English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

H

 

high

maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven, high, above

maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative

cf. maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit. talks on high; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain; maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid

ex: maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend

ex: di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high

ex: pe-te-shte maⁿ-shi hi (ppettte m̨i h) - very high blaze, flame [JOD]

ex: da-wa-ta maⁿ-shi (dawatt mą) - pray for up (you pray to heaven) [MS]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakką́tta mą nįkʰ) - Father (God) is up in heaven [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wakǫ́ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki niⁿ-kʰe (mą́i okk nįkʰ) - pray (he/she is praying) MS]

ex: e-shaⁿ zhaⁿ a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ e-ti kʰe taⁿ a-te bde a-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe (ą ą bakko kį tti kʰ tą tte bd[e]-ttą m̨i mįkʰ) - then, I climbed up high in this crooked (bent, lying there) tree and I sat there [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ a-te i-ya-we, a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-shi kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (ą tte iywe, abakk kį mąi k̨-nįkʰ iywe) - she climbed high up into a crooked tree and sat there, they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi a-ba-zo (m̨i bazo) - to point up/above [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe taⁿ aⁿ-ba-zo (kįttą m̨i mįkʰ tą ̨bazo) - then as I was sitting above, it pointed at me [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-ha aⁿ-ba-zo (m̨i mįkʰe t̨ha ̨bazo) - because I was sitting above, it pointed at me [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-ha we-da-ba-zo maⁿ-shi a-ba-zo (m̨i nįkʰ t̨ha wdabzo mąi bazo) - because she was sitting above, the index/forefinger pointed up [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka maⁿ-shi e-ti ni-te naⁿ (nkkaka m̨i ett nit ną) - human being-above-there-how possible [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti ni-te naⁿ (m̨i nkkaka ett nit ną) - above-human being-there-how possible [JOD]

ex: o-za taⁿ maⁿ-shi zha-koi-de taⁿ (a tą m̨i akide tą) - when he danced, he leaped high [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

 

high, how tall, how high

a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high

cf. de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

high, pull up high

di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high bdi-maⁿ-shi (bdmąi) - I, ti-maⁿ-shi (ttmąi) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven, high, above

ex: di-maⁿ-shi hne (dim̨i hn) - raise it up [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-moⁿ-shi (thi moⁿshi) - elevate [Omaha]; we-thi-moⁿ-shi (w-thi-moⁿ-shi) - a lifter, a jack for lifting of wheels and other heavy objects [FL-Osage]; thu-maⁿ-shi (uum̨i) - pull up, hold up, raise, lift [CQ-Osage]; yu-maⁿ-shi (yumⁿshi) - to elevate, put up high; to lift something [Kaw]

 

high, too high a price, too much, difficult

wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

cf. o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

Dhegiha: wa-te-xi (watxi) - difficult action with a purpose, male name [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse-xi (wa-ṭs-xi) - difficult to destroy, to be tenacious of life, stingy, ungenerous, not liberal, penurious [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtse-xi (waʰcxi) - be difficult, hard, challenging, not easy to do [CQ-Osage]; wa-tse-xi (wacxi) - be hard, difficult to endure, something difficult, be difficult [Kaw]

 

highland covered with trees, also hill

di-xa-zhi (dixi) - highland covered with trees, also hill

 

di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill that ate people from Quapaw mythology

 

hill with round top

a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head

Dhegiha: zhna-ha (zhnah) - smooth, slippery [Omaha/Ponca]; shna-ha (shnha) - slippery, smooth [Omaha]; shta-ha (sht-ha) - slick, smooth [FL-Osage]; shta-ha (tha), shta (t) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta-ha (shtah), (shtha) - smooth, slippery, slick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shta (shta) - hairless, destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t), shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

hill with sharp peak

a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; pa-si-kde (ppaskde) - hill with pointed peak or top; pa-si-kde (ppsikd) - point of land [JOD]; pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose; pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River; ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill; ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - garfish

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ ʰpa-si (-thiⁿ p̣a-i) - summit, top of a hill, the summit of a hill, hill top [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ pa-su (yiⁿ pas) - headland [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tree-top, tongue-tip, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (pai) - tip; ʰpa-si (p̣a-) - a peak, point, top of a tree, the top of a poll [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (p̣-u) - tip of nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object like the point of a pencil, corner of a room, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpa-siu-gthiⁿ (p̣a-i-gthiⁿ) - dwellers-upon-the-hill-top, when the river (Mississippi) overflowed its banks, a group of Osage Indians fled from their village and sought the high hills and there established a camp, they were known by the name of ʰpa-siu-gthiⁿ (p̣a-i-gthiⁿ) and settled in Grayhorse [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su o-liⁿ (ʰpas ol̨į), ʰpa-si-o-liⁿ (ʰpasilįį), ʰpa-su-liⁿ (ʰpaslį), ʰpa-so-liⁿ (ʰpaslįį) - living on the end, dwelling on the cliffs, Fairfax or Grayhorse group of Osages, lit., living on the end, referring to the west end of the allotment [CQ-Osage]

 

pa-si-kde (ppaskde) - hill with pointed peak or top

pa-si-kde (psikd) - point of land [JOD]

cf. a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak

 

hill, base of a hill

i-ki-kde (kkikd) - base of a hill

 

i-ki-kde-a-ha (kkikdaha) - along base of a hill

 

hill, bluff, ridge, mound

a-ni (ni) - hill

a-ni (ni) - hill [MS]

a-ni (an) - mound

cf. a-ni bda bda (ni bd bda) - ridge, long ridge; a-ni kaⁿ-ha (ni kk̨ha) - edge of hill; a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top; a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

ex: a-ni a-shi (ni i) - up on a hill [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ni a-shi tʰaⁿ, i-bniⁿ-aⁿ (̨keaknį ni i tʰ̨, bnį̨) - I think the horse is standing on the hill

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ka niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke nįkʰ ni kihid-nįkʰtti ttkde nįkʰ) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

 

a-ni bda bda (ni bd bda) - ridge, long ridge

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; bda-bda (bdbda) - raised; ti-he bda-bda (tthe bdabd) - roof, edge of roof

ex: a-ni bda bda tʰe (ni bd bda tʰe) - the ridge

 

hill, downhill

a-pa-po (ppapo) - downhill

Dhegiha: pa-mu (pamu) - downhill [Omaha]; a-ʰpa-bo (-p̣a-bo) - a slope [FL-Osage]; pa-bu (pa-b) - down hill, a steep incline, incline, a steep hill [FL-Osage]; pa-po (pap) - sink, lower, go down [CQ-Osage]; pa-bo (pab) - downhill, over the edge of a bluff [Kaw]

 

a-da-xa-ti (daxʔatti) - downhill

 

hill, edge of hill

a-ni kaⁿ-ha (ni kk̨ha) - edge of hill

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; kaⁿ-ha (kk̨ha), koⁿ-ha (kk̨ha) - near, by

ex: a-ni kaⁿ-ha kʰe (ni kk̨ha kʰe) - the edge of the hill

Dhegiha: koⁿ-ha (koⁿha) - rim, edge [Omaha]; koⁿ-ha (kⁿha) - edge, border, selvedge [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-ha (ḳⁿ-ha) - the edge, margin, selvage, welt, of certain goods [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-ha (ʰk̨ha) - edge [CQ-Osage]

