English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

H

 

handy

ki-zho-wa (kiwa) - quick, handy a-ki-zho-wa (akowa) - I, da-ki-zho-wa (dakowa) - you

cf. a-zho-wa hi (aow hi) - as fast as possible [JOD]; a-zho-wa hi pa (owa hi pp) - they were doing their best (to escape) [JOD]; a-zho-wa-xti (owxti) - with a great effort, with all ones might [JOD]

 

hang down evenly over an object, cover

a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

ex: ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: a-ga-bliⁿ (gabliⁿ) - fasten to cover on something [Kaw]

 

happened, what happened

            hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter?

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; e (e) - question sign

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man (husband), they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

 

happy

ki-da-kni  (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like aⁿ-da-kni  (̨dakni) - Im, di-da-kni  (ddakni) - youre

cf. ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased; wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; da-kni (dkni), da-kniⁿ (dknį) - archaic word for good, used primarily in Quapaw personal names; i-shta we-de da-kniⁿ-zhi (it wde dakn̨i) - be nearsighted

ex: i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wkide ą́dakn) - Im glad to see you [AB, OM]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, Im glad to see you [FR]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: aⁿ-da-kni wi-tʰi-koⁿ (ą́dakni witʰkǫ) - Im glad its (my) grandpa [MS]

ex: i-e ki-da-kni (i kidkni) - he likes to talk [MS]

ex: te ki-da-kniⁿ pa naⁿ (tʔe kidknį pa ną) - they liked to die

Dhegiha: gi-tha-gthiⁿ (g-tha-gthiⁿ) - happy, pleased [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-liⁿ (kilį) - be glad, feel good, also used as an equivalent of thank you, like, enjoy, be happy about, be pleased with [CQ-Osage]; gi-ya-le (gyale) - be happy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ) and the Kansas ya-liⁿ(yaliⁿ). Used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid, to be pleased [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį) - be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, good, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good oe well-behaved person, or good food [Kaw]

 

wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased

cf. wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; ki-da-kni  (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like; da-kni (dkni), da-kniⁿ (dknį) - archaic word for good, used primarily in Quapaw personal names

 

ki-wa-shoⁿ (kwaǫ) - to be happy aⁿ-wa-shoⁿ (̨waǫ) - Im, di-wa-shoⁿ (dwaǫ) - youre

cf. ki-shoⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - to be displeased

ex: aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi tʰe aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi a-ta-pa (̨kidi h tʰe ą̨i ttapp) - I did not like it much that he did not tell me at all

 

hard, a hard knot

a-di-ka-se-de (dikʔsede nik) - knot, a hard knot

cf. a-di-ka-se-de (dikʔsede) - tie in a knot

 

hard, difficult, to be firm

si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm

cf. i-ye si-ze ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate; ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm

 

hard, firm

sa-ki (sak) - hard, firm

cf. di-sa-ki (diski) - hard, moulded with hands; o-we sa-ki (ow sak) - [MS, JOD] - dried corn

Dhegiha: sa-gi (sag) - firm, hard, hard as sweet corn before it is boiled, tight, fast, difficult to untie or loosen [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-gi (gi) - solid, durable, hard, firm, tough [Omaha]; sa-gi (-gi) - firm, solid, durable, hard, lasting, tough, tough meat, strong, inflexible, not easily bent, to fasten firmly [FL-Osage]; sa-ki (saak) - tight, tightly, firm, solid, hard, strong, muscular, difficult, hard to do things with [CQ-Osage]; sa-gi (sag) - hard, firm, tight, tough, strong, muscular [Kaw]

 

hard, loud thunder

ka-ni taⁿ-ka (kan tt̨ka) - loud, hard thunder [FR, OM]

ka-niⁿ taⁿ-ka (kanįtt̨ka) - loud rolling thunder

ka-ni taⁿ-ka (k͓ani ták͓a) - masculine name, Chas Quapaw, son of xi-da ska taⁿ-ka (qid ska ták͓a); Charles Goodeagles name [JOD, FR]

cf. ka-ni (kan) - thunder [MS]; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large; ka-ni zhi-ka (kan ika) - distant thunder, little thunder [OM]; ka-ni zhi-ka (k͓a-n ji-k͓) - masculine name, Little Thunder (not, Thunder-being), called Ambrose by the white people: a Kwapa man, living in 1877 [JOD]; ka-ni-ni (kanni), ka-niⁿ-niⁿ (kanįn̨), ga-ni-ni (ganin) - thunder

 

hard, moulded hard with hands

di-sa-ki (diski) - moulded hard with hands bdi-sa-ki (bdsaki) - I, ti-sa-ki (ttsaki) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling: inner instrumental prefix; sa-ki (sak) - hard, firm

Dhegiha: thi-sa-gi (thi agi) - fortify [Omaha]

 

hard, pull hard on a rope

di-kaⁿ-tiⁿ-tiⁿ (dikk̨ttįtt̨) - pull hard on a rope bdi-kaⁿ-tiⁿ-tiⁿ (bdkkąttįttį) - I, ti-kaⁿ-tiⁿ-tiⁿ (ttkkąttįttį) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; di-kaⁿ-tiⁿ (dikk̨ttį) - pull on a rope

 

hard, wind blowing hard, storm, bad wind

ta-ti oⁿ-he shi-ke (tttti ̨he ik) - storm, wind blowing hard, bad wind [MS]

cf. ta-ti oⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind, ta-te (ttatte) + oⁿ-he (ǫhe); shi-ke (ke) - bad

Dhegiha: ta-de (tad) - wind [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-de (tad) - wind, air [Omaha]; ʰta-dse (ṭa-ds) - the winds, the four quarters of the earth, air [FL-Osage]; ʰta-tse (ʰtaac) - wind, air [CQ-Osage]

ta-je (taj) - wind [Kaw]

 

Dhegiha: ta-doⁿ-he (tadⁿhe) - gust, whirlwind, sudden gust of wind [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-doⁿ-he (tadoⁿhe) - whirlwind [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ʰta-dse ʰpi-zhi (ṭa-dse p̣-zhi) - a bad wind, blustery [FL-Osage]; ʰta-tse ʰpi-zhi (ʰtaac ʰpii) - tornado, tempest, windstorm [CQ-Osage]

 

hard, with great effort

wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort

cf. wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong, with an effort, all ones might; wa-shkaⁿ-hi ka-xe (wak̨hi kγe) - strengthen, make strong; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wak̨ttąka) - powerful, all-powerful

ex: wa-shkoⁿ-hi a-ki-di-taⁿ (wak̨hi kkiditt̨) - to pull hard on

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde (tt̨nį wak̨ kd) - running with all her might, she went home [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-shkaⁿ (wackⁿ) - make an effort, attempt [JOD-Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do one's best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

hare lipped

i-ha shka (ha k) - be hare lipped i-ha aⁿ-shka (ha ąk) - I, i-ha di-shka (ha dik) - you, i-ha wa-shka-we (ha wakwe) - we

cf. i-ha (ha) - mouth

Dhegiha: i-ha se (hae) - harelip [Omaha]; i-ha zha-ta (iha zhata) - harelip, split lip [Omaha]; i u-zne-ge ( uznge) - hare-lipped, cleft lip [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha zha-ta (-ha zha-ta) - harelip, broken lip [FL-Osage]; i-ha zha-ʰta (haa ʰta) - broken or split lip, harelip [CQ-Osage]

 

hare, rabbit

ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat̨ke), (matįk) - rabbit, hare

ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat̨ke) - rabbit [MS, MR, OM]

ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat'įGe) - rabbit, cottontail [FS]

cf. ma-shtiⁿ-ke hiⁿ (mat̨ke h̨) - rabbit fur; ma-shtiⁿ-ke taⁿ-ka (mat̨ke tt̨ka) - jack rabbit; ma-shtiⁿ-ke taⁿ-ka (mat̨ke ttą́ka), ma-shtiⁿ-ke toⁿ-ka (mat̨kett̨ka) - goat, lit. big rabbit

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (mat̨ke nį) - the rabbit, the singular moving animate rabbit

