English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

S

 

sunrise

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be (mi ttin̨be) - east; sunrise [ASG]

cf. mi (mi) - sun; o-tiⁿ (ttį) - visible, insight; naⁿ-pe (n̨pe) - come into view, come into the open, to appear, to show

Dhegiha: miⁿ e-thoⁿ-be (mⁿethⁿbe) - sunrise [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ e-thaⁿ-be (mⁿ-e-ⁿ-be) - sunrise [JOD-Omaha]; mi i-thoⁿ-be (m-i-thoⁿ-be) - the sun appears; sunrise [FL-Osage]; miⁿ i-thoⁿ-pe (m̨į ǫpe) - sunrise, the emergence of the sun, lit., sun appears [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-thaⁿ-be (-aⁿ-be) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from water [JOD-Omaha]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise; emerge, as from water [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]; wa-tiⁿ (watⁿ) - visible, in sight [Kaw]

 

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - sun/rise/towards [JOD]

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - northeast, towards sunrise

cf. mi (mi) - sun; o-tiⁿ (ttį) - visible, insight; naⁿ-pe (n̨pe) - come into view, come into the open, to appear, to show; ta-de-de (ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise; o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes; a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

ex: e-ti mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! i-ke (tti mi ottinąbettadede ̨tʰį ded! ik) - she told him, throw the club/stick there, towards the sunrise! [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! aⁿnaⁿ-ki-ye (tti kki mi ttin̨bettadde ̨tʰį ded! ąn̨kiye) - there, yonder, towards the sunrise, throw the club/stick! she said to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: miⁿ e-thoⁿ-be (mⁿethⁿbe) - sunrise [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ e-thaⁿ-be (mⁿ-e-ⁿ-be) - sunrise [JOD-Omaha]; mi i-thoⁿ-be (m-i-thoⁿ-be) - the sun appears; sunrise [FL-Osage]; miⁿ i-thoⁿ-pe (m̨į ǫpe) - sunrise, the emergence of the sun, lit., sun appears [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-thaⁿ-be (-aⁿ-be) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from water [JOD-Omaha]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise; emerge, as from water [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]; wa-tiⁿ (watⁿ) - visible, in sight [Kaw]

 

mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise

cf. mi (mi) - sun; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show; ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet

Dhegiha: miⁿ e-thoⁿ-be (mⁿethⁿbe) - sunrise [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ e-thaⁿ-be (mⁿ-e-ⁿ-be) - sunrise [JOD-Omaha]; mi i-thoⁿ-be (m-i-thoⁿ-be) - the sun appears; sunrise [FL-Osage]; miⁿ i-thoⁿ-pe (m̨į ǫpe) - sunrise, the emergence of the sun, lit., sun appears [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-thaⁿ-be (-aⁿ-be) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from water [JOD-Omaha]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise; emerge, as from water [Kaw]

 

sunset

mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset

mi o-xpe (m oxp) - west [ASG]

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

sunset, towards sunset

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

cf. mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side

cf. mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; e-ta-do-shi ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

sunshine, in the sunshine

o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shti-te (ttte) - warm, comfortably; ti (tti) - at, by, in, locative; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ta-shti-te ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire; di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm, to warm an object by holding it in the hands [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

 

sunup, dawn

mi-ta-hi (mitthi) - sunup, dawn

cf. mi (mi) - sun; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; hi (hi) - come, be coming here

 

superficially, scratch superficially

di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially bdi-ka-xe (bdkʔaxe) - I, ti-ka-xe (ttkʔaxe) - you

cf. di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: thi-a-a-xe (thiaxe) - to make a succession of grating or scratching sounds, as when a dog scratches against a door, or a person feels in the dark for a door-knob, or when one knife is sharpened against another [Omaha/Ponca]; yu-ká-ka-ghe (yukákaghe) - make scratching or rattling sounds [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-a-xe (thixe) - to make a single grating or scratching sound [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ka-xe (i-k-xe) - to make a scratching sound, as a dog that wishes to have a door opened [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]

 

supper, evening meal

pa-ze-de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper, evening meal

cf. pa-ze-de (ppazde) - evening; wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine

Dhegiha: ʰpa-ze wa-noⁿ-bthe (p-e wa-noⁿ-bthe) - supper, an evening meal [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ze wa-noⁿ-bre (ʰpze wan̨bre) - supper, evening meal [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: pa-ze wa-tha-tʰe (pze wathtʰe) - an evening meal, supper [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-ze wa-tha-tʰe (pae wathate) - supper [Omaha]

 

support or aid someone

i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone i-da-na-zhiⁿ (idną) - I, i-da-na-zhiⁿ (danį) - you

cf. na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand; a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand upon; a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on ones own; ki-na-zhiⁿ (knaį) - stand with reference to another; o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place

ex: i-di-na-zhiⁿ (dinį) - to stand by you, to depend on [JOD]

ex: i-di-na-zhiⁿ di-taⁿ i-bniⁿ-aⁿ taⁿ i-ye aⁿ-ta-zho-zhi de, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (dinį ditt̨ bn̨ą t̨ ye ̨ttai d, iy iy mątʰ) - I think that you speak so improperly to me on account of you depending on someone to help you, it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-na-zhiⁿ (nazhiⁿ) - to stand by another who needs protection; to aid one who needs food, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; we-na-zhiⁿ (wnazhiⁿ) - to stand by or defend one who is a stranger, not a friend or kinsman; to stand by or defend them; neither friends nor kinsmen [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ) - stand, continue [Omaha/Ponca]; na-zhiⁿ (na-jⁿ) - to stand; to continue doing any thing [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿzhiⁿ) - get up, arise, standing, rise up [Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to rise or stand; stood [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-zhiⁿ (nąą̨) - stand, be standing; stand up, get up; terminate ongoing activity preparatory to departing; stop, cause to stop, halt, detain someone who is passing by [CQ-Osage]; na-zhiⁿ (nazhíⁿ), naⁿ-zhiⁿ (naⁿzhíⁿ) - stand, stand up [Kaw]