 

hill, round topped hills in series

a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head

Dhegiha: zhna-ha (zhnah) - smooth, slippery [Omaha/Ponca]; shna-ha (shnha) - slippery, smooth [Omaha]; shta-ha (sht-ha) - slick, smooth [FL-Osage]; shta-ha (tha), shta (t) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta-ha (shtah), (shtha) - smooth, slippery, slick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shta (shta) - hairless, destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t), shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

hill, uphill

o-i-naⁿ-be (inąb) - uphill

cf. o-i-naⁿ-be o-ka-xde (inąb okxde) - facing uphill

Dhegiha: i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - uphill [Kaw]

 

o-i-naⁿ-be o-ka-xde (inąb okxde) - facing uphill

cf. o-i-naⁿ-be (inąb) - uphill; o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards

Dhegiha: i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - uphill [Kaw]

 

hillside

i-ki-te (kitte), i-ki-tʰe (kitʰe) - hillside

 

him

e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned

ex: e she-mi ( mi) - that girl [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: e a-di-xe koⁿ-da ( diγ kǫd) - she wanted to marry him, the aforementioned [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ e toⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: e a-niⁿ ni-tʰe ( an̨ nitʰ) - that, the aforementioned, he probably has it [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ( odhake) - that last one [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ni a-shka ki taⁿ pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki-knaⁿ ( odhake n ka k tą ppah nįkʰ kkikn̨) - that-last one-water-near-reached here again-when-head-the (part)-she put down her own for him [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke hi ( h̨ba h̨ke h) - that-day-nearly-very [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ e wa-naⁿ niⁿ (mat̨ke nį waną nį) - rabbit was singing it (the aforementioned) as he was moving along [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

Dhegiha: e () - he, she, that, that one, the afore-said, they, it [JOD-Omaha]; e (e) - he, she, it, or that [FL-Osage]; e (e) - 3rd person emphatic or contrastive pronoun (that one, that person, she/her, he/him; those persons, them; this person or thing, the foregoing, she herself, he himself, they themselves [CQ-Osage]; e (e), e (e), (ee) - that, those, be that, those [Kaw]

 

hind leg of animal, mans leg

zhe-ka (ek) - mans leg, hind leg of animal

zhe-ka (ek) - legs [MS]

zhe-ka (jaccah) - leg (jambes) [GI]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka zhe-ka (wąka ek) - birds legs

ex: zhe-ka taⁿ (ek ttą) - pot, lit. it has legs [MS]

ex: zhe-ka-ta (ektta) - leg of a chair

Dhegiha: zhe-ga (zhga) - upper part of the leg, thigh [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe-ga (zhe-g) - leg, upper part [FL-Osage]; zhe-ka (ek) - leg [CQ-Osage]; zhe-ga (zheg) - thigh, leg above the knee [Kaw]

 

hindquarters, rump, buttocks

ni-te (nik-teh) - buttocks, rump, hindquarters (fesses) [GI]

niⁿ-te (n̨tte), ni-te (ntte) - buttocks, person or animal

niⁿ-te (n̨tte), ni-te (ntte) - buttocks, rear [MS, OM]

cf. te ni-te shiⁿ (tte ntte į) - buffalo rump fat [JOD]; niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants [MS,OM]; ni-te-a-zho (nitteo) - rump, buttocks; ni-te ka-zhi (ntte ki), ni-te ga-zhi (ntte gi) - toilet paper

ex: niⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe (n̨tte nįkʰ) - the buttocks

Dhegiha: niⁿ-de (niⁿ-de) - buttocks [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-dse (n-dse) - hips, rump, posterior, the lower part of the back, the hips, haunch, body [FL-Osage]

 

hip

shiⁿ-te-hi (įtthi) - hip, crest of the ilium, probably siⁿ-te-hi (sįtthi)

cf. si-te (s̨tte) - tail

Dhegiha: siⁿ-de hi (siⁿdhi) - hip bone [Omaha/Ponca]; siⁿ-ne hi (iⁿne hi) - hips [Omaha]; siⁿ-dse hi (iⁿ-dse hi) - hip bone [FL-Osage]

 

shiⁿ-te-hi ka-xa-kde (įtthi kxakd) - pelvis, hips, probably siⁿ-te-hi ka-xa-kde (sįtthi kxakd)

cf. si-te (s̨tte) - tail

Dhegiha: siⁿ-de hi (siⁿdhi) - hip bone [Omaha/Ponca]; siⁿ-ne hi (iⁿne hi) - hips [Omaha]; siⁿ-dse hi (iⁿ-dse hi) - hip bone [FL-Osage]

 

hire oneself out

di-zho (di) - work, hire oneself out bdi-zho (bdo) - I, ti-zho (tto) - you

 

his

i-ta (itt), e-ta (ett) - his, hers, its, alienable

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my (alienable), mine; di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, alienable; di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, alienable; i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, (dual); oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - husband, her man

ex: wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - wife, his woman

ex: shoⁿ-ke i-ta (̨ke itt) - his/her dog

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttitti ką kdan̨ d) - it was hers-because-she took her own-and-into the house-so-she carried her own [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti ki (tt ett tʰtti k) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-da wi-te-ke e-ta-we di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd wtteke ettwe ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ta (eta) - his or her own [Omaha]; i-ʰta (i-ṭ) - his or hers [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta (ʰta) - be his/hers, theirs, belong to him/her, them [CQ-Osage]; i-ta (it), (ta) - his, her, hers, its, their(s); be ones; belong to [Kaw]

 

hiss

da-zi-te (daztte) - hiss bda-zi-te (bdzitte) - I, ta-zi-te (ttzitte) - you

cf. da-zho-te (dott) - squeal, whistle shrilly

Dhegiha: zi-de (zid) - hiss, hissing sound of air escaping [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-kaⁿ (dik̨) - hissing or cutting sound bdi-kaⁿ (bdką) - I, ti-kaⁿ (ttką) - you

 

hit an object carefully, softly

a-ka-ze hi o-tʰiⁿ (kaze h otʰ̨) - to hit an object softly or carefully

cf. a-ka-ze (kaze) - carefully, softly; hi (hi) - very; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

ex: a-ka-ze hi o-da-tʰiⁿ (kaze h odtʰį) - you hit an object softly or carefully

 

hit an object carefully, thoughtfully

i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (dikną hi otʰ̨) - hit an object carefully, thoughtfully

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately, think, decide, form an opinion, plan; hi (hi) - very; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legemd, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - have on ones mind, think about, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

Hit in the Breast

maⁿ-ke o-tʰiⁿ (mą́ke otʰ̨) - Hit in the Breast, male name [MS]

cf. maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

 

hit ones own

i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kitʰį) - hit ones own i-da-ki-tʰiⁿ (idkitʰį) - I, i-da-ki-tʰiⁿ (dakitʰį) - you

cf. i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; i-ki-tʰiⁿ-ye (kitʰ̨ye) - to have hit ones own; i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kkitʰį) - hit oneself with something; o-ki-tʰiⁿ (oktʰį) - strike ones own

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

hit ones own

kda-sa (kdas) - to hit ones own [JOD]

cf. ka-za (kaz), ga-za (gaz) - whip; i-ka-za (kaza) - whip; to hit with

ex: we-kda-sa (wkdas) - he hit them with what belonged to their kinsman [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ, i-we-ki taⁿ we-kda-sa i-ya (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į, iwki tą wkdas iy) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles, he (rabbit) said to them (black bears), when he (rabbit) whipped them with it (their chiefs testicles), it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-sa-pi (ga-sa-pi) - to use a whip [JOD-Omaha]; ga-sa-pi (gaapi) - lash, whip [Omaha]; ga-za-za-be (ga--a-be) - to whip with a switch or quirt, to thrash with a whip [FL-Osage]; ga-sa-pe (gaspe), ga-sa-phe (gasphe) - whip, percussion cap, make a clapping sound [Kaw]

