English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

D

 

dogwood

maⁿ-sa (m̨sa) - dogwood, Cornus

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; maⁿ-sa hi (m̨sa h) - dogwood bush or tree, Cornus

Dhegiha: moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrowwood, the Osage made their arrows out of a wood the call moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrow wood (Cornus asperifolia), when this wood is not obtainable they use ash [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sa hu (m̨ǫsa hu) - dogwood [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-sa hu (mⁿsa hu) - dogwood, the arrow shaft bush [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-sa hi (m̨sa h) - dogwood bush or tree, Cornus

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; maⁿ-sa (m̨sa) - dogwood, Cornus; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrowwood, the Osage made their arrows out of a wood the call moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrow wood (Cornus asperifolia), when this wood is not obtainable they use ash [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sa hu (m̨ǫsa hu) - dogwood [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-sa hu (mⁿsa hu) - dogwood, the arrow shaft bush [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-sa zhi-te (msa tte) - dogwood, bark used for kinnikinnick

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; maⁿ-sa (m̨sa) - dogwood, Cornus; maⁿ-sa hi (m̨sa h) - dogwood bush or tree, Cornus; zhi-te (tte) - red

Dhegiha: moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrowwood, the Osage made their arrows out of a wood the call moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrow wood (Cornus asperifolia), when this wood is not obtainable they use ash [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sa hu (m̨ǫsa hu) - dogwood [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-sa hu (mⁿsa hu) - dogwood, the arrow shaft bush [Kaw]

 

doll

shi-ka (ka) - doll, (JOD illegible)

 

dollar

ma-ze-ska miⁿ-xti (mzeska m̨xti) - dollar, one dollar [MS, OM]

cf. ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, a dollar; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wⁿ-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wi-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

 

ma-ze-ska (mazska) - silver, money, a dollar

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron; ska (ska) - white

ex: mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ ma-ze-ska kde-bnaⁿ taⁿ naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-da (mįba mxtiną mazska kdbnątt̨ nąp akn̨ ąn̨kid) - he paid me twelve dollars a month

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze ska (moⁿeka) - money, silver, currency [Omaha]; maⁿ-ze ska(mą́zeska) - money, coin, silver, literally white metal [CQ-Osage]; moⁿ-ze ska (mⁿ-e-ka) - white metal, money [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze ska (mⁿzeska) - money, esp. silver money [Kaw]

 

de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, four bits

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali 'money', French escalin 'shilling'; to-wa (twa) - four; de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents; de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp), de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits; de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - quarter, twenty-five cents; de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

Dhegiha: du-ba (dba) - four [Omaha/Ponca]; do-ba (d-ba) - four [FL-Osage]; to-pa (topa) - four [CQ-Osage]; to-ba (tba) - four [Kaw]

 

domestic cat

iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe (įtt̨dą kde) - cat, domestic cat "spotted"

iⁿ-taⁿ kde-zhe (įttą́ kde) - cat, speckled cat [MS, AG]

taⁿ-ke kde-she (DąGeGaD˙e) - cat, domestic [FS]

cf. iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ (įtt̨dą), taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion, similar terms are widespread in North America, Quapaw may represent a borrowing from Biloxi or Ofo; kde-zhe (kde) - spotted; iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe zhi-ka (įtt̨dą kde ka) - kitten; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ kde-zhe (įttanąkdze) - bobcat; iⁿ-taⁿ kde-zhe (įttą́ kde) - cat, speckled cat [MS, AG]; taⁿ-daⁿ kde-zhe ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (ttąd̨ kde mąatti) - bobcat, spotted cat; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttną ttą́ka) - mountain lion, panther, cougar, puma [MS]; taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka (tt̨dą tt̨ka) - mountain lion, puma; taⁿ-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (tonon-tunkah) - tiger or panther (tigre ou panthre) [GI]

Dhegiha: gthe-zhe (gthezh) - spotted, having spots in one place [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-zhe (gthezhe) - speckled [Omaha]; gthe-zhe (gthe-zh) - spotted [FL-Osage]; le-zhe (le) - spotted, speckled, stippled [CQ-Osage]; le-zhe (lezh) - spotted [Kaw]

 

domestic cow, domestic cattle

te-ska (ttesk) - cow, domestic cattle, bison + white

te ska (ttesk) - cow [MS, AG, MR, OM]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; ska (ska) - white

ex: te-ska a-shi-oⁿ-he tʰaⁿ a-niⁿ-ki (ttska iǫh tʰą an̨k) - bring the ox standing outside (the fence) here

Dhegiha: te-ska (tska) - cow, ox, cattle [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-ska (ṭs-ka) - domesticated cattle [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ska (ʰceska) - beef, head of cattle, cow, not necessarily female [CQ-Osage]; tse-ska (cesk) - domestic cow, ox [Kaw]

 

domestic sheep

ta wa-ta-kde (tta wttakde) - sheep, lit., domestic deer

ta wa-ta-kde (tahwantagheteh) - sheep (mouton) [GI]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; wa-ta-kde (watkde) - domesticated animal or bird; di-ta wa-ta-kde (dittah-uantagheteh) - pigeon (pigeon) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-na-gthe (wangthe) - pet, domesticated, tame [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-da-gthe (wa-d-gthe) - a domesticated animal [FL-Osage]

