English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

S

 

slow, be late, to delay

o-sti-te (stitte) - slow, be late, to delay oⁿ-sti-te (̨stitte) - I, o-di-sti-te (disttte) - you

o-sti-te (stitte) - slow [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te ni-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

Dhegiha: o-shtsu-tse (ocuce) - slowpoke, slow person, pokey one [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-sniⁿ-de (wasnińde) - delay [JOD-Omaha]; wa-sni-de (wanide) - tardy, late [Omaha]; wa-stu-dse (wa-t-dse) - slow movements, slow walking or moving [FL-Osage]; wa-stsu-tse (wascuce) - slow, pokey, slowly, late, overdue [CQ-Osage]

 

slow, go easy

i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately; i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully; ni-he (nih) - imperative plural; hne (hn) - habitual aspect with female declarative

Dhegiha: i-gi-thi-gthoⁿ (-gi-thi-gthoⁿ) - to decide or plan for another, to have control of another [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell, slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legend, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about, have on one's mind, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

slowly, sing dancing songs slowly

i-ni-da-he xo-ka (nidhe xkka) - sing dancing songs slowly i-ni-da-he a-xo-ka (nidhe axkka) - I, i-ni-da-he da-xo-ka (nidhe daxkka) - you

cf. xo-ka (xkka) - sing dancing songs

Dhegiha: xu-ka (qka) - to sing when others dance, to sing a dancing song [Omaha/Ponca]; xo-ʰka (xʰka) - sing dancing songs, singers and drummers, all singers of dancing songs [CQ-Osage]

 

small beads

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ si zhi-ka (wan̨ʔį sik) - small beads

cf. wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads; necklace, necktie, neckerchief, something worn around the neck; si (si) - seed, pit, grain, kernel; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

Dhegiha: si (si) - seed [Omaha/Ponca]; si (i) - pit [Omaha]; si (si) - seed, in general; a seed [JOD-Omaha]; si (i), su (u) - seed [FL-Osage]; su (su) - seed, pit, kernel [CQ-Osage]

 

iⁿ-to-ska (įttska) - beads, small white beads

ex: iⁿ-to-ska sa (įttosk sa) - black beads

ex: iⁿ-to-ska to (įttosk tto) - blue beads

ex: iⁿ-to-ska zi (įttosk zi) - yellow beads

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-ska (hⁿskǎ) - beads [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿka) - bead [Omaha]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿ-k) - hiⁿ, modification of the word iⁿ, stone; ska, white, this is the word applied to beads of all colors by the Osage and Omaha [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-ska (h̨įska) - beads [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿska) - beads [Kaw]

 

small lake, pond

te zhi-ka (te ka) - pond, small lake [ASG]

cf. te (te) - lake zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; te taⁿ-ka (te tt̨ka) - large lake [ASG]

Dhegiha: ne (n) - lake [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse), dse (dse) - a lake, small inland body of water [FL-Osage]; je (je) - lake [Kaw]

 

small mysterious ones, dwarfs

wa-kaⁿ-ta-ke zhi-ka (wakk̨ttke ka) - dwarfs, not often seen, small mysterious ones

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta-ki (wakk̨ttak) - spirit, God, the supreme ruler, the white mans God [JOD]; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; pa-hi-ska zhi-ka (ppahska ka) - dwarfs, not often seen, small ones with white hair

Dhegiha: wa-ʰkoⁿ-da-gi (wa-ḳoⁿ-da-gi) - sacred, mysterious, holy, anything held sacred; a person who has knowledge of medicine, a doctor, a physician; one who pretends to communicate with the dead, a necromancer, occult, magic [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta-ki (waʰk̨taki) - doctor, physician, healer, minister of a religious group, preacher [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da-gi (wakⁿdagi) - sacred, mysterious; doctor, medicine man; wonderful, mysterious; sacred; sometimes translated as mysterious but on the whole, it corresponds to the English concept of sacred [Kaw]

 

small objects, collect small objects in a group

sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group

cf. a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in

Dhegiha: ni-ka stu-wa-the (nkastuwathe) - the gatherer, personal name [JOD-Omaha]; thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]; sto-the shu (to-th shu) - gathered them together [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka stu-e (n-ḳa-tu-e) - gathering of men, personal name [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-tʰe-the (itʰthe) - to put or place, make stand: usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to place away [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

small objects, collect small objects in a heap

sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap sto-de-a-zhi (stoda) - I, sto-de-da-zhi (stodda) - you, sto-de-oⁿ-zhi-we (stodǫwe) - we

cf. sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place; sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; a-zhi (i) - put small scattered, inanimate objects onto something; put small objects onto something that serves as a platform; o-zhi (o) - put into something

Dhegiha: ni-ka stu-wa-the (nkastuwathe) - the gatherer, personal name [JOD-Omaha]; thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]; sto-the shu (to-th shu) - gathered them together [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰka stu-e (n-ḳa-tu-e) - gathering of men, personal name [FL-Osage]

 

small ones with white hair, dwarfs

pa-hi ska zhi-ka (ppahska ka) - dwarfs, not often seen, small ones with white hair

cf. pa-hi ska (ppahska) - white head; bald eagle; name of Pawhuska, OK; pa-hi (ppah) - head; ska (ska) - white; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young; wa-kaⁿ-ta-ke zhi-ka (wakk̨ttke ka) - dwarfs, not often seen, small mysterious ones

Dhegiha: pa-hi-ska (pahska) - head; hair; white (buffalo when shoulder hair is shed), male name [Omaha]; pa-hi-ska (pahskă) - personal name, white hair of the head [Omaha/Ponca]

ʰpa-hiu-ska (p̣a-hi-ka) - white hair, personal name, refers to the sacred white buffalo [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-hiⁿ-ska (ʰpah̨įska) - Pawhuska, lit., white head hair, white hair (of the head) [CQ-Osage]; pa-hu-ska taⁿ-ga (pahska tⁿga) - Large one with White Hair, White Hair, Sr., male name [Kaw]

 

small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits

wa-sa i-ba-xdo-xdo (was baxdoxd) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits [JOD]

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; i-ba-xdo (baxdo) - stuck in him [JOD]; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. something to stick food with; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring; ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd), ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus plant; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear

ex: wa-sa i-ba-xto-xto we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (was baxtoxt wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks with the fat around it [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole in meat, put on both sides of a horse, to be carried, fastening an end of a cord to each hole; to pierce; to punch holes in moccasins [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

small pieces, cut into small pieces with knife

pa-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (pǫǫ) - cut into small pieces with knife pa-a-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (paǫǫ) - I, pa-da-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (pdaǫǫ) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (dįǫ) - mould spherical with hands

ex: e-shoⁿ ta ke pa-shoⁿ-shoⁿ naⁿ i-ya (ę tt ke pǫ̨ ną, iy) - so he cut the meat into small pieces with a knife, it is said [JOD]

 

small pieces, dice or cut into small pieces

pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces pa-a-shpa-shpa (pappa) - I, pa-da-shpa-shpa (pdappa) - you

cf. pa-shpe (pap) - cut out a piece with a knife, to cut it out with a knife (that portion) [JOD]

di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; o-shpe (op) - fragment

Dhegiha: ma-shpa-shpa (mshpashpa) - to cut off many large pieces with a knife or saw [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpa-shpa (b-shpa-shpa) - to cut an apple or a potato into many pieces with a knife [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ma-shpe (mshpe) - to cut off a large piece with a knife or handsaw [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpe (b-shpe) - to cut a piece of fruit or vegetable with a knife [FL-Osage]; pa-shpe (paap), pa-shpu (paap) - cut corn, fresh corn cut off the cob [CQ-Osage]; ba-shpe (bshpe) - cut off a piece of something with a knife or saw [Kaw]; ba-shpe (bashp) - push off a piece of something; push a piece off of the edge of an object by holding the end of a stick or something similar firmly against it [Kaw]

 

small puffy clouds

ma-xpi ka-xde-xde (maxp kaxdxde) - small puffy clouds

cf. ma-xpi (maxp) - cloud; ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle; ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object

Dhegiha: ma-xpi (maqp) - cloud [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-xpi (moⁿ-xp) - clouds; low clouds; thunder clouds [Omaha]; ma-xpi (ma-qp) - cloud; clouds [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-xpi (moⁿ-xp) - cloud; cloudy [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xpu (m̨xpu), moⁿ-xpu (m̨xpu) - cloud, cloudy [CQ-Osage]; ma-xpu (maxp), maⁿ-xpu (maⁿxp), mo-xpu (moxp) - cloud; clouds; be cloudy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-xthe-xthe-ge (ga-xth-xthe-ge) - to crack into small pieces [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-xthe-ge (ga-xth-ge) - to crack something brittle like glass, china, or stone [FL-Osage]; ka-le-ke (kaalke) - shatter or break, shatter by striking or by sudden movement, fracture; crack, break, be broken [CQ-Osage]; ga-xle-ge (gaxlge) - smash or break a solid, hard object, such as an egg, glass, ice, stone, wood, or bone [Kaw]