 

supreme ruler, God, the white mans God

wa-kaⁿ-ta-gi (wakntag) - God, the supreme ruler, the white mans God [JOD]

wa-kaⁿ-ta-ki (wakk̨ttak) - spirit, God, this term is used for traditional medicine men in closely related languages

wa-koⁿ-ta-ki (wakǫtk) - God [MS]

wa-kaⁿ-ta-ki (wah-kan-takih) - god, divinity, deity (dieu) [GI]

wa-koⁿ-ta-ki (wak̨tak) - personal name of Tom Crawfish [MS]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da-gi (wakaⁿdagi) - applied to water monsters, mysterious animals, unlooked for or premature qualities or acts, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; wa-koⁿ-da-gi (wa-ḳⁿ-da-gi) - a person who has knowledge of medicine; a physician; a doctor; one who pretends to communicate with the dead; a necromancer, occult; magic; holy; sacred; anything held sacred [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta-ki (waʰk̨taki) - be a doctor, physician, healer, minister of a religious group, preacher [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da-gi (wakⁿdagi) - sacred, mysterious; doctor, medicine man; wonderful [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisable, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

sure enough, exceedingly, much, very

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very, often, always

a-ta-ha (attah) - often, always [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha (nkkaka bn̨ attah) - sure enough smells like a human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ, pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą, pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-si-si a-ta-ha (ąssi attah) - me very active [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: e-ti-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttą ttįi h htʔe kkatte ttaha) - then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o-ki-hoⁿ a-ta-ha ti-te-ki-da-zhi (kihǫ attah tttekidi) - cooking/much/she had not caused it to be done [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha-wi (nąpphi attahwi) - they were very hungry [JOD]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

Dhegiha: a-ta (-ta) - beyond, more than, extreme, excessive [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta shoⁿ (ata shoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

sure enough, surely, truly, really, indeed

de (d), e-de (ed) - really, indeed, sure enough, surely, truely; intentive by agent; clause final partical; evidential

ex: di-te te de (ditʔ tte d) - you would surely die [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi miⁿ e-ti-kʰe de e-toⁿ shi-ke de (dixi mį ett-kʰe d ett̨ ke d) - a hill is truly there, but it is extremely bad [JOD]

ex: wa-kiⁿ koⁿ-da de (wakʔ̨ k̨da d) - he really wishes to carry something on his back [JOD]

ex: i-di-na-zhiⁿ di-taⁿ i-bniⁿ-aⁿ taⁿ i-ye aⁿ-ta-zho-zhi de (dinį ditt̨ bn̨ą t̨ ye ̨ttai d) - I think that you speak improperly to me on account of your depending on some one to help you [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are surely telling the truth [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: shi-ke de! (ke d!) - extremely bad! [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe te-a-de e-de (dixi wadxow nįkʰ tʔed ed) - I have truly killed the Hill that draws things (people) into his mouth!

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke shka-xe ta-we iywe e-de (mat̨ke kahke kγe ttaw iywe ed) - they say, youall will surely make Rabbit chief!

ex: hoⁿ-zhi e-de, wi-zhiⁿ-de (h̨i ed, wįde) - no indeed, elder brother!

ex: wi-te-ke, te-di-de ta e-de, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke, tʔdid tta ed, iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, it is said the rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de (etʰ̨i h ed) - it is not he/very/indeed [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

ex: iywe e-de! (iywe ed!) - they say/indeed [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke shka-xe ta-we iywe e-de! (mat̨ke kahke kγe ttaw iywe ed!) - they say, youall will surely make Rabbit chief! [JOD]

 

surface, peel something off a surface

di-xdo-te (dixdtte) - peel something off a surface bdi-xdo-te (bdixdtte) - I, ti-xdo-te (ttixdtte) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; xdo-te (xdtte) - peel off, come off as a scab; xdo-ta-de (xdottde) - peel off of its own accord; di-xto (dixt) - pull open, peel back; o-xe di-xto (xe dixt) - pull open a cache; o-di-xdo (odxdo) - take food from a cache

Dhegiha: thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse), thi-xthu-dse (thi-xth-dse) - to pull the bark off a tree, to peel with the bare hands; to peel, as the peeling of potato [FL-Osage]; thi-lo-tse  (iilce) - peel [CQ-Osage]; yu-xlo-je (yuxlje) - peel something; peel with the hand [Kaw]

 

surface, put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface

a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface a-a-koⁿ-he (akʔǫh) - I, a-da-koⁿ-he (dakʔǫh) - you, oⁿ-ka-koⁿ-ha-we (ǫkkʔǫhaw) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile

Dhegiha: a-koⁿ-he (koⁿhe), a-ko-he (kohe) - lay something on top of something else [Kaw]; a-ku-ko-he (kukohe) - lay ones own object on a surface for ones own benefit [Kaw]; a-gu-ko-he (gukohe) - lay ones own horizontal object on a surface; lay something on surface for someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhe-oⁿ-he (zhoⁿhe) - roast, to place a long object, such as an ear of corn, in front of the fire to roast [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay into [CQ-Osage]; ko-he (khe) - lay down an inanimate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ʰkoⁿ-he (-ḳⁿ-he) - to place in a scabbard, to sheathe [FL-Osage]; o-koⁿ-he (okⁿhe), o-ko-he (okhe) - put a lying inanimate object into something, as when putting a fork or spoon into a drawer [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰki-koⁿ-he (oʰkkʔǫhe) - interrupt, lit., insert oneself into [CQ-Osage]

 

surface, put a singular, sitting, inanimate object upon a surface

a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface a-a-knaⁿ (akną) - I, a-da-knaⁿ (dakną) - you, oⁿ-ka-kdaⁿ-we (ǫkkdąwe) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own; stode knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps

ex: ta-siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte kną) - roach (headress), deer tail put upon [MS]

ex: naⁿ-ka a-knaⁿ (n̨kka akn̨) - saddle, put upon the back [MS]

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - to place one thing upon another [FL-Osage]; a-laⁿ (lą) - place vertically against, place on, put on [CQ-Osage]; a-laⁿ (laⁿ) - put curved or rounded/sitting, or cloth, or paper on [Kaw]

 

surface, put or set a standing object upright upon a surface

a-kde (akd) - put; set a standing or perpendicular object upright upon a surface or within something which supports it, as in pitching a tent, placing a candle on a table, etc. a-a-kde (akd) - I, a-da-kde (dakd) - you, oⁿ-ka-kda-we (ǫkkdawe) - we

cf. o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand

ex: ma-shoⁿ a-a-kde (mǫ akde) - I stick a feather upright (in my hair)

ex: a-shi a-kde (ai akde) - to set an object on top of something else

ex: siⁿ-te a-kde (s̨tte kde) - to wear a tail in the belt, ballplayers evidently did this

ex: wa-kde (wakd) - feather on the head [MS]

ex: wa-kde sa i-niⁿ-ha a-kde pa naⁿ (wkde s inįh kde pa n̨) - they wore (a) black feather on the head too [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gthe (-ge) - place upright on [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthe (-gthe) - to place on top of another in an upright position [FL-Osage]; a-le (le), a-dle (dle) - place an item upright on another item, set on [CQ-Osage]; a-le (le) - stand a perpendicular object, such as a candlestick, on a surface [Kaw]

 

surface, rub a slippery surface

bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface pi-kʰiⁿ-te (ppkʰįtte) - I, shpi-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - you

cf. ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte) - miss, slip pushing something; da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at; di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte) - strike at and miss; kiⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (kk̨kkįtt) - slippery; naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it; po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting

Dhegiha: bu-khiⁿ-je (bukhíⁿje) - miss sitting down, fall; to miss an object in trying to press or lean on it, sit or lie on it, or push with the hands alone, (thereby) falling or going by it [Kaw]

Dhegiha: kshiⁿ-dse (kshiⁿ-dse) - miss, slip, fail, glance [FL-Osage]; kshiⁿ-tse (k̨ce) - miss, slip, fail [CQ-Osage]; khiⁿ-je (khíⁿje) - miss while attempting something; to fail to produce the desifred effect, from missing the object, slipping or brushing by it. The object may jump aside if alive, or remain stationary [Kaw]

 

surface, set ones own on a surface

a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface a-a-ki-knaⁿ (akikną) - I, a-da-ki-knaⁿ (dakikną) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-kna-we (̨kakiknwe) - we

cf. a () - on or upon; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put upon a surface; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting (curvilinear) objects so their edges touch; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; stode knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthaⁿ (-gi-gaⁿ) - to place his own cv. ob., book, paper, piece of calico, etc., on something else; to apply his medicine externally, as a plaster or poultice [JOD-Omaha]; a-gu-laⁿ (gulaⁿ) - set ones object upon; set ones cloth, paper, book, etc., on a surface; set a squat object on a surface for someone [Kaw]

 

surface, to scrape away surface earth with the hand

ka-ti-ti-ze (kattttize) - to scrape away surface earth with the hand; to scrape the dirt away often

cf. ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze (kattttize) - scraped away surface earth with his hand; scraped the dirt away often [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze aⁿ-taⁿ ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze ̨ttą kkʔǫhe) - when he swept away/cleared a spot, he put it down (his own item) [JOD]

 

surfeited, sufficient, satisfied, satiated

i-bnaⁿ (bną) - tired of it, satiated, to have enough, surfeited, satisfied, sufficient aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ (ąn̨bną) - I, i-di-bnaⁿ (dibną) - you

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ hi miⁿkʰe, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe (ąnąbn̨ hi mįkʰ, iy nįkʰ) - Ive really had enough (of being lonesome), she was saying [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-pa de aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨pa d ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am tired of it! [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ i-di-bnaⁿ ni-kʰe (hąn̨ttą idbną nikʰ) - why are you satiated? [JOD]

ex: i-bnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (bną nįkʰ) - he had enough [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ mi-zhi-ka ke aⁿ-taⁿ-taⁿ-da i-bnaⁿ (kįttą miik k ątt̨ttąd ibn̨) - then the girls had enough of what had been done [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - enough, sufficient; satisfied [Omaha/Ponca]; i-bthaⁿ (-baⁿ) - to have sufficient of, to be satisfied [JOD-Omaha]; i-braⁿ (ibrą) - have enough of, get enough of, have ones fill of, be sated with (either a positive or negative thing); be satiated with; be tired of, be negatively affected by too much of something [CQ-Osage]