 

domestic, domesticated

wa-ta-kde (watkde) - domesticated animal or bird

cf. ta wa-ta-kde (tta wttakde) - sheep, lit. "domestic deer"; di-ta wa-ta-kde (dittah-uantagheteh) - pigeon (pigeon) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-na-gthe (wangthe) - pet, domesticated, tame [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-da-gthe (wa-d-gthe) - a domesticated animal [FL-Osage]

 

wa-kda (wakd) - tame aⁿ-wa-kda (ąwkda) - I, di-wa-kda (diwkda) - you

cf. wa-kda ka-xe (wakd kγe) - tame an animal

 

wa-kda ka-xe (wakd kγe) - tame an animal

cf. wa-kda (wakd) - tame; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

 

dont do that

ka-she-naⁿ na-ha (kaną nah) - don't do that!, thats enough! [AB]

cf. she-na (ną) - enough; na-ha (nah) - prohibitive, beware lest .

Dhegiha: ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - be ended, finished, that's all, something is finished, closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashhnaⁿ) - that's all, just this much, that is enough [Kaw]

 

done

di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - I, ti-shtaⁿ (tttą) - you

cf. a-da-shtaⁿ (datą) - stop activity with the mouth, talking, drinking, eating, etc.; a-di-shtaⁿ (ditą) - stop work (for the day), cease an activity

ex: bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - that's all (I'm done, I'm finished) [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ (thishtoⁿ) - finish, complete, release, past [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ (thi-shtⁿ) - to stop, to finish [FL-Osage]; thi-shtaⁿ (iitą́) - finish, stop, already did something, be just finished doing something, be finished, be through [CQ-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ (yushtⁿ) - stop, be finished, let go [Kaw]

 

e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ), e-ki-oⁿ (kiʔǫ) - do as someone has said or done e-ki-moⁿ (kimǫ) - I, e-ki-zhoⁿ (kiǫ) - you

cf. oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do; pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) - do well, expresses precocity; e-kaⁿ-zhi wa-oⁿ (ek̨i waʔ̨) - to do wrong, injure, sin

Dhegiha: e-gi-oⁿ (-g-oⁿ) - to do so [FL-Osage]; e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ) - do something, proceed or go ahead with something, can, be able to [CQ-Osage]; e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ) - do so, do that to another, do something [Kaw]

 

ka-xe-ye (kγeye) - to have made, to have done, to have caused pa-xe-ye (ppγeye) - I, shka-xe-ye (kγeye) - you

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; ye (-ye), e (-e) - past suffix, perfective aspect; ye (-ye) - past, incl. all motion verbs

 

done, boiled until done

wa-ti-te (wattte) - mush, boiled until done

cf. ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked; ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something

Dhegiha: wa-niⁿ-de (wanⁿde) - mush [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-dsu-dse (wa-ds-dse) - corn gruel [FL-Osage]; wa-ju-je (wajje) - mush, corn mush [Kaw]

 

donkey

naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ka (nątt ttą́ka) - donkey [MS]

naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ka  (nątt tt̨ka) - mule, lit. big ears

naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ka (nottah-tunkah) - mule (mulet) [GI]

cf. naⁿ-ta (nątt) - ear, the external ear; taⁿ-ka (ttą́ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: ni-ta toⁿ-ga (nita toⁿga) - mule [Omaha]; ni-ta toⁿ-ga nu-ga (nita toⁿga nuga) - jackass [Omaha]; ni-ta toⁿ-ga nu-shi-a-ha (nita toⁿga nushiaha) - donkey [Omaha]; noⁿ-ʰta ʰtoⁿ-ga (noⁿ-ṭ ṭoⁿ-ga) - a mule [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-ʰtaⁿ ʰtaⁿ (nąąʰtą́ ʰtąą) - mule, jack mule, donkey, burro, ass, literally big ears [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-ta taⁿ-ga (naⁿt tⁿga) - mule [Kaw]

 

door

ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

ti-zhe (tti) - door [MS]

ti-zhe (tigeh) - door (porte) [GI]

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

Dhegiha: ti-zhe-be (tizhbe) - door, doorway, entrance to a tent, lodge, or house [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-zhe (ṭs-zhe), ʰtsi-zhe-be (ṭs-zhe-be) - the door of a house or tipi [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe (ʰci) - door [CQ-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe-pe (ʰcipe) - doorway, threshold, formal, used especially for God's doorway at funerals [CQ-Osage]; tsi-zhe-be (cizhbe) - door, doorway [Kaw]

 

ti-zhe ba-si (tte bas) - door frame

cf. ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

 

ti-zhe i-da-kdaⁿ (tte idkdą) - door flap

cf. ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

 

ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm

cf. ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge; si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put si/in

 

door knob

o-naⁿ-taⁿ di-shi-we (on̨ttą diwe) - door knob

cf. di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open

Dhegiha: thi-shi-be (thishibe) - open, unlock, uncap, unhitch [Omaha]; thi-shi-be (thi-sh-be) - to open anything that has a lid or a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-be (thi-sh-be) - to open or unfasten a door [FL-Osage]; thi-shu-pe (iipe) - open, unlock and open [CQ-Osage]; yu-shu-be (yushbe), yu-shu-we (yushwe) - open, as a door or a sacred bundle, unlock [Kaw]

