English to Quapaw Dictionary

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Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

S

 

sight, in sight

taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight

cf. taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight; taⁿ-hi-de (ttąhde) - to have passed by in sight

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa (tt̨į-hi-pp) - in sight/were coming/the moving ones [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka a-na-hi-te-xti taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa i-ya, kaxn̨ (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka anhittxti tt̨į-hi-pp iy, kaxn̨) - then a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa (tt̨į-hi-pp) - in sight/were coming/the moving ones [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-xnaⁿ a-na-hi-te taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa-naⁿ, i-ya (in̨ kaxn̨ anhitte tt̨į-hi-pp-ną, iy) - again a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight, it is said [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha a-shi o-a-te naⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ tʰi (n̨a i oatt ną tt̨̨ tʰi) - then when I looked back, he appeared in sight, he had come [JOD]

ex: mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mitt̨į) - sun sure up [MS]

ex: mi-taⁿ-iⁿ (mi taⁿ́-iⁿ) - female name of the Kwapa Sun gens, Visible Moon, mother of ka-hi-ke ste-te (k͓ahk͓e stĕ́tĕ) [JOD]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-iⁿ-the (tⁿiⁿthe) - to make something visible or clear, to explain [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿiⁿ), tiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; toiⁿ (t̨į), toⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭⁿ-iⁿ) - pronounced ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ), visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; ʰtiⁿ (ʰt̨į), ʰtsiⁿ (ʰc̨į), ʰtiⁿ-e (ʰt̨e) - appear, show [CQ-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]

 

sight, out of sight

taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight

cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight; zhi (i) - not, negation

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ a-zhi (ṭoⁿ-ⁿ a-zhi) - invisible, not visible, not to be seen [FL-Osage]; wa-tiⁿ-zhi (watⁿzhi) - invisible, not in sight [Kaw]

 

sight, to fear the sight of something

naⁿ-pe (n̨ppe), noⁿ-pe (n̨ppe) - to fear the sight of something naⁿ-a-pe (n̨appe) - I, naⁿ-da-pe (nądappe) - you, naⁿ-oⁿ-pa-we (n̨ǫppawe) - we

cf. noⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade), naⁿ-pe-wa-de (n̨ppewade) - dangerous, also masculine name; maⁿ naⁿpa-zhi (maⁿnaⁿ-p-ji) - masculine name, He fears not Arrows [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe niⁿ (n̨ppe n̨) - he fears as he moves [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-mi, wi-te-ke ta-taⁿ naⁿ-pe niⁿ e? (wttim, wittke tttą n̨ppe n̨ e?) - aunt (my fathers sister), what does uncle (my mothers brother) fear? [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe ni-ke hi (n̨ppe nik hi) - he fears/there is nothing/very [JOD]

ex: di-te-ke ta-taⁿ naⁿ-pe ni-ke hi, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (dtteke tttą n̨ppe nik hi, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - your uncle (your mothers brother) fears nothing whatsoever, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe aⁿ-taⁿ (n̨ppe ątt̨) - to fear it/I have [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-ti-mi, wi-e-hi-taⁿ naⁿ-pe aⁿ-taⁿ (hǫ, wttim, wihitt̨ n̨ppe ątt̨) - no! fathers sister, even I have something to fear [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe ni-ke (n̨ppe nik) - to fear/have nothing [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ, wi-te-ke naⁿ-pe ni-ke ni-hoⁿ? (hąn̨ttą, wittke n̨ppe nik nih̨?) - how could it be possible that my mothers brother fears nothing? [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe niⁿ (n̨ppe n̨) - he fears it as he moves [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! di-te-ke ta-ska pa-hi naⁿ-pe niⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (hǫ! dttke ttask ppah n̨ppe n̨, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - yes! your mothers brother fears the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - fearing to see her/was crying (as she sat) [JOD]

ex: e-hoⁿ kʰe we-sa o-do-hi kʰe taⁿ-ha naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (eh̨ kʰe wsʔa odhi kʰe t̨ha n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - she was crying because she was afraid of her mother which had changed into a snake [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-pe (wanoⁿpe) - fear [Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰpe (nⁿ-p̣e) - to fear, to dread, to have a horror, to be afraid, to be timid [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ʰpe (n̨ǫʰpe) - be afraid or scared, fear [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-pe (nⁿpe) - be afraid of what is visible [Kaw]

 

sight, to have passed by in sight

taⁿ-hi-de (ttąhde) - to have passed by in sight

cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight; hi-de (hid) - to send here; cause to come here; go, to have gone somewhere; precipitate, as rain, snow

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭoⁿ́iⁿ), ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; toiⁿ (t̨į), toⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-the (-ĕ) - to send hither [JOD-Omaha]; hiu-the (hi-the) - to cause to come [FL-Osage]; hu-the (he) - cause to come here, send here; hand over, hand to, pass to by hand or other means; come here [CQ-Osage]; hu-ye (húye) - relating to weather: blowing, precipitating [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-the (h-ĕ) - to cause him, her, or it to reach there (not his home) [JOD-Omaha]; hi-the (hi-th) - to have gone; to have departed; to cause to reach there; to send thither [FL-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there, lit., cause to arrive there [CQ-Osage]; hi-ye (hiyé) - to have gone (somewhere); send, lit. cause to arrive there [Kaw]; hi-ye (hiyé), i-ye (iyé) - to have gone to a particular place; to have set, as the sun [Kaw]

 

sight, wait for someone not in sight

i-da-pe (idppe) - wait for someone not in sight i-bda-pe (ibdppe) - I, i-ta-pe (ittppe) - you

Dhegiha: i-tha-pʰe (ithpʰe) - to wait for on not yet in sight [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tha-pe (ithape) - wait [Omaha]; i-tha-ʰpe (i-th-p̣e) - to wait for someone [FL-Osage]; i-tha-ʰpe (iʰpe) - wait, wait for [CQ-Osage]; i-ya-pa (iyapa) - wait [Kaw]

 

sign of doubt

niⁿ-haⁿ (nįhą) - would, sign of doubt; can it be?; can?; should? [JOD]

ni-hoⁿ (nih̨) - improbability post clitic, dubitative

ex: di-ki niⁿ-ha (dikʔ nįhą) - give to thee/would (sign of doubt) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, be ti di-ki niⁿ-ha (įkn̨, be tt dikʔ nįhą) - first son, who would give you a lodge [JOD]

ex: ta-toⁿ niⁿ-haⁿ (tttǫ nįh̨) - what/can it be? [JOD]

ex: ta-toⁿ niⁿ-haⁿ (tttǫ nįh̨) - what can it be? [JOD]

ex: bda-tʰe niⁿ-haⁿ (bdatʰ nįhą) - I eat/can? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, ta-taⁿ bda-tʰe niⁿ-haⁿ (hą, n̨ppįhi mįkʰ, tttą bdatʰ nįh̨) - yes, Im hungry, what can I eat? [JOD]

ex: i-niⁿ-haⁿ (inįh̨) - can it be! [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-te ni-hoⁿ (ątʔ nih̨) - me die/should? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-te ni-hoⁿ (hǫ, wtteke, hąn̨ttą ątʔ nih̨) - no, uncle (my mothers brother), how could I possibly die? [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe ni-ke ni-hoⁿ (n̨ppe nik nih̨) - to fear/have nothing/should [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ, wi-te-ke naⁿ-pe ni-ke ni-hoⁿ? (hąn̨ttą, wittke n̨ppe nik nih̨?) - how could it be possible that my mothers brother fears nothing? [JOD]

 

sign of past time, but

e-de (ed) - but, sign of past time

ex: miⁿ-kʰe tʰe-de (m̨kʰe tʰed) - told the truth/in the past, but [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! wi-to-shpa miⁿ-kʰe tʰe-de, i-yi i-ya (hǫ! wittpa m̨kʰe tʰed, iy iy) - oh! my grandson did tell the truth, but . it is said she said [JOD]

ex: e-de (ed) - but

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

sign of sudden effect

i-naⁿ (in̨) - sign of sudden effect, sentence final

cf. i-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - suddenly and often [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ (in̨) - it alighted suddenly [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ka-xo-wa-de i-naⁿ, i-ya-we (kįttą ̨tʰį dde ną kaxwade in̨, iywe) - then he threw the club/stick, when it alighted suddenly making the sound po from hitting the ground, they say [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ (in̨) - suddenly (personat) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-ti-mi, wi-e-taⁿ aⁿ-na-xi-da shtaⁿ i-naⁿ (hǫ, wttim, wihitt̨ ąnγida t̨ in̨) - nonsense, my aunt (my fathers sister), even I am often scared [JOD]

