-de (kʰide), (kʰde) - cause to

Dhegiha: tʰi (ti) - to come hither [JOD-Omaha]; a-tʰi (at) - has come [JOD-Omaha]; a-tʰi (at) - arrive here, came [Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - to come; has come; come [FL-Osage]; a-tsʰi (acʰ), tsʰi (cʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place, initial a is sometimes omitted in 3rd person forms and normally omitted in imoeratives [CQ-Osage]; chi (chi) - arrive over here; arrive at a place not one's home for the first time

 

send off, push and send off

ba-taⁿ de-de (batt̨ ded) - push and send off [JOD]

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe ba-taⁿ de-da-taⁿ kde, i-ya-we (mątt kʰe batt̨ ded-ttą kd, iywe) - she pushed with a pole against the bank and sent the canoe off and headed home, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-daⁿ the-the (ba-dⁿ -ĕ) - to push off a boat, said of the act of one std. on the shore, not on the boat [JOD-Omaha]; ba-daⁿ ye-ye (badⁿ yye) - to push a boat off, said of one standing on the bank or shore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-doⁿ (padoⁿ), ba-doⁿ (badoⁿ) - push [Omaha]; ba-daⁿ (ba-dⁿ) - to push or pole a boat along, i.e., by pushing with a pole or oar against the bank or bottom of a stream; to push a sled from behind [JOD-Omaha]; ba-doⁿ (ba-dⁿ) - to push [FL-Osage]; ba-daⁿ (badⁿ) - push, push away, push off, shove over [Kaw]

Dhegiha: the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send, to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go, send, mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰki-ʰpa-doⁿ (ḳi-p̣-doⁿ) - to push ones self along as in a boat [FL-Osage]; ki-pa-daⁿ (kipdaⁿ) - push oneself along in a boat (reflexive); push off ones boat while sitting in it (suus) [Kaw]

 

send saliva off, spit

chʰo de-de (čʰo dde) - spit, send saliva off a-chʰo de-a-de (ačʰ dade) - I, da-chʰo de-da-de (dačʰ ddade) - you

cf. chʰo (čʰo) - saliva; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: chʰu (chʰu) - spit, expectorate [Omaha/Ponca]; tshu (tcu) - to spit, expectorate [JOD-Omaha]; tu (tu) - expectorate [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

send someone there for him

a-kda-de wa-ki-de (akdde wkkide) - send someone there for him

cf. a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch ones own

 

send, cause to arrive there

hi-kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there hi-a-kʰi-de (hakʰide) - I, hi-da-kʰi-de (hdakʰide) - you

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; kʰi-de (kʰide), (kʰde) - cause to

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - to have been there, to have reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - to arrive [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; hi (hi) - to arrive at a place [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there (motion accomplished), come here, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, get (e.g., get old), become, begin to, start to, suddenlt start to; initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

 

sense, have sense

wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense wa-di-kdaⁿ aⁿ-toⁿ (wadikdą ąttǫ) - Im, wa-di-kdaⁿ di-toⁿ (wadikdą ditto) - youre

cf. taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have; wa-di-knaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan, thoughtfully, deliberately; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; di-knaⁿ (dikn̨) - try, make effort, decide

Dhegiha: wa-thi-gthoⁿ ʰtoⁿ (wa-th-gthoⁿ ṭoⁿ) - having plenty of sence, wits, very sensible [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-laⁿ ʰtaⁿ (waląʰtąą) - (be) smart, intelligent; (be) a smart person; have a good mind; learn, adjust the mind [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-gthoⁿ (wathigthoⁿ) - brain; mind [Omaha]; wa-thi-gthoⁿ (wa-th-gthoⁿ) - intellect; sense; sound judgment; reverie; day dreamimg; meitate [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-laⁿ (walą) - think things; think about, think on, ponder, muse about (especially about things in the past or events that have already occurred); mind, brain, thought, soul, thinking [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-laⁿ (wayúlaⁿ) - think about something, plan, judge; a plan, thoughts, ideas [Kaw]

 

senseless, knock senseless

ka-xdi (kaxd) - strike down, knock senseless

ka-xdi (kaxd) - to kill with a blow [JOD] a-xdi (axdi) - I, da-xdi (dxdi) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water

ex: aⁿ-xdi (̨xdi) - I have been struck down, knocked senseless

ex: aⁿ-xdi (̨xdi) - strike me down, knock me senseless [JOD]

ex: i-kaⁿ aⁿ-xdi hi tʰe (ikk̨ ̨xdi hi tʰe) - my grandmother almost beat the life out of me [JOD]

ex: da-xdi (dxdi) - you kill him with a blow [JOD]

ex: di-a-xdi (dixdi) - you have been struck down, knocked senseless

ex: ka-xdi (kaxd) - he killed him with a blow [JOD]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ u-da-ki-de ki-ha taⁿ ka-xdi (koittą udkide kih tą kaxd) - when he (haⁿ-kas son) finally finished telling him (rabbit), he (rabbit) struck and killed him (haⁿ-kas son) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-xthi (gaxthi) - to assault, beaten [Omaha]; ga-xthi (gaq) - to stun or kill by striking with an ax or club, to beat severely [JOD-Omaha]; ga-xthi (ga-xth) - to kill an enemy, the killing of an enemy by a war party, the striking of an enemy by a warrior, an act which entitles him to a military honor [FL-Osage]; ga-xli (gaxl) - slay, strike down and stun, kill by striking with an instrument such as a club or ax [Kaw]

 

sensible, wise

wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible wa-di-kdaⁿ aⁿ-ska (wadikdą ąsk) - Im, wa-di-kdaⁿ di-ska (wadikdą diska) - youre, wa-di-kdaⁿ wa-ska-we (wadikdą waskawe) - we

cf. wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense; i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan, thoughtfully, deliberately; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; di-knaⁿ (dikn̨) - try, make effort, decide