 

door, close as sliding doors

a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors

cf. a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt; a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

 

door, open lift off as a door or plank

di-ki-kda (dikkkda) - open, lift off as a door/plank bdi-ki-kda (bdkkikda) - I, ti-ki-kda (ttkkikda) - you

 

doorway of a house

ti o-ba-he (tti bahe) - doorway of a house

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

Dhegiha: ti (ti) - house, lodge, tent, tipi, dwelling [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - house, dwelling, hovel [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi (ʰc) - house, nest, camp, make camp [CQ-Osage]; tsi (ci) - tent, lodge, house [Kaw]

 

double

hi naⁿ-pa a-ki-kde (h nąp kkikd) - double, twofold; hi (hi) + numeral + a-ki-kde (kkikde) = times, fold

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two [MS, MR, FR, AB, AG, OM]; ki-kde (kikd) - join together; i-ha ki-kde (ha kikd) - kiss [MS]

 

dove

di-ta (dtta) - dove

cf. di-ta pa-ta-ho (ditt ppattho) - turtle dove [MS]; di-ta wa-ta-kde (ditt wattkde) - pigeon

Dhegiha: thi-tʰa (thtʰa) - pigeon, dove [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ʰta (thi-ṭa) - pigeon [FL-Osage]; thiu-ʰta (thi-ṭa) - mourning dove [FL-Osage]; yu-ta (yta) - pigeon, dove [Kaw]

 

dove, turtle dove

di-ta pa-ta-ho (ditt ppattho) - turtle dove, bluish green head dove [MS]

di-ta pa-ta-ho (ditt ppattho) - dove, species lives in the forest

cf. di-ta (dtta) - dove; pa (ppa) - head; to-ho (ttho) - blue, green, grue; di-ta wa-ta-kde (ditt wattkde) - pigeon

Dhegiha: mi-xa pa-ʰto-ho (m-xa-pa-ṭo-ho) - mallard duck [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-gha pa to-ho (mⁿgha pa tho) - mallard [Kaw]

 

down into

maⁿ-tʰa-ha (mątʰha) - into, down into (as water)

cf. maⁿ-tʰe (m̨tʰe) - inside, in, within, under; ni maⁿ-tʰe (n mątʰ) - under the water; ni-xi-te maⁿ-tʰe tiⁿiⁿ (niγtte mą́tʰe tt̨̨) - ringing in the ear [MS]; maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (mą́tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]; maⁿ-tʰe wa-tʰe (m̨tʰe watʰ) - slip, undergarment [OM]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-tse-ʰta-ha (moⁿ-ts-ṭa-ha) - inward, toward the center [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe-ʰta-ha (mącʰʰtaha) - inward, toward the center [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-che-ha (maⁿchha) - under, motion into or inward [Kaw]

 

 

down of a bird

hiⁿ (hį) - hair of the body, down of bird

cf. i-be-hiⁿ (behį) - tail feathers; wa-zhiⁿ-ka hiⁿ (waįkhį) - bird feathers; ta hiⁿ (ttah̨) - deer's hair; da-ka hiⁿ (dakhį) - whiskers, sideburns; di-ba hiⁿ (dibhį) - beard; i-shta i-di-hiⁿ (it idih̨) - eyelash; (hah̨) - mustache; ta-ta hiⁿ (ttatthį) - hair on the sides of the head, hair on the temples

Dhegiha: hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair on body, fur [Omaha]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair or fur, hair of the human body, also the hair of an animal [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ (h̜į) - hair, whiskers, fur, fuzz as on a peach, slivers or small strips of anything [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - fur, body hair, feathers [Kaw]

 

down on bottom, bottom land near a river

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom, same as o-zo-ti-o-we (ozttiow), name of a Quapaw town in Arkansas

cf. o-zaⁿ-te (ozątt) - broad, as a field, a low level

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber, o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber (the name of the village) [Kaw]

 

o-zo-ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

cf. o-zaⁿ-te (ozątt) - broad, as a field, a low level

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber, o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber (the name of the village) [Kaw]

 

down, be lying down

zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down a-zhoⁿ i-he (ą ih) - I, da-zhoⁿ i-he (dą ih) - you, oⁿ-zhoⁿ i-ha-we (ǫ̨ ihawe) - we

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (ą́ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

down, bear down washing, scrub

bi-she (biʔ) - scrub, bear down washing pi-she (ppʔe) - I, shpi-she (pʔe) - you

cf. di-she (diʔ) - wring dry

 

down, bend down

wa-kda-zhi (wkda) - bend down, stoop, bow the head aⁿ-wa-kda-zhi (ąwkda) - I, di-wa-kda-zhi (diwkda) - you

 

ba-xi (baxʔ) - stooped, stooped over

ba-xi (baxʔ) - stooped over [MS]