 

surgery

pa-te (ptte) - butcher, to carve, cut up, dissect a dead body a-pa-te (aptte) - I, da-pa-te (daptte) - you

ex: pa-te (ptte) - she cut it up (the dead body) [JOD]

ex: pa-te taⁿ kiⁿ kde, i-ya (ptte tą kʔį kd, iy) - when she butchered it (the dead body), she packed it on her back, and carried it home, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-de (pde) - to carve, cut up, dissect a dead body; to scalp a person [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpa-ʰtse (p-ṭse), ʰpa-dse (p-dse) - to butcher, to dissect; surgical (operation) [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-tse (ʰpce) - butcher, dissect, operate on, perform surgery on, surgery [CQ-Osage]; pa-je (pje) - butcher an animal, to gut as fish [Kaw]

 

surprise, interjection of surprise

hoⁿ (hǫǫ) - interjection of surprise, female

 

hoⁿ-hoⁿ (hǫhǫ) - Oh My!; Why!; Oho!

ex: ho-hoⁿ xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (hǫhǫ xwį h, iy) - Oh My! That smells really bad, he said [JOD]

 

ho-a (hoʔ) - interjection of surprise

 

ho-ho-xo (hohox) - interjection of wonder, male

ex: ho-ho-xo (hohox) - Really!; Why! [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! wa-kiⁿ koⁿ-da de! (hhox! wakʔ̨ k̨da d!) - Why! He really wants to carry something! [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! ma-shtiⁿ-ke, i-ye tʰe ko-i-she-sha-zhi naⁿ niⁿ-tʰe (hhox! mat̨ke, ye tʰe kie-i n̨ nįtʰ) - Really! Rabbit, you have never talked in this manner before now [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! miⁿ-a-kʰe, ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hhox! m̨kʰe, mat̨ke) - Really! I have spoken the truth, Rabbit [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! wi-zhiⁿ-ke, di-a-te de ki-kiⁿ te (hhox! wįk, ditte d kikʔ̨ tte) - Really! My son, let your father carry this (meat) [JOD]

 

ho-hoo (hoho) - interjection of wonder, surprise

ex: ho-hoo! (hoho!) - Well! Well!; Why!; Oho! [JOD]

ex: ho-hoo, di-te te de, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (hoho, ditʔ tte d, iy iy sniwtte) - Why! You would surely die! it is said Winter said [JOD]

ex: ho-hoo! da-tʰi-zhi hi naⁿ ni-tʰe! (hoho! datʰi hi n̨ nitʰ!) - Well! Well! You have never come here before now! [JOD]

ex: ho-hoo! wi-te-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka de-pa she-do i-hi-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hoho! wtteke, nkkaka dpa do ihwe, iy iy mat̨ke) - Oho! my mothers brother, over there are some Indians who are approaching, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: ho-hoo! wi-te-ke, ta miⁿ she-do i-hi! ki-ta! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hoho! wtteke, tta mį do ih! kkitta! iy iy mat̨ke) - Oho! My mothers brother, there is a deer approaching over there! Shoot it! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-di-bnaⁿ taⁿ, ho-hoo! xwiⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ye (kįttą odbną tą, hoho xw̨ attah, iy) - then when he sniffed, he said, Why! That smells really bad! [JOD]

 

surrounding, place for surrounding the game

o-wa-di-te (owditte) - place for surrounding the game; place for capturing the game [JOD]

o-wa-di-te (wadtte) - ambush location, place at which to cross them

cf. o () - locative, place at which, culmination of, wherein a certain thing takes place; wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, them; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish, male personal name [MS]; wa-di-te (wadtĕ) - masculine name, Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfish [JOD]; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - cross roads; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed; interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.; a-ki-di-te-te i-tʰe-de (kkidittette itʰde) - to place a number of objects so that they cross one another

ex: o-wa-di-te (owditte) - place for capturing the game [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke, o-wa-di-te di-ta o-ki-pi niⁿ-kʰe de, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (mat̨ke, owditte dtta okppi nįkʰ d, iy iy mątʰ) - Rabbit, your capturing place is full of game! it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: o-wa-di-te (owditte) - place for surrounding the game [JOD]

ex: ki-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke, o-wa-di-te di-ta o-ki-pi niⁿ-kʰe de, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (kiw, mat̨ke, owditte dtta okppi nįkʰ d, iy iy mątʰ) - come, Rabbit, your capturing place is full of game! it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: de tʰe o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe a-pa-po e-ta-kaⁿ-za a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe (d tʰe owditte nįkʰ ppapo ettkkąza witt̨we ą tta mįkʰ) - when he (Grizzly bear) goes, I will lie down looking at you, at the edge of the hill directly above the place where you capture the game [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-te (thit) - to cross, as a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; yu-tse (yuc) - cross, as a stream [Kaw]

