English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

H

 

hawk

kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk, smallest species

kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk [MS]

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ (gthedⁿ) - Pigeon hawk [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-doⁿ (gthedoⁿ) - American Sparrow Hawk [Omaha]; gthe-daⁿ (gedaⁿ́) - hawk [JOD-Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ (gthe-dⁿ) - hawk, falcon, used also as a personal name in the Osage Tribe [FL-Osage]; le-toⁿ (let̨), le-taⁿ (let̨) - hawk [CQ-Osage]; le-daⁿ (ledⁿ), le-taⁿ (ltaⁿ), lye-daⁿ (lydaⁿ), kle-taⁿ (kltaⁿ), gle-daⁿ (gledⁿ) - hawk, chicken hawk [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ (kte-t͓aⁿ́) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Hawk [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk [MS]; kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk, smallest species

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ (gthe-dⁿ) - hawk, falcon, used also as a personal name in the Osage Tribe [FL-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ haⁿ-ka (ktetăⁿ́ hak͓a) - masculine name, father of taⁿ-daⁿ haⁿ-ka (taⁿdaⁿ́ hák͓a) [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - ancestral or first gen (clan)

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́ga) - leader or first, implies the idea of ancient, or first, people; those who led, moiety or tribal half representing the earth and its water [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; huⁿ-ga (huⁿ́ga) - ancient one, the one who goes before, leader, peace as symbolized by a little child [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; haⁿ-ka (hák͓a) - the name of the gentes on the right side of the Osage tribal circle [JOD-Osage]; hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́-ga) - The Sacred One, personal name [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka), hoⁿ-ga (h̜ga) - the name of the two great tribal divisions of the Osage Tribe, the division representing the earth with its water and dry land.  The word signifies sacred or holy, an object that is venerated.  It is also the name of a subdivision representing the dry land of the earth.  The dark-plummed eagle is spoken of by this term, because of its synbolic use; a child chosen as an emblem of innocence in a peace ceremony is called Hoⁿ-ga.  The origin of the word, being obscure, can not be analyzed [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - sacred, holy, bald eagle, dark-plummed eagle, earth division of the Osage tribe, innocence emblem in peace ceremony, a child [CQ-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ ki-ta (ktetăⁿ́ k͓it͓) - masculine name, Hawk Gets Up, father of wa-zhiⁿ ska (wajiⁿ́ ska); father of haⁿ-ka mi (hak͓ mi) [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdetą́) - hawk; ki-ta (ktta) - arise, get up

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ (gthedⁿ) - pigeon hawk [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-doⁿ (gthe-dⁿ) - hawk, falcon, used also as a personal name in the Osage Tribe [FL-Osage]; le-taⁿ (letą́), le-toⁿ (letǫ́) - hawk [CQ-Osage]; gle-daⁿ (gledⁿ) - hawk [Kaw]; le-daⁿ (ledⁿ) - hawk, chicken hawk [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xu-e gi-da (xu-e-gi-da) - Comes Roaring, personal name, refers to the wind in an approaching storm [FL-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (ktetăⁿ́ maⁿ́niⁿ) - female name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdetą́) - hawk; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ moⁿ-thiⁿ (gthedⁿ moⁿthiⁿ) - male name, Hawk Walking [Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ moi (gthe-dⁿ-moi) - male name [Osage]; gthe-moi zhiⁿ-ga (gthe-moi zhiⁿ-ga) - male name, meaning obscure, has been given as Walking Hawk and Moving Hawk [Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ mi (kte-t͓ŭⁿ́ mi) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Hawk Female [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdetą́) - hawk; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ wiⁿ (gthedⁿ wiⁿ) - Hawk Feminine [Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ wiⁿ (gthe-dⁿ-wiⁿ), le-toⁿ wiⁿ (let̨wį), gthe-doⁿ mi (gthe-dⁿ-mi) - Hawk Woman, female personal name, refers to the sacred hawk [Osage]; le-daⁿ mi (ledⁿ mi) - Hawk Female, female name [Kaw]; le-daⁿ miⁿ (ledⁿmiⁿ) - Hawk Woman [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ mi haⁿ-ka (kte-t͓ŭⁿ́ mi há-k͓a) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Ancestral or First Hawk Female [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; haⁿ-ka (háʞa) - ancestral or first gens [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ (gthedⁿ) - pigeon hawk [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-doⁿ (gthedoⁿ) - American Sparrow Hawk [Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ (gthe-dⁿ) - hawk, falcon [FL-Osage]; le-toⁿ (let̨), le-taⁿ (let̨) - [CQ-Osage]; gle-daⁿ (gledⁿ), kle-taⁿ (kltaⁿ), le-daⁿ (ledⁿ), le-taⁿ (ltaⁿ) - hawk [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ mi te-ka (kte-t͓ŭⁿ́ mi t-k͓a), (ktqetăⁿ́ mi tk͓a) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; New Hawk Female

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; te-ka (ttka) - new

Dhegiha: le-daⁿ mi tse-ga (ledⁿ mi cga) - female name, New Hawk Female [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ mi te-xi (ktqetăⁿ́ mi teqi) - female name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk, smallest species; kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk [MS]; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ wiⁿ-te-xi (gthedⁿ wiⁿtexi) - Sacred Female Hawk, female name [Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ mi ʰtse-xi (gthe-dⁿ-mi-ṭse-xi) - female personal name, The Favorite, Hawk mi-na (the first daughter, eldest daughter) [Osage]; le-daⁿ mi (ledⁿ mi) - Hawk Female, female name [Kaw]

 

kde-ta mi tiⁿ-ga (kdet mi t̨ga) - female personal name, Fanie Goodeagles name, she did not know the meaning [FR]

possibly kde-taⁿ mi te-ka (kte-t͓ŭⁿ́ mi t-k͓a), (ktqetăⁿ́ mi tk͓a) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; New Hawk Female

 

kde-taⁿ na-zhiⁿ (kte-t͓aⁿ́ n-jiⁿ) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Standing Hawk [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ noⁿ-zhiⁿ (gthedⁿ noⁿzhiⁿ) - male name, Hawk Standing, male name [Omaha]; gthe-daⁿ na-zhiⁿ (gedaⁿ́ njiⁿ) - Hawk Standing, male name [JOD-Omaha]

 

kde-taⁿ sa (kte-t͓aⁿ́ s) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Black Hawk. This man was the head chief in 1890 [JOD]

kde-taⁿ sa (ktetăⁿ́ să) - masculine name, Chas. Quapaw [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; sa (sa) - black that is near, distinct

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ sa-be (gthe-dⁿ a-be) - black hawk, in the Osage war rites the black hawk symbolizes the courage of warriors, it also represents night [FL-Osage]; le-toⁿ sa-pe (let̨sape) - black hawk [CQ-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ sha-ke (ktetăⁿ́ ck͓e) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; sha-ke (ʔak) - old, aged, elderly

Dhegiha:iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; te sha-ge (tshage) - old buffalo [Omaha]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ ska (ktetăⁿ́ skă) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; ska (ska) - white

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ ska (gthe-dⁿ-ka) - White Hawk, male personal name [FL-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ tʰi-de (ktetăⁿ́ tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by, come forth

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ tsi-e (gthe-dⁿ tsi-e) - Hawk Passing By, personal name, refers to the hawk attacking prey [FL-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ wa-kaⁿ-da (ktetăⁿ́ wakaⁿ́da) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; wa-koⁿ-da (wkkǫda) - attack plural/animate beings

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ wa-ʰkoⁿ-tha (gthe-dⁿ-wa-ḳoⁿ-tha) - Attacking Hawk, male personal name [FL-Osage]

 

kde-taⁿ xo-te (kte-t͓aⁿ́ q-t͓ĕ) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Gray Hawk [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; xo-te (xtte) - gray

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ xu-de (gthedⁿ xude) - male name, Gray Hawk [Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ xo-dse (gthe-dⁿ-xo-dse) - brown hawk [FL-Osage]; le-toⁿ xo-tse (let̨xoce) - gray hawk [CQ-Osage]; le-daⁿ xo-je (ledⁿ xje) - male name, Gray Hawk [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ zhi-ka (kte-t͓aⁿ́ j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Young Hawk; Joe Buffalo [JOD]

kde-taⁿ zhi-ka (Gratonjekah) - Treaty with the Quapaw (1824)