Dhegiha: ba-siⁿ (basⁿ) - upside-down, head over heels [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-tsiⁿ (ba-tsiⁿ) - head down and feet up, headlong, head foremost [FL-Osage]; pa-tsiⁿ (paacʔ̨) - stoop over, as to touch one's toes, bend down, be crooked [CQ-Osage]; ba-tsiⁿ (batsⁿ) - stoop over, headlong, head first [Kaw]

 

down, bend down, pull down

di-be-xiⁿ (dbexʔ̨) - bend down, pull down bdi-be-xiⁿ (bdbexʔį) - I, ti-be-xiⁿ (ttbexʔį) - you

cf. a-di-be-xiⁿ (dibex̨) - fold down; hoⁿ-biⁿ-ta-a-ha a-di-be-xiⁿ (hǫb̨tteha dibex̨) - turn down the flaps of moccasins

 

down, burn down, topple by burning

ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down

cf. bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base

 

down, cut down, knock down

ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down a-xa-da (xada) - I, da-xa-da (dxada) - you

cf. bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down

 

down, feel like laying down

a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; ti-aⁿ (tį) - to feel like, somewhat; he-shiⁿ ti-aⁿ (hį tį) - feel a sneeze coming on; a-ki-zhi ti-aⁿ (kkii tį) - feel like farting

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I'm going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

ex: da-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tią́) - sleepy (you feel like laying down) [MS]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (ą́ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

down, fold down

a-di-be-xiⁿ (dibex̨) - fold down

cf. hoⁿ-biⁿ-ta-a-ha a-di-be-xiⁿ (hǫb̨tteha dibex̨) - turn down the flaps of moccasins; di-be-xiⁿ (dbexʔ̨) - bend down, pull down

 

down, hang down evenly over an object

a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole; ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

Dhegiha: a-ga-bliⁿ (gabliⁿ) - fasten to cover on something [Kaw]

 

down, hold down

a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something a-pi-saⁿ-te (ppisątte) - I, a-shpi-saⁿ-te (pisątte) - you, oⁿ-ka-pi-saⁿ-ta-we (ǫkpisąttawe) - we

cf. o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects; a-bisaⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down

ex: maⁿ-da a-bi-saⁿ-te naⁿ i-ya (m̨da bisątte ną iy) - he held him down on his back, it is said

ex: ka-ki-kda-ti-zhe aⁿ-bi-saⁿ-te (kakkkdattie ̨bisątt) - he tumbled over and lay on me

ex: wa-bi-saⁿ-ta-we (wbisąttawe) - he or they lay on us

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: a-ba-soⁿ-de (basoⁿde) - to push with the hand against something which is on something else [Omaha/Ponca]; a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - hold down a lid or a person, mash, push down on, shut, close, ones eyes [CQ-Osage]; a-bi-saⁿ-je (bisaⁿje), a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on, wrestle [Kaw]

 

a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down a-bi-saⁿ-te a-zhi (bisątte ai) - I, a-bi-saⁿ-te da-zhi (bisątte dai) - you, a-bi-saⁿ-te oⁿ-zhi-we (bisątte ǫwe) - we

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; a-zhi (i) - put small scattered, inanimate objects onto something; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects; a-bisaⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on

Dhegiha: a-ba-soⁿ-de (basoⁿde) - to push with the hand against something which is on something else [Omaha/Ponca]; a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - hold down a lid or a person, mash, push down on, shut, close, ones eyes [CQ-Osage]; a-bi-saⁿ-je (bisaⁿje), a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on, wrestle [Kaw]

 

a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight a-ka-spi-he-a-de (kaspihade) - I, a-ka-spi-he-da-de (kaspihdade) - you

cf. a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!; a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat, curvilinear object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone; maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does; ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - to cover up an object, the falling of something heavy on a person or a thing [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat, curvilinear object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone a-ka-spi-aⁿ-a-de (kaspin̨ade) - I, a-ka-spi-naⁿ-da-de (kaspin̨dade) - you

cf. a-ka-spe (kaspe) - close, shut; cave in; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put sg/si/in or cloth/paper; a-ka-spa (kasp) - shut it!; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight; maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does; ti-ze a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

Dhegiha: a-ga-spe (-ga-pe) - to cover up an object, the falling of something heavy on a person or a thing [FL-Osage]; a-ka-spe (akaspe) - shade, blind, covering [CQ-Osage]; a-ka-spe (kaaspe) - put over, put upon, cover as with cloth or blanket, cover with dirt as a grave, cover over, cover up [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-spe (gaspe) - cover completely, concealing every part [Kaw]

 

down, kick something down

o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down o-a-naⁿ-xpa-de (onąxpade) - I, o-da-naⁿ-xpa-de (odnąxpade) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - fall, cause by pressure/weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - to fall, thrown (from a horse), to become lost [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians, throw off (suddenly severing or moving something or someone from something) [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

down, lay down a object

a-i-he-de (ihed) - lay down a sg/ly/in object a-i-ha-de (ihde) - I, a-i-he-da-de (ihedde) - you, oⁿ-ka-hi-oⁿ-de (̨kahiǫd) - we dual, I and one other, oⁿ-ka-hi-oⁿ-da-we (̨kahǫdaw) - we

cf. i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-toⁿ-wi-he-de (ttǫwihde) - put horizontal object down carefully; gaⁿ i-he-de (gą ihde) - prone