 

suspect, think, regard one as being

a-zhaⁿ (ą) - think, regard one as being a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąm̨) - I, a-da-zhaⁿ (daą) - you, oⁿ-ka-zhaⁿ-we (̨kaąwe) - we

a-zhiⁿ (į) - think, regard; to treat as a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąmį), a-a-zhiⁿ (aį), a-zhoⁿ (ǫ) - I, a-da-zhiⁿ (daį) - you, oⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ-we (̨kaįwe), aⁿ-ka-zhaⁿ-i (ąkąi) - we

ex: a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąm̨) - I suspect [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I suspect that he has been treating my kinsman so, said the Rabbits son [JOD]

ex: ho-taⁿ a-zhaⁿ-i (httą ąi) - love someone, think well of

ex: oⁿ-hi a-zhiⁿ (ǫh į) - respect, treat as honorable

ex: oⁿ-hi a-wi-zha-miⁿ (ǫh wiam̨) - I honor you

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ, i-da-xa-zhi, i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa-, iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe i-xa koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe e-ni-te o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi (waxʔ nįkʰe xa k̨da nįkʰe nitte, dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąmį idxa-i) - the woman wanted to laugh, although she thought he will see/find me, I won't laugh [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te iⁿ-spe i-ba-shte a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi (̨įtte ̨spe bate ąm̨, iy) - well, I think it was accidentally split by falling against an axe, he said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ shoⁿ-hi-te (ątʔe tta mįkʰe aąm̨ ̨hitte) - at any rate, I think I will be dead/die [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi-xti niⁿ a-zha-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (nąpphi-xti n̨ ąm̨, iy iy sniwtte) - I think that he (Rabbit) is very hungry, it is said Winter said [JOD]

ex: he-be wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya (hbe wdakitt̨ ąm̨, iy iy) - I think that you took a piece for someone, it is said he said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zha-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - yes! I thought so, it is said rabbit said [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-de a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ed ą) - I think you are telling the truth [JOD]

ex: haⁿ aⁿ-da-zhaⁿ e (h̨ ądą e) - what do you think about my case?

ex: miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-zhaⁿ-zhi tʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (m̨kʰe ądąi tʰe ąmį) - I do not think that you believe me

ex: a-ki-zhaⁿ (akį) - she thought about herself [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe o-xde te a-ki-zhaⁿ iⁿ (dotʰe oxd tte akį į) - the man eater would overtake her, she thought to herself' (JOD)]

Dhegiha: a-zhiⁿ (-zhiⁿ) - to think or suppose that [FL-Osage]; a-zhiⁿ (ą) - think or believe regarding someone, hold an opinion of something [CQ-Osage]; a-zhiⁿ (azhíⁿ) - think, suppose [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (-jaⁿ-mⁿ) - I think, 1st person singular of an obsolete verb a-zhiⁿ (ajiⁿ) [JOD-Omaha]

 

suspenders

i-kiⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders [MS]

cf. i (i) - with which to; kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry or pack on the back

ex: maⁿ-o-zhi i-kiⁿ (m̨oi kʔį) - quiver strap

Dhegiha: iⁿ (ⁿ) - carry, carrying [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; kiⁿ (kiⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

swallow

da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - swallow bda-sniⁿ (bdsnį) - I, ta-sniⁿ (ttsnį) - you

cf. kda-sniⁿ (kdasn̨) - swallow ones own (food); devour ones own

ex: wi-bda-sniⁿ (wbdasn̨) - I swallow thee [JOD]

ex: di-e wi-bda-sniⁿ maⁿ te-a, i-ke (de wbdasn̨ m̨ tta, ik) - I will swallow you, he said to her [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - he swallowed her [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe da-sa taⁿ da-sniⁿ (̨ waxʔ-ik nįkʰ das-tą dasn̨) - he killed the old female dog, then swallowed her [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - he swallowed it [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka shoⁿ-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe da-sniⁿ naⁿ wa-di-xe (bdok ǫ-ik nįkʰ dasnį ną wadix) - after he swallowed the whole puppy, he chased them [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-zhi (dasn̨i) - he swallowed not [JOD]

ex: wa-sa pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe da-sniⁿ-zhi hi aⁿ-koⁿ-da hi (was ppah nįkʰ dasn̨i h ąkk̨da h) - he did not devour/swallow the bear head, he was coming, chasing me [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe da-sniⁿ-zhi (ppah-nįkʰ dasn̨i) - he did not swallow the head [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi (dasn̨wa) - they had not eaten up; they had not devoured all [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi naⁿ pi-ki-zhi di-knaⁿ (dasn̨wa ną ppkii dikn̨) - they had not devoured it all, she decided to put her scraps away [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-zniⁿ (ȼa-s͓nⁿ) - to finish eating or drinking; to have swallowed [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-hni (tha-hn) - to gulp or swallow; to devour [FL-Osage]; tha-niⁿ (aan̨į) - consume; eat up or drink up, devour [CQ-Osage]; ya-hniⁿ (yahníⁿ) - swallow [Kaw]

 

da-shti (dat) - swallow

cf. da-shti-te (dattte) - swallow; we-da-shti-te (wdattte) - gullet

Dhegiha: tha-shtsu-e (aace) - swallow (food or drink) [CQ-Osage]

 

da-shti-te (dattte) - swallow bda-shti-te (bdtitte) - I, ta-shti-te (tttitte) - you

cf. da-shti (dat) - swallow; we-da-shti-te (wdattte) - gullet

Dhegiha: tha-shtsu-e (aace) - swallow (food or drink) [CQ-Osage]