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (gthedⁿ zhiⁿga) - male name, Little Hawk [Omaha]; gthe-doⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (gthe-dⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - male name, Little Hawk [Osage]; gthe-doⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (gthe-dⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - the little hawk, this is the smallest of the hawk family and the most courages, in the tribal war rites the little hawk figures as a symbol of the warriors courage [FL-Osage]; le-daⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ledⁿ zhⁿga) - male name, Small Hawk [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ zhi-te (kte-t͓aⁿ́ j-t͓ĕ) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Red Hawk. Brother of Alphonsus Valliere, who died when a boy; Red Hawk, of wesaⁿ [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdetą́) - hawk; zhi-te (tte) - red

Dhegiha: zhi-de (zhde) - red [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi-de (zhde) - red [Omaha]; zhiu-dse (zhiu-dse), zhu-dse (zhu-dse) - red, scarlet, vermilion [FL-Osage]; zhu-tse (uce) - red [CQ-Osage]; zhu-je (zhje) - red [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ aⁿ-sa (kte-t͓aⁿ aⁿ-sa) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Swift Hawk, the present name of Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdetą́) - hawk; xaⁿ-sa (xʔąs) - swift

Dhegiha: oⁿ-sa (oⁿsa) - swift, fast [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ-sa-gi (ⁿsagi) - rapid, swift, fast [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰkoⁿ-sa-gi (ḳⁿ-a-gi) - fleet, swift, swiftly, very fast [FL-Osage]; kaⁿ-sa-ki (kʔ̨saaki) - be fast in movment, fleet, quickly, fast, rapidly, swiftly [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-sa-gi (kⁿsagi), kaⁿ-sa-ge (kⁿsage) - fast, swiftly, rapidly, run fast, be fast [Kaw]

 

wa-zhiⁿ kde-taⁿ (wajiⁿ́ ktetaⁿ́) - masculine name, old man scalped Pawnee, was shot, Father of Frank Vallier, 1/2 Spaniard/non-indian, 1/2 Quapaw on mothers side, sister to Mrs. Buffalo Calf [JOD]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will power, will; kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ gthe-doⁿ (wazhⁿgthedoⁿ) - Will Power - Hawk, personal name [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ le-daⁿ (wzhiⁿ ledⁿ) - Disposition of a Hawk, male name [Kaw]

 

hawk, brown hawk

ma-ni he-ka (man hkka) - brown hawk, bird hawk

cf. he-ka (heh-kah) - vulture (vautour) [GI]; he-ka taⁿ-ka (hek tt̨ka) - buzzard, Cathartes aura

Dhegiha: he-ga (hga) - turkey-buzzard, Cathartes aura [Omaha/Ponca]; he-ga (he-g) - turkey buzzard [FL-Osage]; he-ka (hka) - buzzard, hawk [CQ-Osage]; he-ga (hga) - buzzard [Kaw]

 

hawk, chicken hawk

si-ka di-ze (skka dze) - chicken hawk

si-ka di-ze (skka dze) - hawk, chicken hawk, grab a chicken [MS]

cf. si-ka (skka) - chicken; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga wa-thi-ze (wazhiⁿga wathie) - chicken hawk [Omaha]; su-ʰka o-thiⁿ-ke (sʰka ǫįke) - hawk, lit., cathes chickens [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga o-yiⁿ-ge (wazhⁿga oyⁿge) - contracts to wa-zhiⁿ-go-yiⁿ-ge (wazhⁿgoyⁿge) - a species of bird-catching hawk [Kaw]

 

hawk, Goshawk

xnaⁿ-shka (xnąk) - hawk, largest type. Goshawk, feeds on rabbits and squirrels

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ-shka (gthoⁿshk) - a type of hawk that has greyish feathers with white stripes [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ-shka (gthoⁿshka) - red shouldered hawk [Omaha]

 

hawk, red tailed or sparrow

i-be zi-ka (be zkka) - hawk, red tailed or sparrow

cf. i-be (be) - tail of bird; i-be hiⁿ (behį) - tail feathers; ho i-be (ho be) - fish tail or tail fin; zi (zi) - yellow; zhaⁿ zi-ka (z̨zikka) - flicker, red shafted; yellow ringed woodpecker; he zi-ka (hzikka) - bee; o-zi-ka (ozkka) - wider at one end than other

Dhegiha: iⁿ-be zi-ga (iⁿbe iga) - red tail hawk [Omaha]; iⁿ-be zi-ga (iⁿ́bezga) - yellow tailed hawk [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-be zi-ga (̨-be-i-ga), oⁿ-be zi-ga (ⁿ-be i-ga) - the red tailed hawk [FL-Osage]; le-taⁿ oⁿ-pe zhu-tse (let̨ ̨pe uce) - redtailed hawk [CQ-Osage]; u-be zi-hi (be zhi) - the red tailed hawk [Kaw]; u-be zi zhiⁿ-ga (be zi zhⁿga) - the red tailed hawk, lit. tail feathers are a little yellow; one of the largest hawks [Kaw]

 

hay

pe-ska (ppska)  - hay [MS]

Dhegiha: pe-ska (p͓ska) - the name of a certain species of grass [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpe-ska zhu-dse (p̣e-ka zhu-dse) - blue joint grass, andropogon furcatus muhl, red [FL-Osage]

 

haystack

ma-hiⁿ stode (mah̨ stde) - haystack

cf. ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass; sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack

Dhegiha: ma-hiⁿ (ma-hⁿ) - brush or weeds [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-hiⁿ tu (moⁿ-hⁿ tu) - grass [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ (moⁿ-hⁿ) - grass [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (mąąh̨) - grass, hay [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (maⁿhⁿ) - grass, weeds [Kaw]

 

 

hazel

wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka (watstotta kka) - hazel nut

cf. wa-ta-sto-ta (watstotta) - pecan nut; sha-ka (kka) - matted, as hair

Dhegiha: wa-da-sto-sta (wa-d-to-ta) - pecan nuts [FL-Osage]; wa-ta-sto-sta (watstosta), wa-ta-sto-e (watstoe), wa-ta-shtsʰo-tsʰe (watčoče) - pecan nut [CQ-Osage]

 

  wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka hi (watstotta kka hi) - hazel bush

cf. wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka (watstotta kka) - hazel nut; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: wa-ʰta-sto-sta hiu (wa-ṭ-to-ta hiu), wa-da-sto-sta hi (wa-d-to-ta hi) - pecan tree, the nut of this tree is used for food by the Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-ta-sto-sta hu (watstostah) - pecan tree [CQ-Osage]

 

he

e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned

ex: e she-mi ( mi) - that girl [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: e a-di-xe koⁿ-da ( diγ kǫd) - she wanted to marry him, the aforementioned [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ e toⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: e a-niⁿ ni-tʰe ( an̨ nitʰ) - that, the aforementioned, he probably has it [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ( odhake) - that last one [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ni a-shka ki taⁿ pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki-knaⁿ ( odhake n ka k tą ppah nįkʰ kkikn̨) - that-last one-water-near-reached here again-when-head-the (part)-she put down her own for him [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke hi ( h̨ba h̨ke h) - that-day-nearly-very [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ e wa-naⁿ niⁿ (mat̨ke nį waną nį) - rabbit was singing it (the aforementioned) as he was moving along [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

Dhegiha: e () - he, she, that, that one, the afore-said, they, it [JOD-Omaha]; e (e) - he, she, it, or that [FL-Osage]; e (e) - 3rd person emphatic or contrastive pronoun (that one, that person, she/her, he/him; those persons, them; this person or thing, the foregoing, she herself, he himself, they themselves [CQ-Osage]; e (e), e (e), (ee) - that, those, be that, those [Kaw]

 

head

pa-hi (ppah) - head

pa-hi (ppah) - head [MS, MR, AG, OM]

pa-hi (pah-hih) - head (tte) [GI]

pʰa-hi (p'a˙h) - head [FV]

pʰa-he (p'a˙h) - head [VG]

cf. pa-hi ha (ppahha) - scalp head skin; pa-hi xe-ka (ppah xka) - skull, lit. dried head; pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną), pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat, cap, head is put inside; pa-hi o-di-shiⁿ (pphi odį), pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (ppahdį) - bonnet, head + wrap, fold in a bundle; pa-hi iⁿ-te (ppah įt), pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd), pa-hiⁿ-te (ppah̨te) - to have a headache

ex: ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe (ppah-nįkʰ) - the head