Dhegiha: i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object, to put a thing down [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

down, lay something down, to lay out

kaⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay something down, to lay out

cf. a-koⁿ-he (kʔǫhe), a-kaⁿ-he (kʔąhe) - put a horizontal inanimate object on a surface; o-koⁿ-he (okʔ̨he) - put a long object in something; a-ki-koⁿ-he (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile

Dhegiha: koⁿ-he (kʔ̨he) - lay into [CQ-Osage]; ko-he (khe) - lay down an inanimate object [Kaw]

 

down, lie down to sleep

zhoⁿ-ki-de (̨kkid) - lie down to sleep zhoⁿ-a-ki-de (̨akkid) - I, zhoⁿ-da-ki-de (̨dakkid) - you

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself; zhaⁿ i-de (̨ id) - sleep; zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - be lying down; zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke (̨ įk) - reclining

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de ta miⁿ-kʰe (̨kkid tta mįkʰ) - I want to lay down (I am going to lie down to sleep) [MS]

ex: aⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de aⁿ-ki-wi-taⁿ (ą̨kkid ąkiwittą́) - let's go to bed [MS]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (ą́ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

down, lower as water

da-xo (daγ) - down, lower as water

cf. da-xo de (daγ d) - decrease, lower

 

down, press down, rub down

bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down pi-te-shka (pptteka) - I, shpi-te-shka (ptteka) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; di-te-shka (dittek), (dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]

 

down, pull down

di-shka (dik) - pull down, as a fence bdi-shka (bdka) - I, ti-shka (ttka) - you

cf. di-shke (dik) - untie, loosen, open

 

down, pull down something

di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window bdi-to-shi (bdttoi) - I, ti-to-shi (ttttoi) - you

cf. to-shi (to) - low, lower; i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip; i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid; to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something

Dhegiha: thi-nu-shi (thi nushi) - dim [Omaha]; nu-shi (nshi) - low [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha (nshiha) - low, short, below, down below [Omaha/Ponca]

 

down, put down

a-toⁿ-wi-naⁿ-de (ttǫwin̨de) - put down a si/in or cloth object

cf. i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put sg/si/in or cloth/paper; na-xnaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (naxn̨ in̨de) - hide a sg/si/in object; shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (̨ in̨de) - bequeath sg/si/in/ob or cloth; a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick; a-ka-spi-naⁿ-de (kaspin̨de) - put a squat, curvilinear object on another to hold it down, e.g., a stone; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting, curvilinear objects so their edges touch; be-soⁿ-soⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold

Dhegiha: i-noⁿ-the (inoⁿthe) - put away, put it down [Omaha]; i-noⁿ-the (i-nⁿ-the) - to put upon the ground [FL-Osage]

 

down, put down carefully

a-toⁿ-wi-tʰe-de (ttǫwitʰde) - put st/in object down carefully

cf. i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; na-xnaⁿ i-tʰe-de (naxn̨ itʰde) - hide sg/st/in or collection; a-ki-koⁿ-he i-tʰe-de (kkikʔ̨he itʰde) - put horizontal (lying) things in a pile, here the first verb denotes the horizontality of the objects and the second the perpendicularity of the pile; sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object, make an upright object lean by pulling it; a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; a-ki-ze-ze i-tʰe-de (kkizze itʰde) - pile up many flat objects one on another, such as books

Dhegiha: i-te-the (ite the) - set something down, store, deposit [Omaha]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe-keeping [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

down, put horizontal object down carefully

a-toⁿ-wi-he-de (ttǫwihde) - put horizontal object down carefully

cf. i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; i-he (he) - horizontal, in a lying position; na-xnaⁿ i-he-de (naxn̨ ihde) - hide someone's sg/ly/in object; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; gaⁿ i-he-de (gą ihde) - prone; so i-he-de (s ihde) - cut lengthwise; shoⁿ i-he-de (̨ ihde) - bequeath, will, leave something; a-ka-spe i-he-de (kaspe ihde) - put a horizontal object on another to hold it down, e.g., a paper-weight; a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

Dhegiha: i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

down, shoot down

o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down o-a-po-xpa-de (opoxpade) - I, o-da-po-xpa-de (odpoxpade) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - fall, cause by pressure/weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something

Dhegiha: u-xpa-the (uxpathe) - fell, fall [Omaha]; u-xpa-the (u-xp-the) - to fall, thrown (from a horse), to become lost [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians, throw off (suddenly severing or moving something or someone from something) [CQ-Osage]; o-xpa-ye (oxpye) - fall from a height, fall off, get lost, become lost [Kaw]

 

down, Sit Down!

kniⁿ (knį) - sit down! [MS, AB, OM]

cf. kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair [MS, AB, OM]; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; shoⁿ-ke a-kniⁿ (ǫ́ke knį) - horse, dog to sit upon [MS, AB, AG, OM]; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-ti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village; ki-sto kniⁿ (kist knį) - to sit in council; i-ka-zo ka-xe kniⁿ (kazzo kγe knį) - clerk, he who sits writing; a-da-ska kniⁿ (daska kn̨) - sit close together