 

hit oneself

o-ki-tʰiⁿ (okktʰį) - hit oneself o-a-ki-tʰiⁿ (okkitʰį) - I, o-da-ki-tʰiⁿ (odkkitʰį) - you

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit; ki (kk) - oneself

Dhegiha: u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ) - beat, hit, spank, strike, a blow, club [Omaha]; u-tʰiⁿ (utʰⁿ) - to hit or strike him [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drub, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

hit oneself with something

i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kkitʰį) - hit oneself with something i-da-ki-tʰiⁿ (idkkitʰį) - I, i-da-ki-tʰiⁿ (dakkitʰį) - you

cf. i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kitʰį) - hit ones own; i-ki-tʰiⁿ-ye (kitʰ̨ye) - to have hit ones own; o-ki-tʰiⁿ (okktʰį) - hit oneself

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

hit repeatedly with something

i-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (tʰįtʰį) - hit repeatedly with something i-da-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (idtʰįtʰį) - I, i-da-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (datʰįtʰį) - you

cf. i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; o-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨tʰį) - pat

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

hit softly, lightly

i-we-pi-aⁿ (weppį) - hit softly, lightly i-we-pi-maⁿ (weppim̨) - I, i-we-shpi-zhaⁿ (wepį) - you

cf. i-we-pi-aⁿ-hi (weppįhi) - pull, bite, tug gently on something

 

hit, pelt with snow, mud, etc.

o-do-tʰiⁿ (odtʰį) - pelt, hit with snow, mud, etc. o-do-a-tʰiⁿ (odatʰį) - I, o-do-da-tʰiⁿ (oddatʰį) - you

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

 

hit, strike on behalf of someone else

o-ki-tʰiⁿ (oktʰį) - strike on behalf of someone else

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit; ki (k) - for someone, on behalf of someone

Dhegiha: u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ) - beat, hit, spank, strike, a blow, club [Omaha]; u-tʰiⁿ (utʰⁿ) - to hit or strike him [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drub, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

hit, strike ones own

o-ki-tʰiⁿ (oktʰį) - strike ones own o-a-ki-tʰiⁿ (okitʰį) - I, o-da-ki-tʰiⁿ (odkitʰį) - you

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit; ki (k) - ones own

Dhegiha: u-gi-tiⁿ (u-g-tiⁿ) - to hit his own relation or property [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-ti ⁿ(-gi-tiⁿ) - to hit them (animate objects, his own property [JOD-Omaha]

 

hit, strike with something

i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something i-da-tʰiⁿ (idtʰį) - I, i-da-tʰiⁿ (datʰį) - you

cf. i-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (tʰįtʰį) - hit repeatedly with something; i-tʰiⁿ-ye (tʰįye) - to have hit; i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kkitʰį) - hit oneself with something; i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kitʰį) - hit ones own; i-ki-tʰiⁿ-ye (kitʰ̨ye) - to have hit ones own; iⁿ-tʰiⁿ (̨tʰį) - stick, club [JOD]; ma-ze iⁿ-tʰiⁿ (mze ̨tʰį) - sword, lit. iron striker; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

ex: naⁿ-pe bda-ska i-tʰiⁿ (nąp bdask itʰ̨) - slap, lit. hit with flat hand

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

hit, strike, slap

o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit o-a-tʰiⁿ (otʰį) - I, o-da-tʰiⁿ (odtʰį) - you, oⁿ-ko-tʰiⁿ-we (ǫktʰįwe) - we

cf. o-tʰiⁿ-kde (otʰ̨kde) - touch, tap to gain attention; o-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨tʰį) - pat; o-tʰiⁿ-ye (otʰ̨-ye) - to have struck, etc.; de-ho-di-ki o-tʰiⁿ (dehodkki otʰ̨) - drumstick [MS]; de-xo-di-tiⁿ o-tʰiⁿ (dexuditiⁿ utiⁿ) - drum, beat drum, strike [JOD]; i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something;

ex: o-wa-tʰiⁿ (owtʰį) - I hit him [MS]

ex: o-wi-tʰiⁿ (owtʰį) - I hit you

ex: a-ka-ze hi o-da-tʰiⁿ (kaze h odtʰį) - you hit an object softly or carefully

ex: o-aⁿ-tʰiⁿ (ǫtʰį) - she/he hit me

ex: o-aⁿ-da-tʰiⁿ (ǫdatʰį) - you hit me

Dhegiha: u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ) - beat, hit, spank, strike, a blow, club [Omaha]; u-tʰiⁿ (utʰⁿ) - to hit or strike him [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drub, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

hit, to have hit

i-tʰiⁿ-ye (tʰįye) - to have hit i-da-tʰiⁿ-ye (idtʰįye) - I, i-da-tʰiⁿ-ye (datʰįye) - you

cf. i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; ye (-ye) - past, incl. all motion verbs; i-ki-tʰiⁿ-ye (kitʰ̨ye) - to have hit ones own

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

hit, to have hit ones own

i-ki-tʰiⁿ-ye (kitʰ̨ye) - to have hit ones own

cf. i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kitʰį) - hit ones own; ye (ye) - past, including all motion verbs, past suffix, perfective aspect; i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; i-tʰiⁿ-ye (tʰįye) - to have hit

Dhegiha: i-tʰiⁿ (-tʰiⁿ) - to hit an object with something the name of which precedes the verb [Omaha/Ponca]; i-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - club, hatchet [FL-Osge]; i-tsʰiⁿ (iicʰ̨) - hit with, strike with [CQ-Osage]; i-chiⁿ (chiⁿ) - strike with something [Kaw]

 

hit, to hit with, whip

i-ka-za (kaza) - whip; to hit with

i-ka-sa (ikasah) - whip (fouet) [GI]

ex: i () by means of, with which to; ka-za (kaz), ga-za (gaz) - whip

Dhegiha: ga-sa-pi (ga-sa-pi) - to use a whip [JOD-Omaha]; ga-sa-pi (gaapi) - lash, whip [Omaha]; ga-za-za-be (ga--a-be) - to whip with a switch or quirt, to thrash with a whip [FL-Osage]; ga-sa-pe (gaspe), ga-sa-phe (gasphe) - whip, percussion cap, make a clapping sound [Kaw]

 

hitting, break something by hitting it

ka-xoⁿ (kax̨) - break something by hitting it a-xoⁿ (xǫ) - I, da-xoⁿ (dxǫ) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken, broke

Dhegiha: ga-xoⁿ (gaxoⁿ) - break by striking [Omaha]; ga-xoⁿ (ga-xⁿ) - to break anything by striking it [FL-Osage]; ka-xoⁿ (kaax̨) - break by striking (a long object such as a stick), break off (a long object such as a stick) [CQ-Osage]; ga-xoⁿ (gaxⁿ) - break as a stick, nail, ear of corn by striking [Kaw]

 

hitting, cracking sound hitting something

ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something a-to-zhe (ttoe) - I, da-to-zhe (dttoe) - you

cf. ba-to-zhe (batte) - crack, make sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - crack, make sound by pressure; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack one's finger joints; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - crack, make sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - cracking sound, make with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - crack, make sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

hitting, fail in hitting at something

ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something a-knoⁿ-da (knǫda) - I, da-knoⁿ-da (dknǫnda) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: ga-gthoⁿ-tha (ga-gthⁿ-tha) - failure to knock a man down by striking him [FL-Osage]; ga-laⁿ-ya (galⁿya) - fail to knock down or kill by striking, fail to cut wood, as with an ax, caused by the ax's brushing or slipping by the object without hitting it [Kaw]