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - Ive got a headache [AG]

ex: pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - I have a headache (to have a headache, he/she has a headache) [OM]

ex: pa-hi ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ppah kąǫ nįkʰ) - hes (dog) shaking his head, hes (dog) shaking the fleas [MS]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰ ki-ki-knaⁿ (ppah-nįkʰ kkikn̨) - she put down the head for him [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰ da-sniⁿ-zhi (ppah-nįkʰ dasn̨i) - he did not swallow the head [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-hiⁿ (pahⁿ), pa-hi (pahi) - hair of the head [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-hi (pahi) - hair of the head [Omaha]; ʰpa-hi (p̣a-hi), ʰpa-hiⁿ (p̣-hiⁿ), ʰpa-hiu (p̣a-hi) - hair, the hair of a mans head [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-hiⁿ (ʰpah̨į), ʰpa-xiⁿ (ʰpax̨į) - head hair, hair of the head, hair of the head or neck of a human or animal, mane [CQ-Osage]; pa-hiⁿ (phiⁿ), pa-hu (pah) - hair, hair of the human head below the crest; scalp lock [Kaw]

 

head at each end, snake with head at each end

we-sa pa-kdaⁿ-ka-haⁿ (wsʔa pkdąkkah̨) - snake with a head at each end about 18 inches long; rarely seen, Quapaw mythology

cf. we-sa (wsʔa) - snake; pa (pa) - head; a-kdaⁿ-ka-haⁿ (kdąkkah̨) - both sides

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ-ga-hoⁿ (agthoⁿgahoⁿ) - both sides [Omaha]; a-loⁿ-ka-ha (alⁿkaha) - on both sides [Kaw]

 

head chief of a tribe, principal chief, Large (Big) Chief

ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka (kahke tt̨ka) - head chief of a tribe, principal chief

ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka (k͓a-h-k͓e tá-k͓a) - masculine name, Large Chief [JOD]

cf. ka-hi-ke (kahke) - chief; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhi-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka eke kid-i k tą h) - then-to dance-there-they went-the pl.-chief-large-his son-they took part with (=danced)-the pl. when-she arrived [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-hi-ge ʰtoⁿ-ga (ga-h-ge-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Big Chief, personal name, refers to the high position of the hereditary chief [FL-Osage]; ga-hi-ge taⁿ-ga (gahge tⁿga) - Large Chief, male name [Kaw]

 

head off, intercept

a-na-se (nase) - intercept, head off a-a-na-se (anse) - I, a-da-na-se (danse) - you

cf. a-na-se-ta (nastta) - isthmus; wa-na-se (wnase) - attack

Dhegiha: a-na-se (nasĕ) - to fasten a door or gate, to check, hinder, impede, cut off the retreat of, to prevent [JOD-Omaha]; wa-na-se (wanse) - surrounding of a herd, to surround them, as a herd of buffalo or elk [Omaha/Ponca]; a-noⁿ-se (noⁿe) - closed, shut, enclose, block, shutter [Omaha]; a-noⁿ-se (-noⁿ-e) - to intercept, to cut off a retreat, to surround [FL-Osage]; a-na-sa (nasa), a-naⁿ-sa (naⁿsa) - to head off, cut off the retreat or anything; to surround [Kaw]

 

head, back of the head

ni-shki (nik) - back of the head

ex: ni-shki niⁿ-kʰe (nik nįkʰ) - the back of the head

Dhegiha: noⁿ-shki (noⁿshki) - head, not including the face [Omaha]; noⁿ-shki zhi-de (noⁿshki zhide) - red head [Omaha]; te na-shki-ha (te nashkha) - buffalo head hair, hair on the head of a buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]

 

head, bald head

ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head ta-xpi aⁿ-shta (ttaxp ̨t) - Im, ta-xpi di-shta (ttaxp dt) - youre

cf. ta-xpi (ttaxp) - top or crown of head; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-shta-ha (ani tatha) - round topped hills in series; siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum, grey smooth/bald tail

Dhegiha: ta-xpi zhna (taxpzhna) - bald, to be bald [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xpi shna (taxpi shna) - bald [Omaha]

Dhegiha: zhna (zhna) - bald, bare, smooth, hairless [Omaha/Ponca]; shta (shta) - hairless, destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (t), shta-ha (tha) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

head, bareheaded

pa-hi do-ka-niⁿ (ppah dokknį) - to be bareheaded pa-hi do-ka-bniⁿ (ppah dokkbnį) - I, pa-hi do-ka-tiⁿ (ppah dokkttį) - you

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; do-ka-niⁿ (dokknį), to-ka-niⁿ (tokknį) - naked to the waist; to-ka-ni o-zha (ttokni oa) - war dance; to-ka-ni o-zha (tokkni a) - war dance [MS]; zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude

Dhegiha: ha thu-ga-thiⁿ (ha thgathiⁿ) - naked, nude, bare [Omaha]; tho-ʰka-thiⁿ (tho-ḳ-thiⁿ) - stripped to the waist [FL-Osage]; yo-ka-yiⁿ (yokyiⁿ) - naked, stripped to the waist [Kaw]

 

pa-hi e-niⁿ-kʰe-naⁿ (ppah nįkʰen̨) - bareheaded

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; e (e) - that, it, aforementioned; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - habitual postclitic

 

head, black bear head

wa-sa pa-hi (was ppah) - black bear head [JOD]

cf. wa-sa (was) - black bear; pa-hi (ppah) - head

ex: wa-sa pa-hi a-kda bde taⁿ (was ppah akd bde tą) - I will go after the (my) black bear head [JOD]

ex: wa-sa pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe da-sniⁿ-zhi hi aⁿ-koⁿ-da hi (was ppah nįkʰ dasn̨i h ąkk̨da h) - he did not devour/swallow the bear head, he was coming, chasing me [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-sa-pe (wabe) - black bear [Omaha]; wa-sa-pe (wa-a-be) - black bear [FL-Osage]; wa-sa (was), wa-sai (wasi), wa-sa-pe (waspe) - bear, especially black bear [CQ-Osage]; wa-sa-be (wasbe) - bear, black bear [Kaw]

 

head, bow the head

wa-kda-zhi (wkda) - bend down, stoop, bow the head aⁿ-wa-kda-zhi (ąwkda) - I, di-wa-kda-zhi (diwkda) - you

 

head, deers head

ta pa-hi (tta pphi) - deers head or skull

cf. ta (tta) - deer, meat; pa-hi (ppah) - head

Dhegiha: ta-pa (tap) - Deer Head, the name of an Omaha gens [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-pa (ṭa-p) - Deer Head, the Osage name for the Pleiades [FL-Osage]; ta-pa (tp) - the Pleiades (the Seven Sisters), lit., the deers head [Kaw]

 

head, Eagle Head

xi-da pa-hi (qi-d pa-h) - masculine name of the Kwapa Eagle gens; Eagle Head (rather than Eagle Neck). In Omaha and Ponka, pa-hi (p͓ahi) is neck, not head [JOD]

cf. xi-da (xid) - eagle; pa-hi (ppah) - head; xi-da pa (qi-d pa) - masculine name of the Kwapa Eagle gens [JOD]

Dhegiha: xi-tha pa-hi (xithpahi) - Eagle Neck, male name [Omaha]

 

head, feather on the head

wa-kde (wakd) - feather on the head [MS]

cf. a-kde (akd) - put, set a standing (perpendicular--JOD) object upright upon a surface or within something which supports it, as in pitching a tent, placing a candle on a table, etc.; o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand

ex: wa-kde sa i-niⁿ-ha a-kde pa naⁿ (wkde s inįh kde pa n̨) - they wore (a) black feather on the head too [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-gthe (wa-gthe) - a plume, a symbolic plume made of a downy feather of an eagle [FL-Osage]; wa-gthe-ʰtoⁿ e-goⁿ (wa-gthe-ṭoⁿ e-goⁿ) - a plumelike shaft [FL-Osage]; ska-gthe wa-gthe (k-gthe wa-gthe) - ornamental plume [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-shoⁿ wa-gthe (mⁿ-shoⁿ wa-gthe) - ornamental or symbolic plume worn on top of the head [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-gthe (-gthe) - to place on top of another in an upright position [FL-Osage]; a-dle (adle), a-le (le) - place an item upright on another item, set on [CQ-Osage]; a-le (le) - stand a perpendicular object, such as a candlestick, on a surface [Kaw]