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke nįkʰ) - the rabbit, the singular sitting animate rabbit

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (mat̨ke tʰą) - the rabbit, the standing animate rabbit

Dhegiha: ma-shtiⁿ-ge (mashtⁿge), ma-shchiⁿ-ge (mashchⁿge) - rabbit [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shtiⁿ-ga (moⁿshtⁿga) - rabbit [Omaha]; moⁿ-shtiⁿ-ge (moⁿ-shtⁿ-ge) - the cottontail rabbit, this little animal figures in the myths of the Osage [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shtsiⁿ-ka (mąc̨ka) - rabbit, hare [CQ-Osage]; ma-shtsiⁿ-ge (mashcⁿge) - rabbit [Kaw]

 

harm

i-o (io), i-yo (yo) - wound someone or something i-do (id) - I, i-do (do) - you

i-o-wi (i-ŭ-wih) - wound, injure, hurt, harm (blesser) [GI]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi-ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi-ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: i-yo-wi taⁿ a-kda-niⁿ kdi kʰe (yowi-ttą akdnį kd kʰe) - when he was wounded they (his relations) brought him (or his body) home

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi-ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

Dhegiha: i-u (-u) - to wound with a weapon, to wound with an arrow or other weapon [FL-Osage]; i-o (i) - wound with something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u () - wound [Omaha/Ponca]; u (), u (u) - wound [JOD-Omaha]; u (u) - wound, to hurt, wound from a cut [FL-Osage]; o (o) - wound [Kaw]

 

harvest corn

di-se (dis) - pick, harvest corn bdi-se (bdse) - I, ti-se (ttse) - you

cf. pa-se (pse) - cut off with a knife

Dhegiha: wa-thi-se (wathie) - harvest [Omaha]; thi-se (th-e) - to pick flowers or berries, to cut as with scissors [FL-Osage]; yu-se (yus) - to pick, as beans, can also refer to guitar or banjo picking; break, as bread, with the hands [Kaw]

 

hasten

o-ti-ti (ttitti) - hurry in doing something, quickly o-a-ti-ti (attitt) - I, o-da-ti-ti (dattitt) - you

o-chi-chi (čiči) - hurry [OM]

ex: wa-kda-tiⁿ-tiⁿ (wkdatt̨ttį) - he told them to hasten to do it [JOD]

 

hat

pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną), pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną) - hat, cap, head is put inside

pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat [MS, OM]

pa-ho-knaⁿ (pah-hughĕnah) - hat, hood (chapeau) [GI]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; wa-xo pa-hi o-knaⁿ (waxʔ pphikną) - bonnet; iⁿ-te o-kdaⁿ (̨tte kdą) - mask, lit. "put the face in it"

ex: pa-hi oknaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (pphi okną-nįkʰe) - the hat

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

Dhegiha: ma-shoⁿ pa-gthoⁿ (mshoⁿpgthoⁿ) - headdress, feather bonnet, eagle feathers [Omaha/Ponca]; te-he pa-gthoⁿ (tehpagthⁿ) - buffalo horn headdress [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xu-pa-gthoⁿ(wqupgthoⁿ) - hat, cap white mans head covering [Omaha/Ponca]

 

o-kdaⁿ-ke (kdąke), o-knaⁿ-ke (okn̨ke) - hat or cap

cf. xi-da o-knaⁿ-ke (xid okn̨ke) - headdress made of eagle skins

Dhegiha: u-gthoⁿ-ge (u-gthoⁿ-ge) - hat [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ-ke (ool̨ke) - wear on the head, put on the head, don as a hat [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ-ke (oląke) - hat, head cover, item worn on the head [CQ-Osage]; o-laⁿ-ge (laⁿge) - hat, cap [Kaw]

 

pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (pah-hŭ-odischih) - bonnet (bonnet) [GI]

pa-hi o-di-shiⁿ (pphi odį), pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (ppahdį) - bonnet

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle; niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers; wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron; we-do-di-shiⁿ (wdodį) - pie

Dhegiha: pa u-thi-shiⁿ (pa uthishiⁿ) - scarf [Omaha]; iⁿde u-thi-shiⁿ (ⁿdethshiⁿ) - face cover [Omaha/Ponca]

 

wa-xo pa-hi-o-knaⁿ (waxʔ pphikną) - bonnet, womans hat

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman; pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną), pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat, cap, "head is put inside"; pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną) - hat [MS, OM]; pa-ho-knaⁿ (pah-hughĕnah) - hat, hood (chapeau) [GI]

Dhegiha: ma-shoⁿ pa-gthoⁿ (mshoⁿpgthoⁿ) - headdress, feather bonnet, eagle feathers [Omaha/Ponca]; te-he pa-gthoⁿ (tehpagthⁿ) - buffalo horn headdress [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xu-pa-gthoⁿ(wqupgthoⁿ) - hat, cap white mans head covering [Omaha/Ponca]

 

hatchet

iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet

iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet, tomahawk [MS]

mi-spe zhi-ka (mĭspeh jinkah) - war club, head broker (casse tte) [GI]

cf. iⁿ-spe (̨spe), (įsp) - axe; zhi-ka (ka) small, little; iⁿ-spe xa-taⁿ (̨spe xttą) - adze made of iron

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze pe zhiⁿ-ga (moⁿe pe zhiⁿga) - hatchet, tomahawk [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ spe zhiⁿ-ga (mⁿ-hiⁿ-pe zhiⁿ-ga) - tomahawk [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe zhiⁿ (mą́ąhįspeį) - hatchet [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze pe (moⁿe pe) - ax [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mⁿ-hiⁿ-pe) - ax [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mą́ąhįspe) - axe [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mⁿhiⁿspe) - axe [Kaw]

 

hate

o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik), o-koⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ika) - hate

cf. o-kaⁿ-shi-ka-wa-de (okk̨ikwade) - hateful, abominable; o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - be hateful

ex: o-wi-kaⁿ-shi-ka (owkkąik) - I hate you

ex: wa-jhi-ni aⁿ-ka-shi-ka (waǰni ąkk̨ik) - white man didn't like me [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I don't like him either [MS]

 

hateful

o-kaⁿ-shi-ka-wa-de (okk̨ikwade) - hateful, abominable

cf. o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik), o-koⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ika) - hate; wa-de (wade) - cause them, make them, to make one, cause someone; o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - be hateful

 

o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - be hateful

cf. o-kaⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ik), o-koⁿ-shi-ka (okk̨ika) - hate; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be, use, have; o-kaⁿ-shi-ka-wa-de (okk̨ikwade) - hateful, abominable

 

wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean, bad thoughts, hateful, spiteful

wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean [MS]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - disposition, will power, will, mind, idea, volition; shi-ke (ke) - bad; wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi (wą ddai) - to lose patience; wa-zhiⁿ ska (wa-jĭⁿ́-skă) - masculine name White Disposition, Wise. [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ ʰpi-zhi (wa-zhⁿ-p̣i-zhi) - to be very angry [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ ʰpi-zhi (wą ʰpii) - enraged, mad, angry [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ pi-zhi (wazhⁿpizhi) - being hateful, spiteful, literally bad thoughts [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - will power [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - own will, volition [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - will, mind, idea [CQ-Osage]

 

wa-zhoⁿ-iⁿ ni-wa-de (wǫ̨ nwade) - hateful wa-zhoⁿ-iⁿ ni-a-wa-de (wǫ̨ nawde) - I, wa-zhoⁿ-iⁿ ni-wa-da-de (wǫ̨ nwadde) - you, wa-zhoⁿ-iⁿ ni-oⁿ-wa-da-we (wǫ̨ nįwadwe) - we

cf. ni-wa-de (nwade) - exterminate, lit. leave none

 

have an arm or body cramp

di-ti-ke (dittke) - have an arm or body cramp aⁿ-di-ti-ke (ądttike) - I, di-di-ti-ke (didttike) - you