Dhegiha: wa-thi-gthoⁿ (wathigthoⁿ) - brain; mind [Omaha]; wa-thi-gthoⁿ (wa-th-gthoⁿ) - intellect; sense; sound judgment; reverie; day dreamimg; meitate [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-laⁿ (walą) - think things; think about, think on, ponder, muse about (especially about things in the past or events that have already occurred); mind, brain, thought, soul, thinking [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-laⁿ (wayúlaⁿ) - think about something, plan, judge; a plan, thoughts, ideas [Kaw]

 

sent away, causative of go

de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go de-a-de (dad) - I, de-da-de (ddad) - you, de-oⁿ-da-we (dędawe) - we

ex: di-hi de-de (dih dede) - scare off (an animal)

ex: maⁿ de-de (mą dde) - shoot an arrow

ex: oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly

ex: chʰo de-de (čʰo dde) - spit, send saliva off

ex: de-a-de (dede) - I sent it off or thither [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so, I urinated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-a-de (̨tʰį dede) - I threw the stick/club [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de i-niⁿ-haⁿ, i-da-a-ki-he de-a-de (hąn̨ttą pʰi-kkid inįh̨, idakih dad) - how can I get myself there? I said to him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: de-de (dde) - to throw it off; he sent it off or thither; he threw it away or off [JOD]

ex: wa-xo kʰe ni-ka tʰaⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de i-ke (waxʔ kʰe nkka tʰą ̨tʰį dde ik) - the woman told the man to throw the stick/club away/off [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de (̨tʰį dde) - stick, club/to throw it off [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de (̨tʰį ded) - stick, club/he threw it away or off [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de i-niⁿ-haⁿ, i-ke de-de (hąn̨ttą pʰi-kkid inįh̨, ik dde) - how can I get myself there? he said to him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals/she did it/when/she looked at him/she sent it off/so she lay awhile/they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ kʰe de-de (m̨ kʰe dde) - arrow/the lg. ob./he sent it off [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: de-da-we (ddawe) - they sent it off [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da de-da-we (̨da ddawe) - threw it away/they sent it off [JOD]

ex: ki-ki-aⁿ-da de-da-we (kkįda ddawe) - threw away her own for him/they sent it off [JOD]

ex: de-da (ded) - send/throw it away or off! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da (̨tʰį ded) - club, stick/throw it away or off! [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club/stick there again! she said to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

sentence connective

shaⁿ-iⁿ-te (̨įtte) - well, so, sentence connective

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te, iⁿ-spe i-ba-shte a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi (̨įtte ̨spe bate ąm̨, iy) - well, I think it was accidentally split by falling against an axe, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte, xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫde, ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te, te paⁿ-ze, e-shaⁿ kde xa-da (̨įtte, tʔ pp̨ze, ą kd xda) - well, I pretended to be dead, then he went back again [JOD]

 

sentence final, desiderative particle

kaⁿ (kką) - desiderative particle, sentence final

kaⁿ (kką) - I hope; I wish [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who begin to talk, saying words here and there, not speaking plainly or connectedly, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to maⁿ-di-taⁿ pi-oⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-da-da naⁿ e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto mądttą ppį tt̨nį tʰidda ną kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like a boy that knows how to pull a bow well and begins to run now and then for short distances, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to naⁿhaⁿ maⁿ-di-taⁿ si-si hi naⁿ-we e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto nąh̨ mądttą sis hi ną-w kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the grown boys who pull a bow and are very active (able to run swiftly and far), it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ wi-a-de pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, įtʰ̨na m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną wide pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the young unmarried men (able to take wives) whom I have seen carrying quivers on their backs, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: kaⁿ (kⁿ) - I hope; an optative sign, occurring at the end of a clause or sentence, as eskana does at the beginning [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ) - to wish or to desire [FL-Osage]

 

sentence initial, desiderative particle

e-ska (ska) - desiderative particle, sentence initial

e-ska (ska) - oh that [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who begin to talk, saying words here and there, not speaking plainly or connectedly, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to maⁿ-di-taⁿ pi-oⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-da-da naⁿ e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto mądttą ppį tt̨nį tʰidda ną kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like a boy that knows how to pull a bow well and begins to run now and then for short distances, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to naⁿhaⁿ maⁿ-di-taⁿ si-si hi naⁿ-we e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto nąh̨ mądttą sis hi ną-w kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the grown boys who pull a bow and are very active (able to run swiftly and far), it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ wi-a-de pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, įtʰ̨na m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną wide pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the young unmarried men (able to take wives) whom I have seen carrying quivers on their backs, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ska-na (skana) - I hope; would that; I wish a sign of the optative mode, occurring at the beginning of a clause, as kaⁿ stands at the end eskana _______ kaⁿ [JOD-Omaha]

 

separate, pull apart

di-bda (dibd) - pull apart, separate bdi-bda (bdbda) - I, ti-bda (ttbda) - you

cf. a-di-bda (dibda) - spread out one object on another, as a robe on a horse or a table cloth on a table

Dhegiha: thi-btha (thibtha) - unfold [Omaha]; thi-btha (ib) - spread out [JOD-Omaha]; thi-btha (thi-bth) - to spread a robe or blanket [FL-Osage]; thi-bra (bra), thu-bra (bra) - spread, spread out, as a cloth [CQ-Osage]; yu-bla (yubl) - spread out or hang up to dry, corn, clothes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: btha (btha) - open, spread; to open, to spread out; to be opened or spread out [Omaha/Ponca]; btha (ba) - open, spread out [JOD-Omaha]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