 

small string

wa-hi-oⁿ zhi-ka (wahǫ ka), wa-hi-oⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (wahǫ ̨ka) - small string

wa-hi-oⁿ zhi-ka (wahǫ ka) - little rope, string [MS]

cf. wa-hi-oⁿ (wahǫ) - string, thread, lariat; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little; ni-ka wa-hi-oⁿ (nkka wahǫ) - rope; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph

 

small town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - small town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

cf. taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: taⁿ-waⁿ (tⁿ-waⁿ) - a cluster of lodges, a camp, village, or Indian town [JOD-Omaha]; toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town; cluster of lodges, Indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - a town or city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

small white beads

iⁿ-to-ska (įttska) - beads, small white beads

ex: iⁿ-to-ska sa (įttosk sa) - black beads

ex: iⁿ-to-ska to (įttosk tto) - blue beads

ex: iⁿ-to-ska zi (įttosk zi) - yellow beads

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-ska (hⁿskǎ) - beads [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿka) - bead [Omaha]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿ-k) - hiⁿ, modification of the word iⁿ, stone; ska, white, this is the word applied to beads of all colors by the Osage and Omaha [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-ska (h̨įska) - beads [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ-ska (hiⁿska) - beads [Kaw]

 

small, how big or small

ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big/small, what size

cf. ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big; de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - size, of a certain; ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - size, of equal or like; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; she-na-ska (enask) - size, big enough, of that size

ex: ti tʰe ha-naⁿ-ska e (tti tʰe hnąska e) - how big is the house?

Dhegiha: a-thoⁿ-ska (athoⁿka) - size [Omaha]; ha-thoⁿ-ska (h-thoⁿ-ka) - size as measurement [FL-Osage]; ha-tha-skaⁿ (haaską) - how big, how small [CQ-Osage]; ha-yaⁿ-ska (hyaⁿska), ha-yoⁿ-ska (hyoⁿska) - how big, what size? [Kaw]

 

small, little, young

zhi-ka (ka), (ik), zhiⁿ-ka (̨ka), (įk), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young aⁿ-zhi-ka (ąka) - I, di-zhi-ka (dika) - you

zhi-ka (ka) - little, small [MS, AG, OM]

zhi-ka (zhka), zhiⁿ-ka (zhink) - small, young [ASG]

zhi-ka (jikkah) - small [GI]

Dhegiha: zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿga) - small, little, child, young, cub [Omaha/Ponca]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿga) - small, little [Omaha]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhiⁿ-g) - small, little, young, little children [FL-Osage]; zhiⁿ (į), zhiⁿ-ka (įk) - a little, small amount of something, small, little, be little, small, children, little ones, kids [CQ-Osage]; zhiⁿ-ga (zhⁿga) - be small; small, the young of an animal, a child [Kaw]

 

small, make small

di-zhiⁿ-ka (dįka) - lessen, diminish, make small bdi-zhiⁿ-ka (bdįka) - I, ti-zhiⁿ-ka (ttįka) - you

cf. di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; by hand, pulling; zhi-ka (ka), (ik), zhiⁿ-ka (̨ka), (įk), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-ga (i-j-ga) - to hold in the hand and press into a small compass [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-zhiⁿ-ga (thizhiⁿga) - condense, make small [Omaha]

 

smaller part, something small

o-zhi-ka (oka), o-zhiⁿ-ka (įk) - smaller part, something small

cf. zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

ex: a o-zhiⁿ-ka ( oįka) - arm below elbow, forearm

ex: de-ze o-zhi-ka (dze oka) - pharynx

Dhegiha: u-zhiⁿ-ge (u-zhiⁿ-ge) - when it is yet small; the new moon [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a u-zhiⁿ-ga (-u-zhiⁿ-ga) - lower or forearm, from the elbow down to the wrist [FL-Osage]; a o-zhiⁿ-ga (ozhiⁿga) - arm below the elbow, radius [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shi-be u-zhiⁿ-ga (shbe uzhⁿga) - small intestine [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be u-zhiⁿ-ga (shbe uzhiⁿga) - small imtestine [Omaha]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be hi u-zhiⁿ-ga (noⁿbe hi uzhiⁿga) - little finger [Omaha]; noⁿ-be u-zhiⁿ-ga (noⁿ-be u-zhⁿ-ga) - little finger [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-bo-zhiⁿ-ga (naⁿbhiⁿga) - little finger [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sha-ge u-zhiⁿ-ga (sh-ge u-zhiⁿ-ga) - the small finger; the little finger [FL-Osage]; sha-ge u-zhiⁿ-ga (shge ozhⁿga) - the little finger [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-ʰkoⁿ u-zhiⁿ-ga (h-ḳoⁿ u-zhiⁿ-ga) - ankle, small one [FL-Osage]; hu-kaⁿ o-zhiⁿ-ga (hkaⁿ ozhⁿga) - lower part of the leg just above the ankle [Kaw]

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi u-zhiⁿ-ga (siphi uzhⁿga) - little toe [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa u-zhiⁿ-ga (i-p u-zhiⁿ-ga) - all the toes [FL-Osage]

 

smaller than the others

a-ma-ka-ke (makak) - smaller than the others [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-spe a-ma-ka-ke a-ki-te naⁿ kde, i-ya-we (̨spe makak kitte n̨ kd, iywe) - ax/smaller than the others/she took hers in her arm/when/she started homeward/they say [JOD]

 

smallpox, smallpox pustules

bnaⁿ-se (bn̨se) - smallpox, smallpox pustules

cf. bnaⁿ-se oⁿ (bn̨se ʔǫ) - to have smallpox

ex: bnaⁿ-se wa-ki-za aⁿ-ni-ke (bn̨se wakkza ̨nike) - Im covered with smallpox

 

smallpox, to have smallpox

bnaⁿ-se oⁿ (bn̨se ʔǫ) - to have smallpox

cf. bnaⁿ-se (bn̨se) - smallpox, smallpox pustules;oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - have (as a disease), be, do, use

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - do, be [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ (̨) - do, engage in an activity [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (̨ǫ) - suffer from, have an illness, be sick from; wear use [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (oⁿ), oⁿ (oⁿ) - do [Kaw]

 

smash or break a brittle object

ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object a-xde (xde) - I, da-xde (dxde) - you

cf. xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

Dhegiha: ga-xthe-ge (ga-xth-ge) - to crack something brittle like glass, china, or stone [FL-Osage]; ka-le-ke (kaalke) - shatter or break (eg., glass), shatter by striking or sudden movement, fracture (e.g., ones skull) [CQ-Osage]; ga-xle-ge (gaxlge) - smash or break a solid, hard object, such as an egg, glass, ice, stone, wood, or bone [Kaw]

 

ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle a-xde-xde (xdexde) - I, da-xde-xde (dxdexde) - you

cf. ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object; xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

 

smash or break glass

di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash bdi-xde-xde (bdxdexde) - I, ti-xde-xde (ttxdexde) - you

cf. xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up; ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle; ma-xpi ka-xde-xde (maxp kaxdxde) - small puffy clouds; ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object

Dhegiha: thi-xthe-xthe-ge (thi-xth-xthe-ge) - to shatter glass or other brittle substances with the hand [FL-Osage]; thu-le-ke (uulke) - cause to break, cause to shatter, break or shatter with the hands (e.g., a dish, an egg, a light bulb, a window) [CQ-Osage]; yu-xle-ge (yuxlge) - crack something like an egg [Kaw]

 

smell bad

bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad bdaⁿ aⁿ-shi-ke (bdą ̨ike) - I, bdaⁿ di-shi-ke (bdą dike) - you, bdaⁿ wa-shi-ka-we (bdą wikwe) - we

cf. bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ pi-a-zhi (bthoⁿ piazhi) - bad odor [Omaha]; bthoⁿ pi-zhi (bthⁿ pi-zhi) - an offensive smell [FL-Osage]; braⁿ ʰpi-zhi (brą ʰpii) - it smells bad [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ pi-zhi (blaⁿ pzhi) - smell bad, emit a bad odor [Kaw]

