English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

S

 

sound, buzzing or humming sound

ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

cf. ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte), ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet

 

sound, cracking sound hitting something

ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something a-to-zhe (ttoe) - I, da-to-zhe (dttoe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ba-to-zhe (batte) - crack, make sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - crack, make sound by pressure; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack one's finger joints; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - crack, make sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - cracking sound, make with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - crack, make sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

sound, cracking sound made by burning

ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting

 

sound, crackling or snapping sound

di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping bdi-ta-ze (bdttaze) - I, ti-ta-ze (ttttaze) - you

cf. di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting; ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks; naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - crack, make noise by stepping; ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

ex: naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree lit. cracks across the grain

Dhegiha: thi-da-ze (thidze) - to make the sound "z+!" once, as thunder does [Omaha/Ponca]

 

sound, crackling sound by biting

da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting bda-ta-ze (bdttaze) - I, ta-ta-ze (ttttaze) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks; naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - crack, make noise by stepping; ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

 

sound, crackling sound of sticks

ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks a-ta-ze (ttaze) - I, da-ta-ze (dttaze) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting; di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - crack, make noise by stepping; ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

Dhegiha: ga-da-da-ze (gaddaze) - to make the sound heard in hitting small and thin pieces of metal with an ax, hatchet, hammer, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

 

sound, grating sound from probing

po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing po-a-ka-xe (pakʔxe) - I, po-da-ka-xe (pdakʔxe) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting

Dhegiha: mu-a-xe (maxe) - to make the (grating) sound of shooting against iron or a bone and glancing off  [Omaha/Ponca]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]

 

sound, hissing or cutting sound

di-kaⁿ (dik̨) - hissing or cutting sound bdi-kaⁿ (bdką) - I, ti-kaⁿ (ttką) - you

 

sound, make a crack sound by pressure

bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure pi-to-zhe (ppttoe) - I, shpi-to-zhe (pttoe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

sound, make a crack sound by pushing

ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing pa-to-zhe (ppttoe) - I, shpa-to-zhe (pttoe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

sound, make a crack sound by thrusting

po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting po-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, po-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

sound, make a crack sound by treading

naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading a-naⁿ-to-zhe (an̨ttoe) - I, da-naⁿ-to-zhe (dan̨ttoe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

sound, make a cracking sound with a knife

pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife pa-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, pa-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you, pa-oⁿ-to-zha-we (pǫttawe) - we

cf. pa (p)  - by cutting with a knife; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

sound, make a dull sound

ka-xa-xa-da (kaxxada) - thump, make a dull sound a-xa-xa-da (xaxada) - I, da-xa-xa-da (dxaxada) - you

cf. di-xa-xa-da (dixxada) - clatter, noise of planks; ka-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

 

sound, make a gnawing sound

da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound

cf. da (da) - by mouth; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: tha-ka-xe (thakxe) - grating sound, gnaw, to make a grating noise by gnawing as a rat does [Omaha/Ponca]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

sound, make a grating sound

da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound

cf. da (da) - by mouth; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

sound, make a grating sound with the feet

naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet a-naⁿ-ka-xe (an̨kʔaxe) - I, da-naⁿ-ka-xe (dan̨kʔaxe) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]

 

sound, make a popping or snapping sound

di-to-pe-de (dittpped) - make popping or snapping sound bdi-to-pe-de (bdttopped) - I, ti-to-pe-de (ttttopped) - you

 

sound, make a popping sound with the mouth

da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth bda-ta-zhe (bdttae) - I, ta-ta-zhe (ttttae) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

sound, make a scraping sound

ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound a-ka-xe (kʔaxe) - I, da-ka-xe (dkʔaxe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ga-a-xe (gaxe) - to make the sound heard when a bone or metal is hit; to strike an object and glance off [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]

 

sound, make a tearing sound

di-so-wa-de (disowde) - make tearing sound bdi-so-wa-de (bdsowde) - I, ti-so-wa-de (ttsowde) -you

 

sound, make a whooshing sound

ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte), ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound

cf. ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet

 

sound, make grating sound by gnawing on

a-da-xi (daxʔi) - make grating sound by gnawing on, as a rat gnawing on wood or metal

cf. a-pa-xi (paxʔi) - cut meat from the bone; ka-xi (kaxʔ) - scrape, as hair from a hide

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta wa-hi a-da-xi (̨ke ttawhi daxʔ) - the dog gnawed the deer bone

 

sound, make rustling sound

di-xo-xo-wa-de (dixxowde) - rustle, make rustling sound bdi-xo-xo-wa-de (bdxoxowde) - I, ti-xo-xo-wa-de (ttxoxowde) - you

cf. ka-xo-wa-de (kaxwade) - pattering sound; ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet; ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

 

sound, make scratching sound

ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound pa-ka-xe (ppkʔaxe) - I, shpa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]

 

sound, onomatopoeia

chʰo-kʰe (čʰokʰ) - it sounded chʰo (čʰo) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

 

sound, pattering sound

ka-xo-wa-de (kaxwade) - pattering sound

cf. di-xo-xo-wa-de (dixxowde) - rustle, make rustling sound; ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet; ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ka-xo-wa-de i-naⁿ, i-ya-we (kįttą ̨tʰį dde ną kaxwade in̨, iywe) - then he threw the club/stick, when it alighted suddenly making the sound po from hitting the ground, they say [JOD]

 

sound, popping sound from pressing

bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing pi-ta-zhe (ppttae) - I, shpi-ta-zhe (pttae) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

sound, ringing sound

ka-da (kda) - ringing sound

cf. ka-ka-da (kakda) - bell; di-ka-da (dikda) - ring a bell pulling the rope

 

sound, ringing sound in the ear

ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte m̨tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

cf. ni-xi-te (niγtte) - inner ear, opening of the ear, hearing; maⁿ-tʰe (m̨tʰe) - inside, in, within, under; tiⁿiⁿ (tt̨̨) - ringing sound in the ear, onomatopoeia

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de (noⁿxide) - ear, the inner hearing organ [Omaha]; na-xi-de (naxde) - ear [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse (noⁿ-x-dse) - the internal, that which holds the hearing orifice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse (nąąγce) - ear, inner ear, act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je (nighje) - the external ear, sense of hearing [Kaw]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-te (mⁿ-te) - in, into, within [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-te (moⁿte) - inside [Omaha]; moⁿ-tse (mⁿ-tse) - in the deepest of secret places [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe (mącʰ) - in the center of something, centrally located, within, underneath [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-che (mⁿche) - underneath, within [Kaw]