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - sit [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; gliⁿ (glⁿ), liⁿ (liⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside [Kaw]

 

down, strike down, knock senseless

ka-xdi (kaxd) - strike down, knock senseless aⁿ-xdi (̨xdi) - I, di-a-xdi (dixdi) - you

Dhegiha: wa-ga-xthi (wa-g-xthi) - to strike [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ-ga-xthi (zhⁿ-ga-xthi) - Tree Killer, personal name, refers to the lightning that strikes and kills the tree [FL-Osage]; wa-hiu ga-xthi (w-hiu ga-xthi) - Strikes the Bone, personal name [FL-Osage]; ka-liⁿ (kaal̨) - lightning strike [CQ-Osage]; ga-xli (gaxl) - slay, strike down and stun; kill by striking with an instrument such as a club or ax, lightning to strike and kill [Kaw]

 

down, throw oneself down on

a-bisaⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (mat̨ke bisątte ̨) - to throw himself down on a rabbit to catch it

Dhegiha: a-ba-soⁿ-de (basoⁿde) - to push with the hand against something which is on something else [Omaha/Ponca]; a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - hold down a lid or a person, mash, push down on, shut, close, ones eyes [CQ-Osage]; a-bi-saⁿ-je (bisaⁿje), a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on, wrestle [Kaw]

 

down, throw something down from above

i-ka-sa de-de (kasa ded) - throw something down from above i-da-ka-sa de-a-de (idkasa dade) - I, i-da-ka-sa de-da-de (dakasa dedade) - you

 

down, turn upside down

ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down

cf. di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on one's stomach

Dhegiha: thi a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thi akigthashoⁿ) - turn over [Omaha]; yu-kuu-la-shaⁿ (yuklashaⁿ) - roll over, turn upside down [Kaw]

 

di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over bdi-ki-kda-shoⁿ (bdkkikdaǫ) - I, ti-ki-kda-shoⁿ (ttkkikdaǫ) - you

cf. ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down; ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on one's stomach

Dhegiha: thi a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thi akigthashoⁿ) - turn over [Omaha]; yu-ku-la-shaⁿ (yuklashaⁿ) - roll over, turn upside down [Kaw]

 

down, wear down by striking

ka-to-ke (kattke) - wear down by striking, to dull a-to-ke (ttoke) - I, da-to-ke (dttoke) - you

cf. ba-to-ke (battke) - wear away, wear out; bi-to-ke (bittke) - wear away by rubbing or file; da-to-ke (dattke) - dull, wear the teeth, blunt; di-to-ke (dittke) - dull, blunt a tool; naⁿ-to-ke (nąttke) - wear down by walking, as shoes; pa-to-ke (pttoke) - wear away a knife blade; po-to-ke (pttoke) - dull by punching, as a spear

 

down, wear down by walking

naⁿ-to-ke (nąttke) - wear down by walking, as shoes a-naⁿ-to-ke (an̨ttoke) - I, da-naⁿ-to-ke (dan̨ttoke) - you

cf. ba-to-ke (battke) - wear away, wear out; bi-to-ke (bittke) - wear away by rubbing or file; da-to-ke (dattke) - dull, wear the teeth, blunt; di-to-ke (dittke) - dull, blunt a tool; ka-to-ke (kattke) - wear down by striking, to dull; pa-to-ke (pttoke) - wear away a knife blade; po-to-ke (pttoke) - dull by punching, as a spear

 

downhill

a-da-xa-ti (daxʔatti) - downhill

 

a-pa-po (ppapo) - downhill

Dhegiha: pa-mu (pamu) - downhill [Omaha]; a-pa-bo (-pa-bo) - a slope [FL-Osage]; pa-bu (pa-b) - down hill, a steep incline, incline, a steep hill [FL-Osage]; pa-po (pap) - sink, lower, go down [CQ-Osage]; pa-bo (pab) - downhill, over the edge of a bluff [Kaw]

 

downstream

o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream

o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw [MS, AB]

o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw [OM]

o-ka-xpa (o˙GxBa) - Quapaw person or tribe [FS]

o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw gens (clan) of the same tribe, dwelt on right side of tribal circle [JOD]

cf. o-ka-xpa-ki-de (okxpakkde) - be adopted as a Quapaw; o-ka-xpa xti (okxpaxti) - town name, Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ki-xpa-de (okxpade) - lose something; o-xpa-de (oxpde) - fall from a height; ni o-xpa-de (n oxpde) - waterfall; mi-ka-xe o-xpa-de (mikkxʔe oxpde) - meteor, shooting star, falling; o-ba-xpa-de (obxpade) - push off and cause to fall; o-bi-xpa-de (obxpade) - fall, cause by pressure/weight; o-di-xpa-de (odxpade) - pull off and cause to fall; o-naⁿ-xpa-de (on̨xpade) - kick something down; o-po-xpa-de (opxpade) - shoot down

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, "The down-stream people," so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, "The down-stream people," so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

downstream, downwind, with the wind or current

a-ka-hi-da (kahda) - downstream, downwind, with the wind or current

cf. a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream, with his back to the wind; a-ka i-de (kʔa id) - south [MS]; a-ka-hi-de (akahidah) - New Orleans (Nouvelle Orlans) [GI]