 

smell bad

xwiⁿ (xwį), xo-wiⁿ (xow̨) - stink, emit offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį) - stink [MS]

ex: si xwiⁿ (si xwį) - stink feet [OM]

ex: ni xwiⁿ (ni xwį) - sulphur spring water [OM]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (odbną iywe, hǫhǫ, xwį h, iy) - he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-a-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-bde, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te (̨įtte, xw̨ nįkʰ pape ną ǫbd, ną httą tte) - well, when I cut out the bad/offensive smelling part and I throw it away, then it will be good [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte, xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫde, ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: xwiⁿ (qwiⁿ), xuiⁿ (quⁿ) - corrupt, putrid, rotten, offensive, stink, stinking, as carrion [Omaha/Ponca]; xuiⁿ (xuiⁿ) - stink, stench [Omaha]; xwiⁿ (xwiⁿ) - fetid, offensive smell [FL-Osage]; xoiⁿ (ɣǫ) - stink, stinky, fetid odor or offensive smell [CQ-Osage]

 

zaⁿ-ze (z̨ze) - offensive smell, strong smell

ex: to-si zaⁿ-ze (tos z̨ze) - armpit odor

ex: zaⁿ-ze hi! (ząz hi!) - offensive odor/very [JOD]

ex: zaⁿ-ze hi! (ząz hi!) - you very malodorous one! [JOD]

Dhegiha: zaⁿ-ze (zⁿ-ze) - applicable to the strong odor of a negro, goat, buck, or that of a male of the black-tailed deer during the rutting season [JOD-Omaha]; zoⁿ-ze (zⁿze) - musky, smelly [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-ze (zoⁿze) - stink [Omaha]; zaⁿ-zi (z̨zi) - sour odor, acrid smell (such as armpit odor or onion smell [CQ-Osage]

 

smell good

bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good bdaⁿ aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (bdą ̨hottą) - I, bdaⁿ di-ho-taⁿ (bdą dihttą) - you, bdaⁿ wa-ho-taⁿ-we (bdą whott̨we) - we

cf. bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor; ho-taⁿ (httą) - good; bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ u-doⁿ (bthoⁿ udoⁿ) - good odor [Omaha]; bthaⁿ u-daⁿ (bⁿ daⁿ) - a good odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ tha-gthiⁿ (bthoⁿ-th-gthiⁿ) - odor smell good, fragrance, pleasing odor [FL-Osage]; braⁿ tha-liⁿ (brą alį) - it smells good [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ ya-li (blaⁿ yali) - smell good, emit a good odor [Kaw]

 

smell like decayed vegetables

xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables

cf. xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption; bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor

 

smell of something burning

ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor

Dhegiha: da-bthoⁿ (d-bthoⁿ) - to smell something cooking or burning [FL-Osage]; ta-braⁿ (tabrą) - dmell from heating or body heat, emanate an odor while being heated, as in cooking/burning, refers to either a good or bad odor [CQ-Osage]; da-bla (dblaⁿ) - smell, give off a burning odor, give off a smell due to burning, as gum or cedar [Kaw]

 

smell something, inhale something

o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something o-bdi-bnaⁿ (obdbną) - I, o-ti-bnaⁿ (ottbną) - you

cf. bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor; di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands)

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - he sniffed/smelt [JOD]

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ, i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (odbną, iywe, hǫhǫ xwį h, iy) - he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

ex: o-wa-di-bnaⁿ (wadbną) - he smelled them [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-bthoⁿ (uthbthoⁿ) - scent an odor, smell an odor, inhale an odor [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-bthoⁿ (u-th-bthoⁿ) - to smell [FL-Osage]; o-thi-braⁿ (obrą) - smoke, cause to smell, as in making cedar smoke for a cleansing or a blessing, lit., wherein one causes there to emanate an odor [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-blaⁿ (oyblaⁿ) - smell something, sniff at something [Kaw]

 

smell with hands

di-bnaⁿ (dibną), di-bnaⁿ (dibd̨) - smell (hands) bdi-bnaⁿ (bdbną) - I, ti-bnaⁿ (ttbną) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor; o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: yu-blaⁿ (yublⁿ) - to get the odor of onions, etc. on the hands from handling them; to make grass, etc. smell by handling it [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-bthoⁿ (uthbthoⁿ) - scent an odor, smell an odor, inhale an odor [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-bthoⁿ (u-th-bthoⁿ) - to smell [FL-Osage]; o-thi-braⁿ (obrą) - smoke, cause to smell, as in making cedar smoke for a cleansing or a blessing, literally, wherein one causes there to emanate an odor [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-blaⁿ (oyblaⁿ) - smell something, sniff at something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, emit odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - odor, scent [FL-Osage]; braⁿ (brą́) - smell, emanate an odor, give off a fragrance, scent [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ (blaⁿ) - smell, odor, emit an odor, exhale [Kaw]

 

smell, emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell [OM]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ, pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą, pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good

ex: bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad

ex: di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands)

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something

ex: ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

ex: xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, emit odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, fumes, odor [Omaha]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - odor, scent [FL-Osage]; braⁿ (br̨) - smell, emanate an odor, give off a fragrance, scent [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ (blaⁿ), bloⁿ (bloⁿ) - smell, odor, exhale or emit an odor [Kaw]

 

smell, offensive or strong smell

zaⁿ-ze (z̨ze) - offensive smell, strong smell

ex: to-si zaⁿ-ze (tos z̨ze) - armpit odor

ex: zaⁿ-ze hi! (ząz hi!) - offensive odor/very [JOD]

ex: zaⁿ-ze hi! (ząz hi!) - you very malodorous one! [JOD]

Dhegiha: zaⁿ-ze (zⁿ-ze) - applicable to the strong odor of a negro, goat, buck, or that of a male of the black-tailed deer during the rutting season [JOD-Omaha]; zoⁿ-ze (zⁿze) - musky, smelly [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-ze (zoⁿze) - stink [Omaha]; zaⁿ-zi (z̨zi) - sour odor, acrid smell (such as armpit odor or onion smell [CQ-Osage]

 

smile, laugh

i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile i-da-xa (idxa) - I, i-da-xa (daxa) - you

i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile [MS, AG]

i-xa (ich-hah) - laugh, laughter (rire) [GI]

i-xa (xa) - laugh [ASG]

cf. i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much; i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

ex: i-da-xa (idxa), i-da-xa miⁿ-kʰe (idxa mįkʰ) - I laugh [ASG]

ex: i-da-xa koⁿ-bda a-ni-he (idxa kkǫbd nih) - I wanted to laugh [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa-zhi (idxa) - I laugh not [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa- iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: i-xa-zhi (ixa) - he/she laugh not [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe i-xa koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe e-ni-te o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi (waxʔ nįkʰe xa k̨da nįkʰe nitte, dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąmį idxa-i) - the woman wanted to laugh, although she thought he will see/find me, I won't laugh [JOD]

ex: i-ki-xa (kixa) - laughing at her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xa (qa) - laugh, laugh at, to laugh, to laugh at someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-xa (xa) - chuckle, giggle, laugh, smile [Omaha]; i-xa (-xa) - to laugh, to titter [FL-Osage]; i-xa (ixa) - laugh, laugh at [CQ-Osage]; i-xa (xa) - laugh; smile [Kaw]

 

smoke

sho-te (tte) - smoke

sho-te (tte) - smoke [MS]

sho-te (tte) - smoke [ASG]

cf. ni sho-te (ntte) - Missouri River [ASG]; ma-sho-te (matte) - fog; ma-sho-sho-te (motte) - dust; i-ka-sho-te (katte) - blizzard; a-ka-sho-te (katte) - to have fine dust blown upon one

Dhegiha: shu-de (shde) - smoke [Omaha/Ponca]; shu-de (shude) - smoky; smoke, as a fire [Omaha]; shu-de (c-de) - to smoke, as a fire; smoke [JOD-Omaha]; sho-dse (sh-dse) - smoke [FL-Osage]; sho-tse (ce) - smoke, smoky, dingy, gray [CQ-Osage]; sho-je (shóje) - smoke, fog, to smoke [Kaw]

 

smoke hole

ti-ho-kaⁿ (tthokką) - smoke hole

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps; ti-ho-kaⁿ a-kabniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: ti-hu-koⁿ (thukoⁿ) - smoke hole at the top of a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-hu-koⁿ (ti hukoⁿ) - stovepipe, smoke hole, flue chimney [Omaha]; ʰtsi-hu-ʰkoⁿ (ṭs-hu-ḳoⁿ) - smoke hole of a tent or lodge, smoke vent [FL-Osage]; tsi-ho-ka (choka) - smoke hole of a lodge, chimney [Kaw]