 

hitting, turn by hitting, knock around

ka-bni-da (kabnda) - knock around, turn by hitting a-bni-da (bnida) - I, da-bni-da (dbnida) - you, oⁿ-ka-bni-da-we (ǫkbnidawe) - we

Dhegiha: ga-bthi-zhe (ga-bth-zhe) - to knock one down with the fist [FL-Osage]; ga-bli-zhe (gablzhe), ga-blu-zhe (gablzhe) - knock down by striking; wind to knock down suddenly by blowing on [Kaw]

 

hoarse

ta-ta wa-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ttatt wat̨įi) - hoarse voice, to whisper aⁿwa-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ąwtąį) - I, wa-di-taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (wadtąį) - you

cf. ta-ta (ttatt) - voice; taⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (tt̨įi) - invisible, out of sight

 

hobble

he-koⁿ-kde (hekk̨kde) - hobble along

 

he-koⁿ-kde ka-xe (hekk̨kde kγe) - hobble

cf. he-koⁿ-kde (hekk̨kde) - hobble along; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

he-koⁿ-kde kʰi-de (hekk̨kdekʰde) - hobble as a horse he-koⁿ-kde a-kʰi-de (hekk̨kde akʰide) - I, he-koⁿ-kde da-kʰi-de (hekk̨kde dakʰide) - you

cf. he-koⁿ-kde (hekk̨kde) - hobble along; kʰi-de (kʰde) - cause to

 

i-hi-kaⁿ-kde (hikk̨kde) - hobbles

Dhegiha: hi-ʰkoⁿ-i-thi-ze (h-ḳoⁿ-i-thi-e) - to hobble [FL-Osage]; hi-ʰkoⁿ-a-se (h-ḳoⁿ-a-e) - to fetter a horse [FL-Osage]; hi-kaⁿ-a-se (hkaⁿse) - hobbles; straps or loops placed around the legs to restrain horses [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-ʰkoⁿ (h-ḳoⁿ) - ankles [FL-Osage]; hi-ʰkaⁿ (hiʰką) - ankle [CQ-Osage]; hu-kaⁿ yu-shoⁿ (hkaⁿ yushⁿ) - ankle [Kaw]

 

Hochank, Winnebago

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

cf. ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]; ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar; ga-ho-taⁿ (gahttą) - whirr, roar; ga-ho-taⁿ-de (gahttąde) - whirr, hum, roar; naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on; ho (ho) - voice; o-ho (oho) - bark, as a dog

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the winnebagos or hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago Indian [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga), hu ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person, these are related to the Dhegiha (Kansa, Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Quapaw), the Chiwere (Ioway, Otoe, Missouria, and including Winnebago/Hochank) and the Dakotan (Lakota, Dakota, Assiniboine, Stoney), it is also a name used by the Assiniboine and the Hochank in reference to themselves, where it is interpreted as big voice, loud voice, or rough voice [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu (hu) - voice, sound [Omaha/Ponca]; hu (hu) - voice, vocal, howl [Omaha]; ho (h), hu (h) - voice [FL-Osage]; ho (ho) - voice, bark, moo, quack, etc., make an animal noise [CQ-Osage]; ho (ho) - voice [Kaw]

 

hoe, cultivate

i-xaⁿ (xʔ̨), i-xoⁿ (ixʔ̨) - hoe, cultivate i-da-xaⁿ (idxʔą) - I, i-da-xaⁿ (daxʔą) - you

cf. we-xaⁿ (wxʔą) - hoe, iron weeding hoe

Dhegiha: i-oⁿ (oⁿ) - cultivate [Omaha]; i-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to cultivate growing corn, beans, and squash [FL-Osage]

 

hoe, dig with a grubbing hoe

ke (kʔe) - dig with a grubbing hoe a-ke (akʔ) - I, da-ke (dakʔ) - we

cf. zhoⁿ-koⁿ da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ), zhoⁿ-koⁿ i-da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ) - hoe, grubbing

ex: to ke de-naⁿ-wi (t kʔe d-ną-wi) - they usually dig for potatoes [JOD]

ex: to ke pa-i (to kʔe p-i) - they were digging potatoes [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-naⁿ-bde ki-ha naⁿ to ke da-we (in̨ wan̨bde kih ną t kʔe dwe) - when they finished eating, they went to dig potatoes again [JOD]

Dhegiha: e (e) - dig, pare, peel [Omaha/Ponca]; e (e) - they excavate [Omaha]; ʰke (ḳe) - to dig [FL-Osage]; ke (kʔ) - dig, dig up [CQ-Osage]; ke (ke) - dig [Kaw]

 

hoe, grubbing hoe

zhoⁿ-koⁿ da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ) - grubbing hoe

cf. zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; ke (kʔe) - dig with a grubbing hoe

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkoⁿ) - root [Omaha]; zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkⁿ) - a root, the roots of trees etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (zhoⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - roots of any plant or tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ kaⁿ (̨ą kʔą) - root or roots of a tree, bush, etc. [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (zhⁿkaⁿ) - root of a plant or tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - dig, pare, peel [Omaha/Ponca]; e (e) - they excavate [Omaha]; ʰke (ḳe) - to dig [FL-Osage]; ke (kʔ) - dig, dig up [CQ-Osage]; ke (ke) - dig [Kaw]

 

hoe, iron weeding hoe

we-xaⁿ (wxʔą) - hoe, iron weeding hoe

cf. we (we) - with which to; i-xaⁿ (xʔ̨), i-xoⁿ (ixʔ̨) - hoe, cultivate

 

 

zhoⁿ-koⁿ i-da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ) - grubbing hoe

cf. zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; i () - instrumental, with which to; ke (kʔe) - dig with a grubbing hoe

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkoⁿ) - root [Omaha]; zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkⁿ) - a root, the roots of trees etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (zhoⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - roots of any plant or tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ kaⁿ (̨ą kʔą) - root or roots of a tree, bush, etc. [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (zhⁿkaⁿ) - root of a plant or tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - dig, pare, peel [Omaha/Ponca]; e (e) - they excavate [Omaha]; ʰke (ḳe) - to dig [FL-Osage]; ke (kʔ) - dig, dig up [CQ-Osage]; ke (ke) - dig [Kaw]

 

hog, ground hog

xo-ka (xka) - ground hog, possibly badger

Dhegiha: xu-ga (qga) - badger [Omaha/Ponca]; xu-ga (xga) - badger [Omaha]; xo-ga (x-ga) - badger [FL-Osage]; xo-ka (xoka) - badger [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-ga (xⁿga) - badger [Kaw]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ xu-de (moⁿthⁿqude) - prairie dog [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-thiⁿ xu-de (moⁿthiⁿ xude) - ground hog, prairie dog [Omaha]; moⁿ-thiⁿ xo-dse (moⁿ-thⁿ-xo-dse) - a prairie dog [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ xo-je zhiⁿ-ga (maⁿyⁿxje zhⁿga), maⁿ-yiⁿ xo-je hiⁿ-ga (maⁿyⁿxje hⁿga) - prairie dog [Kaw]

 

hog, pig

siⁿ-te shta (sįtt ta) - hog, pig

siⁿ-te shta (sįtt ta) - pig [MS, AB]

siⁿ-te shta (sin-teschtah) - pig, hog (cochon) [GI]

cf. siⁿ-te (s̨tte) - tail; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum

ex: siⁿ-te shta zhiⁿ-ka (sin-teschtah-jinkeh) - piglet, suckling pig (cochon de lait) [GI]