 

swallow (various types)

ni-shko-shko zhi-ka (nikko ka) - swallow (various types)

cf. ni-shko-shko (nikko) - purple martin, Progne subis; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: ni-shku-shku zhiⁿ-ga (nishkúshku zhíⁿga) - barn swallow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni shku-shku (ni ck-cku) - the martin [JOD-Omaha]; ni shku-shku (ni shku-shku) - barn swallow [Omaha]; ni-shku-shku (ni-shk-shku) - a swallow; the sand martin or bank swallow; the swallow is believed to be associated with the clouds and thunder, it is most active when a storm approaches [FL-Osage]; ni-shku-shku (nishkshku) - the purple martin [Kaw]

 

swallow or devour ones own

kda-sniⁿ (kdasn̨) - swallow ones own (food); devour ones own a-kda-sniⁿ (akdsnį) - I, da-kda-sniⁿ (dakdsnį) - you

cf. da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - swallow

ex: kda-sniⁿ (kdasn̨) - he had swallowed all of his [JOD]

ex: o-naⁿ-bde kda-sniⁿ naⁿ, shi-naⁿ ta-bde de ta-w, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (nąbde kdasn̨ ną, ną tbde d tta we, iy iy sniwtte) - when all the food had been consumed, it is said that Winter spoke of going hunting again [JOD]

Dhegiha: gtha-sniⁿ (gsniⁿ) - to swallow or devour ones own [JOD-Omaha]

 

swallow, chimney swallow

a-to-to-ska (ttottska) - chimney swallow, species of bird

 

swallow, draw into the mouth

da-xo-we (daxwe) - draw into mouth; drag with teeth bda-xo-we (bdxowe) - I, ta-xo-we (ttxowe) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling

ex: aⁿ-da-xo-wa! (ądxow!) - draw me into your mouth! [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-xo-wa! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ądxow! iy iy mat̨ke) - Swallow me! it is said Rabbit said.

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill that ate people, from Quapaw mythology

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - Hill that drew things (people) into its mouth

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill/drew them into its mouth; hill/draws people into its mouth; hill/drew people into its mouth [JOD]

ex: wa-da-xo-we (wadxow) - draws them into its mouth [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti hi-naⁿ wa-da-xo-we-naⁿ iⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (nkkaka tti h-ną wadxow-ną ̨, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - when people go there, it always draws them into its mouth, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

ex: wa-ta-xo-we (wttaxowe) - you draw them into your mouth [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we ni-kʰe, ni-ka-shi-ka wa-ta-xo-we-naⁿ, i-ya-we (dixi wadxow nikʰ, nkkaka wttaxowe-ną, iywe) - you who are the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth, they say that you always draw people into your mouth [JOD]

ex: da-xo-wa-zhi (dxwa) - did not draw him into its mouth [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-ba-hoⁿ-taⁿ da-xo-wa-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi wadxow nįkʰ mat̨ke bahǫ-tą dxwa ną, iy) - as the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth knew the Rabbit, he refused to swallow him, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-xu-be (a-x-be) - to sip, or suck up, as soup; to make a noise with the mouth, as in eating liquids [JOD-Omaha]; ya-xo-we (yaxówe) - to make a tearing or sucking sound; to make the sound heard in tearing calico, cloth, etc. with the teeth; to suck up the affected part of a persons body, as the Indian doctors do, making a peculiar sound [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-xu-e (tha-x-e) - dragged with his teeth [FL-Osage]

 

swarm upon

ba-di-di-te (badditte) - cover in a mass, swarm upon

Dhegiha: ba-thi-de (bathde) - full, swarming or covered with [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-thi-de (ba--de) - full: used of superficial or surface fulness; said of fish in a school; said of worms and maggots moving on the surface of a dead body; swarming with lice; always refers to animate objects, and may be rendered, full of moving objects [JOD-Omaha]; ba-yu-iⁿ-da-je (bayúiⁿdáje) - be full of, covered with, thick with said of surface fullness only (coverd with) [Kaw]

 

sway

ka-kda (kakd) - sway

Dhegiha: ga-gtha (ga-g) - said of a horse carrying a pack: as he walks the motion causes the thongs to come undone [JOD-Omaha]

 

sway from side to side walking, said in ridicule

xa-da da-da-xti maⁿ-niⁿ (xda ddaxti mąn̨) - sway from side to side walking, said in ridicule

cf. xa-da (xda) - back to starting point, back, back again; da-da (dda) - freq. ending of de (de); xti (xti) - very, real, fully; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

 

sweat, perspire

ba-xi-te (baxtte), ba-xiⁿ-te (bax̨tte), pa-xiⁿ-te (pax̨tte) - sweat, perspire aⁿ-ba-xi-te (ąbxitte) - I, di-ba-xi-te (dibxitte) - you

Dhegiha: ba-xi-dse (ba-x-dse) - to sweat, to perspire [FL-Osage]; pa-xi-tse (paγce), pa-xiⁿ-tse (paγ̨ce) - sweat, perspire [CQ-Osage]; ba-ghiⁿ-je (baghⁿje) - sweat, perspire [Kaw]

 

sweep away

ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away a-tʰi-ze (tʰize) - I, da-tʰi-ze (dtʰize) - you

cf. we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; ba-ti-ze (battze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move one's possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along; po-ti-ze (pttize) - move something by punching/shooting

 

ka-ti-ti-ze (kattittze) - to scrape away surface earth with ones hand; scrape the dirt away often [JOD]

cf. ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; ba-ti-ze (battze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move one's possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along; po-ti-ze (pttize) - move something by punching/shooting