 

smoke hole flaps

ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ (tthokką) - smoke hole; a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

ex: ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: ti hu-ga-bthiⁿ tha (ti hugabthiⁿ tha) - smoke flaps [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ti hu-koⁿ (ti hukoⁿ) - stovepipe, smoke hole, flue chimney [Omaha]; ti-hu-koⁿ (thukoⁿ) - smoke hole at the top of a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-hu-ʰkoⁿ (ṭs-hu-ḳoⁿ) - smoke hole of a tent or lodge, this was generally made in the top of the tent or lodge, so that the smoke in rising would pass out [FL-Osage]; tsi-ho-ka (choka) - smoke hole of a lodge, chimney [Kaw]

 

smoke hole, chimney

sho-ti-o-he-de (ttiohde) - smoke hole, chimney

cf. sho-te (tte) - smoke

 

smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar

xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

cf. xoⁿ-te (xǫtt) - cedar; o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-tso-thi-bra (xǫǫcibra) - xoⁿ-tse (x̨ǫce) + o-thi-braⁿ (obrą), smoke cedar, cause cedar to smoke, smell cedar, smoke a house with cedar or use in a peyote meeting to smoke a person [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-dse (xⁿ-dse) - the red cedar [FL-Osage]; xoⁿ-tse (x̨ǫce) - cedar [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-je (xⁿje) - cedar, the red [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-bthoⁿ (uthbthoⁿ) - scent an odor, smell an odor, inhale an odor [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-bthoⁿ (u-th-bthoⁿ) - to smell [FL-Osage]; o-thi-braⁿ (obrą) - smoke, cause to smell, as in making cedar smoke for a cleansing or a blessing, lit., wherein one causes there to emanate an odor [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-blaⁿ (oyblaⁿ) - smell something, sniff at something [Kaw]

 

smoke, to smoke

ki-ta-ni (kitni) - to smoke [JOD]

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco

ex: ki-ta-ni (kitni) - he smoked [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

 

a-ta-ni (atni), a-ta-ni a-ni-he (atni anih) - I smoke [ASG]

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; a-ni-he (anih) - 1st person singular continuative aux moving

 

smoke, tobacco smoke

ta-ni sho-te (tan tte) - tobacco smoke [AB, OM]

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; sho-te (tte) - smoke

 

smoke, yellowed by smoke

sho-te ta-zi (tte ttzi) - soot, yellowed by smoke

cf. sho-te (tte) - smoke; ta (t) - by extreme temperature; zi (zi) - yellow; hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

Dhegiha: shu-de na-zi (c-de-na-zi) - turned yellow or brown by smoke; soot [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: shu-de (shde) - smoke [Omaha/Ponca]; shu-de (shude) - smoky; smoke, as a fire [Omaha]; shu-de (c-de) - to smoke, as a fire; smoke [JOD-Omaha]; sho-dse (sh-dse) - smoke [FL-Osage]; sho-tse (ce) - smoke, smoky, dingy, gray [CQ-Osage]; sho-je (shóje) - smoke, fog, to smoke [Kaw]

Dhegiha: da-zi-hi (d-i-hi) - burned yellow; smoke tanned; to burn a stick until it becomes yellow [FL-Osage]; ta-zi-hi (taazhi) - brown, become brown by application of heat; be browned, fried [CQ-Osage]; da-zi-hi (dázihi) - to become yellow; become grayish-yellow [Kaw]

 

smooth out, as feathers

ka-sto-de (kastde) - smooth out, as feathers a-sto-de (stode) - I, da-sto-de (dstode) - you

cf. di-sto-de (distde) - flatten from pulling something

 

smooth, a smooth place

o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place, in, inside, into; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; siⁿ-te shta (sįtt ta) - hog, pig, lit. smooth tail; siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum, lit. gray smooth tail; a-bi-shta (bita) - plaster a house; ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top; a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

ex: pe o-shta (pp ot) - forehead

ex: o-shta-ti (ottti) - at a smooth place [JOD]

ex: o-shta wa-sha-ke (ot waʔak) - very large smooth place [JOD]

ex: o-shta-tʰi, o-shta wa-sha-ke, o-shta taⁿ o-ka-ki-xe hi a-taⁿ-we ki-we (ottʰi, ot waʔak, ot tą okkixe h tąwe kwe) - they arrived at the large smooth place forming a circle to watch him [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shna (shna) - shed hair [Omaha]; shna (c͓na) - bald, bare, smooth [JOD-Omaha]; shta (shta) - hairless; destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t), shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

smooth, bald, bare

shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare

ex: a-bi-shta (bita) - plaster a house

ex: ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane

ex: di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand

ex: kaⁿ-te shta (kkątt ta) - plum

ex: siⁿ-te shta (sįtt ta) - hog, pig, smooth/bald tail

ex: siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum, lit. grey smooth/bald tail

ex: ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head

ex: shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded

ex: a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top

ex: a-ni shta-shta-ha (ani tatha) - round topped hills in series

ex: naⁿ-ka-a-knaⁿ shta-ha (n̨kkakną tah) - side saddle, saddle-smooth [JOD]

ex: o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]

ex: pe o-shta (pp ot) - forehead

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shna (shna) - shed hair [Omaha]; shna (c͓na) - bald, bare, smooth [JOD-Omaha]; shta (shta) - hairless; destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t), shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

smooth, rounded

shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded

cf. shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare

ex: naⁿ-ka-a-knaⁿ shta-ha (n̨kkakną tah) - side saddle, saddle-smooth [JOD]

ex: a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top

ex: a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

Dhegiha: zhna-ha (zhnah) - smooth, slippery [Omaha/Ponca]; shna-ha (shnha) - slippery, smooth [Omaha]; shna-ha (c͓na-h) - smooth, slippery [JOD-Omaha]; shta-ha (sht-ha), shda-ha (shd-ha) - slick, smooth [FL-Osage]; shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta-ha (shtáha) - smooth, slippery, slick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shna (shna) - shed hair [Omaha]; shna (c͓na) - bald, bare, smooth [JOD-Omaha]; shta (shta) - hairless, destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t) - shiny and smooth, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - root smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

smooth, rub smooth

bi-kʰa (bikʰ) - rub smooth pi-kʰa (ppkʰa) - I, shpi-kʰa (pkʰa) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing

Dhegiha: bi-ka (bika) - wipe; dust [Omaha]; bi-ka (bi-k͓) - to rub; to wipe, as with a towel or a wisp of grass [JOD-Omaha]; bi-ka (bi-k) - to efface; to erase; to obliterate; to wipe out [FL-Osage]; pu-kxa (pkxa) - rub or wipe to efface, obliterate, erase, clean off or dust off by wiping, dry by wiping [CQ-Osage]; bu-kha (bukh) - wipe, erase [Kaw]

 

smoothe, plane, sand

ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane pa-shta (ppta) - I, shpa-shta (pta) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]; siⁿ-te shta (sįtt ta) - hog, pig, lit. smooth tail; siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum, lit. gray smooth tail; a-bi-shta (bita) - plaster a house; ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head; o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top; a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

Dhegiha: ba-shta (ba-sht) - coneflower; a hair cut [FL-Osage]; ba-shta (basht) - scrape hair from a hide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-shta-ha (ba-sht-ha) - to polish, wood or stone [FL-Osage]; ba-shta-ha (bashtha) - plane or stretch something smooth; to be swollen till free from wrinkles, till smooth [Kaw]

 

di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand bdi-shta (bdta) - I, ti-shta (ttta) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane; o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]; siⁿ-te shta (sįtt ta) - hog, pig, lit. smooth tail; siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum, lit. gray smooth tail; a-bi-shta (bita) - plaster a house; ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head; o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top; a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

Dhegiha: thi-shna (thishna) - pluck [Omaha]; thu-shta (thu-sht) - to pluck, as a fowl [FL-Osage]; thu-shta (uut) - make bald or bare, jerk someones hair out; dunude [CQ-Osage]; thu-shta-ha (uutha) - iron [CQ-Osage]; yu-shta (yusht) - pull out, as weeds; pluck out, as whiskers [Kaw]

 

Snake gens (clan)

we-sa e-ni-ʰka-shi-ka (wsʔa nikkaka) - the Serpent gens, obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

we-sa ni-ʰka-shi-ka (wsʔa nikkaka) - Snake people [ASG]

cf. we-sa (wsʔa) - snake; ni-ʰka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - people

 

snake with a head at each end about 18 inches long

we-sa pa-kdaⁿ-ka-haⁿ (wsʔa pkdąkkah̨) - snake with a head at each end about 18 inches long; rarely seen

cf. we-sa (wsʔa) - snake; pa (pa) - head; a-kdaⁿ-ka-haⁿ (kdąkkah̨) - both sides

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ-ga-hoⁿ (agthoⁿgahoⁿ) - both sides [Omaha]; a-gthaⁿ-kaⁿ-haⁿ (a-gá-k͓aⁿ-haⁿ) - on both sides [JOD-Omaha]; a-loⁿ-ka-ha (alⁿkaha) - on both sides [Kaw]