 

sign, past sign

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - past sign, when [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-ze tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kǫz tʰą n̨) - pretend/the std. one/past sign

ex: ti-zhe ti hi na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ xa-ke koⁿ-ze tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tte-tt-hi ną-att̨ γak kǫz tʰą n̨ iy matįke) - the rabbit arrived to the entrance of the lodge and stood there, pretending cry, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: we-de naⁿ (wde ną) - he saw them/past act [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-ka-shi-ka we-de naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke nkkaka wde ną, iy) - after a while the Rabbit saw some Indians, it is said [JOD]

ex: da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we (daxʔąkkid nąw) - you (plural) used to be kind to him for me [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ho-wa ni-kʰa-she da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we e (mat̨ke hwa nikʰe daxʔąkkid nąw e) - which of youall were kind to Rabbit for me? [JOD]

ex: i-ye ną-we (iy-năⁿ-w) - they said (in the past) [JOD]

ex: wi-e! wi-e! wi-e! i-ye ną-we (we! we! we! iy-naⁿ-w) - me! me! me! they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thaⁿ (aⁿ) - in the past, forms a relative clause, with a past reference [JOD-Omaha]; doⁿ (doⁿ) - because; when; did [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (naⁿ), na (na) - past marker for classifiers; anterior mode [Kaw]

 

sign, question sign

e (e), a-e (ae), a (a) - question sign, sentence final

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ da-xa-ke e, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke, hǫn̨ttą daγke e, iy iy was nįkʰ) - rabbit, why are you crying? said the bear, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-di-haⁿ-zhi e, i-ke (nąppdihą e, ik) - are you not hungry? he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-ti ta-taⁿ e (tti tttą e) - is there anything else? [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, da-kdi a-e (įkn̨, dakd ae) - first son, you have come home? [JOD]

ex[mhį kǫtta e 'Do you want a knife?']

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ di-ta da-ki-shkoⁿ-ta e (ǫkeknį dtta dakkǫtta e) - do you want your own horse?

ex: ti tʰe ha-naⁿ-ska e (tti tʰe hnąska e) - how big is the house?

ex: wa-so-so ta-ba-xe e (wasso ttbaγe e) - did you bite the cord in two?

ex: ha-ki e (hak e) - where is it? [AB]

ex: ha-ki shi e (hki i e) - where have you been?' [MS]

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-ti da-tʰi e (hatʰą́tti datʰ e) - when did you come? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe) - what is the matter/what happened with your man (husband), they said to her [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e)  - is that so? [OM]

ex: i-shpa-haⁿ-we a, e-te te (pahąw a, tte tt) - do youall know? I wonder. [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, da-kdi a-e (įkn̨, dakd ae) - first son, you have come home? [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here? he said to him [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-di-hi-aⁿ-zhi a-e (nąppdįi a) - are you not hungry? [JOD]

ex: kʰi naⁿ, haⁿ wa-xo di-ta di-te a-e (kʰ ną, hą waxʔ dtta ditʔ ae) - when he reached home, he was asked, what is the matter with your woman/wife, is she dead (to you)? [JOD]

Dhegiha: a (a) - question marker, placed at the end of an interrogative sentence [Omaha/Ponca]; a (a) - interrog. placed after the word or phrase to which it belongs, used by both sexes [JOD-Omaha]; a (a) - an interrogation sign, used at the end of a sentence [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - an interrogative sign, indicating that a question has been asked [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ (h̨) - isnt it so [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ-e (hⁿe), hiⁿ e (hiⁿ e), e hiⁿ (e hiⁿ) - question marking particle [Kaw]

 

signal, to give the attack signal

wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal wa-te wa-paⁿ (watt wapp̨) - I, wa-te wa-shpaⁿ (watt wap̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtse (wa-ṭs) - a triumph, victory, the touching of a living or fallen foe to win one of the prescribed war honors [FL-Osage]; wa-tse (wac) - count coup, to touch a fallen foe, victory [Kaw]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out once [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ), poⁿ (poⁿ) - scream, yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call to shout [FL-Osage]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry wa-te-paⁿ (wattpp̨) - I, wa-te-shpaⁿ (wattp̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-te-baⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wattb̨ iy mat̨ke tʰą) - the rabbit gave the attack signal, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtse-boⁿ (wa-ṭs-boⁿ) - a cry of triumph, given as a victorious war party approaches the village as it returns [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out once [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ), poⁿ (poⁿ) - scream, yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call to shout [FL-Osage]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

silent, noiseless, speechless

a-pe (ppe) - silent, noiseless, speechless

cf. a-pe-hi (apphi) - very silent

ex: a-pe hi (apphi) - very silent

ex: a-pe hi (app hi) - noiseless/very [JOD]

 

i-a-zhi (a) - mute

cf. i-e (ie), i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

Dhegiha: i-a-zhi (azhi) - not to speak, to be silent, negation of i-e (e) [Omaha/Ponca]; i-a-zhi (-a-zhi) - a mute, reticent, speak not [FL-Osage]; i-a-zhi (ai) - to say nothing [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

cf. o-ni-aⁿ-hi-de (onįhid) - breathe; ni-ke (nik), niⁿ-ke (nįk) - to have none, be lacking; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: o-ni thiⁿ-ke (on įk), o-niⁿ iⁿ-ke(on̨įke) - be quiet, not make noise, no sound [CQ-Osage]; o-niⁿ iⁿ-ka (on̨ įka) - be quiet!, dont make noises! [CQ-Osage]; ni-aⁿ yiⁿ-ge (niáⁿyiⁿgè) - speechless, quiet, unmoving, still [Kaw]

 

silk, corn silk

wa-hi-da-pe-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (wahdappęǫ) - corn silk

cf. wa-hi (wah) - cornstalk

Dhegiha: wa-tha-pshe-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (wa-th-pshe-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ) - corn silk or tassel [FL-Osage]

 

silly, be foolish or silly

o-pa-ta-zhi (ppatti) - be foolish, silly o-aⁿ-pa-ta-zhi (ąppatti) - Im, o-di-pa-ta-zhi (dippatti) - youre

 

silver armlets

maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta (mązska kkątta) - silver armlets [JOD]

cf. ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver; a-ka-ta (kkątta) - armlets [JOD]

ex: e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ʰkoⁿ-ʰta (-ḳoⁿ-ṭa) - wristband, wrist guard [FL-Osage]

 

silver breast ornament

ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament (gorget)

mazska kast wan̨ʔį (ma zas ka ga sta wŭ nŭ i) - silver breast ornament, from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

cf. ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, a dollar; ma-ze (mze) - iron, metal; ska (ska) - white; ma-ze we-ka-sta (maz wkast) - hammer, with which to strike metal; ka-sta (kast) - strike, fall on; wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief; naⁿ-iⁿ (nąʔ̨) - wear around the neck

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze ska (moⁿeka) - money, silver, currency [Omaha]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzĕskă) - money [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-ze ska (mⁿ-e-ka) - white metal, money [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska(m̨zeska) - money, coin, silver, literally white metal [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzeska) - money, esp. silver money [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-ga-sta (w-ga-ta) - a hammer, with which to pound [FL-Osage]; ga-sta (ga-t) - to beat or hammer metal [FL-Osage]; ka-shta (kaat) - hammer, hit or beat, flatten by striking [CQ-Osage]; ga-sta (gast) - hammer flat, beat until flat and long, as when hammering metal or other malleable material [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

 

silver crescent bracelets

wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha (wdiskitt mąz ta) - silver cresent bracelets [JOD]

cf. wa-di-shki-ta (wadiktta) - armband; ma-ze (mze) - iron, metal; shto-zha (ta) - crescents [JOD]

ex: e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

Dhegiha: shto-zha (sht-zha) - crooked; wry [FL-Osage]

 

silver, breastpins of german silver

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kaekn̨) - breastpins of German silver [JOD]

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (i kus a ga nŭ) - brooch, from Mrs. Clabber [MH]

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kaegna) - button [ASG]

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kakną) - a button, to button i-ka-she-a-knaⁿ (kaekną) - I, i-ka-she-da-knaⁿ (kaedkną) - you

ex: i-ka-she-knaⁿ o-ki-pa-taⁿ-taⁿ (kaekn̨ okpat̨tą) - breastpins/buttons one after another/several in a row [JOD]

 

silver, money, a dollar

ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, a dollar

ma-ze-ska (mzeska) - money [MS, AG, OM]

ma-ze-ska (moseska) - money, silver (argent) [GI]

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron, metal; ska (ska) - white

ex: ma-ze-ska miⁿ-xti (mzeska m̨xti) - dollar, one dollar [MS, OM]

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (they have a lot of money) [MS]

ex: mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ ma-ze-ska kde-bnaⁿ taⁿ naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-da (mįba mxtiną mazska kdbnątt̨ nąp akn̨ ąn̨kid) - he paid me twelve dollars a month

ex: ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament (gorget), from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze ska (moⁿeka) - money, silver, currency [Omaha]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzĕskă) - money [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-ze ska (mⁿ-e-ka) - white metal, money [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska(m̨zeska) - money, coin, silver, literally white metal [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzeska) - money, esp. silver money [Kaw]