 

head, hair on the sides of the head

ta-te hiⁿ (ttatthį) - hair on the sides of the head; hair on the temples

cf. ta-te (tttte) - temple(s), side of the head; hiⁿ (hį) - hair of the body, down of bird, fur; ta-te kde-zhe (tttte kde) - spotted temples [JOD]; ta-te-noⁿ-shi (ttatten̨i) - cheek

 

head, into the head

ni-shki-ta (niktta) - into the head [JOD]

cf. ni-shki (nik) - back of the head; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: ni-ski-ta a-ba-xda-te i-tʰe-de (niktta baxdtte itʰde) - he stuck it (the pin) into his hair (upright on the back of his head) [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-shki (noⁿshki) - head, not including the face [Omaha]; noⁿ-shki zhi-de (noⁿshki zhide) - red head [Omaha]; te na-shki-ha (te nashkha) - buffalo head hair, hair on the head of a buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]

 

head, Raises the Head

pa di-ha (p dih) - masculine name, Raises the Head (Cletus Mud..e) [JOD]

 

head, shake the head

pa-hi ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (ppah kąǫ) - to shake the head

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (̨ǫ) - shake; i-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (dįǫ) - shake, as a person or tree; naⁿ-pe o-di-zho(nąpe dįǫ) - to shake hands

ex: pa-hi ka-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ppah kąǫ nįkʰ) - hes (dog) shaking his head, hes (dog) shaking the fleas [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ (thi-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ) - to arouse a person from a sound sleep by roughly shaking him [FL-Osage]; thi-zhaⁿ-zhaⁿ (įą), thi-zha-zha (iaa) - shake a person, an object, or one's own body part, such as shaking the head [CQ-Osage]

 

head, shave the head, crop short

ni-zhi-ha a-di-ski (niha diski) - shave the head, crop short, to shave or cut off short, as the hair of the head

cf. ni-zhi-ha (niha) - hair of the human head; a-di-ski (diski) - cut off all the hair, shave; a-di-ski (adisk) - wore the hair shingled [JOD]; we-da-di-ski (wdadski) - scissors

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - back then, the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

 

head, side of the head

ta-te (tttte) - temple(s), side of the head

cf. ta-te hiⁿ (ttatthį) - hair on the sides of the head; hair on the temples; ta-te kde-zhe (tttte kde) - spotted temples [JOD]; ta-te-noⁿ-shi (ttatten̨i) - cheek

 

head, top or crown of head

ta-xpi (ttaxp) - top or crown of head

cf. ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head

ex: ta-xpi niⁿ-kʰe (ttaxp-nįkʰe) - the top of the head

Dhegiha: ta-xpi (taqp) - top of the head, crown [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xpi (taxp) - top of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-xpi (ṭa-xp) - crown of the head FL-Osage]; ta-xpu (taxp) - crown of the head, top of the head [Kaw]

 

head, White Head

pa-hi ska (ppahska) - white head [MS, OM, LQ]

pa-hi ska (pa-h ska) - masculine name, White Head [JOD]

pa-hi ska (ppahska) - bald eagle; white head; name of Pawhuska, OK.

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; ska (ska) - white; pa-hi-ska zhi-ka (ppahska ka) - dwarfs, not often seen

Dhegiha: pa-hi-ska (pahska) - head; hair; white (buffalo when shoulder hair is shed), male name [Omaha]; pa-hi-ska (pahskă) - personal name, white hair of the head [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpa-hiu-ska (p̣a-hi-ka) - white hair, personal name, refers to the sacred white buffalo [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-hiⁿ-ska (ʰpah̨įska) - Pawhuska, lit., white head hair, white hair (of the head) [CQ-Osage]; pa-hu-ska taⁿ-ga (pahska tⁿga) - Large one with White Hair, White Hair, Sr., male name [Kaw]

 

head, Yellow Head

pa-hi zi (pah zi) - female name, dau of Mrs. S & mother of Julia Stafford [JOD]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; zi (zi) - yellow

Dhegiha: pa-hi zi (pahzi) - yellow hair on head of elk, female name [Omaha]

 

headache, to have a headache

pa-hiⁿ-te (ppah̨te) - to have a headache pa-hi aⁿ-te (ppah ąt) - I, pa-hi di-iⁿ-te (ppah diįt) - you, pa-hi waⁿ-te-a-we (ppah w̨tewe) - we

pa-hi iⁿ-te (ppah įt), pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - headache [MS, AG]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; iⁿ-de (įd), iⁿ-te (įt)  - ache, hurt, to have a pain; moiⁿ-ke (mǫke įt) - angina, chest pain; hi iⁿ-te (hi įt) - toothache, have a toothache; zho iⁿ-de (jŭ-indeh) - pain (douleur), body/flesh pain [GI]

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - I've got a headache [AG]

ex: pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - I have a headache (to have a headache, he/she has a headache) [OM]

 

headdress made of eagle skins

xi-da o-kdaⁿ-ke (xid okn̨ke) - headdress made of eagle skins

cf. xi-da (xid) - eagle; o-kdaⁿ-ke (kdąke) - hat or cap

Dhegiha: xi-tha u-gthoⁿ-ge (xi-tha--gthoⁿ-ge) - eagle feather headdress [FL-Osage]; xu-tha-laⁿ-ke (xal̨ke) - eagle headdress [CQ-Osage]; xu-ya o-laⁿ-ge (xuy olⁿge), xu-yo-laⁿ-ge  (xuylaⁿge) - war bonnet, a headdress made of eagle feathers or of entire eagles [Kaw]

 

headdress of woven yarn

wa-pa-hi o-knaⁿ (wapphi okn̨) - headdress of woven yarn

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; o-knaⁿ (kną), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put into; pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną), pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat, cap, head is put inside

 

headdress, male ribbon headdress

wa-bde-ka (wabdkka) - male ribbon headdress

cf. wa-bde-ka (wabdkka) - ribbon; bde-ka (bdkka) - thin

Dhegiha: ha-bthe-ka (h-bthe-ka) - ribbon [FL-Osage]; ha-bre-ʰka (habreʰka) - ribbon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: bthe-ka (bthka) - thin [Omaha/Ponca]; bthe-ka (btheka) - thin [Omaha]; bthe-ʰka (bth-ḳa) - thin [FL-Osage]; bre-ʰka (brʰka) - lean, thin [CQ-Osage]; ble-ka (blka) - be thin [Kaw]

 

headdress, roach

ta-siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte kną) - roach (headress) [MS]

ta-siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ta sīⁿte ga na), (ta sīⁿ tē aga na) - head dress of deer hair and turkey beard, with bone standard and tube, from George Red Eagle and John Quapaw [MH]

ta-siⁿ-te wa-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte wkną) - roach made of a deers tail

cf. ta siⁿ-te (tta s̨tte) - deers tail; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put upon

Dhegiha: ʰta-siⁿ-dse a-gthoⁿ (ṭa-ⁿ-dse a-gthoⁿ) - deers tail headdress, a warriors decoration [FL-Osage]; ʰta-siⁿ-tse (ʰtaas̨įce) - headdress, lit., deer tail [CQ-Osage]; ta-siⁿ-je wa-laⁿ (tasⁿje walⁿ) - roach, deer tail headdress [Kaw]

 

health, strength

ko-ke (kkkke) - health, strength

cf. ko-ka-zhi (kkokki) - weak, feeble; ki-ko-ke (kikkkke) - recover, get well

 

ko-ke (kkokk) - be physically healthy aⁿ-ko-ke (ąkkkke) - Im, di-ko-ke (dikkkke) - youre

cf. ko-ka-zhi (kkokki) - weak, feeble; ki-ko-ke (kikkkke) - recover, get well

 

healthy

ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health ha-te aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - Im, ha-te di-ni-ke (dinke) - youre

cf. ha-te (htʔe) - to be sick, ill; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking; ha-te wa-shkoⁿ (htʔe wak̨) - relapse

 

heap

sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather sto-a-de (stade) - I, sto-da-de (stdade) - you

cf. ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place pl/an objects in one place; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather

 

sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped

cf. sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group

 

sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group

cf. a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

 

sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps sto-a-de a-knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stode aknąkną) - I, sto-da-de da-knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stdade daknąkną) - you

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put

 

sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap sto-de-a-zhi (stoda) - I, sto-de-da-zhi (stodda) - you, sto-de-oⁿ-zhi-we (stodǫwe) - we

cf. sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place

 

a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up

 

hear, listen

na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen a-na-xoⁿ (anxʔǫ) - I, da-na-xoⁿ (danxʔǫ) - you, oⁿ-na-xoⁿ-we (ǫnxʔǫwe) - we

ex: a-ki-kde-kde a-na-xoⁿ (kkikdekde anxʔǫ) - I heard it indirectly

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ (winaxʔǫ) - I heard you

ex: wi-na-xoⁿ zhi (winaxʔ̨ i) - I didnt hear you [MS]

ex: aⁿ-da-na-xoⁿ (̨dnaxʔǫ) - did you hear me?