 

sound, scratching sound by pressing

bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing pi-ka-xe (ppkʔaxe) - I, shpi-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]

 

sound, thrust and cause popping sound

po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound po-a-ta-zhe (patte) - I, po-da-ta-zhe (pdatte) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

sound, to make a popping sound

ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound

 

sound, to make a popping sound from pushing

ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing pa-ta-zhe (ppttae) - I, shpa-ta-zhe (pttae) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

sound, whizzing sound

ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet

cf. ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte), ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound; ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

 

sounds, make rustling sounds

di-sa-sa-da (dissada) - rustle, make such sounds bdi-sa-sa-da (bdsasada) - I, ti-sa-sa-da (ttsasada) - you

 

di-xo-xo-wa-de (dixxowde) - rustle, make rustling sound bdi-xo-xo-wa-de (bdxoxowde) - I, ti-xo-xo-wa-de (ttxoxowde) - you

cf. ka-xo-wa-de (kaxwade) - pattering sound; ka-xo-xo-te (kaxxotte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (kax̨xǫtte) - make a whooshing sound; ka-xoⁿ-te (kax̨tte) - whizzing sound, as a bullet; ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

 

sounds, one of the sounds of thunder

di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder

cf. di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, exploding water; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - to cause burst by burning

Dhegiha: thi-tʰu-xi (thitʰqi) - to make a crackling sound by pulling [Omaha/Ponca]

 

sounds, scratching sounds

di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog

cf. di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: thi-a-a-xe (thiaxe) - to make a succession of grating or scratching sounds, as when a dog scratches against a door, or a person feels in the dark for a door-knob, or when one knife is sharpened against another [Omaha/Ponca]; yu-ká-ka-ghe (yukákaghe) - make scratching or rattling sounds [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-a-xe (thixe) - to make a single grating or scratching sound [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ka-xe (i-k-xe) - to make a scratching sound, as a dog that wishes to have a door opened [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]

 

soup

ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ) - soup, beef soup

ta-niu-hoⁿ (ttanǘhǫ) - soup [OM]

cf. ta (tta) - meat; ni (ni) - water; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

Dhegiha: ta-ni (tan) - soup [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ni (tani) - broth, soup [Omaha]; ʰta-ni (ṭa-n) - soup, broth, meat water [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ni (ʰtaani) - soup, broth, consomm [CQ-Osage]; ta-niⁿ (ta nⁿ) - soup [Kaw]

 

ta-ni-o-hoⁿ-de (ttanihǫde), ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde) - soup, beef soup

ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde) - soup [MR]

cf. ta (tta) - meat; ni (ni) - water; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil; de (de) - cause

Dhegiha: ta-ni (tan) - soup [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ni (tani) - broth, soup [Omaha]; ʰta-ni (ṭa-n) - soup, broth, meat water [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ni (ʰtaani) - soup, broth, consomm [CQ-Osage]; ta-niⁿ (ta nⁿ) - soup [Kaw]

 

sour

ski-de shi-ge (skde ke) - sour

cf. ski-de (skde) - sweet; shi-ke (ke) - bad

 

ski-de (skde) - sweet, sour

Dhegiha: ski-the (skthe) - sweet, sour [Omaha/Ponca]; ski-the (kithe) - sweet [Omaha]; ski-the (k-the), skiu-e (kiu-e), skiu-the (kiu-the), sku-the (ku-the) - sweet [FL-Osage]; sku-the (ske), sku-e (ske) - sweet [CQ-Osage]; sku-we (skwe) - sweets, be sweet [Kaw]

 

sour, belch with a sour taste

pi-xe (ppxe) - belch with a sour taste a-pi-xe (appxe) - I, da-pi-xe (dappxe) - you, oⁿ-pi-xa-we (ǫppxawe) - we

 

south

a-ka i-de (kʔa id) - south [MS]

cf. a-ka (kʔa) - west wind; a-ka i-de (kʔa id) - the name of the west wind or quarter

Dhegiha: a-a (a) - the south wind (archaic) [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰka (-ḳa) - south, the south wind [FL-Osage]; a-ka-hu-e (akʔahe) - south wind [CQ-Osage]; a-ka (áka) - south, south wind; deity of the south wind, power of the south wind [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ka zhiⁿ-ga (áka zhíⁿga), a-ka-hiⁿ-ga (ákahiⁿga) - west, west wind [Kaw]; a-ko-ye (ákoye) - west wind [Kaw]

 

a-ka-hi-da (gahda) - south, down (south) [ASG]

a-ka-hi-da (kahda) - downstream, downwind, with the wind or current

a-ka-hi-da (akahidah) - New Orleans (Nouvelle Orlans) [GI]

cf. a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream, with his back to the wind; a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast, location, direction, towards the south, downstream

Dhegiha: ni-u-ga-hi-tha (ni--ga-hi-tha) - flow of water; a torrent; a current; the flow of a stream [FL-Osage]

 

o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south [MS]

o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa (u-g-qpa) - those who went down the stream, the kwapas or Quapaws, they were known to the Illinois tribes as the Arkansas or Alkansas, the Ponkas and Omahas us ugaha where the Kwapas do ugaqpa, to denote motion down a stream, with the current, the opposite term in k͓imaⁿhaⁿ [JOD-Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, The down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa-the (ugqpathe) - to make large objects, fruit, leaves, etc., fall from a height by shaking or hitting: to blow down, as the wind does the leaves [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ga-xpa-the (u-g-xpa-the) - to be thrown from a horse [FL-Osage]; o-ga-xpa-ye (ogxpaye) - knock somebody off from a height, as from a horse, perch, etc. [Kaw]

 

o-shti-te (ottte) - south

o-shti-te (ustte) - south [ASG]

cf. shti-te (ttte) - warm, comfortably; di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands; o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ta-shti-te-ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire

Dhegiha: u-shti-de (ushtde) - to be comfortable in, as in bed [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - warm [CQ-Osage]; shtsu-je (shcje) - comfortable [Kaw]

 

south wind

ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off

Dhegiha: ga-xpa (g-xpa) - the east, where the sun rises [FL-Osage]; ga-xpa dsi (g-xpa dsi) - where rises the sun in the east, originally this meant the setting sun [FL-Osage]; ʰta-dse ga-xpa tse (ṭ-dse ga-xpa tse) - east wind, east [FL-Osage]