 

separate, sort

di-ki-da-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort bdi-ki-da-ha (bdkkidaha) - I, ti-ki-da-ha (ttkkidaha) - you

cf. ki-da-ha (kkidha) - separated

Dhegiha: thi-ʰki-tha-ha (th-ḳi-tha-ha) - to separate, to pull apart; to sunder; to rend apart; to sever; to disconnect; to disjoint [FL-Osage]; yu-ki-ya-ha (yukíyaha) - pull apart things that are stuck together, take something apart [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-a-kʰi-tha-ha (i--ki-a-h) - to separate two objects by pulling them apart [JOD-Omaha]

 

separated

ki-da-ha (kkidha) - separated

cf. di-ki-da-ha (dkkidha) - separate, sort

ex: ki-da-ha (kkidha) - separating [JOD]

ex: ki-da-ha ta-bde da-we (kkidha tbde dwe) - they went hunting in different directions [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰki-tha-ha (ḳ-tha-ha) - separate, apart, moving in opposite directions, separation [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-ha (kaha) - be apart, separated, divorced, divided, distant, or estranged from each other; divided or separate the parts of something; separate from, divorce, or become estranged from [CQ-Osage]; ki-ya-ha (kíyaha) - apart, moving in different directions, both sides; apart, moving in different directions [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ki-tha-ha (akthaha) - apart [Omaha]; a-kʰi-tha-ha (a-k-a-ha) - apart; in different or opposite directions [JOD-Omaha]

 

separated, divorced

ki-ha (kih) - finish, quit, divorce

ki-ha (kih) - quit [MS]

cf. ki-ha oⁿ-pa (kih ̨ppa) - Monday; ki-ha-zhi (kihi) - fail to finish

ex: a-ki-ha (akha) - I have finished [JOD]

ex: ki-ha-we (kihwe) - they quit, they quit being married, divorced [MS]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ naⁿ-zha o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha i-ya-we (koittaⁿ nąa odotʰ tʰi kih iywe) - and/then/man eater/had come/already/they say [JOD]

ex: tʰi ki-ha (tʰ kih) - he came/he finished [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ, we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną, wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

ex: ki-ha naⁿ, o-zhi-ha o-koⁿ-he (kih ną, iha kʔǫhe) - when he finished, he put it (the long object) in the bag [JOD]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ o-da-ki-de ki-ha taⁿ ka-xdi (koittą odkide kih tą kaxd) - when he (haⁿ-kas son) finally finished telling him (rabbit), he (rabbit) struck and killed him (haⁿ-kas son) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: ki-ha-i (kiha) - they finished [JOD]

ex: kda-tʰe ki-ha-i naⁿ zhaⁿ-ki-da-wi i-ya-we pa-ze de naⁿ (kdatʰ kiha ną ąkidwi iywe ppze d ną) - when they were finished eating (their own food), they went to sleep after dark, they say [JOD]

ex: kda-tʰe ki-ha-i naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka ki-te a-kda-zhiⁿ naⁿ (kdatʰ kiha ną wąka kktte kdą ną) - when they finished eating (their own food), she commanded him (her relation) to go shoot some birds [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-naⁿ-bde ki-ha naⁿ, to ke da-we (in̨ wan̨bde kih ną, t kʔe dwe) - when they finished eating, they went to dig potatoes again [JOD]

 

septum of the nose

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe i-koⁿ-kde (ppąe kkǫkde) - septum of the nose

ex: pa-zhiⁿ-zhe i-koⁿ-kde kʰe (ppąe kkǫkde kʰe) - the septum

Dhegiha: pa-shi-zhe (pashzhe) - nose tip, tip of the nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-shi-zhe (pashizhe) - tip of the nose [Omaha]; ʰpa-zhu-zhe (p̣a-zh-zhe) - the tip of the nose; the bill of a swan and other birds [FL-Osage]; pa-zho-zhe (pzhozhe), pa-zhu-zhe (pazhzhe) - nostrils [Kaw]

 

series, last of a party or series

a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - last of a party or series

cf. a-shi-ta (atta) - behind; at or to the back or rear

ex: a-shi-aⁿ-he (įhe) - behind, or after him; afterward [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-te a-shi-aⁿ-he ni-she (e h̨tte įhe niĕ) - why are you following behind? [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka wa-da-ki-te naⁿ maⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ te a-shi-aⁿ-he a-ni-he (wąka wadkkitt n̨ m̨ wibdze am̨bdį tte įhe anih) - when you shoot the birds, Ill walk behind you getting the arrows for you [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ te a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tte įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he niⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke wa-zhiⁿ-ke ki-te niⁿ taⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he i-ya-we ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat̨ke nį įhe nį iywe, h̨ka ęke wąka kktte nį t̨ įhe iywe mat̨ke) - the rabbit followed along behind, they say, when Haⁿ-kas son was shooting birds, rabbit followed along behind him, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he de (wah̨nįk tʰą iąh d) - the orphan went afterward (behind them, after them) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago)

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he hi tʰaⁿ tʰi-da-taⁿ te-de (iǫhe h tʰą tʰidttą tʔde) - the last of the (hunting) party came, passed and killed it (the buffalo)

ex: zhi-ka a-shi-oⁿ-he (ik iǫh) - young/last one [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ zhi-ka a-shi-oⁿ-he niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke da-xe-de hi naⁿ, i-ya (ę ik iǫh nįkʰ mat̨ke daxʔde h ną, iy) - and the youngest one was very kind to Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ zhi-ka a-shi-oⁿ-he niⁿ-kʰe (ę ka iǫhe nįkʰe) - then the youngest one: [JOD]

ex: zhi-ka a-shi-oⁿ-he niⁿ-kʰe (ik iǫh nįkʰ) - the last of the young ones; the youngest one

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ (iǫhttą) - later, afterward