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-xo zhi (̨nąxʔ̨i) - she had not listened to me [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

Dhegiha: na-oⁿ (naⁿ) - to hear, to listen, to understand what is said [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-oⁿ (noⁿoⁿ) - hear [Omaha]; noⁿ-koⁿ (noⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - to hear [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-koⁿ (nąkʔǫ́) - hear, hear about, understand [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-koⁿ (naⁿkⁿ) - hear [Kaw]

 

a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - listen to a-a-na-xoⁿ (anaxʔǫ) - I, a-da-na-xoⁿ (danaxʔǫ) - you

cf. na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen

ex: a-a-na-xoⁿ-zhi pʰi (anaxʔ̨i pʰ) - I did not heed him-I was coming, (I ignored him as I was coming) [JOD]

ex: tʰi-we, tʰi-we, wi-he, i-ye naⁿ a-na-xaⁿ-zhi hi kde i-ya-we (tʰiw, tʰiw, wih, iy ną naxʔąi h kd iywe) - come, come, younger sister, he said, she was not listening to (ignoring) him as she headed home, they say [JOD]

ex: a-ki-na-xoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi (aknaxʔ̨ kǫdi) - he did not want to hear him (listen to him) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (-noⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - to harken, to listen to, to obey [FL-Osage]; a-naⁿ-koⁿ (nąkʔǫ) - listen to, heed, listen [CQ-Osage]; a-no-kaⁿ (nokaⁿ) - listen, listen to [Kaw]

 

ki-na-xoⁿ (knaxʔǫ) - listen to someone, heed someone a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - I, da-na-xoⁿ (dnaxʔǫ) - you

cf. na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen

 

o-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - hear about something, hear a report o-a-na-xoⁿ (anxʔǫ) - I, o-da-na-xoⁿ (danxʔǫ) - you

cf. o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-zo-zo (naxʔǫ kazzo) - newspaper, lit. paper that hears; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire; ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph

Dhegiha: u-na-aⁿ (unaⁿ) - to hear about it [JOD-Omaha]; u-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (u-nⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - a rumor, a report, hearsay [FL-Osage]; o-naⁿ-koⁿ (nąkʔǫ) - rumor, hear a rumor, have foreknowledge of an event, something heard about [CQ-Osage]

 

o-na-xoⁿ-de (onxʔǫde) - tell, lit. cause to hear something o-na-xoⁿ-a-de (onxʔǫde) - I, o-na-xoⁿ-da-de (onxʔǫdde) - you

cf. o-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - hear about something, hear a report; de (de) - make, have or make someone do something, cause something to happen to someone or something

 

wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wanxʔǫ) - to be deaf a-wa-na-xoⁿ-zhi (awnaxʔ̨i) - I, wa-da-na-xoⁿ-zhi (wadnaxʔ̨i) - you

cf. wa (wa) - them, things; na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen; zhi (i) - not

Dhegiha: wa-na-oⁿ-zhi (wnaⁿzhi) - not listen, not to listen to them, to pay no attention to them [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-oⁿ a-zhi (wanoⁿoⁿ azhi) - deaf [Omaha]

 

hearing

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - hearing

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - inner ear, opening of the ear

ni-xi-te (niγtte) - ear, the ear hole [MS]

ni-xe-te (ni˙x˙tte) - ear [VG]

ex: ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient; ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de (noⁿxide) - ear, the inner hearing organ [Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse (noⁿ-x-dse) - the internal ear, that which holds the hearing orifice [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse (nąąγce) - ear, inner ear, act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je (nighje) - the external ear, sense of hearing [Kaw]

 

ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient ni-xi-te aⁿ-ni-ke (niγtte ąnke) - I, ni-xi-te di-ni-ke (niγtte dinke) - you, ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (nixte nik͓we) - they

ni-xi-te niⁿ-ke (niqtĕ nik͓), (naqtĕ nik͓) - masculine name, was father of mhita [JOD]

cf. ni-xi-te (niγtte) - ear, inner, opening of the ear, hearing; ni-xi-te (niγtte) - ear, the ear hole [MS]; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking; ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]

ex: hoⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-xi-te di-ni-ke (hǫ mat̨ke niγtte dinke) - yes, rabbit you have been disobedient [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: ti koi-ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tti kike niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, those people are disobedient [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-de thi-ge (noⁿxide thiⁿge) - mischief, disobedient, boisterous, brat, wild human [Omaha]; noⁿ-xu-dse thiⁿ-ge (noⁿ-x-dse thiⁿ-ge) - No Ears, personal name, unaccommodating, an unruly person, a disobedient child, willful, obstinate, forward, iniquitous, intractibility [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xu-tse thiⁿ-ke (nąąɣce įk) - no ears, refers to a person who wont listen and is doing things wrong, doesnt listen to advice [CQ-Osage]; ni-ghu-je yiⁿ-ge (nighje yiⁿg) - Deaf to Cries for Mercy (as a warrior is in times of battle), a personal name [Kaw]

 

heart

naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart

naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart [MS, AB, OM]

noⁿ-te (noch-teh) - heart (cur) [GI]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-de (noⁿde) - heart [Omaha]; noⁿ-dse (nⁿ-dse), thoⁿ-dse (thⁿ-dse) - heart [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-tse (n̨ące), thaⁿ-tse (̨ące) - heart [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-je (nⁿje) - heart [Kaw]

 

heart, bad heart

naⁿ-te shi-ke (n̨tte ke) - sad, grieved naⁿ-te aⁿ-shi-ke (n̨tte ąke) - Im, naⁿ-te di-shi-ke (n̨tte dike) - youre

cf. naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart; shi-ke (ke) - bad

Dhegiha: noⁿ-de pi-a-zhi (noⁿde piazhi) - hard hearted [Omaha]; naⁿ-de pi-a-zhi (năńde pji) - grief, bad heart [JOD-Omaha]

 

heart, bird heart

wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ-te (wąka n̨tte) - birds heart

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart

 

heart, buffalo heart

te naⁿ-te (tten̨tte) - buffalo heart

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart

Dhegiha: te noⁿ-de (tenⁿde) - heart of a buffalo or other animal [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse noⁿ-dse (ṭse-nⁿ-dse) - buffalo heart, seldom used for food [FL-Osage]

 

heart, stout hearted

naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted naⁿ-te aⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ą̨dadi) - Im, naⁿ-te di-shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte dįdadi) - youre, naⁿ-te wa-shoⁿ-da-da-wa-zhi (n̨tte waǫdadawai) - were

cf. naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - upset, unsteady, off balance, loose, unstable; zhi (zhi) - not

 

heat something, make hot

ta-ka-te ka-xe (tkkatte kγe) - heat something, make hot

cf. ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; ta (t-) - by extreme temperature; ka-te (kktte) - hot, to be hot; zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever; ni-xo-te ta-ka-te (nixtte tkkatte) - hot ashes [JOD]; ta-ka-te hi (tkkatte h) - hot, really hot [MS]

Dhegiha: ta-ʰka-tse ka-xe (taʰkace kaγe) - heat, lit., make it hot, cause it to heat up [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: na-ka-de (nkade) - heat [Omaha]; da-ʰka-dse (d-ḳa-dse) - hot [FL-Osage]; ta-ʰka-tse (taʰkace) - be hot to the touch, be warm, an object or a substance, or a person only in special circumstances, such as with fever, does not apply to weather [CQ-Osage]; da-ka-je (dkaje) - hot, as a person, stove [Kaw]