 

snake, garter snake

we-sa i-shta-xe (wsʔa itxe) - garter snake

cf. we-sa (wsʔa) - snake; i-shta-xe (itxe) - frenchman, whiteman

Dhegiha: we-sa (wsa) - snake, serpent [Omaha/Ponca]; we-sa (wa) - snake, serpent [Omaha]; we-sa (wĕ́-să) - a serpent, a snake [JOD-Omaha]; we-ʰtsa (w-ṭsa) - reptile, snake [FL-Osage]; we-tsa (wcʔa) - snake, serpent, viper [CQ-Osage]; we-tsa (wtsa) - snake [Kaw]

 

snake, rattlesnake

we-sa-xti (wsʔaxti) - rattlesnake, real snake

we-sa-xti (wsʔaxti) - rattlesnake [ASG]

cf. we-sa (wsʔa) - snake; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: we-sa-xti kde-zhe (wsʔaxti kde) - spotted rattle snake, spotted real serpent [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-sa sa-thu (wsa sath) - rattlesnake [Omaha/Ponca]; we-sa sa-thu (wĕ́-sa sa-) - a rattlesnake [JOD-Omaha]; sa-thu (athu) - rattle snake [Omaha]; she-ʰki (sh-ḳi) - rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; we-ʰtsa siⁿ-dse e-goⁿ (wṭsa-iⁿ-dse e-goⁿ) - resembling a rattlesnakes tail [FL-Osage]; we-tsa siⁿ-je o-ya-ha (wtsa sⁿje oyha) - rattlesnake, lit. the snake with a tail [Kaw]; we-tsa siⁿ-je yi-shkaⁿ-shke (wtsa sⁿje yishkⁿshke) - rattlesnake [Kaw]

we-tsa she-ku (wtsa shek) - rattlesnake [Kaw]

 

snake, serpent

we-sa (wsʔa) - snake

we-sa (wsʔa) - snake [MS]

we-sa (w˙sʔa) - snake [FS]

we-sa (wsa) - snake [ASG]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe (wsʔa odhi kʰe) - she changed into a serpent [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-sa (wsa) - snake, serpent [Omaha/Ponca]; we-sa (wa) - snake, serpent [Omaha]; we-sa (wĕ́-să) - a serpent, a snake [JOD-Omaha]; we-ʰtsa (w-ṭsa) - reptile, snake [FL-Osage]; we-tsa (wcʔa) - snake, serpent, viper [CQ-Osage]; we-tsa (wtsa) - snake [Kaw]

 

snap or bite at and miss

da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at bda-kʰiⁿ-te (bdkʰįtte) - I, ta-kʰiⁿ-te (ttkʰįtte) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte) - miss, slip pushing something; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface; di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte) - rub a slippery surface; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte) - strike at and miss; kiⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (kk̨kkįtt) - slippery; naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it; po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting

Dhegiha: ya-khiⁿ-je (yakhⁿje) - snap at and miss, fail in speaking [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-kshiⁿ-dse (ba-kshⁿ-dse) - to miss an object at which a thrust is made, to scrape a hide [FL-Osage]; wa-kshiⁿ-dse (w-kshiⁿ-dse) - to miss hitting them [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-kshiⁿ-dse (noⁿ-kshⁿ-dse) - barely missing an object in kicking at it [FL-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-dse (thi-kshⁿ-dse) - failure to get a good grasp or hold [FL-Osage]; ka-kshiⁿ-tse (kak̨ce) - miss a target, miss out on by arriving late [CQ-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-tse (ik̨ce) - miss, fail at, be incorrect at, not get right, drop, let slip, let slip away [CQ-Osage]; ba-khiⁿ-je (bakhⁿje) - miss, slip with a spear, to fail in cutting an object with a knife [Kaw]

 

da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss bda-knoⁿ-da (bdknǫda) - I, ta-knoⁿ-da (ttknǫda) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: ya-laⁿ-ya (yalⁿya), ya-laⁿ-ye (ylaⁿye) - miss with the mouth, as when trying to bite or swallow something, deceive, call names, lie [Kaw]

 

snap the fingers

di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers bdi-ta-zhe (bdttae) - I, ti-ta-zhe (ttttae) - you

cf. di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - popping sound, make with mouth; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte), ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

snapping or crackling sound

di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping bdi-ta-ze (bdttaze) - I, ti-ta-ze (ttttaze) - you

cf. di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting; ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks; naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - crack, make noise by stepping; ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

ex: naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree lit. cracks across the grain

Dhegiha: thi-da-ze (thidze) - to make the sound z+! once, as thunder does [Omaha/Ponca]

 

snapping, make a popping or snapping sound

di-to-pe-de (dittpped) - make popping, snapping sound bdi-to-pe-de (bdttopped) - I, ti-to-pe-de (ttttopped) - you

 

snarl or growl as a dog or wolf

xniⁿ-ke (xnįk), xdiⁿ-ke (xdįk) - growl, snarl as a dog or wolf

cf. di-xdiⁿ-ke (dixd̨ke), di-xniⁿ-ke (dixn̨ke) - to make growl

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ (qthiⁿ) - to snarl or growl, like a dog or wolf [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl [Omaha]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl of an animal [FL-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - growl, as a dog or wolf [Kaw]

 

snatch up bits

o-ti-ti wa-ba-hi (ttitti wabahi) - snatch up bits

cf. o-ti-ti (ttitti) - hurry in doing something, quickly; wa-ba-hi (wabhi) - pick up food as birds, animals; ba-hi (bhi) - to pick, grab; ki-ba-hi (kibhi) - to pick up ones own [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ba-hi (w-ba-hi) - to gather them together [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ba-hi (wa-b-hi) - to graze as animals; a grazing place, a place of resort for game; to gather together or collect pieces of meat to give to the chiefs, the act of a brave; wa-ba-hi (wbahi) - collection; graze [Omaha]; wa-ba-hi (wa-b-hi) - to graze, grazing; to pick, choose, or select them [FL-Osage]; wa-pa-hi (wapahi) - pick, choose, or select people or things [CQ-Osage]

 

sneeze

he-shiⁿ (hį) - sneeze a-he-shiⁿ (ahį) - I, da-he-shiⁿ (dahį) - you

cf. he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (hį tį) - feel a sneeze coming on

Dhegiha: he-chʰiⁿ (hchʰiⁿ) - sneeze, to sneeze [Omaha/Ponca]; he-chiⁿ (he chiⁿ) - sneeze [Omaha]; he-tshiⁿ (htciⁿ) - to sneeze [JOD-Omaha]; he-tsiⁿ (h-tsiⁿ) - to sneeze [FL-Osage]; he-tsʰiⁿ (hchį) - sneeze [CQ-Osage]; he-chiⁿ (héchiⁿ) - sneeze [Kaw]

 

sneeze, feel a sneeze coming on

he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (hį tį) - feel a sneeze coming on a-he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (ahį tį) - I, da-he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (dahį tį) - you

cf. he-shiⁿ (hį) - sneeze; ti-aⁿ (tį) to feel like, somewhat

Dhegiha: he-chʰiⁿ (hchʰiⁿ) - sneeze, to sneeze [Omaha/Ponca]; he-chiⁿ (he chiⁿ) - sneeze [Omaha]; he-tshiⁿ (htciⁿ) - to sneeze [JOD-Omaha]; he-tsiⁿ (h-tsiⁿ) - to sneeze [FL-Osage]; he-tsʰiⁿ (hchį) - sneeze [CQ-Osage]; he-chiⁿ (héchiⁿ) - sneeze [Kaw]

 

sniff

o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something o-bdi-bnaⁿ (obdbną) - I, o-ti-bnaⁿ (ottbną) - you

cf. bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor; di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands)

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - he sniffed/smelt [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-di-bnaⁿ taⁿ, ho-hoo! xwiⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ye (kįttą odbną tą, hoho xw̨ attah, iy) - then when he sniffed, he said, Why! That smells really bad!

ex: o-di-bnaⁿ, i-ya-we, hoⁿ-hoⁿ, xwiⁿ hi, i-yi (odbną, iywe, hǫhǫ xwį h, iy) - he smelled (his fingers), they say, oh my, that smells really bad/offensive, he said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

ex: o-wa-di-bnaⁿ (wadbną) - he smelled them [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-bthoⁿ (uthbthoⁿ) - scent an odor, smell an odor, inhale an odor [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-bthoⁿ (u-th-bthoⁿ) - to smell [FL-Osage]; o-thi-braⁿ (obrą) - smoke, cause to smell, as in making cedar smoke for a cleansing or a blessing, lit., wherein one causes there to emanate an odor [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-blaⁿ (oyblaⁿ) - smell something, sniff at something [Kaw]