 

southeast, towards the south, downstream

a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast, location, direction, towards the south, downstream

cf. a-ka-hi-da (kahda) - downstream, downwind, with the wind or current; a-ka-hi-da (akahidah) - New Orleans (Nouvelle Orlans) [GI]; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream; with his back to the wind; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset; mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - northeast, sun - rise (view) - towards; o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side

Dhegiha: ni-u-ga-hi-tha (ni--ga-hi-tha) - flow of water; a torrent; a current; the flow of a stream [FL-Osage]

 

southwest

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

cf. mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset; on the west side

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

space, crack, interval

o-ta-na (ottna) - space, crack, interval

cf. o-ka-ta-na (okttana) - crack something by handling it; o-naⁿ-ta-na (on̨ttana) - crack something by walking on it

Dhegiha: u-taⁿ-na (utaⁿna), u-taⁿ-noⁿ (utaⁿnoⁿ) - between [Omaha]; u-tʰoⁿ-na (utʰⁿna) - between [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰta-noⁿ (u-ṭa-noⁿ) - between [FL-Osage]; o-ʰtaⁿ-naⁿ (oʰt̨ną) - between, in between, the space between things [CQ-Osage]; o-ta-naⁿ (otnaⁿ) - space between two things, e.g. between furrows [Kaw]

 

spade, dig with a spade

di-ko (dikʔ) - dig with knife, spade or paws bdi-ko (bdkʔo) - I, ti-ko (ttkʔo) - you

cf. wa-ka-ko (wakkʔo) - paw the ground, as dog or horse; we-ba-ko (wbakʔo) - scraper or flesher for hides; we-ka-ko (wkakʔo) - flesher for hides; di-ko-ko (dikko) - digs out often [JOD]; di-ko-te (diktte) - dig out, probe; o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; o-xo-te (oxʔtte) - hole, natural opening; di-ko-te wa-xe (dikʔ tte wax) - digging a grave [MS]

Dhegiha: yu-ko (yuk') - scrape clean, dig up [Kaw]; a-yu-ko (yuk'o), a-yi-ko (yik'o) - dig a hole with the hands [Kaw]; ba-ʰku (ba-ḳ) - to dig a ditch [FL-Osage]; pa-ko (paakʔ) - dig, dig a grave [CQ-Osage]

 

Spanish, Spaniard, Mexican

spa-i-aⁿ (spiʔą) - Mexican

spa-i-a (spia) - Mexican [MS]

spa-iⁿ (spahin) - Spaniard (Espagnol) [GI]

Dhegiha: shpai-u-na (shpaina) - Spaniard, Spanish person [Omaha/Ponca]; he-shpai-u-na (hshpaina) - Spaniard, Spanish person or people [Omaha/Ponca]; he-spa-yu-na (hespayna) - Spaniards, Hispanic [Omaha]; i-spa-tho (i-sp-tho) - the Osage word for Spanish; Spaniard [FL-Osage]; i-shpa-thoⁿ (paǫ)  - Spanish, Mexican, French; Spaniard, any native Spanish speaking person, especially a Mexican, French person; Spanish language, French language, borrowed from Spanish espaol [CQ-Osage]; e-spa-na-ni (espnani), e-spa-no-ne (spanne) - Mexican, Spaniard [Kaw]

 

spare, be unable to spare something

i-kʰiⁿ-te (kʰ̨tte) - be unable to spare something i-da-kʰiⁿ-te (idkʰįtt) - I, i-da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰįtte) - you

 

sparks, make sparks from poking fire

di-xni-zhe (dixne) - make sparks from poking fire bdi-xni-zhe (bdxnie) - I, ti-xni-zhe (ttxnie) - you

ex: pe-te a-ki-ba-xniⁿ-xniⁿ-zhe (pptte akbaxnįxn̨e) - I pushed at the fire often [JOD]

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ-zhe (qthⁿzhe) - spark, sparkle, sparkling, sending out sparks [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ-zha (xthiⁿ-zh) - sparks of a fire, sparks that fly upward from the sticks or fire drills used for starting a fire [FL-Osage]; liⁿ-zhe (l̨įe) - sparks that fly from a fire [CQ-Osage]

 

sparks, there were sparks

shti-we-zhiⁿ pa (tweį pp) - there were sparks [JOD]

 

sparrow

xe-ka (xkka) - sparrow, Spizella

 

sparrow or red tailed hawk

i-be zi-ka (be zkka) - hawk, red tailed or sparrow

cf. i-be (be) - tail of bird; i-be hiⁿ (behį) - tail feathers; ho i-be (ho be) - fish tail or tail fin; zi (zi) - yellow; zhaⁿ zi-ka (z̨zikka) - flicker, red shafted; yellow ringed woodpecker; he zi-ka (hzikka) - bee; o-zi-ka (ozkka) - wider at one end than other

Dhegiha: iⁿ-be zi-ga (iⁿbe iga) - red tail hawk [Omaha]; iⁿ-be zi-ga (iⁿ́bezga) - yellow tailed hawk [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-be zi-ga (̨-be-i-ga), oⁿ-be zi-ga (ⁿ-be i-ga) - the red tailed hawk [FL-Osage]; le-taⁿ oⁿ-pe zhu-tse (let̨ ̨pe uce) - redtailed hawk [CQ-Osage]; u-be zi-hi (be zhi) - the red tailed hawk [Kaw]; u-be zi zhiⁿ-ga (be zi zhⁿga) - the red tailed hawk, lit. tail feathers are a little yellow; one of the largest hawks [Kaw]

 

speak badly of or incorrectly

da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly bda-shi-ke (bdike) - I, ta-shi-ke (ttike) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; shi-ke (ke) - bad; kda-shi-ke (kdike) - speak ill of ones own

Dhegiha: tha-pi-a-zhi (thpazhi) - speak badly, mispronounce, speak evil, to speak a language incorrectly, to pronounce a word or phrase badly, to speak evil of someone [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ʰpi-zhi (tha-p̣-zhi) - execrate [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ʰpi-zhi (wa-th-p̣i-zhi) - to disparage, to speak evil of one [FL-Osage]