 

have been, reach there, arrive

hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been pʰi (pʰi) - I, shi (i) - you, hi (h) - he/she/it, hi-we (hwe) - they, aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi), oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we, I and one other, aⁿ-ka-hi-we (ąkhiwe) - we

hi (hi) - come, be coming here (not own)

cf. a-kda-niⁿ hi (akdnį hi) - to come hither with ones own; a-ki-hi (akih) - he went thither for it [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-niⁿ hi (an̨ hi) - take it thither [JOD]; e-ta-koiⁿ-xe hi (ettkoįγe hi) - he came around to him; i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place; hi-kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there; ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived sg/mv/an, the one who has reached; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to come to and sit, to reach/arrive and sit, to get into and sit [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - to have been there, to have reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - to arrive [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; hi (hi) - to arrive at a place [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there (motion accomplished), come here, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, get (e.g., get old), become, begin to, start to, suddenlt start to; initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu (hu) - to be coming to this place [FL-Osage]; hu (h), a-hu (ah) - come here (motion underway); initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - come to a place that is not ones own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

pʰi (pʰi) - I arrive, reach there, have been

ex: pʰi a-ni-he i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (pʰi anih iy iy mat̨ke) - so I have been coming here, replied the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD)]

ex: pʰi a-ni-he naⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ a-kniⁿ (pʰ anhe n̨ ppaz d tą akn̨) - I was coming-I who move-when-after dark-when-I camped [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰ a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xda te a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: she-mi-zhi-ka a-kda-bniⁿ pʰi (mika akdbnį pʰ) - I came here with my little girl [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de (hǫn̨ttą pʰi-kid) - how can I get myself there (cause myself to reach there) [JOD]

ex: a-ki-pʰi (akpʰi) - I reached there, having gone for it; I went there for it [JOD]

Dhegiha: pi (p) - I arrive, I have been coming [JOD-Omaha]; pshi (pshi) pshi e (pshi e) - I went, I have been [FL-Osage]; pshi (p), pshi-e (pe) - I went, I be there [CQ-Osage]

phi (phi) - I arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pshu (p) - I come [CQ-Osage]; phu (phu) - I come to a place that is not my own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

shi (i) - you arrive, reach there, have been

ex: ha-ki shi e (hki i e) - where have you been?' [MS]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawĕ iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: shi (shi) - you have been there, you reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; shi (shi) - you went [FL-Osage]; shi (i), shi-e (e) - you went, you come, you arrive [CQ-Osage]; shi (shi) - you [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shu (), tha-shiu (ah́) - you come [CQ-Osage]; shu (shu) - you come to a place that is your own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

hi ni-he (h-nih) - you come (imperative)

ex: hi ni-he (h-nih) - come thou!; you come! [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (h), hi (hi), a-hi (ah) - you come (imperative) [CQ-Osage]

 

hi (h) - he/she/it arrive, reach there, have been

ex: a-shi-ti hi (itti hi) - he/she arrived outside, he/she went outside

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke te-de i-ya wa-sa (itti hi otąka hi tą mat̨ke tʔede iy was) - just as soon as the black bear went outside, the rabbit shot the black bear, giving him a fatal wound, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ (kiǫttą itti hi iy was nį) iy - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi (tti h) - he/she arrived there, he went there

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ di-shpa-shpa ke (tti hi ną dippa ke) - when she arrived there, the torn pieces were scattered about [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ zho-kde e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya (waxʔik nį okd tti hi ną iy) - the old woman accompanied him as he went there, it is said (they say) [JOD)]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tą) - as soon as day arrived, as soon as the day broke [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there [JOD]

ex: e she-mi i-ta-de taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ ka-i-she-taⁿ hi taⁿ e-hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe te ( mi ttad tą nąh̨ ik h tą k-itą h tą eh̨ nįkʰ tʔe) - when the girl that was born reached puberty her mother died [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

ex: hi naⁿ naⁿ-zha haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke o-te naⁿ i-ya-we (h ną n̨a h̨ka ęke ott ną iywe) - then when he arrived he looked for (sought) Haⁿ-kas son, they said [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhi-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka eke kid-i k tą h) - then-to dance-there-they went-the pl.-chief-large-his son-they took part with (=danced)-the pl. when-she arrived [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe taⁿ hi i-ya-we (hipʰ kʰ tą h iywe) - she had fallen when he arrived, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: zhoⁿ di-ze hi i-ya-we (̨ dze h iywe) - she went to get wood, they said [JOD]

ex: e-ti mi-ka niⁿ maⁿ-shka da-tʰe hi niⁿ naⁿ (ett mikk nį m̨ka dtʰe hi n̨ ną) - raccoon arrived there and ate crawfish [JOD]

ex: ti-zhe ti hi na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ xa-ke koⁿ-ze tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tte-tt-hi ną-att̨ γak kǫz tʰą n̨ iy matįke) - the rabbit arrived to the entrance of the lodge and stood there, pretending cry, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - he/she arrived, he reach there [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ah) - he/she arrive there [JOD-Omaha]; hi (hi) - he arrive [FL-Osage]; hi-pe (hpe) - its arrived [CQ-Osage]; a-hi-pe (ahpe) - he came [CQ-Osage]; a-hi-be (ahbe) - he/she/it arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu (h) - its coming [CQ-Osage]; a-hu-be (ahube) - he/she/it come to a place that is not its own [Kaw]

 

hi-we (hwe) - they arrive, reach there, have been

ex: hi-we o-da, i-ya-we i-ya (hiw od, iywe iy) - they (black bears) said, theyve arrived, tell it! it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa za-ni hi a-shi-ti hi-we i-ya (was zan hi itti  hwe iy) - all of the black bears came outside, (of their lodges), it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa be-ni-zhi e-ti hi-we i-ya (was bniji ĕ́ti hwĕ iy) - everyone of the black bears went there, (to the lodge were the rabbit was), it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-hi-bi (ah-bi) - they reached the place, the yarrived there [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi-be (ahibe) - they arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-hu a-pa (ah apa), a-hu a-pai (ah apa) - they come [CQ-Osage]; a-hu-be (ahube) - they come to a place that is not their own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi), oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we, I and one other

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi tai, wa-xo zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔ-ik ik nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-hi (aghi) - we reach, we arrive [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi) - we (I and one other) went, weve been there [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-hi-be (aⁿghibe) - we arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-hu-be (aⁿgahube) - we come to a place that is not our own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

have duty of fetching water

ni-a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (nikinį) - have duty of fetching water a-ni-a-ki-a-na-zhiⁿ (nikianį) - I, da-ni-a-ki-da-na-zhiⁿ (dnikidanaį) - you

cf. ni (ni) - water; i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone; a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on ones own

Dhegiha: i-gi-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (-gi-noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to depend on someone [FL-Osage]; i-ki-na-zhi (kinaai) - depend on, count on, rely on [CQ-Osage]

 

have none

ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I, di-ni-ke (dinke) - you

niⁿ-ke (nik͓) - none [JOD]

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, semi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys still alive, I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

ex: maⁿ-te-iⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (mątt-įkʰe ąn̨ke) - I do not have a paddle [JOD]

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, mind [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were lacking [JOD]

ex: wa-niⁿ-ke-hi-we (wan̨kehiw) - we have none at all [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-we (nikwe) - they are not, there are none [JOD]

ex: ni niⁿ-ke (ni nįk) - no water [JOD]

ex: ni-ke hi (nik h) - there is none [OM]

ex: ni-ge hi (ni-ge-i) - there is none [LH]