 

snip into shreds (with scissors)

ka-zi-zi-di (kazzid) - snip into shreds (with scissors) a-zi-zi-di (zizidi) - I, da-zi-zi-di (dzizidi) - you

cf. ka-zi-zi-te (kazzitte) - fringe; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge

 

snipe

ni-taⁿ i-ki-he (nitt̨ ikih) - aquatic wader, loon, snipe, etc.

cf. ni-taⁿ i-ki-he taⁿ-ka (nitt̨ ikih tt̨ka) - snipe, jack snipe

 

ni-taⁿ i-ki-he taⁿ-ka (nitt̨ ikih tt̨ka) - snipe, jack snipe

cf. ni-taⁿ i-ki-he (nitt̨ ikih) - aquatic wader, loon, snipe, etc.; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

snot, nasal mucus

pa-xni (ppaxn) - snot, nasal mucus

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; xdi (xdi) - mucous, pus, corruption

Dhegiha: pa-xthiⁿ (paqthⁿ) - nasal mucus, nasal excretion, snot [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-xthiⁿ (paxthiⁿ) - snot [Omaha]; ʰpa-xthiⁿ (p̣a-xthⁿ) - mucus from the nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-liⁿ (ʰpal̨), ʰpa-ʰliⁿ (ʰpaʰlį), ʰpa-li (ʰpali) - mucus from the nose, runny nose, snot [CQ-Osage]; pa-xliⁿ (paxlⁿ) - nasal mucus, snot [Kaw]

 

snow

po-i-de (pode) - snow

po-i-de (pide) - snow [MS, MR, OM]

po-i-de (pite) - snow [ASG]

po-i-de (p'wDe) - snow [FS]

po-i-de tʰe (pĭte t) - it snows (falls) [ASG]

Dhegiha: ba hiu-the (ba hi-the) - snowing; snowstorm [FL-Osage]; pa hu-the (p he) - snow, snowfall, snow coming down, falling snow [CQ-Osage]; ba hu-ye (ba húye) - to snow, be snowing; the time when snow come [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ma (ma) - snow [Omaha/Ponca]; ma (ma) - snow [Omaha]; ba (ba) - snow [FL-Osage]; pa (p) - snow [CQ-Osage]; ba (ba) - snow [Kaw]

 

snow, cover as with snow

a-ka-ti-ze (kattize) - cover, as with snow; said with snow is blown on top of other snow, logs, the ground, etc.

ex: aⁿ-ka-ti-ze (̨kattize) - cover, as with snow onto me

ex: a-di-ka-ti-ze (dikattize) - cover, as with snow onto you

 

snow, hide something by covering it up with blowing snow

a-ka-naⁿ-da (kan̨da) - hide something by covering it up with blowing dust, snow, shoveled dirt, etc. a-a-ka-naⁿ-da (akan̨da) - I, a-da-ka-naⁿ-da (dakan̨da) - you

Dhegiha: a-ga-naⁿ-tha (-ga-naⁿ́-a) - to blow dust or snow over an object and conceal it, as wood, footprints, etc.; to hoe the ground, throwing the displaced soil over an object hiding it from view [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-noⁿ-ya (ganoⁿya) - fill up, knock a cover onto, conceal a hole by hitting the ground with a stick [Kaw]

 

snow, pelt or hit with snow

o-do-tʰiⁿ (odtʰį) - pelt, hit with snow, mud, etc. o-do-a-tʰiⁿ (odatʰį) - I, o-do-da-tʰiⁿ (oddatʰį) - you

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

Dhegiha: u-tʰiⁿ (utʰⁿ) - to hit or strike him [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ) - beat, hit, spank, strike, a blow, club [Omaha]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drub, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

snow, stick or adhere as snow

a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow

cf. a-da (da) - glue on, glue feathers on an arrow

ex: aⁿ-da-ska (̨daska) - it sticks to me

ex: naⁿ-pe ti aⁿ-da-ska (nąp-tti ̨daska) - it sticks to my hands

ex: a-di-da-ska (didska) - it sticks to you

ex: wa-da-ska-we (wdaskwe) - it sticks to us

Dhegiha: a-tha-ska-be (thaskabe) - to stick to, to adhere to, as mucilage, (said of one object) [Omaha/Ponca]; a-tha-ska-be-the (thaskbethe) - to cause to adhere; to seal [Omaha/Ponca]; we-a-tha-ska-ba-the (weatha ka bathe) - paste; glue; adhesive tape [Omaha]

 

snow, to walk while fine snow is blowing on him

a-ka-sho-te maⁿ-niⁿ (katte mąn̨) - to walk while fine dust or snow is blowing on him

cf. a-ka-sho-te (katte) - fine dust, to have fine dust blown upon one; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

ex: aⁿ-ka-sho-te a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ (̨katte am̨bdį) - I walk while dust is blowing on me

ex: a-di-ka-sho-te da-maⁿ-tiⁿ (dikatte dam̨tį) - you walk while dust is blowing on you

Dhegiha: a-ga-shu-de moⁿ-thiⁿ (gashude moⁿthⁿ) - walk while dust or fine snow is blowing on him [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: ga-shu-de (gashde) - to raise a dust or smoke, to blow up a cloud of dust, sand, or snow, as the wind does; said also of a driving snow-storm; to raise a dust, as by beating carpets out of doors [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-sho-dse (ga-sh-dse) - the filling of the air by dust blown by strong wind [FL-Osage]

 

snowballs, pack with hands as snowballs

di-ski-ski-ke (diskskike) - pack, e.g. snowballs, with hands bdi-ski-ski-ke (bdskiskike) - I, ti-ski-ski-ke (ttskiskike) - you

cf. di-ski-ke (diskke) - clench, pack in the hands; noⁿ-pe di-ski-ke (nǫp diskke) - clench the fist

Dhegiha: thi-ski-ke (iiskke) - wad up, bring the parts of a whole together with pressure, bring components into contact, make a fist, grind together, gather [CQ-Osage]; yu-ski-ge (yuskge) - clench [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be thi-ski-ge (noⁿ-b thi-ki-ge) - hand folded, the fist [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-pe a-ski-ke (nǫǫp askke) - fist [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-be yu-ski-ge (naⁿb yuskge) - to make a fist, clench the fist [Kaw]

 

snowbird

po-i-de-tiⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka (podett̨ wąka) - snowbird

cf. po-i-de (pode) - snow; wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird

 

snowstorm, blizzard

i-ka-sho-te (katte) - blizzard

cf. cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; sho-te (tte) - smoke; a-ka-sho-te (katte) - fine dust, to have fine dust blown upon one; ma-sho-te (matte) - fog; ma-sho-sho-te (motte) - dust

Dhegiha: i-ga-shu-de (gashde) - blizzard, severe storm such as is known in Nebraska and Dakota [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ga-sho-de (iga shude) - blizzard, snowstorm [Omaha]; ba-ga-sho-dse (b-ga-sho-dse) - a blizzard [FL-Osage]

 

so

kaⁿ (k̨) - so

ex: kaⁿ naⁿ (ką ną) - so/when [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-de hi-de naⁿ aⁿ-di-xe (ką ną ąn̨de hde n̨ ądixe) - so when he saw me, he chased me [JOD]

ex: e-zhi i kaⁿ hi (ką h) - another or different one/like/very [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ (k̨ hi ą) - so/very/I laid [JOD]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ąkaze h k̨ hi ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: di-e-hoⁿ e-ti-koⁿ i-ha pa-zhiⁿ-zhe e-naⁿ-pa o-do-ki-di-shpa-shpa-zhi koⁿ iⁿ (dehǫ ettik̨ ha ppąe en̨p͓a odkkidpapa k̨ į) - you too/that way/mouth/nose/it too/you (are) split in many places/so (=like)/period [JOD]

ex: ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de (ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - into the house/so/she carried her own [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

 

kaⁿ-iⁿ (k̨į), kaⁿ-hiⁿ (kąh̨) - so

ex: kaⁿ-iⁿ de (k̨į d) - so she went [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ki-kniⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ ba-ha-ha-ta ho-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ de (̨keknį akknį ̨tą bahhatta httą k̨į d) - horse/she sat on her own/when/trotting/good/so/she went [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-iⁿ hi (k̨į hi) - started off [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-iⁿ kde (k̨į kd) - just as she was starting home [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kde taⁿ hoⁿ-pe ki-di-shto-ta-wi (kįttą ̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨ tą k̨į kd tą hǫp kidtottwi) - then/horse/to the standing/she sat on her own/when/just as she was starting home/when/shoe/they pulled it off from her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then/just as they started home/when/shoe/other one/on one side/pull ye it off from her/he was saying it to them/it is said-police [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-hiⁿ kniⁿ (kąh̨ knį) - so she sat awhile [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-iⁿ te (k̨į tt) - so dressed as a female [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka ho-taⁿ a-ta-pa-xti kaⁿ-iⁿ te ki de (miik httą ttapxti k̨į tt ki d) - girl/good/altogether/so dressed as a female/when/she went [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-iⁿ tʰaⁿ (k̨į tʰ̨) - she stood so awhile [JOD]