 

similar, alike

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨), a-kaⁿ (ką) - like, as, so; like, thus, like that, so

ex: koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again

ex: koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]

 

kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in

ex: kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - quantity, number, equal in

ex: kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - size, of equal

ex: kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - length, of equal

ex: kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like

ex: kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - height, of equal

ex: koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike

ex: e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]

 

sin, to do wrong, injure

e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-oⁿ (ek̨i waʔ̨) - to do wrong, injure, sin e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-moⁿ (ek̨i wam̨) - I, e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-zhoⁿ (ek̨i wą) - you, e-kaⁿ-zhi oⁿ-maⁿ-we (ek̨i ǫm̨we) - we

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; zhi (i) - not, negation; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use, have (as a disease); e-koⁿ-zhi ka-xe (ek̨i kγe), e-kaⁿ-zhi ka-xe (ek̨i kγe) - wrong, do accidentally, err

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ a-zhi (egoⁿazhi) - wrong, illegal, inaccurate, incorrect, false [Omaha]; e-goⁿ-zhi (e-goⁿ-zhi) - like-not [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - not be like this or that, be not thus, be otherwise, unseemly, inappropriate, not right, unsuitable, unfitting, ill-advised, wrong [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-oⁿ (wą) - do stuff, do things [CQ-Osage]

 

since, as

koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e! te-a-de kaⁿ she-he (įkk̨-e! tʔed k̨ e ih) - O my grandmother! I said that because I killed him [JOD]

 

sinew, string, line; root of a plant

koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant; sinew, string, line

ex: hoⁿ-be-koⁿ (hǫbkkǫ) - shoelaces, moccasin strings

ex: ma-kaⁿ (makk̨) - medicine

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ (mąt-kką) - canoe string/rope [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe a-ba-xe (mątt-kką nįkʰe baγ) - I cut the canoe string (with the hatchet) [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de (mąt-kkąde) - canoe string/rope [JOD];

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te-kaⁿ (m̨ttekk̨) - bow string

ex: ta-kaⁿ (ttakk̨) - thread, deers sinew

ex: wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line

ex: wa-pa-iⁿ kaⁿ (wappą kką) - vein, artery

ex: zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root

Dhegiha: kaⁿ (k͓aⁿ) - a root; sinew; muscle; a vein or artery; something used for tying [JOD-Omaha]; koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel; neins [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ) - roots of trees or plants; a vein, or blood vessel [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein or artery, root [Kaw]

 

ta kaⁿ (ttakk̨) - deers sinew, thread

cf. ta (tta) - deer; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - sinew, string, line; root of a plant

Dhegiha: ta-koⁿ (takⁿ) - sinew, sinew taken from the backs of deer and buffalo and used for thread, bows, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-ʰkoⁿ (ṭa-ḳⁿ) - sinew, the sinew made from deerskin was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ta-kaⁿ (tkⁿ) - deer sinew used for sewing [Kaw]

 

sing (not dancing songs)

wa-naⁿ (wan̨) - sing (not dancing songs) a-wa-naⁿ (awną) - I, wa-da-naⁿ (wadną) - you

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ e-wa-naⁿ niⁿ (mat̨ke nį waną nį) - the rabbit was singing it (the aforementioned) as he was moving along [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-oⁿ (waoⁿ) - sing, song, choir, music, hum, hymn [Omaha]; wa-aⁿ (waⁿ) - sing, song [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thoⁿ (wa-thⁿ) - to sing; a song [FL-Osage]; wa-thoⁿ (waą) - sing, song [CQ-Osage]; wa-yoⁿ (wayóⁿ), wa-oⁿ (waóⁿ) - sing; song [Kaw]

 

sing dancing songs

xo-ka (xkka) - sing dancing songs a-xo-ka (axkka) - I, da-xo-ka (daxkka) - you

xo-ka (hŭk-kah) - sing (chanter) [GI]

cf. i-ni-da-he xo-ka (nidhe xkka) - sing dancing songs

ex: a-wa-xo-ka (awxokk) - I sing to them [JOD]

ex: xo-ka (xkka) - he sang [JOD]

ex: xo-ka niⁿ (xkka nį) - he is/was singing [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-xi-ka-zhi wa-xo-ka niⁿ-kʰe (skka tt̨ka mxiki waxkka nįkʰe) - the wild turkey was singing [JOD]

Dhegiha: xu-ka (qka) - to sing when others dance, to sing a dancing song [Omaha/Ponca]; xo-ʰka (xʰka) - sing dancing songs, singers and drummers, all singers of dancing songs [CQ-Osage]

 

sing dancing songs slowly

i-ni-da-he xo-ka (nidhe xkka) - sing dancing songs slowly i-ni-da-he a-xo-ka (nidhe axkka) - I, i-ni-da-he da-xo-ka (nidhe daxkka) - you

cf. xo-ka (xkka) - sing dancing songs

Dhegiha: xu-ka (qka) - to sing when others dance, to sing a dancing song [Omaha/Ponca]; xo-ʰka (xʰka) - sing dancing songs, singers and drummers, all singers of dancing songs [CQ-Osage]

 

singing, hold a note singing

da-ste-te (dasttte) - hold a note singing bda-ste-te (bdstette) - I, ta-ste-te (ttstette) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

 

single, a, one

miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article

cf. miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one

ex: te miⁿ shiⁿ hi (tt m̨ į h) - buffalo/one/fat/very [JOD]

ex: te miⁿ shiⁿ hi te-de naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tt m̨ į h tʔde-ną iy mat̨ke) - Rabbit killed a very fat buffalo, it is said [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰaⁿ ha pa-hi o-knaⁿ mi (įtʰ̨ ha pphi kną m) - owl-skin/head-covering/one [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ iⁿ-tʰaⁿ ha pa-hi o-knaⁿ mi ki-ka-xe naⁿ, i-ya (ę įtʰ̨ ha pphi kną m kkaγ ną, iy) - and then he made an owl skin headdress for him, it is said [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi miⁿ (dixi mį) - hill/one [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi miⁿ e-ti-kʰe d (dixi mį ett-kʰe d) - a Hill is truly there [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we miⁿ (dixi wadxowe mį) - hill/drew people into its mouth/one [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we miⁿ e-ti-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya (dixi wadxowe mį ett-kʰe ną, iy) - there was a Hill that drew things (people) into its mouth, it is said [JOD]

ex: ta miⁿ (tta mį) - deer/one [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, ta miⁿ naⁿ-zhi-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi, tta mį nąwe, iy) - after a while, he (Rabbit) flushed out a deer, it is said [JOD]

ex: ho-hoo! wi-te-ke, ta miⁿ she-do i-hi! ki-ta! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hoho! wtteke, tta mį do ih! kkitta! iy iy mat̨ke) - Oho! My mothers brother, there is a deer approaching over there! Shoot it! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: ta-ska miⁿ (ttask m̨) - rocky mountain sheep/one [JOD]

ex: ta-ska miⁿ i-de naⁿ te-de, i-ya (ttask m̨ de n̨ tʔ-de, iy) - when he found a Rocky Mountain sheep, he killed it, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one, single [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ (wį) - a, an, one, single, any one, one of a group [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - one, a, an; indefinite article [Kaw]

 

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one [MS, MR, FR, AG, OM]

cf. miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wiⁿ́-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wi-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

 

single, every single one

za-ni xti (zan xti) - all, all of the

cf. za-ni (zan) - all, all of the; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ, za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ, i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke, nkkaka odwaki ek̨, zan-xti tʔwade k̨da ną, iy) - therefore rabbit, who sided with the Indians, wanted to kill all of the black bears, it is said [JOD]

ex: za-ni-xti te-a-wa-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde (zan-xti tʔewadaw idhǫbde) - I dreamed that they killed us all, every single one of us [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xti (qti), xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

cf. za-ni (zan) - all, all of the; hi (hi) - very

ex: za-ni hi (zan hi) - all/very [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we, i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kd-ną-we, iy) - all of the people went out (from the Hill) and started for home, it is said [JOD]

ex: kda-we-naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi ki-sto-naⁿ, i-ya (kdwe-ną nkkaika zan hi kist-ną, iy) - as they started homeward, all of the people assembled, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - lets kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya ni-ka-shi-ka ke (zan hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy nkkaka ke) - all of the people gave the scalp yell, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi te-wa-de, i-ya (was apa zan hi tʔwade, iy) - all of the black bears were killed, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa za-ni hi a-shi-ti hi-we, i-ya (was zan hi itti hwe, iy) - all of the black bears came outside of their lodges, it is said [JOD]

ex: haⁿ bdo-ka za-ni hi o-wa-ki-da (hą bdok zan hi wakid) - all night long, he told it to everyone [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

sink

spe (spe) - sink

ex: iⁿ ni-ti spe (į nitti spe) - a stone sinks in water

 

o-spe (osp) - sink

ex: o-spe (osp) - it sank (= it sank and lay) [JOD]

ex: o-da-kdo tʰaⁿ o-spe kʰe (odkdo tʰ̨ osp kʰe) - gnawed holes in it and it sank [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-spe (uspe) - sink; lowland; ravine; anything dented [Omaha]; u-ga-spe (gaspe) - to make them (animate objects) sink by hitting them [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ga-spe (ugspe) - to put a stone, or weight on any object floating upon water in a vestel, making it sink; to indent, as thin metal, by hitting [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ga-spe (gaspe) - a weight or sinker [Omaha/Ponca]