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk' (MS)]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke naⁿ-ta ni-ke niⁿ-kʰe (̨ke nątt nik nįkʰ) - the dog didnt have no ear [MS]

ex: wa-xo ni-ke hi niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nik hi nįkʰ) - hes no good, he has no woman/wife [AG]

ex: ha-te ni-ke (htʔe nik) - healthy, to be in good health, without sickness

ex: wa-haⁿ-ni-ke (wah̨nik) - orphan, without family/relation

ex: hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha ni-ke (hǫb̨tteha nik) - slippers, lit. without moccasin flaps

ex: te-ska shoⁿ-te ni-ke (ttesk ǫt nik) - ox, lit. cow without balls

ex: o-xaⁿ ni-ke (xʔą nik) - for nothing, without cause

ex: ni-xi-te ni-ke (niγtte nke) - to be deaf, to be disobedient, lack hearing

ex: o-ki-te ni-ke (okktte nke) - elephant, lit. without joints

ex: o-ni-aⁿ niⁿ-ke hi (onį nįk hi) - no noise, not even breathing [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿ́-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

have one for a kinsman

o-do-ta-ki-de (odottkide) - have one for a kinsman o-do-ta-a-ki-de (odottakide) - I, o-do-ta-da-ki-de (odottadkide) - you

cf. o-do-ta-ki-de (dottkide) - kinsman, relative

Dhegiha: u-thu-da-ʰki-the (u-th-da ḳi-the) - genealogy, lineage [FL-Osage]; u-tho-da-ʰki-the (-tho-da-ḳi-the) - relative, kindred, natural ties of kin [FL-Osage]; tho-ta-ʰki-the (taʰkie) - take or regard each other as relatives, be related, become acquainted with each other, make friends with each other, regard each other as friends, hold each other dear [CQ-Osage]

 

have or keep for someone

a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone a-ki-bniⁿ (akbnį) - I, a-da-ki-tiⁿ (adkittį) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-niⁿ-we (ǫkkinįwe) - we

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; a-ki-niⁿ de (kinį de) - take away something for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property; a-ki-niⁿ kde (kinį kd) - to take from someone and go back [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ kdi (kinį kdi) - take away something for someone and come back to this place [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own [JOD]; ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone; wa-di-ze a-ki-niⁿ (wadze kinį) - owe something to someone

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ (ądkitt̨) - you have it for me [JOD]

 

have sense, be wise

wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense wa-di-kdaⁿ aⁿ-toⁿ (wadikdą ąttǫ) - Im, wa-di-kdaⁿ di-toⁿ (wadikdą ditto) - youre

cf. taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have; wa-di-knaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan, thoughtfully, deliberately; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; di-knaⁿ (dikn̨) - try, make effort, decide

Dhegiha: wa-thi-gthoⁿ ʰtoⁿ (wa-th-gthoⁿ ṭoⁿ) - having plenty of sence, wits, very sensible [FL-Osage]

 

have, as a disease

oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - have (as a disease), be, do, use moⁿ (mǫ) - I, zhoⁿ (ǫ) - you, oⁿ (ʔǫ) - he/she/it, aⁿ-koⁿ (ąk̨) - we, I and one other, aⁿ-koⁿ-we (ąk̨we), oⁿ-koⁿ-we (ǫk̨we) - we

ex: bnaⁿ-se oⁿ (bn̨se ʔǫ) - to have smallpox

ex: o-kaⁿ-shi-kaⁿ oⁿ (okk̨ik̨ ʔ̨) - be hateful

ex: e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-oⁿ (ek̨i waʔ̨) - to do wrong, injure, sin

ex: e-ki-oⁿ (kiʔǫ) - do as someone has said or done

ex: hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ (hnįh ʔ̨) - to do ones utmost, to the limit

ex: pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) - do well, expresses precocity

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-zhoⁿ wi-ke (kʰak, hą wike) - younger brothers, what are you doing? [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kdaⁿ, ha-zhoⁿ ni-kʰe, i-ke (įkd̨, hą nikʰ, ik) - first son-what you do?-you who sit-she said [JOD]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (hǫ kǫtt) - what do you want with it? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? (how are you doing?) [AG]

ex: jhi-e ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (ǰe hǫ n) - how are you? (how are you doing?) [AG]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (̨ǫ) - suffer from, have as an illness, be sick from, perhaps more literally be enveloped by (sickness), (sickness) lies upon someone, wear, use [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - do, be [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ (̨) - do, engage in an activity [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (oⁿ), oⁿ (oⁿ) - do [Kaw]

 

have, keep

a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep a-bniⁿ (abn̨) - I, a-tiⁿ (att̨) - you, a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it

cf. a-niⁿ de (an̨ d) - take away; a-niⁿ hi (an̨ hi) - take it thither [JOD]; a-niⁿ kde (an̨ kde) - to take homeward [JOD]; a-niⁿ kdi (an̨ kdi) - to bring home [JOD]; a-niⁿ ki (an̨ k) - bring back here; a-niⁿ tʰi (an̨ tʰ) - brought here [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; a-kda-niⁿ (akdnį) - keep ones own (relation, property, etc.)

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - have, keep [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (a-thⁿ) - to have [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ (ą) - have, own, possess [CQ-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (ayⁿ) - have, keep, get, hold [Kaw]

 

a-bniⁿ (abn̨) - I have, keep

Dhegiha: a-bthiⁿ (abthⁿ) - I have [Omaha]; a-bthiⁿ (abthⁿ) - I have [FL-Osage]; a-briⁿ (abr̨) - I have [CQ-Osage]; a-bliⁿ (ablⁿ) - I have [Kaw]

 

a-tiⁿ (att̨) - you have, keep

ex: ta-taⁿ zha-zhe a-tiⁿ (tttą e att̨) - whats your name? [MS]

ex: jhi-e shi-zhi-ka a-tiⁿ ni-she (jhe ikka att̨ ni) - do you have any children [AG]

ex: jhi-e shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ a-tiⁿ ni-she (ǰe ̨keknį att̨ ni) - have you got a horse? [AG]

Dhegiha: a-niⁿ (a-nⁿ), a-hniⁿ (ahnⁿ) - you have [JOD-Omaha]; a-ni (a-n), a-shni (a-shn), a-stiⁿ (a-stiⁿ) - you have [FL-Osage]; a-shtsiⁿ (ac̨) - you have [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰniⁿ (aʰnⁿ) - you have [Kaw]

 

a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it have, keep

ex: kʰi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ wa-sa shoⁿ-te a-niⁿ a-taⁿ de i-ya (kʰi tą mat̨ke nį was ǫt an̨ attą d iy) - upon returning home, the rabbit had the black bears scrotum and left, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ke taⁿ-ha shoⁿ-zhi-ka miⁿ-xti-naⁿ-naⁿ a-niⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ ha-ze da-we (waxʔ twa ke t̨ha ̨ika m̨xtin̨ną nį ̨tą hze dwe) - the four women, each took a pup when they fled [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ (an̨ nį) - a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it has + niⁿ (nį) - 3sg continuative aux moving

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ (an̨ nį) - he was keeping it [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ naⁿ (an̨ nį-n̨) - he is the one who has (had) her [JOD]

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (he/she has a lot of money) [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta-kde-ska a-niⁿ niⁿ (̨ke takdska an̨ nį) - dog got fleas [MS]

ex: wa-kaⁿ-ta e-haⁿ-ko-we-tʰaⁿ, Mary a-niⁿ niⁿ (wakk̨tta eh̨ ǫkwettą, Mary an̨ nį) - Jesuss mother, Mary [MS]

ex: shpoⁿ a-niⁿ ni (pǫ an̨ nį) - when a baby is wet (he/she has a soaked diaper) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (athiⁿ) - he/she/it has/had [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (a-thiⁿ) - he has [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ (ą) - he has/have [CQ-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (ayⁿ) - he/she/it have keep [Kaw]

 

a-niⁿ pa (an̨ pa) - they had it [JOD]

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - he/she/it have, keep; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - continuative aspect marker, plural of niⁿ (nį)

 

wa-niⁿ (wnį) - he/she/it have them

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: to-wa wa-niⁿ naⁿ i-ya-we, o-zhi-ha zhi-ka e-ti o-wa-zhi naⁿ i-ya-we (twa wnį ną iywe, iha ik tti wai ną iywe) - he had four of them, he put them in he little bag, they say [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-do-tʰe wa-niⁿ tʰaⁿ, i-ya-we (̨ke dotʰe wnį tʰą, iywe) - the man-eater had the dogs, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-thiⁿ (wthiⁿ) - he/she have them [Omaha]; wa-yiⁿ (wyiⁿ) - he/she/it have or keep things [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-ka-niⁿ (ąkan̨) - we have, keep

ex: aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (ąkan̨ įk) - we have [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we got some good leaders here [MS]

ex: o-zha wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (a waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we have good leaders [MS]

ex: ke-ha-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (keh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-thiⁿ (agiⁿ) - we have [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ (oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ), oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ bi (oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ bi), oⁿ-ga-thiⁿ i (oⁿ-g-thiⁿ i) - we have [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ka-thiⁿ pe (ąk̨ pe) - we have [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-yiⁿ (aⁿgyiⁿ) - we keep [Kaw]; aⁿ-ga-yiⁿ-be (aⁿgyimbe) - we have [Kaw]