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-taⁿ oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨ [tta ǫkatʰ̨]) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: ha-shi (hci) - last, after [JOD-Omaha]; ha-shi (hashi) - last [Omaha]; ha-shi (h-shi) - end, the last, omega [FL-Osage]; ha-shi (haa) - last, in the back of, behind [CQ-Osage]; ha-shi (hshi) - last, tail end [Kaw]

 

series, round topped hills in series

a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna-ha (zhnah) - smooth, slippery [Omaha/Ponca]; shna-ha (shnha) - slippery, smooth [Omaha]; shta-ha (sht-ha) - slick, smooth [FL-Osage]; shta-ha (tha), shta (t) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta-ha (shtah), (shtha) - smooth, slippery, slick [Kaw]

 

series, several in a row or series

o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

cf. o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; o-ki-ba-taⁿ kniⁿ (okkbattą knį) - to sit on together; a-ba-taⁿ (battą) - push together, as firebrands when the ends next to the fire are burned; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next

ex: i-ka-she-knaⁿ o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (kaekn̨ okkbatt̨ttą) - breastpins/buttons one after another/several in a row [JOD]

ex: e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-a-wa-tʰoⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ukʰiwatʰoⁿtʰⁿ) - one after another; in succession; in an extended line or series [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki-a toⁿ-toⁿ (u-ḳi- toⁿ-toⁿ) - a series, consecutive, one following the other [FL-Osage]

 

serpent, snake

we-sa (wsʔa) - snake

we-sa (wsʔa) - snake [MS]

we-sa (w˙sʔa) - snake [FS]

we-sa (wsa) - snake [ASG]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe (wsʔa odhi kʰe) - she changed into a serpent [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-sa (wsa) - snake, serpent [Omaha/Ponca]; we-sa (wa) - snake, serpent [Omaha]; we-sa (wĕ́-să) - a serpent, a snake [JOD-Omaha]; we-ʰtsa (w-ṭsa) - reptile, snake [FL-Osage]; we-tsa (wcʔa) - snake, serpent, viper [CQ-Osage]; we-tsa (wtsa) - snake [Kaw]

 

set an object on top of something else

a-shi a-kde (ai akde) - to set an object on top of something else

cf. a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on; a-kde (akd) - put or set a standing or perpendicular object upright upon a surface or within something which supports it, as in pitching a tent, placing a candle on a table, etc.

Dhegiha: a-gthe (-ge) - place upright on [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthe (-gthe) - to place on top of another in an upright position [FL-Osage]; a-le (le), a-dle (dle) - place an item upright on another item, set on [CQ-Osage]; a-le (le) - stand a perpendicular object, such as a candlestick, on a surface [Kaw]

 

set ones own object on a surface

a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface a-a-ki-knaⁿ (akikną) - I, a-da-ki-knaⁿ (dakikną) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-kna-we (̨kakiknwe) - we

cf. a () - on or upon; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put upon a surface; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting (curvilinear) objects so their edges touch; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; stode knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthaⁿ (-gi-gaⁿ) - to place his own cv. ob., book, paper, piece of calico, etc., on something else; to apply his medicine externally, as a plaster or poultice [JOD-Omaha]; a-gu-laⁿ (gulaⁿ) - set ones object upon; set ones cloth, paper, book, etc., on a surface; set a squat object on a surface for someone [Kaw]

 

set or put ones own

ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own

cf. a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; ki-ki-knaⁿ (kkikn̨) - she put down her own for him; she put down it, her own, for him [JOD]; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put, put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting (curvilinear) objects so their edges touch; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc.

ex: na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ (naxn̨ kikn̨) - hide ones own singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth object

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ, i-ke (wittiką naxn̨ kkn̨, ik) - my grandfather hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

ex: na-xnaⁿ da-ki-knaⁿ koⁿ-bda wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (naxn̨ dakikną kkǫbd wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, I want you to hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthaⁿ (-gi-gaⁿ) - to place his own cv. ob., book, paper, piece of calico, etc., on something else; to apply his medicine externally, as a plaster or poultice [JOD-Omaha]; a-gu-laⁿ (gulaⁿ) - set ones object upon; set ones cloth, paper, book, etc., on a surface; set a squat object on a surface for someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - to place one thing upon another [FL-Osage]; a-laⁿ (lą) - place vertically against, place on, put on [CQ-Osage]; a-laⁿ (laⁿ) - put curved or rounded/sitting, or cloth, or paper on [Kaw]

 

set up a movable object so that it leans against something

a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-da-de (kʰą itʰdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ (kʰą) - leaning against, lean on; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him/her to fall

Dhegiha: a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-the (akaⁿ ite) - to place, a stick, etc., against any object [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: a-kʰaⁿ (-kaⁿ) - leaing against [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lean up against; lie against; lie down, as to sleep or rest [CQ-Osage]; a-khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to place away [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

set up in a row

            o-ki-kde-kde (kikdkde) - set up in a row [JOD]

cf. a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - one after another in quick succession, e.g. shots, events; a-ki-kde-kde (kkikdekde) - indirectly, not even second hand; a-ki-kde-kde ki-te (kkikdekde kktte) - to shoot at in quick succession; fire a volley; ti-kde-kde (ttkdekde kʰe) - line of standing lodges

ex: pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde (ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde) - flour/barrel/filled/set up in a row [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthe-boⁿ kʰi-gthe (gthboⁿ kʰgthe) - ten times in succession, ten times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-koⁿ kʰi-gthe (shⁿkoⁿ kʰgthe) - nine times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; e-shoⁿ ki-gthe (eshoⁿ kigthe) - close together [Omaha]; u-ʰki-gthe (u-ḳ-gthe) - to splice two ropes together [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰki-gthe (-ḳi-ḳi-gthe) - to join two boards or poles [FL-Osage]