Dhegiha: aa (a) - south wind, an archaic word, still used in the name aa wiⁿ (awⁿ) - South Wind Woman [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰka (-ḳa) - south, the south wind [FL-Osage]; a-ka-dsi (-ḳa-dsi) - archaic name for south [FL-Osage]; a-ka-hu-e (kʔahe) - south wind [CQ-Osage]; a-ka (ka) - south, south wind, deity of the south wind, power of the south wind [Kaw]

 

downstream, facing downstream

a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream, with his back to the wind a-ka-hi-da o-a-ka-xde (kahda okaxde) - I, a-ka-hi-da o-da-ka-xde ( (kahda odkaxde) - you

cf. a-ka-hi-da (kahda) - downstream, downwind, with the wind or current; to-to-ka-xde (ttokxde) - facing this way; ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind; a-shi-to-ka-xde (attokxde) - face the back of the lodge; e-ta de-de o-ka-xde (ett dde okxde) - face the other way; e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; ko-to-ka-xde (ktokxde) - facing the other way; o-i-naⁿ-be o-ka-xde (inąb okxde) - facing uphill

Dhegiha: hi-de u-ga-xthe (hide gaqthe) - facing downward, downstream, facing the bottom or lower part, facing the mouth of a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; e-ʰta u-ga-xthe (e-ṭ u-ga-xthe) - facing in that direction [FL-Osage]; o-ka-le (okle) - face a certain direction [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xle (ogxle) - facing, face a direction [Kaw]

 

downward, hold gun muzzle downward

di-ba-siⁿ (dbasʔ̨) - hold gun muzzle downward bdi-ba-siⁿ (bdbasʔį) - I, ti-ba-siⁿ (ttbasʔį) - you

 

drag

da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth bda-xo-we (bdxowe) - I, ta-xo-we (ttxowe) - you

cf. di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling

Dhegiha: tha-xu-e (tha-x-e) - dragged with his teeth [FL-Osage]

 

di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along bdi-xo-we (bdγowe) - I, ti-xo-we (ttγowe) - you

cf. di-xo (diγ) - mark, scratch, draw line; o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling; da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth

Dhegiha: thi-xu-e (thi-x-e) - to drag something on the ground [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-we (thi-x-we) - to drag some dead animal by rope, to lead a horse to water [FL-Osage]; ti-xo-we (iiɣwe), ti-xo-e (iiɣe), thi-xo (iiɣ) - drag [CQ-Osage]; yu-gho-we (yughwe) - drag, pull behind [Kaw]

 

dragonfly

ti-te-ska (ttittska) - dragonfly

 

draw blood

da-wa-paiⁿ (dawappą) - bite and draw blood bda-wa-paiⁿ (bdwappaį) - I, ta-wa-paiⁿ (ttwappaį) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; wa-paiⁿ (wappaį) - blood; ba-wa-paiⁿ (bawappą) - prick and cause to bleed; di-wa-paiⁿ (diwappą) - scratch and draw blood, as a cat; ka-wa-paiⁿ (kawappą) - cut, slash and cause to bleed; naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (nąwappą) - bleed, cause by kicking; pa-wa-paiⁿ (pwappaį) - bleed someone with a knife; po-wa-paiⁿ (pwappą) - bleed from a thrust, cause to

Dhegiha: wa-mi (wam) - bleed, bloody [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-biⁿ (wa-biⁿ́) - blood, bleeding [FL-Osage]; wa-piⁿ (wa-p̨), wa-peiⁿ (wapį) - bleed, blood [CQ-Osage]; wa-biⁿ (wa-bⁿ) - blood [Kaw]

 

di-wa-paiⁿ (diwappą) - scratch and draw blood, as a cat

cf. di (di) - by hand; wa-paiⁿ (wappaį) - blood; ba-wa-paiⁿ (bawappą) - prick and cause to bleed; da-wa-paiⁿ (dawappą) - bite and draw blood; ka-wa-paiⁿ (kawappą) - cut, slash and cause to bleed; naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (nąwappą) - bleed, cause by kicking; pa-wa-paiⁿ (pwappaį) - bleed someone with a knife; po-wa-paiⁿ (pwappą) - bleed from a thrust, cause to

Dhegiha: wa-mi (wam) - bleed, bloody [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-biⁿ (wa-biⁿ́) - blood, bleeding [FL-Osage]; wa-piⁿ (wa-p̨), wa-peiⁿ (wapį) - bleed, blood [CQ-Osage]; wa-biⁿ (wa-bⁿ) - blood [Kaw]

 

draw line

di-xo (diγ) - mark, scratch, draw line bdi-xo (bdγo) - I, ti-xo (ttγo) - you

cf. di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along

Dhegiha: thi-xu (thix) - to draw, to make marks on paper, to make marks such as are made on arrows [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xu (thixu) - sketch, mark [Omaha]; thi-xu (thi-x) - to scratch marks on rocks or draw lines on paper [FL-Osage]; yu-gho (yugh) - make scratch marks [Kaw]