 

speak ill of ones own

kda-shi-ke (kdike) - speak ill of ones own a-kda-shi-ke (akdike) - I, da-kda-shi-ke (dakdike) - you

cf. da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly; shi-ke (ke) - bad; o-kda (okd) - confess, tell of ones own; o-da (od) - tell something; o-ki-da (okda) - tell something to another; o-da-ke (odke) - tell about something; o-ki-da-ke (okdake) - tell it to (some)one; o-ki-kda-ke (kkikdke) - speak of oneself

Dhegiha: u-gtha-shi-ge (ugthshige) - to complain of his relations, friends, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; gtha-pi-a-zhi (gthpizhi) - to speak ones own badly, speak ones native language incorrectly or speak badly of ones relative [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-tha-shi-ge (-tha-shi-ge) - to complain [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-shi-ge (wa-th-shi-ge) - to slander [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-pi-a-zhi (thpazhi) - speak badly, mispronounce, speak evil, to speak a language incorrectly, to pronounce a word or phrase badly, to speak evil of someone [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ʰpi-zhi (tha-p̣-zhi) - execrate [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ʰpi-zhi (wa-th-p̣i-zhi) - to disparage, to speak evil of one [FL-Osage]

 

speak of oneself

o-ki-kda-ke (kkikdke) - speak of oneself

cf. o-kda (okd) - confess, tell of ones own; o-ki-da-ke (okdake) - tell it to (some)one; o-da-ke (odke) - tell about something; kda-shi-ke (kdike) - speak ill of ones own; da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly; o-da (od) - tell something; o-ki-da (okda) - tell something to another

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-gtha-ge (u-ḳ-gtha-ge) - to speak of ones self [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-la-ke (oʰklaake) - tell about oneself, speak of oneself [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-tha-ge (u-th-ge) - to tell a tale or a story; to make a statement [FL-Osage]; u-tha-ge (-tha-ge) - a story, narrative, a legend, tradition [FL-Osage]; o-tha-ke (oake) - tell e.g., news, stories, relate, narrate, recite, state, proclaim, inform, say so [CQ-Osage]; o-tha-ke (aake) - tell things, inform; story, tale, legend, narrative, telling of something, reporting of news [CQ-Osage]; o-ya-ge (oyge) - tell someone; promise [Kaw]; o-ya-ge (yage) - tell something to someone [Kaw]

 

speak of, promise, threaten

i-yi-yaⁿ (yiy̨), i-e oⁿ (i ʔǫ) - promise, threaten, speak of i-yi-maⁿ (yim̨) - I, i-yi-zhaⁿ (yį) - you

cf. i-e (i) - say, talk, speak, word; oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do

ex: i-yi-zhaⁿ (yį) - you speak of it [JOD]

ex: he-be da-ki-kiⁿ ta-tʰe i-yi-zhaⁿ te (hbe dakkʔį ttatʰ yį tte) - you will speak of carrying your share on your back [JOD]

 

speak to onself or each other

o-ki-ki-e (okkkkie) - talk to each other or oneself o-a-ki-ki-e (okkikkie) - I, o-da-ki-ki-e (odkkikkie) - you; o-ki-ki-a-wi (okkkkiawi) - they

cf. o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okk), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one; court a girl; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-ki-e (we okkikkie) - I/I talk to myself [JOD]

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-ki-e a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (we okkikkie akn̨ mįkʰ) - I was just talking to myself [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e (ika okkkkie) - children (boys)/talking to one another [JOD]

  ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ koⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kk̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - my child, I wish that you would become like children who begin to speak suddenly to one another. it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi (ika okkkkiawi) - children (boys)/they talk to one another [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ koⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kk̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - Oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gi-ki-e (u-g-ki-e) - to talk with his own relation or friend [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-ʰki-e (u-g-ḳi-e) - to speak to a friend or some relation [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ʰki-e (okʰkie) - speak to ones own relative, family, or friends [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-ki-ye (ogkiye) - talk with ones own (kinsman or friend) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ki-e (ukkie) - to talk together [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-ki-ye (ukikiye) - court, converse, conversation [Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-ḳi-e) - to speak to one another, to hold a conversation, talk together or to each other, a dialogue [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-ʰki-e (oʰkʰkie) - talk with one another, converse with each other (usually more than two people) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ye (ukiye) - talk to, talk with, date, court [Omaha]; u-ki-e (-ki-e) - to speak or talk with them; to pay a friendly visit to another tribe [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-e (u-ki-) - to speak or talk with; to court a woman [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-e) - to speak or talk to one another; to hold an interview [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-e (oʰke), o-ʰki (oʰk) - call on the phone, converse with, interview, talk with or to; get together, meeting of a group of people to converse [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-e (oke) - speak to, talk to; to court a woman [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-e (e) - to speak, word [JOD-Omaha]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word language [Omaha]; i-e (-e) - a language; to speak [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk, speak a language, word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speak; speech, language, sentence [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - say [FL-Osage]; e (e) - say; ask or tell someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; e (e) - say [Kaw]

 

speak, talk

i-e (e), i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; word i-da (id) - I, i-da (da) - you, aⁿ-naⁿ-we (ąn̨we) - we

i-e (i-eh) - speak, talk (parler) [GI]

cf. i-ye (iy), e (e) - say; i-ye (iy), i-ya (iy) - it is said, quotative, hearsay evidential, they say; i-ye si-ze-ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate; i-ye shtaⁿ (yet̨) - talker, loquacious person; i-ye-ye (iyye) - to have spoken, yesterday or before

ex: wa-xo kʰe i-ye kʰe (waxʔ kʰe ye kʰe) - the woman spoke [JOD]

ex: de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da (d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd) - this/speaks/tells the truth/very/desires [JOD]

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ, de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da, a-kʰe (d įxowi h ną, d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd, akʰ) - this one tells no lies, this one wants to speak the truth, it is the one [JOD]

ex: i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa (ye dan̨nąi-pp) - speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ koⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kk̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - Oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: i-ye aⁿ-ta-zho-zhi de (ye ̨ttai d) - words/you injure me with your mouth/really [JOD]

ex: i-di-na-zhiⁿ di-taⁿ i-bniⁿ-aⁿ taⁿ i-ye aⁿ-ta-zho-zhi de, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (dinį ditt̨ bn̨ą t̨ ye ̨ttai d, iy iy mątʰ) - I think that you speak so improperly to me on account of you depending on someone to help you, it is said Grizzly bear said.