 

heat up, warm

ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shti-te (ttte) - comfortably warm; di-shti-te (ditit) - warm something in the hands; ta-shti-te-ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire; o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-shtsu-e (taace), ta-shtsu-tse (tacuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm, to warm an object by holding it in the hands [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - be warm [CQ-Osage]

 

heat, dried up, dead from heat/cold

ta-xe (txe) - dead from heat or cold, dried up

cf. ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

heat, evaporate from heat or cold

ta-da-xiⁿ (tdaγį) - evaporate from heat or cold

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature

Dhegiha: na (n) - by extreme temperature [Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - by heat, a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction, to feeze, frozen [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) - by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

heat, wither from exposure to heat

ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching

 

heat, withered from heat or cold

ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; te (tʔe) - die

Dhegiha: da-ʰtse-ga (d-ṭse-ga) - wilted, withered [FL-Osage]; da-tse-ga (dtsega) - be withered, killed, or injured by heat [Kaw]

 

heaven

maⁿ-shi (mą) - heaven, upper, upward, high, above

cf. maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit. talks on high; mo-sho-ki (mokki) - church, contraction of maⁿ-shi (mą) - upward, heaven + o-ki (ok) - speak, talk with one [AG]; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain; maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff; maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid; di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high

ex: da-wa-ta maⁿ-shi (dawatt mą) - pray for up (you pray to heaven) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki niⁿ-kʰe (mą́i okk nįkʰ) - pray (he/she is praying) [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shi wa-koⁿ-ta kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (mą wak̨ta knį nįkʰ) - God is up there (God resides in heaven) [MS]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te wa-kaⁿ-ta maⁿ-shi niⁿ-kʰe (įtttte wakk̨tta mą nįkʰ) - Father (God) is up in heaven [MS]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

ex: jhi-e mo-sho-ki da-kde (ǰe mokki dakd) - did you go to church yesterday? (you go to church?) [AG]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

 

heavy

ski-ke (skke) - heavy, heavy weight

ski-ke hi (skke h) - heavy, very heavy [MS]

cf. ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load; ski-ke o-skaⁿ-ska (skke osk̨ska) - one half pound, 1/2 lb; i-ski-ke ka-xe (skike kγe) - pound, lit. makes weight; ski-ke miⁿ-xti (skke mįxti) - one pound, 1 lb

Dhegiha: ski-ge (skge) - heavy [Omaha/Ponca]; ski-ge (skige) - heavy [Omaha]; ski-ge (k-ge) - heavy [FL-Osage]; ski-ke (skke) - heavy, tired, weighted down, heavily laden [CQ-Osage]; skiⁿ-ge (skⁿge) - be heavy [Kaw]

 

heavy, carry a heavy load

ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load

cf. ski-ke (skke) - heavy, heavy weight; kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back; ski-ke o-skaⁿ-ska (skke osk̨ska) - one half pound, 1/2 lb; i-ski-ke ka-xe (skike kγe) - pound, lit. makes weight; ski-ke miⁿ-xti (skke mįxti) - one pound, 1 lb

Dhegiha: i-iⁿ (iⁿ) - a carrying strap, a strap or cord for carrying something on ones back or for a powder horn [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; kiⁿ (kiⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

heavy, not heavy, lightweight

ha-ha (hha) - light, not heavy

ha-ha hi (hha hi) - very light (not heavy) [MS]

Dhegiha: ha-ha-da (hahada) - lightweight [Omaha]; ha-ha (h-ha) - light, not heavy, light weight [FL-Osage]; ha-ha (hha) - light, lightweight [Kaw]

 

heavy, top heavy

po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at po-a-shoⁿ-da-da (poǫdad) - I, po-da-shoⁿ-da-da (pdaǫdad) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching: outer instrumental prefix; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

 

ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning, said of a fire, not a personal act

cf. ta (t-) - by extreme temperature; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

 

heed

a-ki-hi-te (kkihtte) - pay attention, attend, give heed, to insist on a-ki-hi-te (akkihtte) - I, a-da-ki-hi-te (dakkihtte) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-hi-ta-we (ǫkkkihttawe) - we

cf. di-hi-te (dihtte) - meddle with things

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

 

a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - listen to a-a-na-xoⁿ (anaxʔǫ) - I, a-da-na-xoⁿ (danaxʔǫ) - you

cf. na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen

ex: a-a-na-xoⁿ-zhi pʰi (anaxʔǫi pʰ) - I did not heed him-I was coming (I ignored him as I was coming) [JOD]

ex: a-na-xoⁿ-zhi hi kde i-ya-we (naxʔǫi h kd iywe) - she was not listening to (ignoring) him as she headed home, they said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-na-oⁿ (naoⁿ) - of na-oⁿ (naⁿ), to listen to, to hear and obey [Omaha/Ponca]; a-noⁿ-oⁿ (noⁿoⁿ) - listen, heed, believe, obey, loyal [Omaha]; a-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (-noⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - to harken, to listen to, to obey [FL-Osage]; a-naⁿ-koⁿ (nąkʔǫ) - listen to, heed, listen [CQ-Osage]; a-no-kaⁿ (nokaⁿ) - listen, listen to [Kaw]

 

ki-na-xoⁿ (knaxʔǫ) - listen to someone, heed someone a-na-xoⁿ (naxʔǫ) - I, da-na-xoⁿ (dnaxʔǫ) - you

cf. na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - hear, listen

ex: a-ki-na-xoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi (aknaxʔ̨ kǫdi) - he did not want to listen to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-na-aⁿ (ginaⁿ) - to hear of his own [JOD-Omaha]; gi-noⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (gi-nⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - he had already heard the message sent to him [FL-Osage]; ki-naⁿ-koⁿ (knąkʔǫ) - hear something about someone or something belonging to or connected with oneself [CQ-Osage]; gu-noⁿ-koⁿ (gnoⁿkoⁿ) - hear it for him [Kaw]; gi-noⁿ-koⁿ (gnoⁿkoⁿ) - hear ones own [Kaw]

 

heel

si de-te (sidtte) - heel

cf. si (si) - foot

ex: si de-te niⁿ-kʰe (sidtte-nįkʰ) - the heel

Dhegiha: si the-de (sithde) - heel [Omaha/Ponca]; si the-de (i thde) - heel [Omaha]; si the-dse (i-th-dse) - heels [FL-Osage]; si ye-je (siyje) - heel [Kaw]

 

height, a certain height, tall enough

she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

 

height, fall from a height

o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height oⁿ-xpa-de (̨xpade) - I, o-di-xpa-de (odxpad) - you

cf. mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling star; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - fall, cause by pressure/weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (uqpĕ) - falling from a height [JOD-Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - to fall, to become lost, to feel around with the hands in the dark, to grope [FL-Osage]; o-xpa-the (oxpe) - fall from a height, get lost, become lost, lose [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, to fall from a height, get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

height, half that height

miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd-) - half (of that measure); a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

height, of equal height

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal size or like; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length

 

hello, greeting

ha-we (haw) - hello, greeting

ha-we (haw) - hello [AG, OM]

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ, ha-we (nąp dįǫ, haw) - hello, shake hands [MS]

Dhegiha: a-ho (ah) - hello (male) [Omaha]; ha-we (ha-w) - to greet, ha-ve (ha-v) - female, to greet [FL-Osage]; ha-we (haw) - hello, female speakers may say either ha-we (haw) or ha-ve (hav/havu), where v is a sound between English v and a semivoiced w, this word is the one place such a sound occurs in Osage [CQ-Osage]; ha-we (haw) - hello (female speaking) [Kaw]; ho-we (how) - yes, male speech; also, well!, as a sentence launcher or salutation, which may be used to introduce a topic, and thank you!, in modern times (21st century) it has come to be used exclusively as the masculine form for hello. [Kaw]; ho (ho) - hello, male speech [Kaw]

 

help each other

o-ki-kaⁿ (kkikk̨) - help each other o-a-ki-kaⁿ (okkikk̨) - I, o-da-ki-kaⁿ (odkkikk̨) - you

Dhegiha: o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help ones own relative [CQ-Osage]

 

help someone

o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone o-a-kaⁿ (akką) - I, o-da-kaⁿ (dakką) - you

o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone [OM]