 

so ever

e-hi-te (ehitt) - so ever [JOD]

cf. hi-te (hitt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever; i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun marker, -ever

ex: ha-ki e-hi-te (hak ehitt) - where/so ever = anywhere [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

 

so far, the end

ka e-she-tʰaⁿ-ki (k-etʰąk), ka i-she-tʰaⁿ-kʰi (k-itʰąkʰ) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

ka i-she-tʰaⁿ (k-ietʰ̨) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

cf. ka (k) - that; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

ex: e she-mi i-ta-de taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ ka-i-she-tʰaⁿ hi taⁿ e-hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe te ( mi ttad tą nąh̨ ik h tą k-itʰą h tą eh̨ nįkʰ tʔe) - when the girl that was born reached puberty her mother died [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that far (and no farther); that long (and no longer); the end [Omaha/Ponca]; she-tʰoⁿ (shtʰoⁿ) - that length; that short [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that so far; as far as that; till then (and no longer); past time; from that time onward [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ-ki hnoⁿ (shtʰoⁿki hnⁿ) - about that length would be long enough [Omaha/Ponca]

 

so I moved

koi-sha-ni-he (kinihe) - so I moved [JOD]

cf. ko-i-she (kie) - so [JOD]; koi-shaⁿ (kią) - so or of that sort; a-ni-he (anih) - 1st person singular, I continuative moving

 

so it is

e-te (ett) - so it is [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are telling the truth [JOD]

 

so much as, even

ke-hi-te (khitte) - even, so much as

cf. e-hi-te (hitte) - so ever [JOD]; cf. hi-te (hitt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever; i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun marker, -ever

 

so shall it be

e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall

ex: e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so/will be [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te (te) - future sign, will, let, please [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, let, allow, have, tell, lets; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

so they were so

koⁿ pa (kǫ p) - so they were so [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; a-pa (apa) - 3rd person plural continuative aspect marker, plural of ; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects

ex: koi-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

 

so, aforementioned words or manner

ko-i-she (kie) - so [JOD]

ko-i-she (kie) - aforementioned words or manner

cf. ko-i-she (koi), (kie) - that; that part [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-niⁿ (kie ̨nį) - he has been treating me so [JOD]

 

so, after being so awhile

shoⁿ-ni-kʰa (ǫ-nikʰ) - after they had been so awhile [JOD]

cf. ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫ-n̨) - as she moved, after he ran awhile, after he moved awhile [JOD]

cf. niⁿ (nį) - 3rd person singular, he or she continuative moving; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de, iywe) - then, after he had sought him for some time, he found him, they said [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨-nįkʰ) - after sitting awhile

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

ex: e-ti da-tʰe shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-niⁿ da-we (tti datʰ ̨-nįkʰ tt̨nį dwe) - he sat there eating while they ran away [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-tʰaⁿ (ǫ-tʰ̨) - after he stood awhile [JOD]

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing one; the standing object [JOD]

 

so, do so or as someone has said or done

e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ), e-ki-oⁿ (kiʔǫ) - do as someone has said or done e-ki-moⁿ (kimǫ) - I, e-ki-zhoⁿ (kiǫ) - you

cf. oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - use, do, be

ex: e-ki-oⁿ (kį) - do that [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de ta-i, e-koⁿ te e-ki-oⁿ! sni-wa-te i-yi i-ya (ąn̨de tta, kǫ tte kį! sniwtte iy iy) - we shall see, do so! it is said that Winter said [JOD]

ex: kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de (kdahhe kiǫ-kkid) - he caused him to do so at short intervals [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid tʰą ną, iy) - at that time, he (Rabbit) made him (Rabbits son) do it repeatedly, it is said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-oⁿ (̨kį) - he treated mine [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I think that he has been treating my kinsman so, it is said the Rabbits son said

Dhegiha: e-gi-oⁿ (-g-oⁿ) - to do so [FL-Osage]; e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ) - do something, proceed or go ahead with something, can, be able to [CQ-Osage]; e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ), e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ) - do so, do that to another, do something [Kaw]

 

so, is that so

hoⁿ-e (h̨e) - is that so? [OM]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; e (e) - question sign

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband, they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

 

so, just so

e-kaⁿ-xti (kąxt), e-koⁿ-xti (ek̨xti) - really, just so

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ-xti tʰi-kde naⁿ, iya (ę ek̨xt tʰikd ną, iy) - then suddenly it became just like that (as rabbit had hoped), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ-xti do-ti te (ek̨xti dtti tt) - just so/it came up [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ-xti (-gaⁿ-qti) - just so; exactly so; to be just so [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ-xti (egoⁿxti) - truly, truth, truthful [Omaha]; e-goⁿ-xtsi (e-gⁿ-xtsi) - exaxt, precise, downright, real, in reality [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ-xtsi (ek̨xci) - correct, correctly [CQ-Osage]

 

e-shoⁿ-xti (ęxti) - just so [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-xti (shⁿqti), shoⁿ-xchi (shⁿqchi) - just so, in spite of, not withstanding, all at once, right away [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-xtsi ʰpa-xe (shoⁿ-xtsi p̣a-xe) - all of them I have made to be [FL-Osage]

 

so, laying so awhile

kaⁿ-kʰe (ką-k) - she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing); so she lay awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ex: wa-tʰe naⁿ ki-ka-ze kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (watʰ ną kikze ką-kʰ iywe) - dress/only(?)/it flew up on her/she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing)/they say [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals/she did it/when/she looked at him/she sent it off/so she lay awhile/they say [JOD]

 

so, like, as, thus, like that

e-koⁿ (ek̨), (kǫ), e-kaⁿ (ek̨), (eką), a-kaⁿ (ką) - so, like, as, thus, like that

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ (kįttą ką) - then/so [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke taⁿ a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (kįttą ką nį hąp͓ hąke t̨ ate tį attah) - so then it was almost day when I had a strong urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zhamiⁿ (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨) - yes/so/I thought that [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zhamiⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - yes, I thought it was so! said the Rabbit [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ (kǫ nį) - so/the moving one or it was [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zh-ka da-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (kǫ nį ow hi ate ka dad k̨ mįkʰ) - so, I urinated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - so or like that/very/I make it/will [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - I will make it like that [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ naⁿ, iya (ę ek̨ ną, iy) - and it was so, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

ex: e-koⁿ do-ti te-ka-ha ka-xe (ek̨ dtti ttekaha kγe) - so/to come up or forth/he made it [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - did so (3rd. person) [JOD]

ex: shi e-koⁿ (i ek̨) - you reached there/as [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ, te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya (ę i ek̨, tʔdidawĕ, iy nį, iy) - then you went and thus, they killed you, she was saying, it is said [JOD]

ex: o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ (odwaki ek̨) - he sided with them/as [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ, za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ, i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke, nkkaka odwaki ek̨, zan-xti tʔwade k̨da ną, iy) - therefore rabbit, who sided with the Indians, wanted to kill all of the black bears, it is said [JOD]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

ex: shi-zhi-ka e-koⁿ (ika ek̨) - child/like [JOD]

ex: ee! i-yi i-ya wa-pa-iⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, shi-zhi-ka e-koⁿ (ee! iy iy wappą nįkʰ, ika ek̨) - the blood said, Yes, just like a child [JOD]

ex: e-zhi hi e-koⁿ (i h ek̨) - another or different one/very/like [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti pʰi a-ni-he (ek̨ wąąnkext pʰ anih) - as/I in a very bad humor/I have been coming [JOD]

ex: i-kaⁿ aⁿ-xdi hi tʰe, e-koⁿ wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti pʰi a-ni-he (ikk̨ ̨xdi hi tʰe, ek̨ wąąnkext pʰ anih) - my grandmother almost beat the life out of me, so I have been coming in a very bad mood [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

 

so, moving so awhile

kaⁿ a-ni-he (k̨-anih) - so I move awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; a-ni-he (anih) - 1st person singular, I continuative moving

ex: ex: iⁿ-ta-te, da-knoⁿ-ke koⁿ-bda, she-mi ke a-wa-ki-shka-te kaⁿ-a-ni-he koⁿ-bda (įttatt, dknǫk kkǫbd, mi ke awkiktte k̨-anih kkǫbd) - father, I want you to marry her, I want to play with the girls [JOD]

 

kaⁿ niⁿ (ką-n̨) - so he was moving awhile, so he moved awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; niⁿ (nį) - 3rd person singular, he or she continuative moving; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

 

so, not so

hoⁿ-zhi (hǫ) - not so [JOD]

hoⁿ-zhi (h̨i) - no [MS, AG, OM]

hoⁿ-zhi (h̨i), (hǫ) - no

hoⁿ-zhi (hongi) - no or nothing (non ou rien) [GI]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-ti-mi, wi-e-hi-taⁿ naⁿ-pe aⁿ-taⁿ (hǫ, wttim, wihitt̨ n̨ppe ątt̨) - no! my aunt (my fathers sister), even I have something to fear [JOD]

ex: wi-zhiⁿ-de, hoⁿ-zhi! (wįde, h̨i!) - no, elder brother! [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi e-de, wi-zhiⁿ-de (h̨i ed, wįde) - no indeed, elder brother!