 [JOD]

ex: i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa (ye tʰkdakd-ppa) - to speak/they begin suddenly now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ koⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kk̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - my child, I wish that you would become like children who begin to speak suddenly to one another. it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-e (e) - to speak, word [JOD-Omaha]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word language [Omaha]; i-e (-e) - a language; to speak [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk, speak a language, word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speak; speech, language, sentence [Kaw]

 

speak, talk with one

o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (ok), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one o-a-ki-e (okkie) - I, o-da-ki-e (odkkie) - you

cf. i-e (i), i-ye (iy), e (e) - say; quotative, non-hearsay evidential; i-e (e), i-ye (ye) - word; talk, speak; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation; o-ki-ki-e (okkkkie) - talk to each other or oneself

ex: aⁿ-ki-a (̨kki) - talk to me! (command) [MS]

ex: o-a-ki-a-zhi (okkii) - I did not talk to him [JOD]

ex: wi-zhiⁿ-de, be o-a-ki-a-zhi (wįde, b okkii) - elder brother, I was not talking to anyone [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gi-ki-e (u-g-ki-e) - to talk with his own relation or friend [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-ʰki-e (u-g-ḳi-e) - to speak to a friend or some relation [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ʰki-e (okʰkie) - speak to ones own relative, family, or friends [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-ki-ye (ogkiye) - talk with ones own (kinsman or friend) [Kaw]

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe (owikki tta mįkʰ) - Im going to talk to you [MS]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe, she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, semi tto ąnke) - I'm going to tell you something, I only have three boys remaining (still alive), I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: o-da-ki-e (odkkie) - you talk to him [JOD]

ex: ka niⁿ-kʰe be o-da-ki-e e, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (k nįkʰ b odkkie e, iy iy mątʰ) - who is that you are talking to? it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: o-ki-e (okki) - he spoke to it [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ o-ki-e a-da-shtaⁿ taⁿ (ę okki dat̨-tą) - and when he stopped talking to him [JOD]

ex: o-wa-ki-e (wakkie) - he talks to them [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-ki-e, i-ya (mat̨ke was n̨pa nikʰa wakkie, iy) - the rabbit spoke to the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk), mo-sho-ki (mokki) - Christian, lit. talks on high

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki niⁿ-kʰe (mą́i okk nįkʰ) - pray (he/she is praying) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above

Dhegiha: u-ki-ki-e (ukkie) - to talk together [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-ki-ye (ukikiye) - court, converse, conversation [Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-ḳi-e) - to speak to one another, to hold a conversation, talk together or to each other, a dialogue [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-ʰki-e (oʰkʰkie) - talk with one another, converse with each other (usually more than two people) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ye (ukiye) - talk to, talk with, date, court [Omaha]; u-ki-e (-ki-e) - to speak or talk with them; to pay a friendly visit to another tribe [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-e (u-ki-) - to speak or talk with; to court a woman [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-e) - to speak or talk to one another; to hold an interview [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-e (oʰke), o-ʰki (oʰk) - call on the phone, converse with, interview, talk with or to; get together, meeting of a group of people to converse [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-e (oke) - speak to, talk to; to court a woman [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-e (e) - to speak, word [JOD-Omaha]; i-ye (iye) - speak, talk, speaker, word language [Omaha]; i-e (-e) - a language; to speak [FL-Osage]; i-e (e) - talk about, discuss, speak of, talk, say, speak, make a speech or talk, speak a language, word, words, language, teachings, ones word, speech, prayer [CQ-Osage]; i-e (e) - speak; speech, language, sentence [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - say [FL-Osage]; e (e) - say; ask or tell someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; e (e) - say [Kaw]

 

speak, to not speak

i-a-zhi (a), i-ya-zhi (yai) - to not speak; a mute

cf. i-e (ie), i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

ex: i-ya-zhi (yai) - he/she spoke not [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-a-zhi (azhi) - not to speak, to be silent, negation of i-e (e) [Omaha/Ponca]; i-a-zhi (-a-zhi) - a mute, reticent, speak not [FL-Osage]; i-a-zhi (ai) - to say nothing [CQ-Osage]

 

speaking

a-ta-ta a-tʰaⁿ-he (atttta atʰąh) - I am speaking now [ASG]

cf. ta-ta (ttatt) - voice; a-tʰaⁿ-he (atʰąh) - 1sg continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; ta-ta wa-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ttatt wat̨įi) - hoarse voice, to whisper

 

speaking, stop speaking

a-da-shtaⁿ (datą) - stop activity with the mouth, talking, drinking, eating, etc. a-bda-shtaⁿ (bdatą) - I, a-ta-shtaⁿ (ttatą) - you

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete; a-di-shtaⁿ (ditą) - stop work (for the day), cease an activity

ex: a-da-shtaⁿ (dat̨) - he stopped speaking [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ o-ki-e a-da-shtaⁿ taⁿ (ę okki dat̨-tą) - and when he stopped talking to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-shtoⁿ (thashtⁿ) - to finish doing something with the mouth [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-shtaⁿ (a-ctⁿ) - to finish, quit, or cease speaking, eating, drinking, reading, singing, crying, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; tha-shtaⁿ (aat̨) - end or stop an activity involving the mouth; finish eating or drinking [CQ-Osage]; ya-shtaⁿ (yashtáⁿ) - stop eating, drinking, talking, crying (aloud), singing; to be done with any of those activities [Kaw]

 

spear, fish spear

ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear

cf. ho (ho) - fish; we (w) - with which to; ba-xdo (baxd), baxto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole, to pierce, to punch through [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

spear, war spear

ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear

cf. ma-ze (maze) - iron, metal; we (w) - with which to; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole, to pierce, to punch through [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

wa-hi ko-zi (wah kkzi) - spear, war spear, same as ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto)

Dhegiha: wa-he-ku-zi (wahkuzi) - same as wa-qthe-xe tha-ze (waqthexe thze), a battle standard or war spear, it is a pole wrapped in otter skins, ornamented with a row of feathers extending some distance from the top, it is bent at the top, and a white feather is fastened on the tip of the bent part, from the arch at the top hangs locks of horsehair, the bottom is pointed, and is used as a spear [JOD-Omaha]

 

special, great, high rank, etc.