Dhegiha: siⁿ-e sta (ⁿ-e-sta) - opossum, the opossum is used by the Osage for food [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-shta (s̨taa) - possum, literally, smooth squirrel [CQ-Osage]; siⁿ-je shta (sⁿje shta) - possum [Kaw]

 

hold a note singing

da-ste-te (dasttte) - hold a note singing bda-ste-te (bdstette) - I, ta-ste-te (ttstette) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long

 

hold a soft object

di-shtoⁿ-ka (dit̨ka) - hold a soft object bdi-shtoⁿ-ka (bdtǫka) - I, ti-shtoⁿ-ka (tttǫka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk), shtaⁿ-ka (tąka) - soft; naⁿ-ta o-shtaⁿ-ka (nątt otąk) - ear lobe; a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, soft part; wa-shtaⁿ-ka (wat̨ka) - green corn

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ-ga (thishtoⁿga) - soften [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ-ga (thi-shtⁿ-ga) - to soften the skin by working with the hands [FL-Osage]; yu-shtoⁿ-ga (yushtⁿga) - soften, take hold of a soft object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - soft, puffy, bunched [Omaha/Ponca]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿga) - soft [Omaha]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿ-ga) - soft [FL-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ka (t̨ka) - soft [CQ-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - be soft [Kaw]

 

hold along the edge for someone

ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone a-bdi-zi-pa (bdizppa) - I, da-ti-zi-pa (dttizppa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of one's own; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

hold down

a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something a-pi-saⁿ-te (ppisątte) - I, a-shpi-saⁿ-te (pisątte) - you, oⁿ-ka-pi-saⁿ-ta-we (ǫkpisąttawe) - we

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects

ex: ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe aⁿ-bi-saⁿ-te (kakkkdattie ̨bisątt) - he tumbled over and lay on me

ex: maⁿ-da a-bi-saⁿ-te naⁿ i-ya (m̨da bisątte ną iy) - he held him down on his back, it is said

ex: wa-bi-saⁿ-ta-we (wbisąttawe) - he or they lay on us

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - mash, push down on, shut, close, hold down [CQ-Osage]; a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on with the hands, as in catching a bird or rabbit; to press or bear hard on, as with a chair leg; to run and jump on something, wrestle [Kaw]; a-ki-bu-saⁿ-je (kbusaⁿje) - to wrestle each other [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ba-soⁿ-de (basoⁿde) - push, to push together with the hand against something which is on something else, as a pen on paper [Omaha/Ponca]; i-bi-soⁿ-de (bisⁿde) - narrow, a narrow place, as a ledge at the base of a cliff above a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-soⁿ-de (baoⁿde) - crease, press together [Omaha]; u-bi-soⁿ-de (ubioⁿde) - compact, crowded [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze a-noⁿ-soⁿ-de (moⁿe anoⁿoⁿde) - brassiere [Omaha]; soⁿ-soⁿ-de (oⁿoⁿde) - close together [Omaha]; a-ba-soⁿ-dse (-ba-oⁿ-dse) - to push one against a tree or a door, to lace up a shoe [FL-Osage]; a-thi-soⁿ-dse (-thi-oⁿ-dse) - to hold firmly between the hands or fingers, to squeeze; to clasp ones legs around a horse when riding bareback, [FL-Osage]; i-noⁿ-soⁿ-dse (-noⁿ-oⁿ-dse) - to take shelter behind someth, as protection [FL-Osage]; a-ba-saⁿ-je (basaⁿje) - push against something, as a door to keep it closed; have sex with [Kaw]; a-ga-saⁿ-je (gasaⁿje) - to make tight by nailing on, as tarred paper on the inside of a house; nail down tight [Kaw]; a-naⁿ-saⁿ-je (naⁿsⁿje) - stamp on something (to anchor it), to bring down the feet suddenly on a paper, etc., to keep it from being blown away [Kaw]; a-ya-saⁿ-je (yasaⁿje) - hold firmly with the teeth [Kaw]; a-yu-saⁿ-je (yusaⁿje) - clamp something, hold firmly [Kaw]; iⁿ-yaⁿ-o-bu-saⁿ-je (iⁿyⁿobusⁿje) - gorge, narrow defile with stream [Kaw]

 

a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down a-bi-saⁿ-te a-zhi (bisątte ai) - I, a-bi-saⁿ-te da-zhi (bisątte dai) - you, a-bi-saⁿ-te oⁿ-zhi-we (bisątte ǫwe) - we

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; a-zhi (i) - put small scattered, inanimate objects onto something; a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects

Dhegiha: a-zhu (-zhu) - to put a number of articles on a rack [FL-Osage]; a-zhu (u) - put out, set out multiple items, place, array, display multiple items on top of something else; pour something on or over another surface; put a portable substance on something else [CQ-Osage]; a-zhu (zhu) - put many objects on a surface of any thing [Kaw]

 

hold gun muzzle downward

di-ba-siⁿ (dbasʔ̨) - hold gun muzzle downward bdi-ba-siⁿ (bdbasʔį) - I, ti-ba-siⁿ (ttbasʔį) - you

Dhegiha: thi-ba-tsiⁿ (thi-b-tsiⁿ) - to turn a thing head downward, upside down [FL-Osage]; yu-ba-tsiⁿ (yubtsiⁿ) - bend or deflect something, force to stoop, to make one stoop or bow the head by pulling him by the hair, neck, or arm; to turn a gun muzzle downward [Kaw]

 

hold in the mouth

            da-pʰe (dapʰ) - hold in the mouth bda-pʰe (bdpʰ) - I, ta-pʰe (ttpʰ) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth

Dhegiha: tha-pshe (tha-psh) - to hold an object in the mouth [FL-Osage]; ya-phe (yaph) - hold in the mouth, between the teeth [Kaw]

 

hold it down

a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight a-ka-spi-he-a-de (kaspihade) - I, a-ka-spi-he-da-de (kaspihdade)  -you

cf. a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat (curvilinear) object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - the falling of something heavy on a person or thing, to cover up an object [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe), a-ga-spaⁿ (gaspaⁿ) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat (curvilinear) object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone a-ka-spi-naⁿ-a-de (kaspin̨ade) - I, a-ka-spi-naⁿ-da-de (kaspin̨dade) - you

cf. a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put sg/si/in or cloth/paper; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight

ex: a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!

ex: ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

ex: maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - the falling of something heavy on a person or thing, to cover up an object [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe), a-ga-spaⁿ (gaspaⁿ) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

hold or grasp by the edge

di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge bdi-zi-pa (bdzippa) - I, ti-zi-pa (ttzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of one's own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

hold or grasp edge of ones own

kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold or grasp edge of ones own a-kdi-zi-pa (akdzippa) - I, da-kdi-zi-pa (dakdzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

hold, fumble, let slip, fail to hold

di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold bdi-kdoⁿ-da (bdkdǫda) - I, ti-kdoⁿ-da (ttkdǫda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: thi-gthoⁿ-tha (th-gthoⁿ-tha) - fail to get a good grip, to drop by accident [FL-Osage]; yu-laⁿ-ya (yulⁿya), yu-laⁿ-ye (yulaⁿye) - miss or fumble in trying to grasp or pull an object which is too large to be handled [Kaw]

 

hold, grasp something for holding

i-di-za-za (dizza) - hold, grasp something for holding i-bdi-za-za (bdizza) - I, i-ti-za-za (ttizza) - you

cf. i-kdi-za-za (kdizza) - stick to one here and there; i-di-ze (dize) - pull up, uproot; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive

 

hold, holds door firm

ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm

cf. ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge; si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; i-ye si-ze ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate

 

hold, take hold of but fumble

di-shta-te de-de (dittte dde) - take hold of but fumble bdi-shta-te de-a-de (bdttte dade) - I, ti-shta-te de-da-de (ttttte ddade) - you

cf. de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; di-shtaⁿ de-de (dit̨ ded) - let go, free

Dhegiha: yu-shta-je (yushtje) - pick up suddenly, grab up, snatch up [Kaw]

 

hold, take hold of with the arms

a o-doⁿ-de (a od̨de) - he locked arms [JOD]

a o-naⁿ-de (a on̨de) - to hold with the arms

a (a) - arm; o-naⁿ (on̨) - take hold of, seize, grasp; de (de) - cause

ex: to-si a o-doⁿ-de a-taⁿ ti-a-ti a-niⁿ kdi (tos a od̨de [on̨de] ttą ttitti an̨ kdi) - under the arms-he locked arms-and-to the lodge-he brought her back [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thoⁿ (thoⁿ) - arrest, grab, to take hold of or arrest them [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthⁿ) - grasp, seize, hold, grab, to grasp or seize an animal or inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthoⁿ) - catch, caught, clench, clasp, grasp, hold, handle [Omaha]; u-thoⁿ (u-thoⁿ) - to seize, to hold, to grasp [FL-Osage]

 

hold, take hold of, seize, grasp

o-naⁿ (on̨) - take hold of, seize, grasp o-bnaⁿ (obn̨) - I, o-taⁿ (ott̨) - you, oⁿ-ko-naⁿ-we (ǫknąwe) - we

ex: o-naⁿ (on̨) - he took hold of him [JOD]

ex: o-wa-naⁿ (waną) - he grasped them [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp͓ nikʰ waną iy) - the rabbit took hold of the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thoⁿ (thoⁿ) - arrest, grab, to take hold of or arrest them [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthⁿ) - grasp, seize, hold, grab, to grasp or seize an animal or inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthoⁿ) - catch, caught, clench, clasp, grasp, hold, handle [Omaha]; u-thoⁿ (u-thoⁿ) - to seize, to hold, to grasp [FL-Osage]

 

hole

o-kdo (okd) - hole, an artificial opening

cf. o-da-kdo (odkdo) - gnaw holes in [JOD]; o-po-kto (opkto), o-po-xdo (opxdo) - shoot through something; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate

 

hole, bore a hole

o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole o-bdi-xo-te (obdxʔotte) - I, o-ti-xo-te (ottxʔotte) - you

cf. zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger; zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te zhi-ka (̨ iddixʔotte ka) - gimlet; o-xo-te (oxʔtte), o-xo-de (oxʔde)  - hole, natural opening

Dhegiha: u-thi-u-de (uthiude) - bore, bored [Omaha]; u-thi-ku-dse (u-th-ḳu-dse) - to drill a hole [FL-Osage]; o-yu-ko-je (oykoje) - break a hole through a solid; to bore a hole with a brace and bit [Kaw]

 

hole, gnaw holes in

o-da-kdo (odkdo) - gnaw holes in [JOD]

cf. da (da) - by mouth; o-kdo (okd) - hole, an artificial opening; o-po-kto (opkto), o-po-xdo (opxdo) - shoot through something

ex: zha-we ke maⁿ-te kʰe o-da-kdo ke (aw ke mątt kʰe odkdo k) - the beavers gnawed holes in the canoe [JOD]

ex: o-da-kdo tʰaⁿ o-spe ke (odkdo tʰ̨ osp ke) - gnawed holes in it and it sank [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-gthu (bagth) - to thrust at ice, in order to make a hole in it for horses, etc., to drink [Omaha/Ponca]

 

hole, natural opening

o-xo-te (oxʔtte), o-xo-de (oxʔde) - hole, natural opening

cf. na-xi-te o-xo-te (naxtte oxʔtte), na-xi-te o-xo-de (naxtte oxʔde) - meatus of the ear, the external opening; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-xo-te (ppąe oxʔtte) - nostril(s); o-di-xo-te (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; zhoⁿ i-di-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

Dhegiha: u-u-de (ude) - hole [Omaha/Ponca]; u-u-te (uute) - hole [Omaha]; u-ʰku-dse (u-ḳ-dse) - a hole, perforation, orifice [FL-Osage]; o-ko-tse (okʔce), o-ko (okʔ) - hole [CQ-Osage]; o-ko-je (okje) - hole, aperture [Kaw]

 

hole, ruin by poking a hole in

ba-shi-ke (baik) - ruin by poking a hole in pa-shi-ke (ppike) - I, shpa-shi-ke (pike) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; bi-shi-ke (bike) - ruin by pressing, squash; da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly; di-shi-ke (dik) - ruin by tearing, do wrong; ka-shi-ke (kake) - spoil something by striking it; naⁿ-shi-ke (nąke) - spoil something by stepping on it; pa-shi-ke (pike) - ruin by cutting with a knife; po-shi-ke (pike) - spoil something by punching it; ta-shi-ke (tke) - ruin something by burning it

 

hole, smoke hole

ti-ho-kaⁿ (tthokką) - smoke hole

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps; ti-ho-kaⁿ a-kabniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: ti-hu-koⁿ (thukoⁿ) - smoke hole at the top of a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-hu-koⁿ (ti hukoⁿ) - stovepipe, smoke hole, flue chimney [Omaha]; ʰtsi-hu-ʰkoⁿ (ṭs-hu-ḳoⁿ) - smoke hole of a tent or lodge [FL-Osage]; tsi-ho-ka (choka) - smoke hole of a lodge, chimney [Kaw]

 

ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ (tthokką) - smoke hole; a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

ex: ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: ti hu-ga-bthiⁿ tha (ti hugabthiⁿ tha) - smoke flaps [Omaha]; ti hu-koⁿ (ti hukoⁿ) - stovepipe, smoke hole, flue chimney [Omaha]; ti-hu-koⁿ (thukoⁿ) - smoke hole at the top of a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-hu-ʰkoⁿ (ṭs-hu-ḳoⁿ) - smoke hole of a tent or lodge, this was generally made in the top of the tent or lodge, so that the smoke in rising would pass out [FL-Osage]; tsi-ho-ka (choka) - smoke hole of a lodge, chimney [Kaw]

 

sho-ti-o-he-de (ttiohde) - smoke hole, chimney

cf. sho-te (tte) - smoke

 

holler

baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo paⁿ (pp̨) - I, shpaⁿ (p̨) - you, aⁿ-baⁿ-we (ąb̨we) - we

cf. ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I call to them

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ (ąb̨) - he called to me [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨͓ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ-wi (ąb̨wi) - they called me [JOD]

ex: di-baⁿ (dib̨) - call to you [JOD]

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

Dhegiha: boⁿ (boⁿ) - call, to call out [Omaha/Ponca]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - scream [Omaha]; poⁿ (poⁿ) - yell [Omaha]; boⁿ (boⁿ) - to call [FL-Osage]; paⁿ (p̨) - holler, yell, scream, shout [CQ-Osage]; baⁿ (baⁿ) - call to [Kaw]

 

wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry wa-te-paⁿ (wattpp̨) - I, wa-te-shpaⁿ (wattp̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-te-baⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wattb̨ iy mat̨ke tʰą) - the rabbit gave the attack signal, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtse-boⁿ (wa-ṭs-boⁿ) - a cry of triumph, given as a victorious war party approaches the village as it returns [FL-Osage]

 

wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal wa-te wa-paⁿ (watt wapp̨) - I, wa-te wa-shpaⁿ (watt wap̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtse (wa-ṭs) - a triumph, victory, the touching of a living or fallen foe to win one of the prescribed war honors [FL-Osage]; wa-tse (wac) - count coup, to touch a fallen foe, victory [Kaw]