 

Sioux

su (su) - Kwapa name for the Dakota Indians, formed from Sioux [JOD]

su (s) - Sioux Indian [ASG]

su-a-we (sawe) - plural Sioux Indian [ASG]

Dhegiha: shauⁿ (shauⁿ) - Sioux Tribe [Omaha]; sha-haⁿ (shahⁿ) - Dakota, Dakota tribe or people; Sioux, these form a group which is related to the Dhegiha as well as to the Chiwere. See Paⁿka (Ponca) and Paxoje (Ioway), the term, Sioux includes the Lakota, also called Teton Sioux [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpa-ba-wa-xoⁿ (p̣-ba-wa-xoⁿ) - Sioux Indian, the Osage name for the Sioux Tribe of Indians, it means Head-Cutters [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-pa-xoⁿ (ʰppaxǫ) - Sioux tribe or tribal member, cutthroats, lit., nose cutter, head cutter, nose cutter, personal name for a second son [CQ-Osage]

 

zho-zhi-te wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (otte whǫki) - Sioux Indian (wild, bad Indian) [ASG]

cf. zho-zhi-te (otte) - Indian (recent term); wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (whǫki) - wild, crazy, ill behaved

 

sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka), i-ho-ka (ih̨ka), e-haⁿ-ka (eh̨ka), e-hoⁿ-ka (eh̨ka) - a mans sister-in-law wi-haⁿ-ka (wih̨ka) - my, di-haⁿ-ka (dih̨ka) - your

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ-ga (-hoⁿ-ga) - sister-in-law [FL-Osage]; i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka) - his brothers wife or his wifes sister, more precise than English his sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ-ga (ihⁿga) - sister-in-law, mans wifes sister, therefore his potential wife [Kaw]

 

wi-haⁿ-ka (wih̨ka) - my sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-haⁿ-ke (wih̨ka) - my wifes sister, my brothers wife, used only when speaker is male, more precise than English my sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; wi-hoⁿ-ga (wihⁿga) - my sister-in-law, my wifes sister [Kaw]

 

di-haⁿ-ka (dih̨ka) - your sister-in-law, a mans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-haⁿ-ga (ihaga) - your wifes sister [JOD-Omaha]; thi-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka) - your sister-in-law, used only when speaking to a man, referring to his brothers wife or his wifes sister [CQ-Osage]; yi-hoⁿ-ga (yihⁿga) - your sister-in-law, your wifes sister [Kaw]

 

i-haⁿ-ka-de (ih̨kade), e-haⁿ-ka-de (eh̨kade) - to have as a sister-in-law i-haⁿ-ka-a-de (ih̨kaade) - I, i-haⁿ-ka-da-de (ih̨kadade) - you

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ-ga-ye (ihⁿgaye) - to have for a sister-in- law, to call someone i-hoⁿ-ga (ihⁿga) [Kaw]

 

sister-in-law, a womans sister-in-law

i-shi-kʰaⁿ (ikʰą), e-shi-kaⁿ (eKą) - a womans sister-in-law wi-shi-kʰaⁿ (wikʰą) - my, di-shi-kaⁿ (dikʰą) - your

Dhegiha: i-shi-koⁿ (ishkoⁿ) - sister-in-law, her sister-in-law, her husbands sister ot hr brothers wife [Omaha/Ponca]; i-shi-kaⁿ (ickaⁿ) - her sister-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; i-shi-ʰkoⁿ (i-sh-ḳoⁿ) - a womans sister-in-law, her brothers wife or her husbands sister [FL-Osage]; i-shi-kxaⁿ (ikxą) - her husbands sister, her husbands brothers wife, her brothers wife, more precise than English her sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; shi-kxaⁿ (kxą) - her brothers wife, her husbands sister, her husbands brothers wife, more precise than English her sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; i-shi-kʰaⁿ (ishkhaⁿ) - womans sister-in-law, womans husbands sister [Kaw]

 

wi-shi-kʰaⁿ (wikʰą) - my sister-in-law, a womans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: wi-si-kxa (wi-s-kxą) - my sister-in-law, used only when speaker is female [CQ-Osage]; shi-kxaⁿ (kxą) - my brothers wife, my husbands sister, my usbands brothers wife, more precise than English my sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]

 

di-shi-kaⁿ (dikʰą) - your sister-in-law, a womans sister-in-law

Dhegiha: thi-shi-kaⁿ (ickaⁿ) - your sister-in-law [JOD-Omaha]; thi-shi-kxaⁿ (ikxą) - your sister-in-law, used when speaking to a woman about her brothers wife, her husbands sister, or her husbands brothers wife [CQ-Osage]; thi-si-kxaⁿ (iskxą) - your sister-in-law, probably used only when speaking to a woman about her sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]; shi-kxaⁿ thi-ʰta (kxą ʰta) - your brothers wife, your husbands sister, your husband;s brothers wife, used when addressee is female, more precise than your sister-in-law [CQ-Osage]

 

i-shi-kʰaⁿ-de (ikʰąde) - she to have as sister-in-law i-shi-kʰaⁿ-a-de (ikʰąad) - I, i-shi-kʰaⁿ-da-de (ikʰądad) - you

Dhegiha: i-shi-kaⁿ-the (i-c-k͓aⁿ-ĕ) - to have another female for her i-shi-kaⁿ (icik͓aⁿ) [ JOD-Omaha]; i-shi-kʰaⁿ-ye (ishkhaⁿye) - woman to call someone sister-in-law; woman to have someone as a sister-in-law [Kaw]

 

sister, a mans elder sister

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), e-taⁿ-ke (ett̨ke) - a mans elder sister wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my, di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke) - sister [OM]

cf. i-taⁿ-ke-de (itt̨kede) - sister, to have as an elder

ex: wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ-ge (itⁿge) - his sister; her younger sister [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ʰtoⁿ-ge (-ṭⁿ-ge) - sister, his elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtaⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - his/her older sister, i.e., the oldest among a group of sisters; not necessarily older than the person referred to by his or her [CQ-Osage]; i-taⁿ-ge (itⁿge) - mans or womans younger sister [Kaw]

 

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-ge (wiʇa′ge) - my sister [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtaⁿ-ke (wiʰt̨ke) - my older sister, used when speaker is male or female, my sister, loosely used mutually among unrelated younger and older female speakers to show respect, my wife, lit., "my sister", used to refer to speaker's wife when they have no children and possibly to address her [CQ-Osage]; wi-taⁿ-ge (witⁿge) - my younger sister [Kaw]

 

di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your older sister

Dhegiha: thi-toⁿ-ge it͓age) - your sister [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰtoⁿ-ge (thi-ṭⁿ-ge) - your sister [FL-Osage]; thi-taⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - your older sister, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman, referring both to a sister older than the addressee and to the oldest of the addressees sisters, who may not be older than the addressee [CQ-Osage]; yi-taⁿ-ge (yitⁿge) - your younger sister [Kaw]

 

sister, a womans elder sister

i-zhoⁿ-de (įde), e-zhoⁿ-de (ęde) - womans elder sister wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhoⁿ-de (dįde) - your

Dhegiha: i-zhoⁿ-the (izhⁿthe) - her elder sister, including her fathers brothers daughter, and her mothers sisters daughter, if older than herself [Omaha/Ponca]; i-zhoⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - her elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (įą) - her elder sister, more precise than English her sister [CQ-Osage]; i-zho-we (izhwe) - man or woman's elder sister [Kaw]

 

wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder sister (woman speaking)

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-zhoⁿ-the (wijⁿĕ) - my elder sister [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (wįą) - my elder sister, older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female [CQ-Osage]; wi-zho-we (wizhwe) - my elder sister [Kaw]; wi-zho-we a (wzhowe ) elder sister! (female speaking - address form) [Kaw]

 

di-zhoⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder sister (speaking to a woman)

Dhegiha: thi-zhoⁿ-the (thijⁿĕ) - your elder sister [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (įą) - your older sister, used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-zho-we (yizhwe) - your elder sister [Kaw]