wa-taⁿ-ka (watt̨ka) - special [MS]

wa-taⁿ-ka (watt̨ka) - special, great, high rank, authority, principal, the great one, a master

cf. taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

ex: wa-zho-kte miⁿ-xti wa-taⁿ-ka a-niⁿ (waokte m̨xti watt̨ka an̨) - so they dance, one leader, special leader [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-ṭⁿ-ga) - a master, a high rank official, one of high rank, a great person, the great one, principal [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtoⁿ-ka (waʰt̨ka) - authoritative, authority, someone with authority [CQ-Osage]; wa-ʰtaⁿ (waʰt̨ą) - king, in a deck of cards [CQ-Osage]; wa-taⁿ-ga (watáⁿga) - principal chief, a chief [Kaw]

 

speckled

kde-zhe (kde) - spotted, speckled [MS]

kde-zhe (kde) - spotted

Dhegiha: gthe-zhe (gthezh) - spotted, having spots in one place [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-zhe (gthezhe) - speckled [Omaha]; gthe-zhe (gthe-zh) - spotted [FL-Osage]; le-zhe (le) - spotted, speckled, stippled [CQ-Osage]; le-zhe (lezh) - spotted [Kaw]

 

speechless, silent, noiseless

a-pe (ppe) - silent, noiseless, speechless

cf. a-pe-hi (apphi) - very silent

ex: a-pe hi (apphi) - very silent

ex: a-pe hi (app hi) - noiseless/very [JOD]

 

i-a-zhi (a) - mute

cf. i-e (ie), i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; zhi (i) - negative, negation, not

Dhegiha: i-a-zhi (azhi) - not to speak, to be silent, negation of i-e (e) [Omaha/Ponca]; i-a-zhi (-a-zhi) - a mute, reticent, speak not [FL-Osage]; i-a-zhi (ai) - to say nothing [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

cf. o-ni-aⁿ-hi-de (onįhid) - breathe; ni-ke (nik), niⁿ-ke (nįk) - to have none, be lacking; hi (hi) - very

Dhegiha: o-ni thiⁿ-ke (on įk), o-niⁿ iⁿ-ke(on̨įke) - be quiet, not make noise, no sound [CQ-Osage]; o-niⁿ iⁿ-ka (on̨ įka) - be quiet!, dont make noises! [CQ-Osage]; ni-aⁿ yiⁿ-ge (niáⁿyiⁿgè) - speechless, quiet, unmoving, still [Kaw]

 

spherical, mould spherical with hands

di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (dįǫ) - mould spherical with hands bdi-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bdǫǫ) - I, ti-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (ttǫǫ) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical; hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke shoⁿ-shoⁿ (hǫbn̨ke ̨ǫ) - pea(s); ma-kaⁿ shoⁿ-shoⁿ (makk̨ ̨ǫ) - pill, lit. globular medicine; mi-aⁿ-pa shoⁿ-shoⁿ (mįpa ̨ǫ) - full moon; te shoⁿ-shoⁿ (t ̨ǫ) - circular lake [JOD]; to shoⁿ-shoⁿ (to ̨ǫ) - Irish potato; shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide), shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide) - always, ever, never

ex: wa-ske di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (wske dįǫ) - corn dumplings, bread made round with hands

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (ǫǫ̨we) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

 

spherical, round

shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical

shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round [MS, OM]

shaⁿ-shaⁿ (̨ą) - round [JOD]

ex: di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (dįǫ) - mould spherical with hands

ex: hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke shoⁿ-shoⁿ (hǫbn̨ke ̨ǫ) - pea, peas, lit. round beans

ex: ma-kaⁿ shoⁿ-shoⁿ (makk̨ ̨ǫ) - pill, lit. globular medicine

ex: mi-aⁿ-pa shoⁿ-shoⁿ (mįpa ̨ǫ) - full moon, lit. round moon

ex: te shaⁿ-shaⁿ (t ̨ą) - circular lake [JOD]

ex: to shoⁿ-shoⁿ (to ̨ǫ) - Irish potato, lit. round potato

ex: wa-ske di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (wske dįǫ) - corn dumplings, lit. bread moulded round by hand

 

spice bush, spicewood tree

naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree, lit. cracks across the grain

cf. di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

 

spider

mo-iⁿ-kaⁿ (mǫkką) - spider

mo-iⁿ-kaⁿ (mįką) - spider [ASG]

Dhegiha: wa-gthi-shka u-ki-gthi-ske (wagthshka ukgthiske), u-kʰi-gthi-ske (ukʰgthiske) - spider [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ki-gthi-ske (ukigthike) - spider [Omaha]; wa-gthi-shka u-ki-gthi-ske (wa-g-cka u-k͓-gi-skĕ), u-kʰi-gthi-ske (u-k-gi-skĕ) - a spider [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse-xo-be (ṭs-xo-be), ʰtse-xu-be (ṭs-xu-be) - a spider, the spider symbolizes the earth [JOD-Osage]; ʰtse-xo-pe (ʰcxope) - spider [CQ-Osage]; tsi-xo-be (cixobe), tsi-xo-we (cxowe) - spider [Kaw]

 

spill out and scatter

a-da-hi o-a-ze ka-xe (dahi oze kγe) - spill out and scatter

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

spill, kick over

naⁿ-xtaⁿ (nąxt̨) - kick over, spill a-naⁿ-xtaⁿ (an̨xtą) - I, da-naⁿ-xtaⁿ (dan̨xtą) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; di-xtaⁿ (dixt̨) - pull at, pull over, upset; ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something; a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize

Dhegiha: xtoⁿ (qtoⁿ) - drip, pour [Omaha/Ponca]; xtaⁿ (qtaⁿ) - to drop, as liquid [JOD-Omaha]; xtoⁿ (xtoⁿ) - to spill, to slop over [FL-Osage]; xtaⁿ (xtⁿ) - leak in, drip out, empty out, spill [Kaw]

 

spill, pull over and spill

di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ (bdǫ) - I, ti-shoⁿ (ttǫ) - you

di-shaⁿ (dią) - spill, pull over a vessel bdi-shaⁿ (bdą) - I, ti-shaⁿ (ttą) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

Dhegiha: thi-shoⁿ (thi-shⁿ) - to dislocate by pulling [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: shaⁿ (caⁿ) - dislocated; fallen off [JOD-Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - dislocated, fallen, fallen off [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid) bdi-shoⁿ-da (bdǫda) - I, ti-shoⁿ-da (ttǫda) - you

cf. di-shoⁿ (dį) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over

Dhegiha: ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]; g-shoⁿ-tha (g-shoⁿ-tha) - to droop or fall; to make loose; loose jointed; broken [FL-Osage];  ga-shoⁿ-tha (ga-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel by striking against it; jolt, as to jostle [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled; upset and spilled; tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-shoⁿ-tha (thashⁿtha) - overturn, spill; to overturn and spill a cup suddenly while drinking from it [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened, loosened in its socket, as a fence post or a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - loosened [Omaha]