 

have, possess

taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have aⁿ-taⁿ (ątt̨) - I, di-taⁿ (ditt̨) - you, wa-taⁿ-we (waT̨we) - we

cf. o-toⁿ (ott̨), o-taⁿ (ott̨) - abound; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T., lit. cedars abound in it, near Quapaw, OK

ex: wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense

ex: zhe-ka taⁿ (ek ttą) - pot, lit. it has legs [MS]

ex: taⁿ (ttą) - it had [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - exist, abound, have, possess, to exist, there is/there are; to abound, to have or possess [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - to possess [FL-Osage]; toⁿ (toⁿ) - have, possess [Kaw]

 

have, to have a fever

zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever zho-aⁿ-ka-te (ąkktte) - I, zho-di-ka-te (dikktte) - you

cf. zho (o) - flesh, meat; ka-te (kktte) - hot, to be hot; sni-tʰe zho-ka-te (sntʰe kkatte) - to have chills and fever

ex: e-ti-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttą ttįi h htʔe kkatte ttaha) - then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu-na-kʰa-de (zhunkʰade) - fever, to have a fever [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-na-ka-de (zhunakade) - fever [Omaha]; zho-da-ʰka-de (zh-da-ḳa-de) - bodies hot or feverish [FL-Osage]; zhu-da-ʰka-dse (zh da-ḳa-dse) - fever, to have a fever [FL-Osage]

 

have, to have a pain or ache

iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - to have a pain, ache, hurt aⁿ-te (ąt) - I, di-iⁿ-te (dįte) - you, waⁿ-te-a-we (w̨tewe) - we

iⁿ-de (įd) - hurt [AG]

ex: aⁿ-te (ąt) - hurt me, I'm hurting [MS]

 

hi iⁿ-te (hi įt) - toothache, have a toothache hi aⁿ-te (hi ąt) - I, hi di-iⁿ-te (hi dįt) - you, waⁿ-te-a-we (w̨[t]tewe) - we

cf. hi (hi) - tooth; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tooth or teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Kaw]

 

mo-iⁿ-ke iⁿ-te (mǫke įt) - angina, chest pain mo-iⁿ-ke aⁿ-te (mǫke ąt) - I, mo-iⁿ-ke di-iⁿ-te (mǫke dįt) - you

cf. maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿ-iⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), mo-iⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - to have a pain, ache, hurt

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ge (moⁿge) - human chest, breast [Omaha]; moⁿ-ge (mⁿ-ge) - breast or chest of a human being [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ke (mą́ąke), moⁿ-ke (m̨ǫke) - chest [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest of a man, breast of an animal [Kaw]

 

o-ki-te iⁿ-te (okktte įt) - to have rheumatism, joint pain o-ki-te aⁿ-te (okktte ąt) - I, o-ki-te di-iⁿ-te (okktte dįt) - you

cf. o-ki-te (okktte) - joint; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-tʰe (ukʰtʰe) - joint [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ki-te (kite) - joint [Omaha]; u-ʰke-tse (u-ḳ-tse) - a joint [FL-Osage]; o-ki-che (okche), o-ku-che (okche) - joint, the place where two bones are joined [Kaw]

 

pa-hiⁿ-te (ppah̨te) - to have a headache pa-hi aⁿ-te (ppah ąt) - I, pa-hi di-iⁿ-te (ppah diįt) - you, pa-hi waⁿ-te-a-we (ppah w̨tewe) - we

pa-hi iⁿ-te (ppah įt), pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - headache [MS, AG]

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

ex: pa-hi aⁿ-de miⁿ-kʰe (ppah ąd mįkʰ) - I've got a headache [AG]

ex: pa-hi iⁿ-de (ppah įd) - I have a headache (to have a headache, he/she has a headache) [OM]

 

ta iⁿ-te (tta ̨te) - diarrhea, to have diarrhea, belly pain ta i-aⁿ-te (tt ąt) - I, ta i-di-iⁿ-te (tt dįte) - you

cf. ta-iⁿ (ttą) - belly below navel; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

 

zho iⁿ-de (jŭ-indeh) - pain (douleur), body/flesh pain [GI]

 

have, to have arrived here to get someones

a-ki tʰi (ak tʰi) - to have arrived here to get someones a-ki a-tʰi (ki tʰi) - I, a-shki da-tʰi (ak datʰ) - you

cf. tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here; a-ki de (ak de) - go for something not ones own; fetch; a-ki hi (akih) - he went thither for it [JOD]; a-ki kdi (ki kd) - bring back, brought back [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi ti (a-g-ti) - to have come to this place, not his home or for the first time, for what is not his [JOD-Omaha]; a-gu chi (gu chi) - to have come here, either to a place not ones own or for the first time, to get something (which is not ones own) [Kaw]

 

have, to have arrived to/for someone

ki-tʰi (ktʰi) - to have arrived to/for someone aⁿ-tʰi (̨tʰi) - I, di-tʰi (dtʰi) - you

cf. tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here; a-ki tʰi (ak tʰi) - to have arrived here to get someones; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kkinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own; ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkitt̨we tʰi) - visit, go/come to see someone; a-kda tʰi (kda tʰ) - arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not ones home) to get ones own object (horse, child, gun, etc.)

Dhegiha: gi-ti (gti) - to have come hither for the first time for or instead of another [JOD-Omaha]; a-ti (at) - arrive here, came [Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - to come, has come [FL-Osage]; tsʰi (cʰ), a-tsʰi (acʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place, initial a is sometimes omitted in 3rd person forms and normally omitted in imperatives [CQ-Osage]; chi (chi) - arrive here, arrive over there, arrive at a place not his home for first time [Kaw]

 

have, to have bowel movement

zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement a-zhe (a) - I, da-zhe (daze) - you, zhe (zh) - he/she, oⁿ-zha-we (ǫwe) - we

cf. zhe-ki-de (ekde) - bowel movement, defecate; te-zhe (te) - urinate; te-zhe ki-de (te kde) - urinate

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit, penis, male organ [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

 

zhe-ki-de (kide) - defecate, bowel movement

zhe-ki-de (ekde) - defecate, bowel movement [MS]

zhe-ki-de (ekde) - bowel movement [OM]

zhe-ki-de (gek-kideh) - defecate, bowel movement (lacher l'autre) [GI]

cf. zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement; ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself; te-zhe (te) - urinate; te-zhe ki-de (te kde) - urinate

ex: zhe-ki-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (ekde nįkʰ, ̨ke) - dog doo, he is defecating, the dog [MS]

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit, penis, male organ [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ki-the (kithe) - to cause oneself [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰki-the (ḳi-the) - to cause, to cause one, to cause oneself; to cause another, to cause themselves [FL-Osage]; ki-the (ke) - make or have someone engage voluntarily in some act, let or allow someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; ʰki-the (ʰke) - cause, make oneself to be or do [CQ-Osage]

 

have, to have brought back ones own

a-kda-niⁿ kdi (akdnį kd) - to have brought back ones own a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (akdbnį akd) - I

cf. a-kda-niⁿ (akdnį) - keep ones own (relation, property, etc.); kdi (kdi) - to have come back here; a-kda-niⁿ de (akdnį de) - take ones own with one; to go with ones own (relatives, etc.); a-kda-niⁿ hi (akdnį hi) - to come hither with ones own [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then I returned here, keeping this little girl [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi-ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi-ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: i-yo-wi taⁿ a-kda-niⁿ kdi kʰe (yowi-ttą akdnį kd kʰe) - when he was wounded they (his relations) brought him (or his body) home

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi-ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