 

i-zhoⁿ-de-de (įdede), e-zhoⁿ-de-de (ędede) - to have someone as elder sister i-zhoⁿ-de-a-de (įdeade) - I, i-zhoⁿ-de-da-de (įdedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zho-we-ye (izhweye) - have another woman as an elder sister [Kaw]

 

sister, younger sister

wi-he (wih) - younger sister [JOD]

wi-he (wih), wi-he zhi-ka (whe ka) - daughter, third born

ex: ki-we, wi-he (kiw, wih) - come back younger sister [JOD]

ex: ha-u, ka-ni-ke, wi-he, i-ye (hau, kanik, wih, iy) - well, thanks younger sister, he said [JOD]

ex: tʰi-we, tʰi-we, wi-he, i-ye naⁿ, a-na-xoⁿ-zhi hi kde, i-ya-we (tʰiw, tʰiw, wih, iy ną, naxʔǫi h kd, iywe) - come! come! younger sister, he said, she was not listening to (ignoring) him as she headed home, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-he (wih) - younger sister [Omaha]; wi-he (wi-h) - special kinship term , the name by which the second daughter is called [FL-Osage]; wi-he (wih) - second daughter [CQ-Osage]; wi-he (wih) - second born daughter [Kaw]

 

sit close together

a-da-ska kniⁿ (daska kn̨) - sit close together a-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (bdaska akn̨) - I, a-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (ttaska dakn̨) - you

cf. a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you

ex: aⁿ-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (̨ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close to me

ex: a-di-da-ska kniⁿ (didaska kn̨) - he sits close to you

Dhegiha: a-tha-ska-be (thaskabe) - to stick to, to adhere to, as mucilage, (said of one object) [Omaha/Ponca]; a-tha-ska-be-the (thaskbethe) - to cause to adhere; to seal [Omaha/Ponca]; we-a-tha-ska-ba-the (weatha ka bathe) - paste; glue; adhesive tape [Omaha]

 

sit facing one another

a-ki-naⁿ-saⁿ kniⁿ (kkin̨są knį) - sit facing one another, like children with the feet of one passing a little the feet of the opposite child

cf. naⁿ-sa-ta (nąstta) - stretch ones legs, straighten; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

 

sit in council

ki-sto kniⁿ (kist knį) - to sit in council

cf. ki-sto (kist) - council of a gens (clans), assemble, gather; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kiist) - assemble as for a council, gather for a council, meet and talk things over [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]

 

sit in ones own

o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]

cf. kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in [JOD]; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to get on and sit, to come to and sit upon, to reach/arrive and sit on [JOD]; a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay

ex: o-a-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - I sat in my own [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te o-a-ki-kniⁿ (mątt okiknį) - I sat in my own canoe [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te o-a-ki-kniⁿ, ni ka-haⁿ a-kʰi taⁿ, kʰi o-do-tʰe niⁿ (mątt okiknį, ni khą akʰ tą, kʰ odotʰ nį) - I sat in my canoe, when I reached far out in the stream, the man eater reached (the shore) again [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gi-gthiⁿ (u-g-giⁿ) - to sit in his own house; to dwell in his own land [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-gthiⁿ (u-g-gthiⁿ) - to sit in ones own house or yard [FL-Osage]

 

sit in, dwell in, live in

o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in o-a-kniⁿ (oknį) - I, o-da-kniⁿ (odknį) - you

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit [JOD]; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; kniⁿ-ye (kn̨ye) - to have sat, to have dwelt

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful, lit. plural are sitting

ex: ti xe-tʰe-ti ma-ni-ka di-ko-ko a-taⁿ e-ti o-kniⁿ naⁿ (tt xetʰtti mankka dikko ttą tti okn̨ ną) - in the corner of the lodge, he (toad) digs out the dirt and lives there [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ tʰi-we (̨ditt̨da ik oknį ttą tʰwe) - when they arrived they were riding in small wagon [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ, koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te wa-sha-ke hi o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔke tʰą ni oh watt̨ akde tta tʰą ną, kįttą mątte waʔke h knį ttą de tta tʰą ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river, then he sat in his large/broad canoe and was about to go [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te o-kniⁿ taⁿ da-we (mątt okn̨ tą dwe) - they went sitting/riding in a canoe [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gthiⁿ (ugthⁿ) - seat, place to sit, sit in, to sit in something [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gthiⁿ (-gthiⁿ) - to occupy a seat [FL-Osage]; o-liⁿ (ol̨į) - live in or at, dwell in, inhabit, live within metaphorically, sit in, occupy, be seated on, sit down on, take a seat, ride, ride in [CQ-Osage]; o-liⁿ (olⁿ) - dwell, live in a place, sit in a place, stay in a place [Kaw]

 

sit on

a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; and numerals in the teens

cf. a (a) - on, upon; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another

ex: shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ (̨keknį) - horse, sit upon dog

ex: shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ (̨keknį) - horse [MS, AB, AG, OM]

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ (akkniⁿ) - to sit on ones own [JOD]

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti (kkikn̨xti) - in a great crowd, crowding together upon one another, sitting upon one another

ex: kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ m̨xti knį) - eleven, 10 when 1 sitting on, same as mįxti aknį, the contracted and more common form

ex: miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (m̨xti knį) - eleven

ex: kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ nąp akn̨) - twelve (long form)

ex: kde-bnaⁿ noⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (gĕdēhbŏnāh nonnepah-agheni) - 12 [GI]

ex: naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (nąp aknį) - twelve

ex: da-bni a-kniⁿ (dbni knį) - thirteen, 3 sitting on 10

ex: to-wa a-kniⁿ (twa knį) - fourteen

ex: kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨) - fifteen

ex: sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ (sttą knį) - fifteen

ex: sha-pe a-kniⁿ (app knį) - sixteen, 6 sitting on (10)

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (ppnąpa knį) - seventeen

ex: pe-da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ (ppedbnį knį) - eighteen

ex: shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ (̨kka knį) - nineteen, 9 sitting on (10)

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - sit, to sit on something; chair, seat [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ (agthiⁿ) - ride a horse, sit on, astride, chair [Omaha]; a-gthiⁿ (agthⁿ) - -teen (part of number) [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ (-gthiⁿ) - to sit upon a cushion, robe, or chair; a chair [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ (lįį), a-dliⁿ (dlį) - sit upon, ride on, place upon, upon (used in numbers); chair [CQ-Osage]; a-liⁿ (liⁿ) - sit on; chair; teen formative, in addition [Kaw]

 

sit on ones own

a-ki-kniⁿ (kikn̨) - to sit on ones own [JOD]

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ki-kniⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ ba-ha-ha-ta ho-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ de (̨keknį akknį ̨tą bahhatta httą k̨į d) - horse/she sat on her own/when/trotting/good/so/she went [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kde taⁿ hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-wi (kįttą ̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨ tą k̨į kd tą hǫp kidtottwi) - then/horse/to the standing/she sat on her own/when/just as she was starting home/when/shoe/they pulled it off from her [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthiⁿ (-gi-giⁿ) - to sit on his horse or chair [JOD-Omaha]; a-gi-gthiⁿ (-gi-gthiⁿ) - to sit on ones own [FL-Osage]; a-gi-liⁿ (giliⁿ) - sit on ones own [Kaw]

 

sit on together

o-ki-ba-taⁿ kniⁿ (okkbattą knį) - to sit on together

cf. o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]; a-ba-taⁿ (battą) - push together, as firebrands when the ends next to the fire are burned; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next

Dhegiha: u-wa-taⁿ (u-w-taⁿ) - the next [JOD-Omaha]; u-wa-tʰoⁿ (uwtʰoⁿ) - next [Omaha/Ponca]; u-wa-ʰtoⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ) - next in order or line; the next time, place or rank [FL-Osage]; o-txaⁿ (otx̨), o-kxaⁿ (okx̨) - next, following, the following one [CQ-Osage]; o-wa-khaⁿ (owkhaⁿ) - next of kin [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - sit, dwell [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ), gliⁿ (glⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside, continue [Kaw]

 

sit or lie on the edge, to perch

bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit or lie on the edge, to perch pi-zi-pa (ppzippa) - I, shpi-zi-pa (pzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of ones own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

sit over there

she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there!

cf. she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative; she-ke-ti (ektti) - by those standing objects, by yonder things; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting

ex: she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - by yonder things/sit [JOD]

ex: she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there!