 

draw, write

i-ka-zo (kazo) - write, draw i-da-ka-zo (idkaz) - I, i-da-ka-zo (dakaz) - you

cf. i-ka-zo i-ka-xe (kazo ikγe) - pencil, writing instrument; i-ka-zo-ye (kazye) - to have written; i-ka-zo-zo (kazzo) - book, paper, letter; i-ka-zo-zo i-ka-xe (kazzo ikγe) - pen, writing instrument; i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe kniⁿ (kazzo kγe knį) - clerk, he who sits writing; i-ka-zo-zo o-ti (kazzo kγe ott) - school, school house; i-ka-zo-zo ni (kazzo n) - ink

 

drawer

o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer

cf. zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest, cedar-wood-to put away/fill-container [MS]; o-ki-pi (okppi) - be full, as a container; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away si/in/, a part/cloth

 

dream

hoⁿ-bde (h̨bde) - dream a-hoⁿ-bde (ah̨bde) - I, da-hoⁿ-bde (dah̨bde) - you

hoⁿ-bde (h̨bde) - dream [MS]

ex: da-zhaⁿ i-te da-hoⁿ-bde (daą́ itt dahǫ́bde) - when you go to sleep, you dream [MS]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-bthe (hoⁿbthe) - dreaming, dream [Omaha]; hoⁿ-bthe (hⁿ-bthe) - to dream [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-bre (hǫ́bre) - dream, have a dream, dreaming [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ble (haⁿbl) - dream [Kaw]; zhaⁿ haⁿ-ble (zhaⁿ hⁿble) - dream [Kaw]

 

dress

wa-tʰe (watʰ) - skirt, long skirt, dress

wa-tʰe (watʰ) - dress [MS, OM]

cf. maⁿ-tʰe wa-tʰe (m̨tʰe watʰ) - slip, undergarment; wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron [OM]

ex: she-mi wa-tʰe (mi watʰ) - girl's dress [OM]

ex: wa-tʰe koⁿ-bda (watʰ kkǫbd) - I want a dress [OM]

ex: wa-tʰe shkoⁿ-ta (watʰ kǫtt) - do you want a dress? [OM]

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te koi-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: wa-te (wat) - skirt, woman's dress [Omaha]; wa-tse (wa-ts) - skirt, dress [FL-Osage]; wa-tsʰe (wacʰe) - skirt with ribbon work or other decorations [CQ-Osage]; wa-che (wach) - dress, woman's skirt [Kaw]

 

dribbling

da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (dan̨nąi) - eat without dribbling bda-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (bdnąnąi) - I, ta-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (ttnąnąi) - you

 

dried

pa-hi xe-ka (ppah xka) - skull, lit. dried head

cf. pa-hi (ppah) - head; xe-ka (xka) - dry, without sap; di-xe-ka (dixka) - dry out from breaking (limbs)

Dhegiha: xe-ga (qga) - dried, dead, as a branch or tree [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-ga (x-ga) - dead, as tall grass or tree [FL-Osage]; xe-ka (xka) - dead from drying up, e.g., a vegetable, dried [CQ-Osage]

 

xe-ka taⁿ (qek͓ taⁿ) - masculine name, father of wa-ti-zhi (watji) [JOD]

xe-ka taⁿ (Krakaton) - Dry Man, Treaty of St. Louis with the Quapaw (1818)

xe-ka taⁿ (Hackatton) - Chief, Treaty with the Quapaw (1833)

xe-ka taⁿ (Hackehton) - Treaty with the Quapaw (1824)

cf. xe-ka (xka) - dry, without sap

Dhegiha: xe-ga (qga) - dried, dead, as a branch or tree [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-ga (x-ga) - dead, as tall grass or tree [FL-Osage]; xe-ka (xka) - dead from drying up, e.g., a vegetable, dried [CQ-Osage]

 

dried up

ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold

cf. ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

dried meat

ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat

ta (tah) - meat (viande) [GI]

ta (tah) - deer, venison (chevreuil) [GI]

ta (tta) - deer, meat [MS, MR, OM]

cf. ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat [MS]; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; ta to-ka (ttatkka), ta do-ka (ttadkka) - fresh meat, wet meat; ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ), ta-niu-hoⁿ (ttanǘhǫ), ta-ni-o-hoⁿ-de (ttanihǫde), ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde) - soup, beef soup, meat cooked in water

ex: ta to-ka niⁿ-kʰe (ttatkka-nįkʰ) - the meat

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - dried meat, especially buffalo, elk, or deer meat, jerky [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (ta) - dried meat [Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - the deer, meat of any kind, deer, the flesh of this animal was used by the Osage and Omaha for food and the skin for clothing, the sinew was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - deer, doe, fawn, buck, meat [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - deer, meat of any sort [Kaw]

drill

zhoⁿ i-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

zhoⁿ i-di-xo-te zhi-ka (̨ iddixʔotte ka) - gimlet

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-xo-te  (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; o-xo-te (oxʔtte) - hole, natural opening

Dhegiha: u-thi-u-de (uthude) - bore, pierce, to break through, to bore through [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-ʰku-dse (u-th-ḳu-dse) - to drill (a hole), to bore, as a hole [FL-Osage]; o-yu-ko-je (oykoje) - break a hole through a solid, to bore a hole with a brace and bit [Kaw]

 

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