Dhegiha: a-gtha-bthiⁿ a-gthi (agthbthiⁿ agthi) - bring ones own home [Omaha]; a-la-yiⁿ li (alyiⁿ l) - brought ones own back (home) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-gtha-thiⁿ (agththiⁿ) - to have or keep ones own [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gtha-thiⁿ (a-gth-thiⁿ) - keep as ones own, to inherit, inheritance [FL-Osage]; a-la-thiⁿ (alį) - carry ones items, carry along ones items, carry or take ones own, have or take as ones own, inherit [CQ-Osage]; a-la-yiⁿ (alyiⁿ) - have or keep ones own [Kaw]

 

have, to have chills and fever

sni-tʰe zho-ka-te (sntʰe kkatte) - to have chills and fever sni-tʰe zho-aⁿ-ka-te (sntʰe ąkktte) - I, sni-tʰe zho-di-ka-te (sntʰe dikktte) - you

cf. sni (sni) - cold; sni-tʰe (sntʰe) - to be cold; zho (o) - flesh, meat; ka-te (kktte) - hot, to be hot; zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever

Dhegiha: zni-tʰe (zntʰe) - to be cold, said of humans [Omaha/Ponca]; zni-te (n-te) - chill [Omaha]; ʰni-ʰtse (hn-ṭse) - cold [FL-Osage]; ni-ʰtse (nʰce) - be cold, feel cold, animate subject [CQ-Osage]; ʰni-tse (hnce) - to be cold, as a person [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhu-na-kʰa-de (zhunkʰade) - fever, to have a fever [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-na-ka-de (zhunakade) - fever [Omaha]; zho-da-ʰka-de (zh-da-ḳa-de) - bodies hot or feverish [FL-Osage]; zhu-da-ʰka-dse (zh da-ḳa-dse) - fever, to have a fever [FL-Osage]

 

have, to have come back here

kdi (kdi) - to have come back here a-kdi (akd) - I, da-kdi (dakd) - you, oⁿ-ka-kdi (ǫkkdi) - we, I and one other, kdi-we (kdiw) - they

a-kdi (akd) - to come back [JOD]

cf. a-kda-niⁿ kdi (akdnį kd) - to have brought back ones own; a-ki-kdi (kikd) - bring back, brought back [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ kdi (kinį kdi) - take away something for someone and come back to this place [JOD]; a-niⁿ kdi (an̨ kdi) - to bring home [JOD]; kdi ki-de (kd kid) - to cause oneself to get back here [JOD]; sni-wa-te kdi tta (snwatte kdi tta) - fall season (winter going to come) [MS]; pe-taⁿ kdi (ptaⁿ kt) - masculine name, Summer has come back, Has-come-back in-summer, real father of Mrs. S [JOD]; pe-taⁿ kdi (Patongdi) - Approaching Summer, Treaty of St. Louis with the Quapaw (1818)

Dhegiha: gthi (g) - to have come back [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthi (ag) - came back [JOD-Omaha]; gthi (gthi) - to come home, to return home [FL-Osage]; a-gthi (a-gth) - returning, this expression is found frequently when referring to the return of one who has been searching for some particular thing [FL-Osage]; li (l), a-li (al) - arrive back here, arrive home here, return here, come back, get back, motion accomplished; initial a is often omitted in 3rd person [CQ-Osage]; li (li) - to have come home, to have come back [Kaw]

 

a-kdi (akd) - I have come back here

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - Ill come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: kde taⁿ ki-ha a-kdi (kd tą kih akd) - when he started homeward, I came back down (from the tree) [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

ex: a-kdi a-ki-de (akdakid) - I caused myself to get back here [JOD]

ex: a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kibnį akd) - I brought it back to him [JOD]

ex: a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wikbnį akd) - I have brought back yours for you [JOD]

ex: we-da-niⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wdanį wikbnį akd) - I have brought back for you (my relation) clothing [JOD]

ex: wa-hiⁿ-ska ta-taⁿ hi-te ho-taⁿ iⁿ a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi te a (wah̨ska tttą hitt httą ̨ wikbnį akd tte ) - I will bring you (his own daughter) back some kind of really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then I returned here, keeping this little girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gthi (ag) - I have came back, I come back, I came back [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthi (a-gth) - I come home [FL-Osage]; a-li (al) - I come back [CQ-Osage]; a-li (al) - I have come back [Kaw]

 

da-kdi (dakd) - you have come back here

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkitt̨ dakd ną tti d wikʔ tte) - when you have taken her (have her) for me and you return here, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her, my own, back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, da-kdi a-e (įkn̨, dakd ae) - first son, you have come home? [JOD]

Dhegiha: tha-gthi (agi) - you have come back/home [JOD-Omaha]; tha-gthi (tha-gth) - you come home [FL-Osage]; tha-li (al) - you come back [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yal) - you have come back [Kaw]

 

kdi hne (kdi hn), kdi ni-he (kd nih) - to come back here (imperative)

ex: kdi ni-he (kt-nihĕ́) - come back! [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ kdi hne (ną kdi hn) - come back again (request) [MS]

            ex: shi-noⁿ kjhi (nǫ kǰi) - comeback again [AG]

ex: jhi-taⁿ-ke wi-ta kjhi ta niⁿ-kʰe (ǰttą́ke wtta kǰi tta nįkʰ) - my sister is coming pretty soon;  should be wi-taⁿ-ke (wittą́ke) - my sister [AG]

ex: jhi-e shi-noⁿ kjhi (ǰe nǫ kǰ) - you come back again [AG]

Dhegiha: li (li) - come back [CQ-Osage]

 

kdi (kd) - he/she/it has come back here

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke niⁿ wa-taⁿ a-ki-de tʰe kdi (kįttą ʔke nį watt̨ akde tʰ kd) - then the old man returned with the goods that he went after [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de naⁿ kdi (ppze d ną kd) - after dark, he came back [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰa naⁿ (kįttą ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną) - then-a little after dark-when-had come back-he was std. so awhile-past sign [JOD]

ex: kdi-zhi (kdi) - he had not come back [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ kdi-zhi (hǫn̨ttą kdi) - why hasnt he come back? [JOD]

ex: ki-toⁿ-we a-kdi (kkit̨we akd) - she returned, came back to look at her own [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthi (g) - he has come back, he has come, it has come [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthi (ag) - he came home [JOD-Omaha]; li (li) - he/she get back, he/she come back [CQ-Osage]; a-gthi (a-gthi) - he/she has come [FL-Osage]; li (l) - he came back [Kaw]; a-li-be (albe) - he/she/it has come home, has come back [Kaw]

 

oⁿ-ka-kdi (ǫkkdi) - we, I and one other have come back here

ex: e-ti haⁿ-pa naⁿ-pa pa-ze de haⁿ-ke aⁿ-ka-kdi (tti hąp͓ nąp͓ ppze d hąk ąkkdi) - there-day-two-dark-became-almost-we have come home (I and one other) [JOD]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-gthi i (aggii) - we came back/home [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ga-gthi i (oⁿ-g-gthi i) - we come home [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ka-li (ąkli) - we come back [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ka-li-pe (ąklipe) - we came home [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-li-pe (aⁿglibe) - we have come home, have come back [Kaw]

 

kdi-we (kdiw) - they have come back here

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi-ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi-ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi-ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

Dhegiha: gthi-i (gi), a-gthi-i (agi) - they have come back, they came back [JOD-Omaha]; a-gthi bi (a-gthi bi) - them come home [FL-Osage]; li-pi (lpi) - they come here [CQ-Osage]; a-li-pe (alpe) - they came back [CQ-Osage]; a-li-be (albe) - they have come home, they have come back [Kaw]

 

have, to have come here, arrive

tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here a-tʰi (atʰ) - I, da-tʰi (datʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-tʰi-we (ǫkTiwe) - we

cf. a-kda tʰi (kda tʰ) - arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not ones home) to get ones own object (horse, child, gun, etc.); a-ki tʰi (ak tʰi) - to have arrived here to get someones; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kkinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own; a-niⁿ tʰi (an̨ tʰ) - brought here [JOD]; ki-tʰi (ktʰi) - to have arrived to/for someone; ki-toⁿ-we tʰi (kkitt̨we tʰi) - visit, go/come to see someone