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-zhiⁿ-de, he-be a-ki-kiⁿ koⁿ-bda, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨i, wįde, hbe akkʔį kkǫbd, iy iy mat̨ke) - no, my elder brother, I want to carry my own piece, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, di-e kiⁿ e-ka! (h̨i, de kʔ̨ ek!) - no, carry it yourself! [JOD]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-zhi (hoⁿ-zhi) - not good [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ka-zhi (ákajǐ) - no [JOD-Omaha]; uⁿ-ka-zhi (uⁿkazhi) - no, never [Omaha]; hoⁿ-ʰka-zhi (hⁿ-ḳa-zhi), oⁿ-ʰka-zhi (ⁿ-ḳa-zhi) - no, not so, not [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka-zhi (h̨ąʰkai) - no [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ka-zhi (hⁿkazhi) - no, used by both male and female [Kaw]

 

hoⁿ-aⁿ-zhi (h̨ą) - no [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-aⁿ-zhi i-he aⁿ-maⁿ (h̨ą ihĕ ąm̨) - I usually say no [JOD]

 

so, of that sort, in that case

koi-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]

koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so they did (in the past), they say [JOD]

 

so, sitting so awhile

kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (k̨-miⁿkʰ) - I was so for awhile; I stay there awhile; so I sat awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1st person singular continuative sitting; I who sit

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so as I was sitting there, I urinated a little, I sent a little off [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ miⁿ-kʰeʰ ta miⁿ-kʰe (gaⁿmike ta mike) - I will sit here for sometime [JOD-Omaha]

 

kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ) - so he or she sat awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe wa-te-zo-knaⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nįkʰ wattzokn̨ tą k̨ nįkʰ) - the woman was pregnant [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ a-te, i-ya-we, a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-shi kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we (ą tte iywe, abakk kį mąi k̨-nįkʰ, iywe) - she climbed high up into a crooked tree and sat there, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke o-ki-te a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxtąi ke oktte ttą dekid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them and she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

ex: te-zhe zhi-ka hi-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we, o-do-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe a-te-zhe naⁿ, i-ya-we (te ka hde k̨-nįkʰ, iywe, dotʰe nįkʰ tee ną, iywe) - as she sat awhile, she urinated a little, they say, she urinated upon the man eater, they say [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ ǫ-nįkʰ) - so he sat awhile/he acted differently as he sat [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti, ke naⁿ, iya (ę k̨-nįkʰ tti, k ną, iy) - when he sat for some time [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti, ke naⁿ, iya (ę k̨-nįkʰ tti, k ną, iy) - and when he (Rabbits son) had sat for some time, he (Rabbits son) said the following, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ thiⁿ-kʰe (gaⁿ ike) - he sits a little while [JOD-Omaha]

 

kaⁿ ni-kʰa (k̨-nikʰ) - so they were awhile; so they had been awhile; so they were [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ką-ąn̨kʰe) - we sit awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ąn̨kʰe), oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - I and one other, 1st person dual continuative sitting

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

 

kaⁿ-hiⁿ kniⁿ (kąh̨ knį) - so she sat awhile [JOD]

cf. kaⁿ (k̨) - so; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting

 

koⁿ-de tʰe (kǫd tʰe) - they were all sitting [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke naⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi ki-pa-tʰe koⁿ-de tʰe niⁿ naⁿ (mika i ke-ną wah̨ska httą h kipptʰe kǫd tʰe n̨ ną) - girl/other/the plural/only/calico/good/very/sewing their own/they were all sitting/the (class.)/past sign [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ tʰe (gⁿ-te) - awhile, for some time [JOD-Omaha]

 

so, standing so awhile

kaⁿ a-tʰaⁿ-he (k̨-atʰ̨he) - while I stood [JOD]

ex: ta-bde kaⁿ-a-tʰaⁿ-he si-ka i-ta da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-da-ki-ho-shi (tbde k̨-atʰ̨he skka itt datʰ dikn̨ tą idkiho) - while I was hunting, she decided to eat a chicken egg, which I had forbidden her to do [JOD]

 

kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (ką-tʰ̨) - he was standing so awhile; so he stood awhile [JOD]

kaⁿ-iⁿ tʰaⁿ (k̨į tʰ̨) - she stood so awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kda-i ke-ni-te ka-ki niⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kʰi a-taⁿ we-da-niⁿ shi-ke he-naⁿ i-da-ki-kda-niⁿ a-taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ki-we (kįttą ett̨nį kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨nį kʰ ttą wdanį ke hną idkikdnį ttą ką-tʰ̨ tą kwe) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters), and she put on her bad clothes and was there awhile when they (her step-sisters) reached home [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there alone [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ tʰaⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tʰą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

so, then, at length, and when

e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length, and when, so

e-shaⁿ (ą) - then or at length [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe, iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ o-kʰe a-da-shtaⁿ-taⁿ (ę okʰ datąttą) - and when he stopped talking to him....

ex: e-shoⁿ e-ti pa-ze he-be hi a-kde (ę ett ppze hbe h akd) - so already (that) evening I started home

ex: e-shaⁿ e-ti shi-a-pe da-we (ą ett ipe dwe) - then or at length/there/ashore/they went [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te, te paⁿ-ze, e-shaⁿ kde xa-da (̨įtte, tʔ pp̨ze, ą kd xda) - well, I pretended to be dead, then he went back again [JOD]

 

so, thus, accordingly, in that way, then, therefore

koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą, (kįtta), (kiǫttą) - so, thus, accordingly, in that way, then, therefore

koⁿi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kǫįttą) - so

ex: koⁿi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kǫįttą eki bd ttnih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

 

so, well, sentence connective

shaⁿ-iⁿ-te (̨įtte) - well, so, sentence connective

cf. shaⁿ-hi-te (̨hitte) - anyhow, at any rate, despite, notwithstanding

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te, iⁿ-spe i-ba-shte a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi (̨įtte ̨spe bate ąm̨, iy) - well, I think it was accidentally split by falling against an axe, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te, xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de, naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte, xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫde, ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te, te paⁿ-ze, e-shaⁿ kde xa-da (̨įtte, tʔ pp̨ze, ą kd xda) - well, I pretended to be dead, then he went back again [JOD]

 

soak, be wet

shpoⁿ (pǫ) - be wet, soak aⁿ-shpoⁿ (ąp̨) - I, di-shpoⁿ (dip̨) - you

shpoⁿ (pǫ) - wet [MS]

ex: shpoⁿ a-niⁿ ni (pǫ an̨ nį) - when a baby is wet (soaked diaper) [MS]

ex: naⁿ-pe shpoⁿ hi shka-xe (nąp pǫ hi kγe) - you made (make) hand wet [MS]

Dhegiha: shpoⁿ (shpoⁿ) - soaked through and through [Omaha/Ponca]; shpoⁿ (shpoⁿ) - sodden; softened by soaking in water [FL-Osage]; shpoⁿ (p̨ǫ) - softened by soaking in water; soften, become soft, sodden [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shpoⁿ-the (shpⁿthe) - to soak a hide, etc., in water [Omaha/Ponca]; shpoⁿ-the (shpoⁿ-the) - to soak a skin in water in precess of tanning [FL-Osage]; shpaⁿ-ye (shpáⁿye) - soak a hide in water, the fourth stage in dressing it [Kaw]

 

ka-sta-ke (kastke) - be soaked

ex: sta-ke (stke) - wet

Dhegiha: ga-na-xe (ganxe) - soaked through [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-na-xe (ganaxe) - drench [Omaha]; ga-da-xe (ga-d-xe) - to drench; to saturate; to soak through [FL-Osage]

 

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