 

spill, push over and spill

ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill pa-shoⁿ (ppǫ) - I, shpa-shoⁿ (pǫ) - you

cf. ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; di-shoⁿ (dį), di-shaⁿ (dią) - pull over and spill (liquid); spill, pull over a vessel; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

ex: a-ba-shaⁿ (baą) - spilled on [JOD]

ex: ba-shoⁿ de-da (bą de-d) - throw it out! [MS]

Dhegiha: ba-shaⁿ (ba-cⁿ) - to put out of joint, by pushing or punching; to dislocate, as an arm [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shaⁿ-tha (ba-cⁿ-a) - to push a vessel, cup, box, etc., causing the contents to be spilt out [JOD-Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashⁿtha) - push, knock over, spill; to knock over a vessel and spill its contents on someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-shaⁿ-tha (-ba-cⁿ-a) - to push over a vessel accidentally and empty its contents on a person or on the ground [JOD-Omaha]

 

spin someone around, whirl

di-taⁿ-ni (ditt̨ni) - spin someone around, whirl bdi-taⁿ-ni (bdttąni) - I, ti-taⁿ-ni (ttttąni) - you

 

spin someone off balance

di-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-de (dikkwįγe hde) - spin someone off balance bdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-a-de (bdkkwįγe hade) - I, ti-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-da-de (ttkkwįγe hdade) - you

cf. di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: thi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (thi wiⁿxe) - turn [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-koiⁿ-xe (iiʰkįɣe) - turn someone or something around [CQ-Osage]; yu-ko-miⁿ-ghe (yukmiⁿghe) - turn something around and around with the hands, to crank [Kaw]

 

spin, punch and spin

po-koiⁿ-xa-xa (pkoįγγa) - knock spinning, punch and spin po-a-koiⁿ-xa-xa (pakįγaγa) - I, po-da-koiⁿ-xa-xa (pdakįγaγa) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bikkwįγγa) - push or blow something in circle; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bakkwįγγa) - push round and round; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; ka-koiⁿ-xa-xa (kakįγγa) - go around and around; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around

Dhegiha: bo-ko-mi-ghe (bkomghe) - blow around in a circle, spin by blowing; to make revolve by blowing on with the mouth, as a paper wheel (pinwheel) or windmill [Kaw]; bu-ko-mi-ghe (bukmighe) - turn around in ones seat [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-xe (wįγe), iⁿ-xe (̨γe) - turn, spin, whirl, around [CQ-Osage]; ʰkoiⁿ-xe (ʰkįγe) - turn, turn around [CQ-Osage]

 

spinal prominence, vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

ta-i-ta-kde (ttittkde) - spinal prominence, vertebra near the nape of a horses neck

cf. ta-i-ta (ttitt) - neck; a-kde (akd) - put; set a standing object upright upon a surface or within something which supports it; o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand

Dhegiha: ta-i-u-gthe (tigthe) - neck bone, bone in the lower back of the neck, into which the spine fits [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i-u-gthe (t-i--gĕ) - the lower bone in the back of the neck, the place into which the spine fits [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i u-gthe (tai gthe) - hollow at the nape of the neck [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ta-i-a-ta (taita) - at or near the back of the head [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i-a-ta (ta-i--t͓a) - at or near the back of the head [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ta-i (ti) - back of the head, from the parting of the hair on the crown to the neck [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-i (ta) - back of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-hiu (ṭ-hiu) - nape of the neck, the neck [FL-Osage]; ʰta-hu (ʰthu) - neck [CQ-Osage]; ta-hu (thu) - neck [Kaw]

 

spine

wa-hi o-taⁿ-ka (whi ttąka), (whi ott̨ka) - spine

cf. wa-hi (wah) - bone; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

spinster, unmarried woman

wa-di-xa-zhi hi (wdiγi h) - unmarried woman, spinster

cf. wa-di-xa-zhi (wdiγi) - unmarried woman; virgin; a-di-xe (diγe) - marry a man, take a man for a husband

Dhegiha: wa-thi-xe a-zhi (wathixe azhi) - unmarried [Omaha]; wa-thi-xa ba-zhi (wixa-baj) - had not married [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-xa-zhi (w-thi-xa-zhi) - a woman not yet married; a maiden [FL-Osage]; wa-thu-xa-zhi (wuγai) - female who has not married; virgin [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-gha-zhi (wáyughazhi) - maiden, unmarried woman [Kaw]

 

spiral motion

o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion

ex: ni o-di-bdi (ni dibd) - eddy in a body of water

ex: ta-ti o-di-bdi (tttti dibd) - whirlwind

Dhegiha: u-thi-bthi (u--bi) - a whirlwind or eddy of a current, or smoke in a tent carried around by the wind; said of the effect of wind on water, ashes, smoke, or dust, if it blows but once and scatters them [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ni u-thi-bthi (ni--thi-bthi) - an eddy; the whirling motion of water; the vortex [FL-Osage]; ni o-yu-bliⁿ (ni óyubliⁿ) - an eddy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-bthiⁿ (i-biⁿ) - to turn around in a circle [JOD-Omaha]; yu-bliⁿ (yublíⁿ) - twist or turn something around, as an augur [Kaw]

 

spiral stick candy

wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

cf. di-shoⁿ-ke (diǫk) - pulverize, make mellow; ski-de (skde) - sweet; wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde), wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar, pulverized sweet; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, literally, twisted tobacco; ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ni thi-be-bthiⁿ (zhoⁿn thibbthiⁿ) - twisted sugar, originally, twisted or plaited candy; stick candy with stripes around it, now said of all candy [Omaha/Ponca]