Dhegiha: ti (t) - to have come hither, had come [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - to come, has come [FL-Osage]; tsʰi (cʰ), a-tsʰi (acʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place, initial a is sometimes omitted in 3rd person forms and normally omitted in imoeratives [CQ-Osage]; chi (chi) - arrive over here; arrive at a place not ones home for the first time [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ti (at) - has come [JOD-Omaha]; a-ti (at) - arrive here, came [Omaha]; a-tsʰi (acʰ), tsʰi (cʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place, initial a is sometimes omitted in 3rd person forms and normally omitted in imoeratives [CQ-Osage]

 

a-tʰi (atʰ) - I have come here, arrive

ex: a-tʰi (atʰ) - I came [MR]

ex: a-tʰi (atʰ) - Im coming, I come [MR]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

Dhegiha: a-ti (at) - I have come hither, I have come [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰtsi (a-ṭsi) - I have come [FL-Osage]; a-tsʰi (acʰ) - I arrive here, come here, motion accomplished [CQ-Osage]; a-chi (ach) - I arrive over here [Kaw]

 

da-tʰi (datʰ) - you have come here, arrive

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-ti da-tʰi e (hatʰą́tti datʰ e) - when did you come? [MS]

ex: da-tʰi ta (datʰ tta) - when you come [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I dont want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde taⁿ, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tą, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ o-ho zhi da-tʰi taⁿ (hǫn̜ttą ho i datʰ tą) - how come he (dog) doesn't bark when you come around? [MS]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (mą́tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]

Dhegiha: tha-ti (at) - you have come hither, you have come [JOD-Omaha]; tha-ʰtsi (tha-ṭsi) - you have come [FL-Osage]; tha-tsʰi (acʰ) - you arrive here, come here, motion accomplished [CQ-Osage]; ya-chi (yachi) - you arrive over here [Kaw]

 

tʰi hne (tʰi hn), tʰi ni-he (tʰi nih) - you come, imperative

ex: aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come see me (request) [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

 

tʰi (tʰi) - he/she/it has come here, arrive

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: hau ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-da-ke tʰi i-ye i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (hau mat̨ke odke tʰ iy keywe n̨ iy) - ho, the rabbit says that he has come to tell us something, they (black bears) said to one another, they say [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de, i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke tʰi ed mat̨ke tʰi ed, keywe n̨ iy) - the rabbit has come! the rabbit has come! they (black bears) said to one another, they say [JOD]

ex: tʰi naⁿ te paⁿ-ze shkoⁿ-zhi hi a-zhaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (tʰi ną tʔe pp̨ze k̨i hi ą mįkʰ) - when he arrived, I pretended to be dead, I lay there motionless [JOD]

ex: tʰi niⁿ i-ba-haⁿ-wi (tʰi n̨ bahąw) - they knew he was coming [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de tʰe taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ tʰi (tbde de tʰ tą nkkaka mį tʰ) - when you went hunting a person came [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha a-shi o-a-te naⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ tʰi (n̨a i oatt ną tt̨̨ tʰi) - then when I looked back (searching), he appeared in sight, he had come [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ o-pi-zhi kʰe kdi-a-ze naⁿ shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ kde-zhe hi naⁿ-ta-ta-xe ka-xe tʰi na-zhiⁿ ka-xe (wah̨nįk tą ppii kʰe kdize ną ̨keknį kde hi nątatxe kγe tʰ ną kγe) - when the orphan opened her box a spotted horse came (was made to come, appear), standing there making noises with his feet [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti (t) - he/she has come [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - she come [FL-Osage]; tsʰi (cʰ) - he come [CQ-Osage]; chi (ch), a-chi (ach), a-chi-be (achbe) - he/she/it arrive over here [Kaw]

 

tʰi-we (tʰwe) - he/she/it has come here, arrive

ex: tʰi-we (tʰwe) - they came, they had come [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka o-kniⁿ a-taⁿ tʰi-we (̨ditt̨da ik oknį ttą tʰwe) - when they arrived they were riding in small wagon [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti toⁿ ko-zhi taⁿ o-zha i-ki-pʰe tʰi-we (kįttą tti tt̨ kko tą a kipʰe tʰwe) - then from a distant village they came to invite them to dance [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ti-i (ati) - they have come [JOD-Omaha]; tsi-pi (cʰpi) - they come [CQ-Osage]; a-tsi-pe (acʰpe) - they came [CQ-Osage]; a-chi-be (achibe) - they arrive over here [Kaw]

 

have, to have for/to regard as

de (de) - causative suffix, added to nouns it adds the meaning to have for, to regard as, added to verbs, it adds the meaning to cause or make a-de (ade) - I, da-de (dade) - you

ex: i-da-te-de (idttede) - have/regard someone as father; i-da-te (idtte) - father + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-haⁿ-de (ih̨de), e-haⁿ-de (eh̨de) - to have as a mother; i-haⁿ (ih̨), i-hoⁿ (ih̨), e-haⁿ (eh̨) - someones mother + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-haⁿ-ka-de (ih̨kade), e-haⁿ-ka-de (eh̨kade) - to have as a sister-in-law; i-haⁿ-ka (ih̨ka), i-hoⁿ-ka (ih̨ka), e-haⁿ-ka (eh̨ka) - a mans sister-in-law + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-kaⁿ-de (ikk̨de), e-kaⁿ-de (ek̨de) - to have as a grandmother; i-kaⁿ (ikk̨), e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - grandmother, mother-in-law + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-knaⁿ-ke-de (ikn̨kede), e-knaⁿ-ke-de (ekn̨kede) - to have as a husband; i-knaⁿ-ke (ikn̨ke), i-kdaⁿ-ke (ikd̨ke), i-knoⁿ-ke (ikn̨ke), e-knaⁿ-ke (ekn̨ke) - womans husband + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-saⁿ-ka-de (is̨kade), e-saⁿ-ka-de (es̨kade) - have as a younger brother; i-saⁿ-ka (is̨ka), i-soⁿ-ka (is̨ka), e-saⁿ-ka (es̨ka) - someones younger brother + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-shi-kʰaⁿ-de (ikʰąde) - she/her to have as a sister-in-law; i-shi-kʰaⁿ (ikʰą), e-shi-kʰaⁿ (eKą) - a womans sister-in-law + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-shi-ke-de (ikʔede), e-shi-ke-de (ekʔede) - she/her to have as brother-in-law; i-shi-ke (ikʔe), shi-ke (ikʔ) - a womans husbands brother + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-ta-haⁿ-de (itthąde) - to have as brother-in-law; i-ta-haⁿ (itthą), e-ta-haⁿ (eThą) - brother-in-law + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-taⁿ-ke-de (itt̨kede) - to have as an elder sister; i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), e-taⁿ-ke (eT̨ke) - a mans elder sister + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-taⁿ-shka-de (itt̨kade), i-toⁿ-shka-de (itt̨kade) - to have as a nephew/cousin; i-taⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), i-toⁿ-shka (itt̨ka), e-taⁿ-shka (eT̨ka) - nephew, son of womans brother or  mans sister + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-te-ke-de (ittkede) - to have as an uncle; i-te-ke (ittke), e-te-ke (eTke) - uncle, a mans mothers brother + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-ti-kaⁿ-de (ittkąde) - to have as a grandfather; i-ti-kaⁿ (ittką), e-ti-kaⁿ (eTką) - his/her grandfather + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-ti-mi-de (ittmide) - to have as an aunt; i-ti-mi (ittmi) - a mans aunt, a mans fathers sister, older or younger + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-ti-ni-de (ittnide) - to have as a daughter-in-law; i-ti-ni (ittni), e-ti-ni (eTni) - a mans daughter-in-law, etc. + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-ti-to-de (ittttode) - to have as an elder brother; i-ti-to (itttto), e-ti-to (eTiTo) - a womans elder brother + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-ti-zhoⁿ-de (ittǫde), e-ti-zhoⁿ-de (eTǫde) - to have as a niece; i-ti-zhoⁿ (ittǫ), e-ti-zhoⁿ (eTǫ) - a niece, a mans sisters daughter + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-to-shpa-de (ittpade) - to have as a grandchild; i-to-shpa (ittpa), e-to-shpa (eTpa) - grandchild + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-to-zhaⁿ-ke-de (ittąkede) - to have as a niece; i-to-zhaⁿ-ke (ittąke), e-to-zhaⁿ-ke (eTąke) - niece, womans elder brothers daughter + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-toⁿ-te-de (itt̨ttede), e-toⁿ-te-de (eT̨Tede) - to have as a son-in-law; i-toⁿ-te (itt̨tte), e-toⁿ-te (eT̨Te) - a mans son-in-law + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-zhaⁿ-ke-de (įkede), e-zhaⁿ-ke-de (eąkede) - to have as a daughter; i-zhaⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhaⁿ-ke (ęke) - daughter, someones daughter + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-zhiⁿ-de-de (įdede), e-zhiⁿ-de-de (ędede) - to have as an elder brother; i-zhiⁿ-de (įde), e-zhiⁿ-de (ęde) - a mans elder brother + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-zhiⁿ-ke-de (įkede), e-zhiⁿ-ke-de (ękede) - to have as a son; i-zhiⁿ-ke (įke), e-zhiⁿ-ke (ęke) - someones son + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