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze (kattittze) - scraped away surface earth with his hand; scraped the dirt away often [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze aⁿ-taⁿ ki-kaⁿ-he (kattittze ̨tą kkʔąh) - when he swept away/cleared a spot, he put it down (his own item) [JOD]

ex: ka-ti-ti-ze ki-ha naⁿ we-da-ba-zo ki-koⁿ-he (kattittze kih ną wdabzo kkʔǫhe) - when he finished clearing a spot, he placed the index finger down [JOD]

 

sweep litter away, rake

di-xe (dix) - rake, sweep litter away bdi-xe (bdxe) - I, ti-xe (ttxe) - you

Dhegiha: thiu-xe (thiu-xe) - cleared of grass [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: we-thu-xe (w-thu-xe) - garden rake [FL-Osage]; moⁿ thiu-xe (mⁿ-thiu-xe) - ground-cleared-of-grass, personal name, refers to the bare ground around the home of the bear [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-hiⁿ i-thi-xe (moⁿ-hⁿ i-thi-xe) - a sulky hayrake [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze we-yu-xe (mⁿze wyuxe), maⁿ-ze we-yo-xe (mⁿze wyoxe)  - a rake drawn by a horse; dipping fork, any tool for dipping [Kaw]

 

sweep out ones house

kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out ones house a-kda-ti-ze (akdttize) - I, da-kda-ti-ze (dakdttize) - you

cf. i-ti-ze (ttize) - clean out the house; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; i-ki-ti-ze (kittize) - leave, abandon ones own; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move one's possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for ones own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet; po-ti-ze (pttize), po-tʰi-ze (ptʰize) - move something by punch-/shooting

Dhegiha: thi-dsi-ze (thi-ds-e) - remove from office (strictly speaking means remove only, no mention of office [FL-Osage]; thi-tsi-ze (icze) - dust or clean e.g., the house, move, remove, take away [CQ-Osage]

 

sweet

ski-de (skde) - sweet, sour

ski-de (skde) - sweet [MR]

ex: he-zi-ka ski-de (hzikka skde) - honey, bee sweet

ex: ni-ski-de (niskde) - salt, lit. sweet water

ex: to ski-de (to ski-de) - sweet potato

ex: wa-ske ski-de (wskeskde) - cake, sweet bread

ex: wa-ski-de (waskde) - fruit of any sort

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar, pulverized sweet

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar

Dhegiha: ski-the (skthe) - sweet, sour [Omaha/Ponca]; ski-the (kithe) - sweet [Omaha]; ski-the (k-the), skiu-e (kiu-e), skiu-the (kiu-the), sku-the (ku-the) - sweet [FL-Osage]; sku-the (ske), sku-e (ske) - sweet [CQ-Osage]; sku-we (skwe) - sweets, be sweet [Kaw]

 

sweet potato

to ski-de (to skde) - sweet potato

to ski-de (to ski-de) - sweet potato [MR]

cf. to (to) - potato; ski-de (skde) - sweet

Dhegiha: nu ski-the (nu kithe) - sweet potato [Omaha]; do sku-e (d-ku-e) - sweet potato [FL-Osage]; to sku-e (toskue) - sweet potato [CQ-Osage]; do sku-we (do skwe) - sweet potato [Kaw]

 

to ste-te (tosttte) - sweet potato, long potato

to ste-te (to sttte) - sweet potato [MS, MR, AB, OM]

cf. to (to) - potato; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

Dhegiha: do stse-dse (d-stse-dse) - the sweet potato, long potato [FL-Osage]; to stse (toosce), to shtse (tooce) - sweet potato, yam, lit., long potato [CQ-Osage]

 

Sweet Potato Creek

to ski-de ni (to skde ni) - Sweet potato creek, home of the Quapaws before 1861 according to JOD

cf. to ski-de (to skde) - sweet potato; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

Dhegiha: do-sku-e ga-xa (d-ku-e ga-xa) - Sweet potato branch, sometimes called ni-u-zhu (Neosho); Spring River [FL-Osage]; to-sku-e ka-xa (toskue kxa) - Sweet Potato Creek [CQ-Osage]

 

swell

i-pa (pa) - swell aⁿ-naⁿ-pa (ąn̨pa) - I, i-di-pa (dipa) - you, we-pa-we (wpawe) - we

Dhegiha: i-ba (ba) - swell, to swell [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ba (ba) - swell; swollen [Omaha]; i-ba (-ba) - to swell [JOD-Omaha]; i-ba (íba) - to swell, to become swollen [FL-Osage]; i-ba (íba) - swell up, as an injured organ [Kaw]

 

swift

so-te (sott) - fast, swift of an animal

so-te (stte) - fast, rapidly [JOD]

ex: so-te hi (sott hi) - very fast; very rapid; very swift

ex: a-hi so-te (hi sott) - Fast or Swift Wing, male name [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-niⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa-xti so-te hi kde kʰe (owxti stte h kde kʰ) - with great effort/with all her might, very fast/rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

ex: i-e so-te (e sott) - talk fast [OM]

ex: maⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (mąn̨ sott hi) - walk fast [MS]

ex: mi so-te (mi sott) - Fast or Swift Sun, female name [MS, JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ so-te hi (tt̨nį sott hi) - run fast [MS]

ex: zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te (̨ ditt̨da sott) - train (wagon go fast) [MS, JOD]

ex: so-te hi kde niⁿ (stte h kde n̨) - very rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

Dhegiha: su-se (su-sĕ́) - swift flowing [JOD-Omaha]; su-se (súse) - be fast, swift [Kaw]