 

set, put

knaⁿ (kną) - set, put sitting/inanimate a-knaⁿ (akną) - I, da-knaⁿ (dakną) - you, oⁿ-knaⁿ-we (ǫknąwe) - we

cf. o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into, put inside; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - put or set ones own; ki-ki-knaⁿ (kkikn̨) - to put down ones own for someone [JOD]; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; pi-knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - to place one thing upon another [FL-Osage]; a-laⁿ (lą) - place vertically against, place on, put on [CQ-Osage]; a-laⁿ (laⁿ) - put curved or rounded/sitting, or cloth, or paper on [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-gthaⁿ (ugⁿ) - put in [JOD-Omaha]; u-gthoⁿ (u-gthoⁿ) - to put in, putting in, a place of deposit, to inclose, in which to put, to thrust in, to put a stake in a pile when gambling [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (ool̨) - put into, place inside of, pour round items into, add items to cooking, pour liquid into [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ (olⁿ) - put a sitting/inanimate object into something, to put a curvilinear (wide rather than tall) object such as paper, a book, a bandage, cloth, etc. within a receptacle [Kaw]

 

set, to set up housekeeping

ti-kde (ttikd) - to set up housekeeping; to live together in same tent; village, collection of lodges

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD)]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde nikʰ ną) - four women were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ha-ki i-da-we, i-he (waxʔ twa ttkde hak idwe, ih) - where have the four women that live together gone too, I say [JOD]

ex: ti-kda-wi (ttkdawi) - they dwelt in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ka niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke nįkʰ ni kihid-nįkʰtti ttkde nįkʰ) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (t͓-gĕ) - to dwell in a lodge [JOD-Omaha]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

seven

pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven

pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven [MS, MR, FR, AB, OM]

pe-noⁿ-pa (pennopah) - seven [GI]

pʰe-noⁿ-ba (p'nǫBa) - seven [FS]

pe-naⁿ-pa (pnaba, pȁnaba) - seven [ASG]

Dhegiha: pe-thoⁿ-ba (pthoⁿba) - seven [Omaha/Ponca]; pe-thoⁿ-ba (pethoⁿba) - seven [Omaha]; ʰpe-thoⁿ-ba (p-thoⁿ-ba) - seven [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-thoⁿ-pa (ʰpeǫǫpa), ʰpe-oⁿ-pa (ʰpeǫpa) - seven [CQ-Osage]; pe-yoⁿ-ba (péyoⁿba) - seven [Kaw]

 

seven apiece, by sevens

pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens

cf. na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals

Dhegiha: pe-thoⁿ-ba thoⁿ-thoⁿ (pthoⁿbathⁿthoⁿ) - seven to each (person); by sevens [Omaha/Ponca]; pe-yoⁿ-ba yaⁿ-ye (péyoⁿba yáⁿye) - seven apiece, seven each, distributive [Kaw]

 

seventeen

pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (ppnąpa knį) - seventeen

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ pe-thoⁿ-ba (agthⁿpethⁿba) - seventeen [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ ʰpe-thoⁿ-ba (a-gthⁿ pe-thoⁿ-ba) - seventeen [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ ʰpe-oⁿ-pa (lįį ʰpǫǫpa), le-braⁿ a-liⁿ ʰpe-oⁿ-pa (lbrą lįį ʰpǫǫpa) - seventeen, seventeenth [CQ-Osage]; a-li pe-yoⁿ-ba (àlipéyoⁿba) - seventeen [Kaw]

 

seventeen apiece, seventeen at a time

pe-naⁿpa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, seventeen at a time

cf. na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ pe-thoⁿ-ba thoⁿ-thoⁿ (agthⁿpethoⁿbathⁿthoⁿ) - seventeen to each person [Omaha/Ponca]

 

seventh

i-pe-naⁿ-pa (ppen̨pa) - seventh

cf. i () - ordinal numeral marker, i () + numeral stem; pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven

Dhegiha: we-pe-thoⁿ-ba (wpethⁿba) - the seventh (one) [Omaha/Ponca]; we-pe-thoⁿ-ba (wpethoⁿba) - seventh [Omaha]; we-ʰpe-thoⁿ-ba (w-pe-thoⁿ-ba) - the seventh, with seven [FL-Osage]; we-pe-yoⁿ-ba (wépeyoⁿba) - seventh [Kaw]

 

seventy

kde-bdaⁿ pe-naⁿ-pa (kdbdą ppnąpa) - seventy [MS]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; pe-naⁿ-pa (ppnąpa) - seven

Dhegiha: gthe-ba pe-thoⁿ-ba (gthba pthoⁿba) - seventy [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-bthoⁿ ʰpe-thoⁿ-ba (gth-bthoⁿ pe-thoⁿ-ba) - seventy, ten sevens [FL-Osage]; le-braⁿ ʰpe-thoⁿ-pa (lbrą ʰpǫǫpa) - seventy, seventieth [CQ-Osage]; le-blaⁿ pe-yoⁿ-ba (léblaⁿ péyoⁿba) - seventy [Kaw]

 

seventy-five cents

de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents [FR, OM]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents; sha-pe (app) - six

 

several in a row or series

o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

cf. o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; o-ki-ba-taⁿ kniⁿ (okkbattą knį) - to sit on together; a-ba-taⁿ (battą) - push together, as firebrands when the ends next to the fire are burned; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next

ex: i-ka-she-knaⁿ o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (kaekn̨ okkbatt̨ttą) - breastpins/buttons one after another/several in a row [JOD]

ex: e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-a-wa-tʰoⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ukʰiwatʰoⁿtʰⁿ) - one after another; in succession; in an extended line or series [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki-a toⁿ-toⁿ (u-ḳi- toⁿ-toⁿ) - a series, consecutive, one following the other [FL-Osage]