 

ho-taⁿ (httą) - cry out, roar

ho taⁿ-ka (hŭk-takah) - shout, yell, scream, call (crier) [GI]

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

cf. ho (ho) - voice; o-ho (oho) - bark, as a dog [MS]; ga-ho-taⁿ (gahttą) - whirr, roar; ga-ho-taⁿ-de (gahttąde) - whirr, hum, roar; naⁿ-ho-taⁿ (nąhttą) - cry out from being stepped on

Dhegiha: hu tʰoⁿ (htʰoⁿ) - to cry out, roar, bellow, said of the cries of all animals except humans and hogs [Omaha]; ho-ʰtoⁿ (hṭoⁿ) - the cry or call of animals or birds [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ (hoʰtą) - yell, holler, shout, lit., loud voice, sing or sound out, make a loud sound, make animal sounds [CQ-Osage]; ho-taⁿ (htaⁿ) - cry of an animal; an animals characteristic cry, a single term used to convey notions such as roar, bellow, whinny, caw, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; ho toⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ka (htąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago tribe or person big voice, loud voice, or rough voice. [Kaw]

 

o-kda-xa (okdxʔa) - whoop o-a-kda-xa (okdaxʔa) - I, o-da-kda-xa (odkdaxʔa) - you

cf. o-kda-xa-xa (okdxʔaxʔ) - whoop, give the scalp yell

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a-a (ugtha) - give the scalp yell [JOD-Omaha]; i o-la-ka-ka ( olkaka) - to give the war whoop or scalp yell, lit. to make a succession of arrested sounds come from ones own mouth, war whoop, scalp yell [Kaw]

 

o-kda-xa-xa (okdxʔaxʔ) - whoop, give the scalp yell o-da-kda-xa-xa (odkdaxxa) - you

cf. o-kda-xa (okdxʔa) - whoop

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔa ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya ni-ka-shi-ka ke (zan hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy nkkaka ke) - all of the people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-gtha-a-a (ugtha) - give the scalp yell [JOD-Omaha]; i o-la-ka-ka ( olkaka) - to give the war whoop or scalp yell, lit. to make a succession of arrested sounds come from ones own mouth, war whoop, scalp yell [Kaw]

 

hollow

o-ka-xo-we (okxowe) - hollow [JOD]

cf. ka-xo-we (kxowe), ka-xo-we (kaxʔwe) - gap in mountains, ravine

 

hollow earth, cave

maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, lit. hollow earth

cf. kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out; zhaⁿ xdo-xa (ą xdxʔa) - hollow tree [JOD]

Dhegiha: xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, baggy [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a(xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-ʰka (xthu-ḳa), xthu-a (xth-a) - hollow, any kind of hollow in a tree or log [FL-Osage]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

hollow tree

zhaⁿ xdo-xa (ą xdxʔa) - hollow tree [JOD]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out

ex: zhaⁿ xdo-xa o-pʰe (ą xdxʔa opʰ) - he entered a hollow tree [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ xthu-a (zhoⁿqtha) - hollow log or tree [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ xthu-a (zhoⁿxthua) - wood barrel [Omaha]; zhoⁿ xthu-ʰka (zhⁿ-xthu-ḳa), zhoⁿ xthu-a (zhⁿ-xth-a)  - a hollow tree [FL-Osage]

 

hollow, empty

kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty

cf. maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; zhaⁿ xdo-xa (ą xdxʔa) - hollow tree [JOD]; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out

Dhegiha: xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, baggy [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a(xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-ʰka (xthu-ḳa), xthu-a (xth-a) - hollow, any kind of hollow in a tree or log [FL-Osage]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

holy bird

wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle, holy bird

wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle [MS]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we sha-ke (wąka xwe ke) - eagle claw [MS]

Dhegiha: xu-be (xube) - hallowed, holy, wizard [Omaha]; xu-be (xbe) - holy, supernatural power, sanctity [FL-Osage]; xo-pe (xpe) - sacred, consecrated, holy [CQ-Osage]

 

holy man

ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: ni-ʰka xo-be (n-ḳa xo-be) - the holy man [FL-Osage]

 

holy pipe

ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; ta-ni-ba (tanba) - pipe; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: ni-ni-ba wa-xu-be (ninba waqbe) - sacred pipe [JOD-Omaha]

 

holy wood

zhoⁿ xo-we (ǫ xwe) - sassafras, S. albidum, lit. holy wood

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ wa-xu-be (zhⁿ waqbe) - sacred pole [Omaha/Ponca]

 

holy, make holy, consecrate

di-xo-we (dixwe) - consecrate, make holy bdi-xo-we (bdxowe) - I, ti-xo-we (ttxowe) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: thi-xu-be (thiqbe) - consecrate, to consecrate, to make holy [Omaha/Ponca]

 

holy, sacred

xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

cf. di-xo-we (dixwe) - consecrate, make holy; ni-ka xo-we (nkka xwe) - shaman, Indian doctor, priest; ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe; wa-zhiⁿ-ka xo-we (wąka xwe) - eagle, holy bird; zhoⁿ xo-we (ǫ xwe) - sassafras, S. albidum, lit. holy wood

Dhegiha: xu-be (xube) - hallowed, holy, wizard [Omaha]; xu-be (xbe) - holy, supernatural power, sanctity [FL-Osage]; xo-pe (xpe) - sacred, consecrated, holy [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-xu-be (waqbe) - mysterious, holy, sacred [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xu-be (waxube) - holy [Omaha]; wa-xo-be (wa-x-be) - a talisman or something worn about the person to ward off evil, anything consecrated for ceremonial use [FL-Osage]; wa-xo-pe (waxpe) - medicine bundle, sacred object, things consecrated or honored [CQ-Osage]; wa-xo-we (waxwe), wa-xo-be (waxbe) - sacred, holy, mysterious, any sacred or mysterious object, as a sacred bundle [Kaw]

 

he xo-we (he qwĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. he (he) - horn, antler; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: he (he) - horn [Omaha/Ponca]; he (he) - horn, antler [Omaha]; he (he) - horn, antler [FL-Osage]; he (h) - horn, cow or buffalo [CQ-Osage]; he (he) - antlers, horns [Kaw]

 

si-kde xo-we (siktq qwĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprint, track, trail, the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (i-gthe), (i-gth) - track, footprint [FL-Osage]; ʰta si-le ʰtawaⁿ (ʰtaaslee ʰtawą) - Tulsa, Oklahoma, literally, deer crossing town [CQ-Osage]; si-dle (sidl), si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, a trail [Kaw]

 

wa-xo-we kiⁿ (waqwĕ kiⁿ) - masculine name, old name for a man [JOD]

cf. xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy; kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

Dhegiha: wa-xo-be kiⁿ (waxbe kiⁿ) - he who carried a sacred bag on his back, when going on the warpath, male name [Kaw]

 

home

see house

 

hominy

wa-sha-kda (wakda) - hominy

wa-sha-kda (wakda) - hominy [MS]

wa-sha-kda (wackta) - female name, Hominy [JOD]

cf. o-we sa-ki wa-sha-kda (we ski wakd) - hominy [JOD]

 

o-we sa-ki wa-sha-kda (we ski wakd) - hominy [JOD]

cf. o-we sa-ki (ow sak) - dried corn; wa-sha-kda (wakda) - hominy; o-we sa-ki wa-bdo-ka (we ski wbdok) - whole ear of dried corn [JOD]; o-we wa-hi (we wah) - corn stalk; o-we a-pe (we pe) - corn blade(s); o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom; o-we (we) - field, corn field