ex: i-zhoⁿ-de-de (įdede), e-zhoⁿ-de-de (ędede) - to have someone as elder sister; i-zhoⁿ-de (įde), e-zhoⁿ-de (ęde) - a womans elder sister + de (de) - to have for, to regard as

Dhegiha: the (the) - causative suffix, suffixed to nouns it adds meaning to have for, to regard as, added to verbs, it adds the meaning to cause or make; the (the) - cause [FL-Osage]; the (e) - make, have or make someone do something, cause something to happen to someone or something [CQ-Osage]; ye (ye) - causative; make happen [Kaw]

 

have, to have gone from ones own

ki-hi-de (khide) - to have gone from ones own

cf. hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property

Dhegiha: hi-the (hi-th) - to have gone, to have departed, to cause to reach there, to send thither [FL-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there, literally, cause to arrive there [CQ-Osage]; hi-ye (hiy), i-ye (iy) - to have gone to a particular place, to have set as the sun, to have gone (somewhere), send [Kaw]

 

have, to have gone somewhere

hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere hi-bde (hibd) - I, hi-te (hitt) - you, oⁿ-hi-oⁿ-da-we (ǫhǫdaw) - we

hi-de (hid) - he sent it hither, he sends it hither [JOD]

cf. a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property

ex: hi-bde taⁿ, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tą, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when Im gone, dont you come around my house [MS]

Dhegiha: hi-the (hi-th) - to have gone, to have departed, to cause to reach there, to send thither [FL-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there, literally, cause to arrive there [CQ-Osage]; hi-ye (hiy), i-ye (iy) - to have gone to a particular place, to have set as the sun, to have gone (somewhere), send [Kaw]

 

have, to have or bear twins

naⁿ-pa-ta i-ta-de (nąptta ittde) - to have or bear twins naⁿ-pa-ta i-ta-a-de (nąptta ttade) - I, naⁿ-pa-ta i-ta-da-de (nąptta ittadde) - you

cf. naⁿ-pa-ta (nąptta) - twins; i-ta-de (ttade) - give birth to a child, bear a child

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ba i-da (noⁿba ida) - twin [Omaha]; thoⁿ-ba-da (thoⁿ-b-da), noⁿ-ba-da (noⁿ-b-da) - twins, two born [FL-Osage]; thoⁿ-pa-taⁿ (ǫǫptą) - twin, twins [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-da-the (dathe) - give birth to [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ta-the (-da-the) - to bear a child, to give birth to an offspring [FL-Osage]; i-ta-the (iite) - give birth to [CQ-Osage]; i-da-ye (daye) - bear a child, have a baby [Kaw]

 

have, to have passed by in sight

taⁿ-hi-de (ttąhde) - to have passed by in sight

cf. taⁿ-iⁿ (tt̨į) - visible, in sight; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; hi-de (hid) - to send here [JOD]; hi-da-zhi (hidi) - went not [JOD]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-iⁿ-the (tⁿiⁿthe) - to make something visible or clear, to explain [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-iⁿ (ṭoⁿ́iⁿ), ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; toiⁿ (t̨į), toⁿ-pe (t̨pe) - see, observe, watch, look, look at, on, or upon [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: hi-the (hi-th) - to have gone, to have departed, (2) to cause to reach there, to send thither [FL-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there, literally, cause to arrive there [CQ-Osage]; hi-ye (hiy) - to have gone somewhere; send, lit. cause to arrive there [Kaw]

 

have, to have taken someones property

a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property a-ki-bniⁿ hi-bde (akbnį hibd) - I, a-da-ki-tiⁿ hi-te (adkittį hitte) - you

cf. a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; a-ki-niⁿ de (kinį de) - take away something for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-ki-niⁿ kde (kinį kd) - to take from someone and go back [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ kdi (kinį kdi) - take away something for someone and come back to this place [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-the (hi-th) - to have gone, to have departed, (2) to cause to reach there, to send thither [FL-Osage]; hi-the (he) - send there, literally, cause to arrive there [CQ-Osage]; hi-ye (hiy) - to have gone somewhere, (2) send, lit. cause to arrive there [Kaw]

 

have, to have, past tense

ye (ye), e (e) - past suffix, perfective aspect, past, including all motion verbs

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo koi (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it [MS]

ex: da-tʰe-ye (datʰye) - to have eaten; da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: i-ka-zo-ye (kazye) - to have written; i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: i-ke-ye (ikye) - to have said something to someone; i-ke (ik) - say (the preceding) to someone + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: i-ki-tʰiⁿ-ye (kitʰ̨ye) - to have hit ones own; i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kitʰį) - hit ones own + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: i-tʰiⁿ-ye (tʰįye) - to have hit; i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: i-ye-ye (iyye) - to have spoken, yesterday or before; i-ye (ye), i-e (e) - talk, speak + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: i-yi-ya (iyya) - to have said; i-e (i), i-ye (iy) - say + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: ka-xe-ye (kγeye) - to have made, done, caused; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: ka-ste-ste-ye (kaststeye) - to have cut to shreds; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: ka-za-za-te-ye (kazzattey) - to have cut to shreds; ka-za-za-te (kazzatte) - chop to pieces, slivers + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: kniⁿ-ye (kn̨ye) - to have sat, have dwelt; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: o-ki-ke-ye (okkkeye) - to have talked to a relation; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: o-tʰiⁿ-ye (otʰ̨-ye) - to have struck; o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit + ye (-ye) - past suffix

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ-ye (ttąn̨ye) - to have run; taⁿ-niⁿ (tt̨nį) - run, as a person not an animal + ye (-ye) - past suffix

haw, hawthorn

po (po) - black haws, hawthorn

po (po) - black haw [MS]

Dhegiha: bo (bo) - black hawthorn [Kaw]

 

po-hi (phi) - black hawthorn bush

cf. po (po) - black haws, hawthorn; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bo-hu (boh) - black hawthorn tree, it is gray, it resembles the staⁿyiⁿgehu (the persimmon tree) [Kaw]

 

ti-o-spaⁿ (ttispą) - red haw

Dhegiha: ta-spoⁿ (taspⁿ) - red haw, thorn apple [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-spoⁿ (ṭa-pⁿ) - the red haw, thorn apple [FL-Osage]; ta-spaⁿ (taspⁿ) - haws, red hawthorn [Kaw]

 

ti-o-spaⁿ-hi (ttispąhi) - red hawthorn bush or tree

cf. ti-o-spaⁿ (ttispą) - red haw; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ta-spoⁿ-hi (taspⁿhi) - red hawthorn, thorn-apple tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-spoⁿ hi (tapoⁿ hi) - red haw tree, torn apple tree [Omaha]; ta-spaⁿ hu (taspⁿ hu) - the red hawthorn tree [Kaw]

 

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