 

spiral, twisted, curled

be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral

cf. be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms candy; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, literally, twisted tobacco; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands; ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

spirit, evil spirit

sha taⁿ-ka (ʔatt̨ka), cha taⁿ-ka (čʔatt̨ka) - evil spirit, Satan

sha taⁿ-ka (ʔa tt̨ka) - devil [MS]

ex: sha taⁿ-ka o-ma-ni (ʔatt̨ka omni) - Devils Promenade, OK

  ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtsa ʰtoⁿ-ga (ṭs-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Satan, big snake; the Osage did not know the name of Satan till the missionaries came [FL-Osage]; tsa ʰtaⁿ (cʔ ʰt̨ą) - devil, Satan; possibly big snake or borrowed from English Satan [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-xe pi-a-zhi (wanoⁿxe piazhi) - devil [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da pi-zhi (wakáⁿda pízhi) - devil; the Kansa never heard of Satan or the devil until they learned of him from the white people [Kaw]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthaⁿ-xe (i-gⁿ-xe) - demon [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ-xe (iⁿ-gthⁿ-xe) - ghost [FL-Osage]; i-loⁿ-xe (il̨γe) - devil, Satan, ghost, spirit [CQ-Osage]

 

spirit, ghost

wa-na-xe (wanγe) - ghost, spirit

wa-na-xe (wanγe) - ghost [MS]

cf. wa-po-ka wa-na-xe (wappka wanγe) - owl, eared, Asio otus

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, and mind [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-na-xe (wanxe) - ghost, spirit [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-xe (wanⁿxe) - ghost, spirit [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-xe (wa-nⁿ-xe) - the soul of a man, the spirit used in rituals, a ghost [FL-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-xe (wan̨ąγe) - spirit, holy spirit, ghost, soul [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-ghe (wanⁿghe) - ghost, spirit [Kaw]

 

spirit, God

wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

wa-koⁿ-ta (wak̨ta) - God [MS, OM]

wa-kaⁿ-ta (wa-kań-t͓ă) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) or Thunder-Being gens; Thunder-Being [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta (įtttte wakk̨tta) - Father God, my father God

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakk̨tta mą nįkʰ) - Father (God) is up in heaven [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wak̨ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: wa-kaⁿ-ta e-ni-ka-shi-ka (wakk̨tta nikkaka) - the Thunder Being gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisable, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

wa-kaⁿ-ta-ki (wakk̨ttak) - spirit, God, this term is used for traditional medicine men in closely related languages

wa-kaⁿ-ta-gi (wakntag) - God, the supreme ruler, the white mans God [JOD]

wa-koⁿ-ta-ki (wakǫtk) - God [MS]

wa-kaⁿ-ta-ki (wah-kan-takih) - god, divinity, deity (dieu) [GI]

wa-koⁿ-ta-ki (wak̨tak) - personal name of Tom Crawfish [MS]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da-gi (wakaⁿdagi) - applied to water monsters, mysterious animals, unlooked for or premature qualities or acts, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; wa-koⁿ-da-gi (wa-ḳⁿ-da-gi) - a person who has knowledge of medicine; a physician; a doctor; one who pretends to communicate with the dead; a necromancer, occult; magic; holy; sacred; anything held sacred [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta-ki (waʰk̨taki) - be a doctor, physician, healer, minister of a religious group, preacher [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da-gi (wakⁿdagi) - sacred, mysterious; doctor, medicine man; wonderful [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisable, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

spit on

a-bi-xoⁿ (biγǫ) - squirt, spit on a-pi-xoⁿ (ppiγǫ) - I, a-shpi-xoⁿ (piγǫ) - you

cf. a (a) - on, upon; bi-xoⁿ (biγ̨) - blow on something; o-bi-xoⁿ (obγǫ) - blow into, inflate

ex: ni a-bi-xoⁿ (ni biγǫ) - to squirt water on something from the mouth

Dhegiha: a-bi-xaⁿ (-bi-xaⁿ) - to blow on with the mouth [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: bi-xoⁿ (bixⁿ) - blow, to blow, as at a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-xaⁿ (bi-xⁿ) - to blow at, as a fire [JOD-Omaha]; bi-xoⁿ (bi-xⁿ) - to blow with the breath, to make a fire burn by blowing [FL-Osage]; pi-xaⁿ (pɣą) - blow as ones nose, blow on something, blow into a fire, blow dust off a surface, blow a dandelion away in the wind, blow on a burnt finger to relieve pain [CQ-Osage]; bi-ghaⁿ (bighⁿ) - blow on a fire to make it burn [Kaw]

 

spit, send saliva off

chʰo de-de (čʰo dde) - spit, send saliva off a-chʰo de-a-de (ačʰ dade) - I, da-chʰo de-da-de (dačʰ ddade) - you

cf. chʰo (čʰo) - saliva; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: chʰu (chʰu) - spit, expectorate [Omaha/Ponca]; tshu (tcu) - to spit, expectorate [JOD-Omaha]; tu (tu) - expectorate [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

spit, to spit

chʰo (čʰo) - to spit; saliva a-chʰo (ačʰ) - I, da-chʰo (dačʰ) - you, oⁿ-chʰo-we (ǫčʰwe) - we

cf. chʰo de-de (čʰo dde) - spit, send saliva off

Dhegiha: chʰu (chʰu) - spit, expectorate [Omaha/Ponca]; tshu (tcu) - to spit, expectorate [JOD-Omaha]; tu (tu) - expectorate [FL-Osage]

 

spiteful, mean, bad thoughts, hateful

wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful

wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean [MS]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will power, will, mind, idea, volition; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi (wą ddai) - to lose patience; wa-zhiⁿ ska (wa-jĭⁿ́-skă) - masculine name White Disposition, Wise [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ pi-a-zhi (wa-jĭ́ⁿ pi-ȁ́-jĭ) - to be in a bad humor, cross, or surly; said of persons, seldom of animals [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ ʰpi-zhi (wa-zhⁿ-p̣i-zhi) - to be very angry [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ ʰpi-zhi (wą ʰpii) - enraged, mad, angry [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ pi-zhi (wazhⁿpizhi) - being hateful, spiteful, literally bad thoughts [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - will power [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-jĭ́ⁿ) - disposition, temper, mind [JOD-Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - own will, volition [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - will, mind, idea [CQ-Osage]

 

spits, small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits

wa-sa i-ba-xdo-xdo (was baxdoxd) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits [JOD]

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; i-ba-xdo (baxdo) - stuck in him [JOD]; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. something to stick food with; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring; ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd), ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus plant; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear

ex: wa-sa i-ba-xto-xto we-kdi o-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (was baxtoxt wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks with the fat around it [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole in meat, put on both sides of a horse, to be carried, fastening an end of a cord to each hole; to pierce; to punch holes in moccasins [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

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