 

sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket

a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket a-pi-shtaⁿ-ka (ppitąka) - I, a-shpi-shtaⁿ-ka (pitąka) - you

cf. a (a) - on, upon; bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk), shtaⁿ-ka (tąka) - soft

Dhegiha: a-bi-shtaⁿ-ga (-bi-cta-ga) - to sit, press, or bear softly on any thing; to press on an object in order to soften it [JOD-Omaha]

 

sit still

kaⁿ-zhi kniⁿ (kk̨i kn̨) - to sit still

ex: kaⁿ-zhi da-kniⁿ te (kką dakn̨ tte) - motionless/you sit/will [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-zhi da-kniⁿ te, i-ke i-ya sni-wa-te (kką dakn̨ tte, ik iy sniwtte) - Winter said to him, Will you sit still! it is said [JOD]

 

sit together, with one another

o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another

cf. o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit [JOD]; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; and numerals in the teens; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay

Dhegiha: u-gthiⁿ (ugthⁿ) - sit in, to sit in something, seat, place to sit [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gthiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - ride [Omaha]; u-gthiⁿ (-gthiⁿ) - to occupy a seat, to dwell in [FL-Osage]; o-liⁿ (ol̨į) - live in or at, dwell in, inhabit, live within metaphorically, ride, ride in, sit in, occupy (a seat), be seated on, sit down on, take a seat on [CQ-Osage]; o-liⁿ (olⁿ) - dwell, live in a place, sit in a place, stay in a place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - sit, dwell [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ), gliⁿ (glⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside, continue [Kaw]

 

sit with reference to another

ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - I, da-ki-kniⁿ (dakknį) - you

cf. kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - to sit [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ) -dwell, live, reside [Kaw]

 

sit, be in a place, camp; be sitting

kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp; be sitting a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - I, da-kniⁿ (dakn̨) - you, kniⁿ (knį) - he/she, aⁿ-kniⁿ (ąkn̨) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-kniⁿ-we (ąkn̨we), oⁿ-kniⁿ-we (ǫkn̨we) - we, kniⁿ-wi (kn̨wi) - they

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to get on and sit, to come to and sit upon, to reach/arrive and sit on [JOD]; a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

ex: kniⁿ (knį) - sit down! (command) [MS, AB, OM]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi kaxtta kitta kn̨ iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, they said [JOD]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ a-ni-he (kkihi akn̨ nih) - I live way off [MS]

ex: ko-zhi hi a-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (kkihi akn̨ tta mįkʰ) - I going to live far away [MS]

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you

ex: pʰi a-ni-he naⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ a-kniⁿ (pʰ anhe n̨ ppze d tą akn̨) - I was coming/I who move/when/after dark/when/I camped [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ mi-aⁿ-ba miⁿ a-ki-haⁿ a-kniⁿ (̨čʰǫ mįba m̨ kkihą akn̨) - I have now been (here) over a month

ex: aⁿ-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (̨ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close to me

ex: kaⁿ-zhi da-kniⁿ te (kką dakn̨ tte) - motionless/you sit/will [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-zhi da-kniⁿ te, i-ke i-ya sni-wa-te (kką dakn̨ tte, ik iy sniwtte) - Winter said to him, Will you sit still! it is said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wakǫ́ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: kaⁿ-hiⁿ kniⁿ (kąh̨ knį) - so she sat awhile [JOD]

ex: a-di-da-ska kniⁿ (didaska kn̨) - he sits close to you

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ niⁿkʰe iy) - then the rabbit sat there, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ naⁿ kniⁿ i-ya-we (kǫttą ppze d tą ną kn̨ iywe) - then, when it became night she camped, they say [JOD]

ex: zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ (akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨) - leaping at intervals/still/sat [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨ ną, i-ya) - Rabbit jumped about continually (jumping as rabbits do), it is said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-kniⁿ (ąkn̨) - we sat, we camped, I and one other [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-kniⁿ (kǫttą eǫh ąkn̨) - then after awhile we camped [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-ki pa-ze de taⁿ aⁿ-kniⁿ-ti aⁿ-zhaⁿ (kįttą ąkki ppzĕ d tą ąkn̨-tti ą̨) - then-we were coming back (or home)-after night-when-we camped-when(where)-we slept [JOD]

ex: kniⁿ-wi (kn̨wi) - they camp [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de taⁿ kniⁿ-wi (ppaz d tą kn̨wi) - after dark they camped [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (giⁿ́) - sit, dwell [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ), gliⁿ (glⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside, continue [Kaw]

 

sit, it sits not

niⁿ-kʰa-zhi (nįkʰa) - there/it sits not/very [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting; zhi (i) - not, negation, negative

ex: e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi (ett nįkʰa hi) - there/it sits not/very [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

 

sit, to arrive and sit in

o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit, to come to and sit in, to reach/arrive and sit in [JOD]

cf. hi (hi) - come, be coming here, not own; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to get on and sit, to come to and sit upon, to reach/arrive and sit on [JOD]; a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-hi-gthiⁿ (u-h-gthiⁿ) - he came to and sat at the [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-hi (u-h) - to reach and to enter [FL-Osage]; o-hi (oh) - arrive at a place [Kaw]

 

sit, to arrive and sit on

a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - to arrive and sit on

cf. a (a) - on, upon; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting

ex: a-hi-kniⁿ (hikn̨) - he reached and sat on [JOD]

ex: kʰi a-shi a-hi-kniⁿ, i-ya-we (kʰi i hikn̨, iywe) - having reached there again, he jumped on their backs [JOD]

 

sit, to not sit still

kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti kniⁿ-zhi (kkąhitti kn̨i) - to not sit still

cf. kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti (kkąhitti) - very motionless; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; zhi (i) - not, negative, negation

ex: kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti kniⁿ-zhi (kkąhitt kn̨i iy mat̨ke) - very motionless/when/he did not sit [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti kniⁿ-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kkąhitt kn̨i iy mat̨ke) - Rabbit could not sit still, it is said [JOD]

 

sits, he who sits writing

i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe kniⁿ (kazzo kγe knį) - clerk, he who sits writing

cf. i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw; i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, be sitting

 

sitting upon one another, crowding together upon one another

a-ki-kniⁿ-xti (kkikn̨xti) - in a great crowd, crowding together upon one another, sitting upon one another

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-ki-kniⁿ (akkniⁿ) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ti hi-we i-ya (kkikn̨xti tt tʰtti hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-gthiⁿ (-ḳi-gthiⁿ) - to sit upon one another [FL-Osage]; a-gi-liⁿ (giliⁿ) - sit on ones own [Kaw]

 

sitting, after sitting awhile

shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨-nįkʰ) - after sitting awhile [JOD]

cf. shoⁿ (ǫ) - and, still, yet; enough, the end; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: e-ti da-tʰe shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-niⁿ da-we (tti datʰ ̨-nįkʰ tt̨nį dwe) - he sat there eating while they ran away [JOD]

 

sitting, continuative aux sitting

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative aux sitting miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - you, niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - we, I and one other, ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - you all, ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - the sitting one; the curvilinear inanimate object; the part; the subject; the one who [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿkʰ) - the sitting animate object; the curved inanimate object; third person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article, follows a noun or pronoun (usually not the subject of a sentence) that represents a singular sitting entity or singular round entity; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkhé) - the; definite article used with the object of the verb; singular inanimate or animate; the in reference to an animate subject of a stative verb [Kaw]

 

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1st person singular continuative sitting

miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I who sit [JOD]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni, hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ-xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkh ̨dakni h̨bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today is a really nice day, and I am glad to be here, Im feeling good [MR]

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - Ive got a headache [AG]

ex: to-zhoⁿ-ke bda-tʰe miⁿ-kʰe (tǫke bdtʰe mįkʰ) - Im eating a banana [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (nąppįhi mįkʰ) - I am hungry [JOD]

ex: ha-ki i-da-we i-ba-haⁿ miⁿ-kʰe, shi-naⁿ i-ke (hak idwe bahą mįkʰ, ną ik) - I dont know where they went, she said to him again [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe taⁿ aⁿ-ba-zo (kįttą m̨i mįkʰ tą ̨bazo) - then as I was sitting above, it pointed at me [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-ha aⁿ-ba-zo (m̨i mįkʰe t̨ha ̨bazo) - because I was sitting above, it pointed at me [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ zhaⁿ a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ e-ti kʰe taⁿ a-te bde a-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe (ą ą bakko kį tti kʰ tą tte bd[e]-ttą m̨i mįkʰ) - then, I climbed up high in this crooked (bent, lying there) tree and I sat there [JOD]

ex: wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - I/only/grown/there/I who sit [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so as I was sitting there, I urinated a little, I sent a little off [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-ba de aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨ba de ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am really tired of it [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe o-a-ki-tʰoⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (hǫp okitʰǫ mįkʰ) - moccasins/I put on my (moccasins)/I who [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ-te-he, wi-zhiⁿ-de, hoⁿ-pe o-a-ki-tʰoⁿ miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kǫtteh, wįde, hǫp okitʰǫ mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - wait, my elder brother, I am putting on my moccasins, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta mįkʰ) - I shall, I will be