Dhegiha: u-i-kaⁿ (u--k͓aⁿ) - to aid or help another, not a relation [JOD-Omaha]; o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help another who is not a relative [CQ-Osage]; u-wa-gi-koⁿ (wagikⁿ) - aid, help, to help them or us, to aid more than one person [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-wa-koⁿ (wakoⁿ) - help, to help them [Omaha/Ponca]; o-wa-kaⁿ (wakaⁿ) - help, to help someone [Kaw]

 

help, go out of the way to help

i-we-de-naⁿ (weden̨) - go out of the way to help i-we-bde-maⁿ (webdem̨) - I, i-we-te-naⁿ (wetten̨) - you

 

help, I will help you

wi-ki-kaⁿ ta (wi-gi-kun-t) - I will help you [LH]

cf. wi (wi) - I to you, first person singular acting on second person; o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone; ta (tta) - future

Dhegiha: u-wi-kaⁿ (uwkaⁿ) - I help you [JOD-Omaha]; u-wi-kaⁿ ta miⁿ-ke (uwkaⁿ t mike) - I will help you [JOD-Omaha]; u-wi-kaⁿ-xti ta miⁿ-ke (uwk͓aⁿ-qti t-mike) - I will aid you to the utmost [JOD-Omaha]; o-wi-kaⁿ (owʰką) - I help you [CQ-Osage]

 

hen chicken

si-ka wa-xo (skka waxʔ) - hen, lit. female chicken

si-ka wa-xo (skka waxʔ) - hen chicken [OM]

cf. si-ka (skka) - chicken; wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal; si-ka ni-ka (skka nkka) - rooster, lit. male chicken

Dhegiha: siu-ʰka mi-ga (siu-ḳa mi-ga (i-ḳa mi-ga) - female chicken, female turkey [FL-Osage]; su-ʰka miⁿ-ka (sʰka m̨įka), su-ʰka miⁿ-e (sʰka m̨įe) - hen [CQ-Osage]; si-ka zhu-je miⁿ-ga (ska zhje miⁿg) - hen [Kaw]

 

her

e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned

ex: e she-mi ( mi) - that girl [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: e a-di-xe koⁿ-da ( diγ kǫd) - she wanted to marry him, the aforementioned [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ e toⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

ex: e a-niⁿ ni-tʰe ( an̨ nitʰ) - that, the aforementioned, he probably has it [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ( odhake) - that last one [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ni a-shka ki taⁿ pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki-knaⁿ ( odhake n ka k tą ppah nįkʰ kkikn̨) - that-last one-water-near-reached here again-when-head-the (part)-she put down her own for him [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke hi ( h̨ba h̨ke h) - that-day-nearly-very [JOD]

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ e wa-naⁿ niⁿ (mat̨ke nį waną nį) - rabbit was singing it (the aforementioned) as he was moving along [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

Dhegiha: e () - he, she, that, that one, the afore-said, they, it [JOD-Omaha]; e (e) - he, she, it, or that [FL-Osage]; e (e) - 3rd person emphatic or contrastive pronoun (that one, that person, she/her, he/him; those persons, them; this person or thing, the foregoing, she herself, he himself, they themselves [CQ-Osage]; e (e), e (e), (ee) - that, those, be that, those [Kaw]

 

here

de-do (ddo) - here

de-do (de-do) - here, this place, right here [AG, OM]

cf. de-to (dett), de-do (ded) - native, translates JODs Dhegiha; she-do (do) - yonder, there

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe moⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨ mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here?, he said to him [JOD]

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

Dhegiha: the-thu (u) - here [JOD-Omaha]; the-thu-di a-toⁿ (thethudi atoⁿ) - from here [Omaha]; the-tho (th-tho) - here at this place [FL-Osage]; ye-yo (yy) - here, right here [Kaw]

 

hermaphrodite

miⁿ-xo-ke (mįxke) - folkloric figures in Quapaw mythology

Dhegiha: mi-xu-ga (mixuga) - lewd man, refers homosexual behavior [Omaha]; te miⁿ-xu-ga (temⁿquga) - freemartin, hermaphrodite buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-xo-ke (miixke) - homosexual, lesbian, gay person [CQ-Osage]; ʰtse miⁿ-xu-ga (ṭse-mⁿ-xu-ga) - a hermaphrodite buffalo [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-xo-ge (miⁿxge) - catamite, male or femal, between a man and a woman, homosexual, gay, lesbian, hermaphrodite; JOD regarding the m-a-lo-shka: a mythical race of beings, with large heads, and long hair, dwelling in solitary places, to which they are supposed to entice unwary Indians. Their victims become crazy, and live as miⁿ-x-ge - hermaphrodites [Kaw]

 

hers

i-ta (itt), e-ta (ett) - his, hers, its, alienable

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my (alienable), mine; di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, alienable; di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, alienable; i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, (dual); oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: ni-ka i-ta (nkka itt) - husband, her man

ex: wa-xo i-ta (waxʔ itt) - wife, his woman

ex: shoⁿ-ke i-ta (̨ke itt) - his/her dog

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttitti ką kdan̨ d) - it was hers-because-she took her own-and-into the house-so-she carried her own [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti ki (tt ett tʰtti k) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-da wi-te-ke e-ta-we di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd wtteke ettwe ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ta (eta) - his or her own [Omaha]; i-ʰta (i-ṭ) - his or hers [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta (ʰta) - be his/hers, theirs, belong to him/her, them [CQ-Osage]; i-ta (it), (ta) - his, her, hers, its, their(s); be ones; belong to [Kaw]

 

hesitate from shame or diffidence when about to ask a favor of someone not related

a-ba-kda (bakda) - hesitate from shame or diffidence when about to ask a favor of someone not related a-pa-kda (ppakda) - I, a-shpa-kda (pakda) - you, oⁿ-ka-ba-kda-we (ǫkabakdawe) - we

cf. a-ki-pa-kda (kipakda) - embarrassed to ask favor

Dhegiha: a-ba-gtha (bagtha) - to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-ba-gtha (wabagtha) - bashful [Omaha]; a-ba-gtha (-ba-gtha) - backward, bashful, diffident, shy [FL-Osage]; wa-ba-gtha (w-ba-gtha) - shy, bashful, modest, modesty, shamefaced [FL-Osage]; a-ba-la (bala) - bashful, hesitant or draw back through shame or diffidence [Kaw]; a-gi-ba-la (gibala) - be ashamed to speak to his or her in- laws, as to a father-in-law or mother-in-law, a son-in- law or daughter-in-law; to be bashful towards such a person, this term refers to traditional social customs that required avoidance between certain relatives, such as those identified here by JOD, violating this restriction would cause shame to both parties [Kaw]

 

hiccough with no bad aftertaste

sto-ke (stkke) - hiccough with no bad aftertaste a-sto-ke (astkke) - I, da-sto-ke (dastkke) - you, oⁿ-sto-ka-we (ǫstkkawe) - we

cf. pi-xe (ppxe) - belch with a sour taste

 

hickory nut

poⁿ (ppǫ) - hickory nut

poⁿ (poⁿ) - hickory nut [MS]

poⁿ (pon) - hickory nut (noix) [GI]

cf. poⁿ hi (ppǫh) - hickory tree

Dhegiha: ʰpoⁿ toⁿ-ga (p̩ⁿ-ṭoⁿ-ga) - nut of the hickory tree, hickory nut [FL-Osage]; ʰpa ʰtaⁿ (ʰpʰtąą) - hickory nut [CQ-Osage]; paⁿ taⁿ-ga (pⁿtⁿga) - hickory nut, walnut [Kaw]; paⁿ pa-zhiⁿ-ga (paⁿ pzhiⁿga) - a type of small hickory nut [Kaw]

 

hickory tree

poⁿ hi (ppǫh) - hickory tree

cf. poⁿ (ppǫ) - hickory nut; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ʰpoⁿ-ʰtoⁿ-a hi (p̣ⁿ-ṭoⁿ-a hi) - large hickory tree [FL-Osage]; paⁿ-taⁿ-ga hu (pⁿtⁿga hu) - hickory (tree), walnut (tree) [Kaw]