 

severe fever

zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (kkatte ttaha) - to have a severe fever

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat; ka-te (kktte) - hot, to be hot; a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much

ex: zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (kkatte ttaha) - body hot (=fever)/exceedingly [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

sew

ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew pa-tʰe (pptʰe) - I, shpa-tʰe (ptʰe) - you

cf. a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across; ki-pa-tʰe (kipptʰe) - sew ones own [JOD]; o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together; wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha (wabtʰ iha) - sewing bag

Dhegiha: ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-tse (ba-ts) - to sew; sew with a needle [FL-Osage]; pa-tsʰe (paacʰ) - sew [CQ-Osage]; ba-che (baché) - sew [Kaw]

 

sew on

a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on a-pa-tʰe (ppatʰe) - I, a-shpa-tʰe (patʰe) - you

cf. a (a) - on, upon; ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ a-ba-tʰe (wan̨ʔį abtʰe) - necklace made of beadwork that is sewed on

Dhegiha: a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-tʰe (-ba-tĕ) - to sew on [JOD-Omaha]; a-ba-che (ábache) - sew something on [Kaw]

 

sew ones own

ki-pa-tʰe (kipptʰe) - sew ones own [JOD]

ex: ki-pa-tʰe (kipptʰe) - sewing their own [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke naⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi ki-pa-tʰe koⁿ-de tʰe niⁿ naⁿ (mika i ke-ną wah̨ska httą h kipptʰe kǫd tʰe n̨ ną) - girl/other/the plural/only/calico/good/very/sewing their own/they were all sitting/the (class.)/past sign [JOD]

 

sew two things together, sew across

a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across a-a-ki-pa-tʰe (akkppatʰe) - I, a-da-ki-shpa-tʰe (dakkpatʰe) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-tʰa-we (ǫkkkipatʰawe) - we

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa-tʰe (-ki-p-tĕ) - to sew across; to sew two things together [JOD-Omaha]

 

sewed together

o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together

ex: o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together

ex: e-shoⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka ha o-ki-pa-tʰe zho-i-ka bdo-ka hi we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya (ę wąka ha okkppatʰe oka bdka hi wnįtʰ̨ ną iy) - and then he clothed his entire body, sewing bird skins together, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pa-te (u-k-p͓a-tĕ) - to sew together [JOD-Omaha]

 

sewing bag

wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha (wabtʰ iha) - sewing bag [JOD]

cf. wa-ba-tʰe (wabtʰ) - to sew things; o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket, pouch

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe kdi-ze naⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-ki-te de, i-ya (waxʔik nįkʰe wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kdze ną mat̨ke oktte d, iy) - the old woman took her sewing bag and went to look for rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ki-ba-hi a-taⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe o-ki-zhi maⁿ-niⁿ niⁿ, i-ya (kibhi-att̨ wabtʰe iha nįkʰ oki m̨nį n̨, iy) - she walked around picking up the pieces, filling her sewing bag, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe ki-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (waxʔik nį wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kikʔ̨ kd, iy) - the old woman carried her sewing bag upon her back and went homeward, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ba-tʰe (wabate) - sew; stitch; tailor [Omaha]; wa-ba-tse (wa-b-tse) - one who sews; to sew [FL-Osage]; wa-pa-tsʰe (wapacʰe) - sew, sew things together [CQ-Osage]; wa-ba-che (wabáche) - sew, sewing [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zhi-ha (zhiha) - bag, sack [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi-ha (zhi ha) - bag, gunny sack, burlap bag [Omaha]; u-zhi-ha (jiha) - bag, pouch, sack [JOD-Omaha]; u-zhu-ha (-zhu-ha), o-zho-ha (-zho-ha) - a sack or bag [FL-Osage]; o-zhu-ha (ouhaa) - bag, sack, pouch made of hide or leather, literally, skin into which to put stuff [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu-ha (ozhuha) - pouch [Kaw]

 

sex, intercourse, coire, coiit, copulate

chʰi (čʰi), tshi (t) - coire, coiit, copulate, sex, intercourse a-chʰi (ačʰ) - I, da-chʰi (dačʰ) - you, aⁿ-chʰi-we (ąčʰwe) - we

ex: wi-chʰi (wchʰi) - I with you

ex: aⁿ-da-chʰi (ądchʰi) - you with me

ex: di-chʰi (dičʰ) - you being

Dhegiha: chʰi (chʰi) - copulate, sex, intercourse [Omaha/Ponca]; tshi (tci) - to copulate, to have sexual intercourse with a female [JOD-Omaha]; tsʰu (cʰ), tsʰu-e (cʰe) - copulate with, have intercourse with, screw [CQ-Osage]; wa-tsʰu (wacʰ), wa-tsʰu-e (wacʰe) - copulate, have intercourse, have sex [CQ-Osage]; chu (chu) - copulate, have intercourse with a female [Kaw]

 

shaft, groove in an arrow shaft

maⁿ di-kde-ze (mą dkdeze) - groove in an arrow shaft

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; kde-ze (kdez) - striped

Dhegiha: moⁿ thu-gthe-ze (mⁿ-thu-gthe-e) - the grooves made in an arrow shaft [FL-Osage]; maⁿ yu-le-ze (mⁿ yulze) - groove in an arrow shaft, screw of any sort [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-gthe-ze (uthgtheze) - screw [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-gthe-ze (uthgthee) - screw [Omaha]

Dhegiha: thi-gthe-ze (thi-gth-e) - to draw stripes [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: gthe-ze (gthze) - striped [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-ze (gtheze) - striped [Omaha]; gthe-ze (gthe-) - striped [FL-Osage]; le-ze (lze) - striped, lined, having lines [CQ-Osage]; le-ze (lez) - striped [Kaw]