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe, bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-niⁿ-aⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke nįkʰe, bd tta mįkʰ, nį̨, iy) - the rabbit thought, I will go, it is said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - Ill come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta mįkʰ) - I will be going home [MS]

ex: aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ątʔ tta mįkʰe ąm̨) - I think I will die [JOD]

ex: he-be a-ki-kiⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe (hbe tta mįkʰ) - part/I will carry my own

ex: wi-zhiⁿ-de, he-be a-ki-kiⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wįde, hbe tta mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - my elder brother, I will carry my own piece, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (akn̨ mįkʰ) - I sit/I who sit (I am sitting) [JOD]

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-e a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (we okkie akn̨ mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - I am just sitting here talking to myself, it is said rabbit said [JOD]

ex: a-zhaⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe (ą tta mįkʰ) - I will recline [JOD]

ex: de tʰe o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe a-pa-po e-ta-kaⁿ-za a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (d tʰe owditte nįkʰ ppapo ettkkąza witt̨we ą tta mįkʰ) - when he (Grizzly bear) goes, I will lie down looking at you, at the edge of the hill directly above the place where you capture the game [JOD]

Dhegiha: miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkʰ) - I who, singular first person [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ-kshe (miⁿ-kshe) - I, who sit here [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-kshe (mįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 1st sg. sitting or lying down subject [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-kʰe (miⁿkh) - continuative I, while sitting [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - you, 2nd person singular continuative sitting

ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - you who sit [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going?, why are you going? [MS]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we ni-kʰe (dixi wadxow nikʰ) - hill/draws people into its mouth/you who are

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we ni-kʰe, aⁿ-da-xo-wa! (dixi wadxow nikʰ, ądxow!) - you are the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth, draw me in! [JOD]

ex: o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ ni-kʰe (odkitʰǫ nikʰ) - you who are putting on your (moccasins) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-pe o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ ni-kʰe (hǫp odkitʰǫ nikʰ) - moccasins/you who are putting on your [JOD]

ex: o-ti-ti! hoⁿ-pe o-da-ki-tʰoⁿ ni-kʰe! (ttitti! hǫp odkitʰǫ nikʰ!) - hurry! you putter on of moccasins! [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ i-di-bnaⁿ ni-kʰe (hąn̨ttą idbną nikʰ) - why are you satiated? [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, ha-zhoⁿ ni-kʰe, i-ke (įkn̨, hą nikʰ, ik) - first son, what are you doing? she said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: hniⁿ-kʰe (hniⁿkʰ) - you who are, you who sit, second person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; niⁿ-kshe (nįk), ni-kshe (ni-kshe) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd sg. sitting object [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-khe (hniⁿkhé) - continuative you (singular), while sitting [Kaw]

 

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - the sitting one; the curvilinear inanimate object; the part; the subject; the one who [JOD]

ex: ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (ttikd niⁿkʰe) - is dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - fearing to see her/was crying (as she sat) [JOD]

ex: e-hoⁿ kʰe we-sa o-do-hi kʰe taⁿ-ha naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (eh̨ kʰe wsʔa odhi kʰe t̨ha n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - she was crying because she was afraid of her mother which had changed into a snake [JOD]

ex: ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (ttikd niⁿkʰe) - is dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - rabbit/his son/the one who [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I think that he has been treating my kinsman so, it is said the Rabbits son said [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi niⁿ-kʰe (dixi nįkʰ) - hill/the one who [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi niⁿ-kʰe shte-ke naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi nįkʰ tke ną, iy) - then the Hill split in two, it is said [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe (dixi wadxow nįkʰ) - hill/drew them into its mouth/the one who [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e! di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe te-a-de e-de, i-yi i-ya (įkk̨-e! dixi wadxow nįkʰ tʔed ed, iy iy) - o my grandmother! I have truly killed the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth! it is said he said [JOD]

ex: xa-ke kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (γak knį nįkʰ) - crying/sat/the sitting one [JOD]

ex: xa-ke kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya (γak knį nįkʰ ną, iy) - he (Rabbit) sat crying, it is said [JOD]

ex: i-ye niⁿ-kʰe (iy nįkʰ) - was saying as he sat [JOD]

ex: wi-e e-koⁿ wa-bda-ta-zhi moⁿ, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (we ek̨ w-bdati m̨, iy nįkʰ, iy mat̨ke) - the Rabbit said, I am not accustomed to eating that kind (of food), it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿkʰ) - the sitting animate object; the curved inanimate object; third person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article, follows a noun or pronoun (usually not the subject of a sentence) that represents a singular sitting entity or singular round entity; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkhé) - the; definite article used with the object of the verb; singular inanimate or animate; the in reference to an animate subject of a stative verb [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ąn̨kʰe), oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - I and one other, 1st person dual continuative sitting

Dhegiha: aⁿ-thiⁿ-kshe (ąįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for sitting or lying down 1st dual subject, we two [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-niⁿ-khe (aⁿniⁿkh) - continuative, we while sitting [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - you all, 2nd person plural continuative sitting

ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - ye who sit [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ho-wa ni-kʰa-she da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we e (mat̨ke hwa nikʰe daxʔąkkid nąw e) - which of youall were kind to Rabbit for me? [JOD]

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand [AG]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-kxa-she (nąkxe) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting object, often heard in the greeting to the participants and the audience at the war dance gathering as most are seated [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ-kha-she (hnaⁿkhshe) - you plural, while sitting, while standing, positional continuative [Kaw]

 

ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting

ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones [JOD]

ex: de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying/animate

ex: ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/invisiblev/animate

ex: kaⁿ-ni-kʰa (k̨-nikʰ) - so they were awhile, so they had been awhile, so they were [JOD]

ex: koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible

ex: ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural/sitting or lying, yonder

ex: she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

ex: shoⁿ-ni-kʰa (ǫ-nikʰ) - after they had been so awhile [JOD]

ex: to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural/sitting or lying objects on this side

ex: maⁿ-tʰo zhi-ka ni-kʰa (mątʰ ka nikʰa) - grizzly bear/young/they who sit [JOD]

ex: to-wa ni-kʰa naⁿ (twa nikʰa ną) - four/they who sat [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-tʰo zhi-ka ni-kʰa to-wa ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (kį mątʰ ka nikʰa twa nikʰa ną, iy) - now there were four young Grizzly bears (at the home of the Grizzly bear), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ (ett-nikʰ ną) - they sat there/past sign

ex: shi-naⁿ zho i-kdi-za-za hi ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ o kdizza h nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there with their flesh adhering here and there, it is said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi te ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ ̨čʰǫ h tʔ nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there who had just now died, it is said [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ni-kʰa (ttikd nikʰa) - were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną, iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde nikʰ ną) - four women were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ni-ti ki naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

ex: da-tʰe ni-kʰa (datʰ nikʰ) - they were eating it [JOD]

ex: wa-naⁿ-bde ni-kʰa (wan̨bde nikʰ) - they were eating [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp nikʰ waną, iy) - the rabbit took hold of the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-kye, i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp nikʰ wakye, iy) - the rabbit spoke to the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ka-xnaⁿ hi ni-kʰa (kaxn̨ h nikʰ) - they were camping while hunting, they were on a hunting expedition [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa (nkkaka nikʰ) - people/the reclining ones [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa kda-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (nkkaka nikʰ kdkʰą wakʔ̨ kd, iy) - he (Winter) put the Indians across his back and packed them to his home, it is said [JOD]

ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kʰi-naⁿ, o-wa-hoⁿ, i-ya (nkkaka nikʰ wakʔ̨ kʰ-ną, wahǫ, iy) - when he (Winter) returned to his home carrying the Indians, she (Winters wife) cooked them, it is said [JOD]

 

sitting, sitting so awhile

kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (k̨-miⁿkʰ) - I was so for awhile; I stay there awhile; so I sat awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1st person singular continuative sitting; I who sit

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so as I was sitting there, I urinated a little, I sent a little off [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ miⁿ-kʰeʰ ta miⁿ-kʰe (gaⁿmike ta mike) - I will sit here for sometime [JOD-Omaha]

 

kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ) - so he or she sat awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe wa-te-zo-knaⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nįkʰ wattzokn̨ tą k̨ nįkʰ) - the woman was pregnant [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ a-te, i-ya-we, a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-shi kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we (ą tte iywe, abakk kį mąi k̨-nįkʰ, iywe) - she climbed high up into a crooked tree and sat there, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke o-ki-te a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxtąi ke oktte ttą dekid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them and she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

ex: te-zhe zhi-ka hi-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we, o-do-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe a-te-zhe naⁿ, i-ya-we (te ka hde k̨-nįkʰ, iywe, dotʰe nįkʰ tee ną, iywe) - as she sat awhile, she urinated a little, they say, she urinated upon the man eater, they say [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ ǫ-nįkʰ) - so he sat awhile/he acted differently as he sat [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti, ke naⁿ, iya (ę k̨-nįkʰ tti, k ną, iy) - when he sat for some time [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti, ke naⁿ, iya (ę k̨-nįkʰ tti, k ną, iy) - and when he (Rabbits son) had sat for some time, he (Rabbits son) said the following, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ thiⁿ-kʰe (gaⁿ ike) - he sits a little while [JOD-Omaha]