 

hickory, stone for crushing hickory nuts

poⁿ ka-xnaⁿ-zhe (poⁿ ga ka n[m]o zha) - stone for crushing hickory nuts, from John Quapaw [MH]

cf. poⁿ (ppǫ) - hickory nut; di-xnaⁿ-zhe (dixn̨e) - crack something, as an egg; xnaⁿ-zha-de (xnąde) - shivered to pieces

Dhegiha: ga-xthoⁿ-zhe (ga-xthⁿ-zhe) - to crush with the hand [FL-Osage]; ga-xloⁿ-zhe (gaxlⁿzhe) - to break or batter in a hollow object, as a stove, skull, etc.; to knock down causing to shatter or fall to pieces [Kaw]

 

hide a sg/si/in object

na-xnaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (naxn̨ in̨de) - hide a singular/sitting/inanimate object

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth/paper

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ i-noⁿ-the (noⁿ-xthⁿ i-noⁿ-the) - to hide a thing behind a screen, to secrete, hide something [FL-Osage]

 

hide ones own sg/si/in object

na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ (naxn̨ kikn̨) - hide ones own singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth object

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set ones own, put

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ, i-ke (wittiką naxn̨ kkn̨, ik) - my grandfather hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

ex: na-xnaⁿ da-ki-knaⁿ koⁿ-bda wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (naxn̨ dakikną kkǫbd wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, I want you to hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ-ha (noⁿ-xthⁿ-ha) - privacy, retirement, secrecy, underhand, to have a private concultation [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-loⁿ-ha (nąl̨ǫha) - be sneaky, hide, be sly, secretly scheme against someone, go behind someones back, be cunning, hide, conceal, covertly [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ) - hide something [Kaw]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ-le (noⁿxlⁿle) - hide a perpendicular object by standing it upright inside something [Kaw]

 

hide oneself

i-ki-na-xde (kkinxde) - hide oneself i-da-ki-na-xde (idkkinxde) - I, i-da-ki-na-xde (dakkinxde) - you

Dhegiha: i-ki-noⁿ-xthe (iki noⁿxthe) - hide [Omaha]; i-ʰki-noⁿ-xthe (-ḳi-noⁿ-xthe) - to hide ones self [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-na-xthe (-na-qe) - to cover, conceal, hide [JOD-Omaha]; a-noⁿ-xthe (-noⁿ-xthe) - hide, put away, to hide something, to secrete, to conceal [FL-Osage]; a-noⁿ-xle (noⁿxle), a-no-xle (anoxle) - hide, conceal something [Kaw]

 

hide sg/st/in or collection

na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide singular/standing/inanimate or collection

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ-ha (noⁿ-xthⁿ-ha) - privacy, retirement, secrecy, underhand, to have a private concultation [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-loⁿ-ha (nąl̨ǫha) - be sneaky, hide, be sly, secretly scheme against someone, go behind someones back, be cunning, hide, conceal, covertly [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ) - hide something [Kaw]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ-le (noⁿxlⁿle) - hide a perpendicular object by standing it upright inside something [Kaw]

 

hide someone elses sg/si/in object

na-xnaⁿ knaⁿ (naxn̨ kn̨) - hide someone elses singular/sitting/inanimate object

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set, put

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xlaⁿ o-laⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ olⁿ) - hide an object such as a book, paper, or garment inside of something [Kaw]

 

hide someones sg/ly/in object

na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someones singular/lying/inanimate object; i + positional + de put away

cf. na-xnaⁿ (naxn̨) - secretly, covertly; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthoⁿ-ha (noⁿ-xthⁿ-ha) - privacy, retirement, secrecy, underhand, to have a private concultation [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-loⁿ-ha (nąl̨ǫha) - be sneaky, hide, be sly, secretly scheme against someone, go behind someones back, be cunning, hide, conceal, covertly [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ (noⁿxlⁿ) - hide something [Kaw]; noⁿ-xlaⁿ-le (noⁿxlⁿle) - hide a perpendicular object by standing it upright inside something [Kaw]

 

hide something by covering it up

a-ka-naⁿ-da (kan̨da) - hide something by covering it up with blowing dust, snow, shoveled dirt, etc. a-a-ka-naⁿ-da (akan̨da) - I, a-da-ka-naⁿ-da (dakan̨da) - you

Dhegiha: a-ga-naⁿ-tha (-ga-naⁿ́-a) - to blow dust or snow over an object and conceal it, as wood, footprints, etc.; to hoe the ground, throwing the displaced soil over an object hiding it from view [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-noⁿ-ya (ganoⁿya) - fill up, knock a cover onto, conceal a hole by hitting the ground with a stick [Kaw]

 

hide, scrape, as hair from a hide

ka-xi (kaxʔ) - scrape, as hair from a hide a-xi (xʔi) - I, da-xi (dxʔi) - you

cf. a-pa-xi (paxʔi) - cut meat from the bone

 

hide, skin, shell, bark

ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

ha (hah) - hide, skin (peau) [GI]

ex: ha kʰe (h kʰe) - the skin, the bark

ex: hiⁿ ha (hįh) - fringe, border of a hide

ex: i-ta ha (tta h) - egg shell

ex: iⁿ-tʰaⁿ ha (įtʰ̨ha) - owl skin with feathers on

ex: ke ha (kkh) - turtle shell

ex: ke-ha a-na-xa-da (keh anaɣda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

ex: o-zhi ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket, skin in which things are put

ex: pa-hi ha (ppahha) - scalp head skin

ex: ta ha (ttah) - deerskin

ex: ta ha (tah-hah) - deer hide (peau de chevreuil) [GI]

ex: ta ha hi-ni-ke (ta ha hǐ nǐ kya) - buckskin leggings, from Louis Angel, Tallchief [MH]

ex: ta ha hoⁿ-pe (ttah hǫp) - moccasins made of deerskin

ex: ta ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - mans shirt, coat, tunic; made of buckskin

ex: ta ha wa-ka-xe (ttah wakγe) - to tan deerskin

ex: to-shnaⁿ-ke ha (ton̨keha) - otter skin

ex: te ha (tteh) - buffalo skin, hide

ex: te ha (tteh) - buffalo hide, buffalo skin [MS]

ex: te ha (teh-hah) - buffalo hide (peau de buffle) [GI]

ex: to-ka ha (ttkka ha) - fox hide

ex: to-ka ha (tukkah-hah) - fox hide (peau de renard) [GI]

ex: wa-sa ha (uassah-hah) - bear hide, black bear hide (peau d'ours) [GI]

ex: wa-shiⁿ ha (wąha) - bacon, fatskin

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka ha waįkha) - birds skins

ex: zha-we ha (awha) - beaver skin

ex: zha-we ha (jaweh-hah) - beaver hide (peau de beaver) [GI]

ex: zhaⁿ ha (ąh), zhoⁿ ha (ǫh) - bark of tree

ex: ha kʰe bdo-ka hi o-di-shto-te (h kʰe bdka h odtotte) - he pulled off all the skin [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ha kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-ba-haⁿ (kįttą h kʰe mat̨ke obhą) - then the rabbit put the skin on [JOD]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - skin, hide, bark [Omaha/Ponca]; ha (ha) - leather, skin, shell [Omaha]; ha (ha) - skin of any animal, the bark of a tree, shell of nuts, cuticle [FL-Osage]; ha (ha) - hide, skin of an animal, rind, fabric, cloth, surface [CQ-Osage]; ha (ha) - hide, skin [Kaw]

 

hide, tan a hide

wa-ka-xe (wakγe) - tan a hide wa-pa-xe (wappγe) - I, wa-shka-xe (wakγe) - you, oⁿ-wa-ka-xa-we (ǫwkaγawe) - we

cf. ta ha wa-ka-xe (ttah wakγe) - to tan deerskin; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

hides, scraper or flesher for hides

we-ba-ko (wbakʔo) - scraper or flesher for hides

cf. we-ka-ko (wkakʔo) - flesher for hides

 

we-ka-ko (wkakʔo) - flesher for hides

cf. wa-ka-ko (wakkʔo) - paw the ground, as dog or horse; we-ba-ko (wbakʔo) - scraper or flesher for hides

Dhegiha: we-ga-u (wgau) - scraper, scarper used in fleshing hides [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ga-ʰku (w-ga-ḳu) - skin scraper [FL-Osage]; we-ga-ko (wgako) - scraper, flesher for hides [Kaw]

 

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