 

xaⁿ-sa (xʔąs), aⁿ-sa (ʔąs) - swift

ex: kde-taⁿ aⁿ-sa (kdet̨ ʔąs) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) or Bird gens; Swift Hawk, the present name of Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te xaⁿ-sa (mątt xʔ̨sa) - masculine name, Swift Boat [JOD]

ex: mi xaⁿ-sa (mi xʔ̨sa) - female name, Swift Sun. Aunt of kde-taⁿ sa (kdet̨ sa), and mother of ke-da- to (kkda tto); Mrs. Mary Stafford, she blongs to the Crawfish Gens one of the Hanka half-tribe [JOD]

ex: ta-te xaⁿ-sa (ttat xʔąs) - masculine name, Swift Wind [JOD]

ex: ta-te xaⁿ-sa (Tataonsa) - Whistling Wind, Treaty of St. Louis with the Quapaw (1818)

ex: wa-kaⁿ-ta xaⁿ-sa (wak̨ta xʔąs) - masculine name [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ xaⁿ-sa (wą xʔ̨sa) - masculine name [JOD]

Dhegiha:oⁿ-sa (oⁿsa) - swift at running [Omaha/Ponca]; aⁿ-sa (aⁿ-sa) - swift at running [JOD-Omaha]; kaⁿ-sa (kaⁿsa) - swift [Kaw]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-sa-gi (ⁿ-sa-gi) - rapid, swift, fast [Omaha/Ponca]; aⁿ-sa-gi (ⁿ-sa-gi) - rapid; swift [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-sa-gi (ḳⁿ-a-gi) - fleet, swift, very fast [FL-Osage]; kaⁿ-sa-ki (kʔ̨saaki) - be fast in movement, fleet as a runner; quickly, fast, rapidly, swiftly [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-sa-gi (káⁿsagi), kaⁿ-sa-ge (káⁿsage) - run fast, be fast; fast, swiftly, rapidly [Kaw]

 

swim

a-a-niⁿ (aan̨) - swim

a-niⁿ (an̨) - swim [MS]

 

a-nyo (nyo) - swim a-a-nyo (anyo) - I, a-da-nyo (danyo) - you

cf. a (a) - in, on; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do

Dhegiha: ni-u-woⁿ (niwoⁿ) - swim, to swim [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-u-woⁿ (niwoⁿ) - swim [Omaha]; nyu-waⁿ (nywaⁿ), ni u-waⁿ (ni uwaⁿ) - to swim [JOD-Omaha]; ni-moⁿ (n-moⁿ) - to swim [FL-Osage]; ni-maⁿ (nmaⁿ) - swim, go swimming [Kaw]

 

hi-da (hid), i-da (id) - swim, bathe

ex: a-hi-bda (ahbda) - I bathed [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

ex: i-da-hi-bda (idhibd) - in it I bathed [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

ex: hi-da ta miⁿ-kʰe (hid tta mįkʰ) - Im going swimming [AG, OM]

Dhegiha: hi-tha (hith) - bathe, to bathe, to bathe someone [Omaha/Ponca]; hi-tha (hi-th) - to bathe in a stream [FL-Osage]; hi-tha (hii) - bathe; swim [CQ-Osage]; hi-ya (hiy) - bathe, swim [Kaw]

 

swimming, the fish is swimming

ho tʰe ni (h tʰe n) - the fish is swimming [ASG]

cf. ho (ho) - fish; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; collection/inanimate; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

 

swing

se-do-hiⁿ (sdohį) - a swing

 

switch, stick

zhoⁿ zhi-ka (̨ ika) - stick, switch

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿ zhiⁿga) - a switch, twig, rod, or splinter [Omaha/Ponca]; zhaⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (jⁿjiga) - stick [JOD-Omaha]; zhaⁿ zhiⁿ (̨ąį) - small branches, small limbs or twigs (of a tree or bush); splinters [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (zhaⁿ zhíⁿga) - limb, branch [Kaw]

 

sword

ma-ze iⁿ-tʰiⁿ (mze ̨tʰį) - sword, lit. iron striker

ma-ze (mze) - metal, iron; i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze we-tʰiⁿ (moⁿe wetiⁿ) - sword [Omaha]; maⁿ-ze we-tʰiⁿ (mⁿze-wetʰiⁿ) - sword [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha:  moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron, metal [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿe) - metal; iron; nail [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron or any kind of metal [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mą́ze) - metal of any kind, lead or iron, wire, cable [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mⁿze) - iron, metal in general [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [JOD-Omaha]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

sycamore

zhoⁿ saⁿ (̨ są) - sycamore, Platanus occidental

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; saⁿ (są) - white in the distance

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ soⁿ (zhoⁿsⁿ) - sycamore tree [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ soⁿ hi (zhoⁿ ⁿ hi) - sycamore, white tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ saⁿ (zháⁿ saⁿ) - sycamore tree [Kaw]

 

syphilis

xoⁿ-ka (x̨ka) - syphilis

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-ga (qⁿga) - syphilis [Omaha/Ponca]; xaⁿ-ga (qá-ga) - syphilis [JOD-Omaha]; xaⁿ-ga (xáⁿga) - syphilis [Kaw]

 

syrup

wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar

wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup

wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]

cf. wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar; wa-shoⁿ-ke (wąke), wa-zhoⁿ-ke (wąke) - pulverized, fine; ski-de (skde) - sweet; kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous

 

 

 

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