 

shafted, red shafted flicker

zaⁿ-zi-ka (z̨zikka) - red shafted flicker; yellow winged woodpecker

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zi-ga (zⁿziga) - red-shafted flicker, woodpecker [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-zi-ga (ⁿ-i-ga) - the flicker, yellow hammer, belongs to the woodpecker family [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-zi-ga (thoⁿiga) - flicker bird [Omaha]; zi-zi-ga taⁿ-ga (zziga tⁿga) - the flicker [Kaw]

 

shake

zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (̨ǫ) - shake

ex: i-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (dįǫ) - shake, as a person or tree

ex: ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (ppah kąǫ) - to shake, to shake out [MS]

ex: pa-hi ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ppah kąǫ nįkʰ) - hes (dog) shaking his head, hes (dog) shaking the fleas [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (nąpe dioo) - to shake hands

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ, ha-we (nąp dįǫ, haw) - hello, shake hands [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ-wi-a-we (nąp dįǫwiwe) - they said, they shook hands [MS]

 

shake out

ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (ppah kąǫ) - to shake, to shake out [MS]

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (̨ǫ) - shake

ex: pa-hi ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ppah kąǫ nįkʰ) - hes (dog) shaking his head, hes (dog) shaking the fleas [MS]

Dhegiha: ga-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (gazhⁿzhoⁿ) - to shake, as a blanket, to get the dust out of it; to shake out, as a carpet, blanket, or handkerchief; to make tremble, as a tree or house, by blowing on (said of the wind) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

shake something

di-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (dih̨hǫ) - shake something bdi-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (bdhǫhǫ) - I, ti-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (tthǫhǫ) - you

Dhegiha: pa thi-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (pa thihⁿhoⁿ) - to elevate the head often, as in searching for game [Omaha/Ponca]; gthi-hoⁿ-hoⁿ (gthhoⁿhoⁿ) - to raise his own (club) often to brandish his own (club, etc.) [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: thi-hoⁿ (thihⁿ) - to lift an object by pulling; to weigh [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-hoⁿ (thi hoⁿ) - lift, raise [Omaha]; thi-hoⁿ (thihⁿ) - to lift [FL-Osage]; thi-haⁿ (iih̨), thi-ha (iha) - lift, pick up, hold up, or raise someone or somethink [CQ-Osage]; yu-haⁿ (yuháⁿ) - lift up, pull up, lift a heavy object up [Kaw]

 

shake, as a person or tree

i-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (dįǫ) - shake, as a person or tree i-bdi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (bdįǫ) - I, i-ti-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (ttįǫ) - you

cf. zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (̨ǫ) - shake

Dhegiha: i-thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (ithi zhoⁿzhoⁿ) - to jar [Omaha]

Dhegiha: thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thizhⁿzhoⁿ) - to shake a person; to shake a tree and get off the fruit; to shake off, as dew [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thi zhoⁿzhoⁿ) - jar [Omaha]; thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ) - to arouse a person from a sound sleep by roughly shaking him; arouse by shaking [FL-Osage]; thi-zhaⁿ-zhaⁿ (įą), thi-zha-zha (iaa) - shake a person, an object, or ones own body part, such as shaking the head [CQ-Osage]

 

shake, to shake hands

naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (nąpe dioo) - to shake hands

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (̨ǫ) - shake

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ, ha-we (nąp dįǫ, haw) - hello, shake hands [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ-wi-a-we (nąp dįǫwiwe) - they said, they shook hands [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thizhⁿzhoⁿ) - to shake a person; to shake a tree and get off the fruit; to shake off, as dew [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thi zhoⁿzhoⁿ) - jar [Omaha]; thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ) - to arouse a person from a sound sleep by roughly shaking him; arouse by shaking [FL-Osage]; thi-zhaⁿ-zhaⁿ (įą), thi-zha-zha (iaa) - shake a person, an object, or ones own body part, such as shaking the head [CQ-Osage]

 

shake, tremble

di-ka-ka (dikkkka) - tremble, shake

 

shaker, shell shaker

ke-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

cf. ke-ha (kkh) - turtle shell

ex: ke-ha a-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ iⁿ-ke (kkeh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

 

shaking, arouse by shaking

di-xi-xi (dixxi) - awaken, arouse by shaking bdi-xi-xi (bdxixi) - I, ti-xi-xi (ttxixi) - you

cf. di-xi (dix) - awaken, arouse

Dhegiha: thi-xi (thiq) - to rouse or awaken one by pinching, pulling, shaking, or taking hold [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xi (thxi) - arouse from sleep [Omaha]; thi-xi [thi-x) - to arouse one from sleep, to awaken [FL-Osage]; thi-xi (ix) - wake [CQ-Osage]; yu-xi (yux) - wake or arouse by pulling, pinching, or shaking [Kaw]

 

shall, so shall it be

e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall

ex: e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so/will be [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de ta-i, e-koⁿ te e-ki-oⁿ! sni-wa-te i-yi i-ya (ąn̨de tta, kǫ tte kį! sniwtte iy iy) - we shall see, do so! it is said that Winter said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te (te) - future sign, will, let, please [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, let, allow, have, tell, lets; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

shall, will

ta-i (ta) - we shall, lets [JOD]

ta-i (ta) - will (plural) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - let us (lets) kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔ ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi ta-i, wa-xo-zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔik ik nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-xe ta-i (ąkγe tta) - let us make him [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke aⁿ-ka-xe ta-i, i-ke-ya-we ke, i-ya (mat̨ke kahke ąkγe tta, keywe k, iy) - we shall make Rabbit chief, they said to one another, it is said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de ta-i (ąn̨de tta) - let us see [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de ta-i, e-koⁿ te e-ki-oⁿ! sni-wa-te i-yi i-ya (ąn̨de tta, kǫ tte kį! sniwtte iy iy) - we shall see, do so! it is said that Winter said [JOD]