 

kaⁿ ni-kʰa (k̨-nikʰ) - so they were awhile; so they had been awhile; so they were [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ką-ąn̨kʰe) - we sit awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ąn̨kʰe), oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - I and one other, 1st person dual continuative sitting

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

 

kaⁿ-hiⁿ kniⁿ (kąh̨ knį) - so she sat awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting

 

koⁿ-de tʰe (kǫd tʰe) - they were all sitting [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke naⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi ki-pa-tʰe koⁿ-de tʰe niⁿ naⁿ (mika i ke-ną wah̨ska httą h kipptʰe kǫd tʰe n̨ ną) - girl/other/the plural/only/calico/good/very/sewing their own/they were all sitting/the (class.)/past sign [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ tʰe (gⁿ-te) - awhile, for some time [JOD-Omaha]

 

sitting, that remote singular/sitting/visible

ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti (kihidnįkʰe tti) - at yonder distant visible place [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke nįkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd nįkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

 

sitting, that singular/sitting object on this side

to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: to-wa iⁿ-kshe (twa įke) - that one of uncertain or unimportant identity (animate or inanimate); that person sitting; that object or thing sitting there; that group of objects of uncertain or unimportant identity (not animate if plural) [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

sitting, that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

sitting, that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ-ke (d-da-i-k), du-a-thiⁿ-ke (d-a-i-k) - the an. ob. st. on this side of (the place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da thiⁿ-kse (d-da thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

sitting, that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: ma-zhaⁿ ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (mą kwanįkʰe) - yonder (piece of) land

 

sitting, that singular/sitting/animate/yonder

ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate/yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ-ke (g-da-i-k), gu-a-thiⁿ-ke (g-a-i-k)  - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-da thiⁿ-shke (g-da thiⁿ-shke) - the one sitting on the opposite side [FL-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-kshe (kotaįk) - that one sitting over there or yonder (beyond speaker or hearer) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-ke (kootįke) - over there, yonder, farther than another thing, way over there, way back in thime or distance [CQ-Osage]; go-da-yiⁿ-khe (gdayiⁿkhe) - over there; yonder [Kaw]

 

sitting, that singular/sitting/invisible/animate object

ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/invisible/animate

ka niⁿ-kʰe (k nįkʰ) - that/sitting object [JOD]

cf. ka (k) - that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: ka niⁿ-kʰe be o-da-ki-e e, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (k nįkʰ b odkkie e, iy iy mątʰ) - who is that to whom you are talking to? it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-thiⁿ-kʰe (gthiⁿkʰe) - that sitting animate object, or that curvilinear inanimate object, at one side (but not seen) or out of sight (but heard); that one sitting, the object of an action; seen, and near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-thiⁿ-kshe (g-thiⁿ-kshe) - this (person) sitting [FL-Osage]; ka-iⁿ-kshe (ka įke) - this one (sitting); these lying down or horizontal things gathered into a bundle or a sack that sits [CQ-Osage]

 

sitting, that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate object

she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - that curvilinear object [JOD]

cf. she (e) - that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: wi-te-ke, she-niⁿ-kʰe ta-ska pa-hi miⁿ, i-yi- i-ya (wttek, nįkʰ ttask ppah mį, iy iy) - aunt (my mothers brother), that object by you is the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said that he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-thiⁿ-kʰe (shthiⁿkʰe) - that visible and near sitting animate object; that visible and near sitting subject of an action at the request of another (not a free action); that curved inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; she-thiⁿ-kshe (e įk), she-iⁿ-kshe (e įk) - that one sitting (animate or inanimate), that one over there, closer to the hearer than to the speaker [CQ-Osage]; she-yiⁿ-khe (shéyiⁿkhe) - that (visible/sitting; animate or inanimate; object of verb) [Kaw]

 

sitting, the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative aux sitting

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - the sitting one; the curvilinear inanimate object; the part; the subject; the one who [JOD]

ex: de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this sitting/animate or inanimate object

ex: ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/invisible/animate

ex: ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

ex: ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular, sitting, visible, animate or inanimate

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate/yonder

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

ex: she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

ex: to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

ex: to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

ex: to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ek̨ nįkʰe) - his grandmother/the one who [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (was niⁿkʰe) - black bear/the one who [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ da-xa-ke e i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke, hǫn̨ttą daγke e iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - Rabbit, why are you crying? it is said that the black bear said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe) - black bear/chief/the sitting one [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe (ǫt nįkʰe) - scrotum/the part [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ek̨ nįkʰe) - his grandmother/the one who

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe (wabtʰe iha nįkʰe) - sewing/bag/the curvilinear inanimate object [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe kdi-ze (waxʔik nįkʰe wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kdze) - the old woman took her sewing bag [JOD]

ex: e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (ett nįkʰ) - there (was) the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: te shoⁿ-shoⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (t ̨ǫ ett nįkʰ) - there was the circular lake [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe (ppah nįkʰ) - head/the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe pa-xoⁿ taⁿ ki kde naⁿ, i-ya (ppah nįkʰ pxǫ tą kʔį kd ną, iy) - he cut off the head, packed it on his back and went home, it is said JOD]

ex: o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe (owditte nįkʰ) - place for surrounding the game/the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: de tʰe o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe a-pa-po e-ta-kaⁿ-za a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe (d tʰe owditte nįkʰ ppapo ettkkąza witt̨we ą tta mįkʰ) - when he (Grizzly bear) goes, I will lie down looking at you, at the edge of the hill directly above the place where you capture the game [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿkʰ) - the sitting animate object; the curved inanimate object; third person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article, follows a noun or pronoun (usually not the subject of a sentence) that represents a singular sitting entity or singular round entity; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkhé) - the; definite article used with the object of the verb; singular inanimate or animate; the in reference to an animate subject of a stative verb [Kaw]

 

sitting, this sitting/animate or inanimate object

de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this sitting/animate or inanimate object

de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this part or object [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: de niⁿ-kʰe di-e da-ki-kiⁿ te, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (d nįkʰ de dakkʔį tt, iy iy mątʰ) - you can carry this (piece of meat) for yourself, it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ de niⁿ-kʰe wa-pa-iⁿ di-ze niⁿ-kʰe ti xi-te a-ba-knaⁿ-ta i-naⁿ-de naⁿ iy ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ę d nįkʰe wappą diz nįkʰ tti xtte baknątta in̨de ną iy mat̨ke) - then Rabbit placed the blood which he had taken by the side of the lodge, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-thiⁿ-kʰe (ththiⁿkʰe) - this sitting animate object (before us); this curved inanimate object (before us) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-iⁿ-kshe (e įk) - that one sitting; this one here [CQ-Osage]

 

sitting, to act different while sitting

shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ǫ-nįkʰ) - he acted differently as he sat [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ ǫ-nįkʰ) - so he sat awhile/he acted differently as he sat [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ thiⁿ-kʰe (shⁿthiⁿkʰ) - denoting a reversal of past or present state, action, or feeling, of another person [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ yiⁿ-khe (shóⁿyiⁿkhe) - by and by, reversing the state, action, or feeling of another person or persons [Kaw]

 

sitting, to the sitting or curvilinear object

niⁿ-kʰe-ti (nįkʰtti) - to the sitting object; at the curvilinear object; to the curvilinear object [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti) - his grandmother/to the sitting object [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi kʰi-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti ttįhi kʰi-i iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe-ti (was kahke niⁿkʰeti) - black bear/chief/to the one who [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe ti e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (was kahke niⁿkʰe ti tti hi ną iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit arrived there, to where the black bear chief resides, it is said [JOD]

ex: a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ni kihidnįkʰetti) - hill/at yonder distant visible place [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

ex: sni-wa-te niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi (sniwtte nįkʰtti h) - winter/to the sitting object/arrived [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi sni-wa-te niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi sniwtte nįkʰtti h, iy) - after some time he arrived at the abode of the Winter, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe-di (thiⁿkʰdi) - by or near the sitting animate object; by or near the one who [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe dsi (thiⁿ-kshe dsi) - at the place where he is sitting [FL-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe-ji (yiⁿkhéji) - to or by the sitting animate object; over there [Kaw]

 

niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object; to the one who [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿki-niⁿ kda-we (t̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe-ta (dtteke was niⁿkʰetta) - your mothers brother/black bear/to the one who [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da! i-ye naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨ dtteke was niⁿkʰe tta tti d! iy ną ąn̨hos naⁿ) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to your uncle, the black bear! [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe-ta (thiⁿkʰta) - to the sitting animate object, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

 

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