 

wa-tu-ka (wtuka) - hominy, when that wa-tʰaⁿ-ze (watʰą́ze) was made into hominy [FR]

 

homosexual

miⁿ-xo-ke (mįxke) - folkloric figures in Quapaw mythology

Dhegiha: mi-xu-ga (mixuga) - lewd man, refers homosexual behavior [Omaha]; te miⁿ-xu-ga (temⁿquga) - freemartin, hermaphrodite buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-xo-ke (miixke) - homosexual, lesbian, gay person [CQ-Osage]; ʰtse miⁿ-xu-ga (ṭse-mⁿ-xu-ga) - a hermaphrodite buffalo [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-xo-ge (miⁿxge) - catamite, male or femal, between a man and a woman, homosexual, gay, lesbian, hermaphrodite; JOD regarding the m-a-lo-shka: a mythical race of beings, with large heads, and long hair, dwelling in solitary places, to which they are supposed to entice unwary Indians. Their victims become crazy, and live as miⁿ-x-ge - hermaphrodites [Kaw]

 

hone, sharpen by rubbing

bi-zi-ka (bizkka) - sharpen by rubbing, hone pi-zi-ka (ppzikka) - I, shpi-zi-ka (pzikka) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; o-zi-ka (ozkka) - wider at one end than other; ba-zi-ka (bazkka) - sharpen; da-zi-ka (dazkka) - chew to a point, sharpen; di-zi-ka (dizkka) - sharpen; ki-di-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen something for someone; ka-zi-ka (kazkka) - sharpen, as with an axe, whittle; kdi-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen pulling toward oneself; pa-zi-ka (pzikka) - whittle to a point; ta-zi-ka (tzikka) - burn to a point

 

honest

o-ta-za (ttaza) - right, straight, honest oⁿ-ta-za (̨ttaza), o-aⁿ-ta-za (oąttaza) - I, o-di-ta-za (dittaza) - you

o-ta-za (ttaza) - pretty [OM]

cf. o-ta-za ka-xe (ttaza kγe) - right, correct, act honestly; o-ta-za-zhi (ttazi) - be wrong

Dhegiha: o-ʰta-za (o-ṭa-a), u-ʰta-za (u-ṭ-a) - handsome, showy, stateliness, pretty, comely, pleasing to the sight, satisfying to the sense of beauty [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za (oʰtza) - good looking, handsome, beautiful, very pretty [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ta-za ka-xe (ttaza kγe) - right, correct, act honestly

cf. o-ta-za (ttaza) - right, straight, honest; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; o-ta-za-zhi (ttazi) - be wrong

Dhegiha: o-ʰta-za (o-ṭa-a), u-ʰta-za (u-ṭ-a) - handsome, showy, stateliness, pretty, comely, pleasing to the sight, satisfying to the sense of beauty [FL-Osage]; o-ʰta-za (oʰtza) - good looking, handsome, beautiful, very pretty [CQ-Osage]

 

honey

he-zi-ka ski-de (hzikka skde) - honey

he-zi-ka ski-de (hzikka skde) - honey [OM]

cf. he-zi-ka (hzikka) - bee; ski-de (skde) - sweet; ni-ski-de (niskde) - salt, lit. sweet water; wa-ske ski-de (wskeskde) - cake, sweet bread; to ski-de (to ski-de) - sweet potato; to ski-de ni (to skde ni) - Sweet Potato Creek, home of the Quapaws before 1861 according to JOD; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde) - sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo), wa-shoⁿ-ke ski-de (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar

Dhegiha: ski-the (skthe) - sweet, sour [Omaha/Ponca]; ski-the (kithe) - sweet [Omaha]; ski-the (k-the), skiu-e (kiu-e), skiu-the (kiu-the), sku-the (ku-the) - sweet [FL-Osage]; sku-the (ske), sku-e (ske) - sweet [CQ-Osage]; sku-we (skwe) - sweets, be sweet [Kaw]

 

honey  dew melon

wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (uaton-sakkah) - honeydew melon (melon d'eau) [GI]

wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon

wa-tʰaⁿ sa-ka (watʰ̨ skka) - watermelon [MS]

cf. wa-tʰaⁿ (watʰ̨) - watermelon [MS, OM]; wa-tʰoⁿ to (watʰ̨ tto) - pumpkin; wa-tʰaⁿ o-ha (watʰą ha) - pumpkin; wa-tʰaⁿ si-ta (watʰą stta) - muskmelon, mushmelon

Dhegiha: wa-toⁿ (watoⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, melon [Omaha]; wa-ʰtoⁿ (wa-ṭⁿ) - pumpkin, squash, or any of the vegetables of that family [FL-Osage]; wa-txaⁿ (watx̨), (wtkxą), (wakx̨) - pumpkin, squash [CQ-Osage]; wa-khaⁿ (wakhⁿ) - pumpkin (generic term) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sa-kʰa thi-de (skʰathde) - watermelon [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-ka thi-de (saka thide) - watermelon [Omaha]; sa-kʰa thi-de u-kʰe-thiⁿ (skʰathide ukʰthiⁿ) - watermelon, common Omaha watermelon, it has a green rind, usually striped, and black seeds [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-ʰkiu (-ḳiu) - watermelon [FL-Osage]; sa-ʰku (sʰku) - watermelon [CQ-Osage]; sa-ko-je (skoje) - native melon, watermelon [Kaw]

 

honor

o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect

cf. o-xta (xta) - good, desirable; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully; o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love; xta-de (xtad) - love; xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love ones own relative, kin

Dhegiha: xta-the (qtthe) - to love a person or thing, to like, to think well of [Omaha/Ponca]; xta-the (xtthe) - like, adore [Omaha]; u-xta (-xta) - marvelous, pleasing, mysterious, lovable, to prize highly, to hold a thing precious or valuable [FL-Osage]; o-xta (-xta) - a thing of great value, a captive, a favored person [FL-Osage]; xta-the (xt-the) - to love [FL-Osage]; o-xta (xta) - precious, dear or beloved, valuable, marvelous, important, special, right, respectable [CQ-osage]; o-xta (xta) - pleasing [Kaw]; o-xta-ye (xtaye) - like someone [Kaw]; xta-ye (xtye) - love, care for, have concern for, be good to [Kaw]

 

oⁿ-hi a-zhiⁿ (ǫh į) - respect, treat as honorable oⁿ-hi a-a-zhiⁿ (ǫh aį), oⁿ-hi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ǫh ąmį) - I, oⁿ-hi a-da-zhiⁿ (ǫh daį) - you, oⁿ-hi oⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ-we (ǫh ̨kaįwe) - we

cf. a-zhiⁿ (į) - think, regard; to treat as; oⁿ-hi-kde (̨hikde) - to show partiality to someone

ex: oⁿ-hi a-wi-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ǫh wiąm̨) - I honor you

Dhegiha: oⁿ-xti the (ⁿ-qti-ĕ) - to think highly of another [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-xti the (oⁿxti the) - honor [Omaha]; oⁿ-xti-the-goⁿ (ⁿ-qti--gaⁿ) - to esteem, think highly of him [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-xti e-goⁿ (ⁿ-qti--gaⁿ) - a chief or principal man [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-xti gi-the e-goⁿ (oⁿxti githe egoⁿ) - dignity [Omaha]; oⁿ-xti ki-the-goⁿ (ⁿ-qti-k͓i--gaⁿ) - to think to highly of himself, to be self important, self sufficient [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-xti gi-the-goⁿ (ⁿ-qti-gi--gaⁿ) - to think to much of his own [JOD-Omaha]

 

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