ex: da-kdi ta-i (dakd ttai) - you shall return hither [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo i-shta zhi-te e-ti da-we! te da-kiⁿ da-kdi ta-i! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mątʰ it itt tti daw! tt dakʔį dakd ttai! iwke iy mat̨ke) - youall go there, to the red-eyed Grizzly bear! youall will pack the buffalo back here! Rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: kde ta-i (kd ttai) - they shall go homeward [JOD]

ex: te kiⁿ kde ta-i o-da-ke e-ti kda! i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (tt kʔį kd ttai dak tti kd! iy iy mątʰ) - go home and tell those there they will pack the buffalo home! it is said that Grizzly bear said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i (tai) - will, plural [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i (ta-i) - we shall, lets [Omaha]; ʰtai (ʰtai) - lets, clause final element conveying an extortion or suggestion for a group including the speaker and at least two other persons [CQ-Osage]

 

ta-i-tʰe (taitʰ) - shall (plural), they shall [JOD]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka e-naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in the future [JOD]

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, and mind [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-da wi-te-ke e-ta-we di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd wtteke ettwe ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i-te (ta te) - shall [Omaha]; ta-i-te (tait) - will surely, shall, shall surely [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i-tʰe (ta-i-tʰe) - shall [Omaha]; ʰta-i-tse (ṭa--tse) - they shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta-i-te (ṭa i te) - they will [FL-Osage]

 

ta-tʰe (ttatʰ) - shall be; shall [JOD]

ex: ta-tʰe (ttatʰ) - shall [JOD]

ex: he-be da-ki-kiⁿ ta-tʰe i-yi-zhaⁿ te (hbe dakkʔį ttatʰ yį tte) - you will speak of carrying your share [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰa-tʰe (tʰatʰ) - he said or says it to him as if he decided for him or ruled him, i.e., it expresses what the speaker regards as certain, in his own power, as it were [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-tʰe (ta-tʰe) - shall surely, it shall be [Omaha]

 

shall, will, future tense

ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta mįkʰ) - I, ta niⁿ-kʰe (tta nįkʰ) - you; taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ttąkatʰ̨), ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (tta ǫkatʰ̨) - we, I and one other

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I'll come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta mįkʰ) - I'm going home (I will be going home) [MS]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

ex: bda-taⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ tta mįkʰ) - I will be drinking

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going?, why are you going? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ sh-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ą́kakd tta ̨katʰą) - we are going home (me and you are going home) [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔak tʰą ni oh watt̨ akid tta tʰ̨ ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - will, shall, potential or future marker [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta (ṭa) - shall, he shall, you shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - future tense marker, will, be going to, could, so that it could/might be, what if, were it the case that, would be [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - future potential or intentive aspect [Kaw]

 

te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall, will be

ex: bda-taⁿ te (bdatt̨ tte) - I will/would drink

ex: pa-hi-o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d!  iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

ex: ni-zhi te (ni tte) - its going to rain [OM]

ex: ni-zhi te (nii tte) - it will rain

ex: e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

ex: bde te (bd tt) - I go/will [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e-taⁿ? e-ti bde te, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ett̨? tti bd tt, nį̨ iy mat̨ke) - why is this? I will go there, thought Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-zhi da-kniⁿ te, i-ke i-ya sni-wa-te (kką dakn̨ tte, ik iy sniwtte) - Winter said to him, you will sit still! it is said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-de te (ąkde tte) - let us two go [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-de te, ma-shtiⁿ-ke, i-ye niⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te (ąkde tte, mat̨ke, iy nį iy sniwtte) - the Winter said, Rabbit, lets go, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: te (te) - will [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets [CQ-Osage]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

te-a (tte) - will or let [JOD]

ex: wi-ki-kda-kiⁿ te-a (wikkdakʔ̨ tte) - I will carry you on my back' (JOD)]

ex: di-e wi-bda-sniⁿ maⁿ te-a, i-ke (de wbdasn̨ m̨ tta, ik) - I will swallow you, he said to her [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtse-a (ṭse-) - shall [FL-Osage]

 

shallow mud

ma-xdi-xdi-we (mxdixdwe), ma-xti-xti-we (mxtixtwe) - shallow mud

cf. ma (ma), maⁿ (mą) - relating to the earth or ground; di-xdi-xdi-we (dixdxdiwe) - sticky, make from handling; i-di-xdi-we (dixdwe) - mix, mess with, make gooey

Dhegiha: maⁿ-xthi-xthi-be (maⁿ-q-qi-be) - deep mud, extending below the surface, as after a thaw or frequent raines [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-xthi-xthi-be (moⁿxthi xthibe) - mud, muddy [Omaha]; maⁿ-xli-xli (maⁿxlxli) - earth that is springy, swampy, squishy and oozing [Kaw];

Dhegiha: qthi-be (qthbe) - swampy, muddy [Omaha/Ponca]; qthi-qthi-be (qthiqthbe) - swampy, muddy, miry [Omaha/Ponca]; xli-xli (xlxli) - miry, mud and water oozing up [Kaw]

 

shaman, Indian doctor, priest, mysterious man

ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest, mysterious man

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

ex: While endeavoring to obtain a full list of personal names of the tribe, I met with considerable difficulty on account of the reluctance of the people to communicate to me the information which they regarded as the peculiar right of a class of men whom they called wa-pi-naⁿ (wappną). A wa-pi-naⁿ (wappną) they divined as a ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) or mysterious man [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga xu-be (n-ka-ciⁿ-ga qu-b) - a mysterious person, prob. answering to popular medicine man of white writers [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ʰka xo-be (n-ḳa xo-be) - the holy man [FL-Osage]

 

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