English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

D

 

deer, meat

ta (tta) - deer, ruminant

ta (tta) - deer, meat [MS, MR, OM]

ta (tah) - deer, venison (chevreuil) [GI]

tʰa (t'a˙) - deer [FS]

cf. ta-ska (ttask) - bighorn sheep; ta wa-ta-kde (tta wttakde) - sheep, lit. domestic deer; ta chʰo-ke (ttačʰke) - antelope; ta i-shta (tta it) - buckeye, deer eye [MS]

Dhegiha: ta-xti (tqti) - deer, the true or real deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xti (taxti) - deer [Omaha]; ta-xtsi (txc) - deer, the real deer [Kaw]; ta (ta) - dried meat, especially buffalo, elk, or deer meat, jerky [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (ta) - dried meat [Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - the deer, meat of any kind, deer, the flesh of this animal was used by the Osage and Omaha for food and the skin for clothing, the sinew was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - deer, doe, fawn, buck, meat [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - deer, meat of any sort [Kaw]

 

ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat

ta (tah) - meat (viande) [GI]

cf. ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat [MS]; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; ta to-ka (ttatkka), ta do-ka (ttadkka) - fresh meat, wet meat; ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ), ta-niu-hoⁿ (ttanǘhǫ), ta-ni-o-hoⁿ-de (ttanihǫde), ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanǘhǫde) - soup, beef soup, meat cooked in water

ex: ta to-ka niⁿ-kʰe (ttatkka-nįkʰ) - the meat

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - dried meat, especially buffalo, elk, or deer meat, jerky [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (ta) - dried meat [Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - the deer, meat of any kind, deer, the flesh of this animal was used by the Osage and Omaha for food and the skin for clothing, the sinew was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - deer, doe, fawn, buck, meat [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - deer, meat of any sort [Kaw]

 

deer antler

ta he (ttah) - antlers, deer

cf. ta (tta) - deer; he (he) - horn, antler; te-he (tteh) - buffalo horns; te-he ti-ke (tteh ttke) - buffalo horn spoon; wa-po-ka he taⁿ (wappka he tt̨) - great horned owl

Dhegiha: he (he) - horn [Omaha/Ponca]; he (he) - horn [FL-Osage]; he (hé) - horn, cow or buffalo [CQ-Osage]; he (he) - antlers, horn [Kaw]

 

deer bones

ta wa-hi (ttawhi) - deer's bones

cf. ta (tta) - deer; wa-hi (wah) - bone

Dhegiha: wa-hi (wah) - bone [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-hiu (wa-hi) - a bone [FL-Osage]; wa-hu (wah) - bone [CQ-Osage]; wa-hu (wah) - bone [Kaw]

 

deer fat

ta shiⁿ (ttą) - deer fat

cf. ta (tta) - deer; shiⁿ (į) - fat, as a person or animal; shiⁿ-xti (įxt) - very fat, really fat; wa-shiⁿ (wą) - bacon, pork, fat meat [MS, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ (shiⁿ) - fat, obese, plump, fleshy [Omaha/Ponca]; shiⁿ (shiⁿ) - fat, husky [Omaha]; shiⁿ (shⁿ) - to be fat [FL-Osage]; shiⁿ (̜) - be fat [CQ-Osage]; shiⁿ (shiⁿ), shi (shi) - be fat [Kaw]

 

deer hair

ta hiⁿ (ttah̨) - deer's hair

cf. ta (tta) - deer; hiⁿ (hį) - hair of the body, down of bird; da-ka-hiⁿ (dakhį) - whiskers, sideburns; di-ba-hiⁿ (dibhį) - beard; ta-te-hiⁿ (ttatthį) - hair on the sides of the head, hair on the temples

Dhegiha: hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair on body, fur [Omaha]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair or fur, hair of the human body, also the hair of an animal [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ (h̨į) - hair, whiskers, fur, fuzz as on a peach [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - fur, body hair, feathers [Kaw]

 

deer head, deer skull

ta pa-hi (tta pphi) - deer's head or skull

cf. ta (tta) - deer; pa-hi (ppah) - head

Dhegiha: ta-pa (tap) - Deer Head, the name of an Omaha gens [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-pa (ṭa-p) - Deer Head, the Osage name for the Pleiades [FL-Osage]; ta-pa (tp) - the Pleiades (the Seven Sisters), lit., the deers head [Kaw]

 

deer liver

ta pi (ttapp) - deer's liver

cf. ta (tta) - deer; pi (ppi), piu (pp) - liver; ho pi (hopp) - fish liver; pi zi (ppiz) - gall

Dhegiha: pi (pi) - liver [Omaha]; te pi (tepi) - animals liver [Omaha/Ponca]; pi (p̣i), ʰtse-ʰpi (ṭse-p̣) - liver [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-ʰpu (ʰceʰp) - liver [CQ-Osage]; tse-pu (cep) - liver [Kaw]

 

deer shoes, moccasins

ta hoⁿ-be (tta hǫb) - moccasin, deer shoes

ta hoⁿ-be (tta hǫb) - moccasin [MS, AB, OM]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; hoⁿ-be (hǫb), hoⁿ-pe (hǫp) - shoe, moccasins; hoⁿ-pe xti (hǫb xti) - moccasins; hoⁿ-pe ste-te (hǫb sttte) - boots

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-be (hiⁿ-b) - moccasins [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-be (hoⁿ-b) - moccasins [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-pe (hǫǫp) - moccasins, shoes [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-be (haⁿb), hoⁿ-be (hoⁿb) - shoes, moccasins [Kaw]

 

ta ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - shirt, coat, mans tunic, made of buckskin

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; o-ki-kdi-xda (okkkdixda), o-ki-kda-xda (okkkdaxda) - shirt; o-ki-kdi-o-xda (okkkdixda), o-ki-kdi-o-kda (okkkdikda) - shirt [MS]

Dhegiha: o-ʰku-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ) - clothes, literally, that which one puts oneself into [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰku-laⁿ (ʰkulą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰ-ki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in a shirt or dress, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-lo-xla (kiloxla), o-ki-laⁿ-xla (kilaⁿxla) - clothes, coat, shirt, tunic [Kaw]

 

deer sinew, thread

ta kaⁿ (ttakk̨) - deer's sinew, thread

cf. ta (tta) - deer; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - sinew, string, line, root of a plant; hoⁿ-be koⁿ (hǫbkkǫ) - shoelaces, moccasin strings; maⁿ-te kaⁿ (m̨ttekk̨) - bow string; wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line

Dhegiha: ta-koⁿ (takⁿ) - sinew, sinew taken from the backs of deer and buffalo and used for thread, bows, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-ʰkoⁿ (ṭa-ḳⁿ) - sinew, the sinew made from deerskin was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ta-kaⁿ (tkⁿ) - deer sinew used for sewing [Kaw]

 

deer stomach

ta ni-xa (ttanγa) - deer's stomach

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ni-xa (nγa) - belly; ni-xa-ha (niγha) - belly, stomach

Dhegiha: ni-xa (nxa) - stomach, umbilical region, belly, abdomen [Omaha]; ni-gha (ngha) - stomach of an animal [Kaw]

 

deer tail

ta siⁿ-te (ttas̨tte) - deer's tail

cf. ta (tta) - deer; siⁿ-te (s̨tt), (sįtt) - tail; ta-siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte kną) - roach (headress) [MS]; ta-siⁿ-te wa-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte wkną) - roach made of a deer's tail; ta siⁿ-te sha (tta sįtt ) - black tailed deer; ta siⁿ-te ska (tta sįtt ska) - white tailed deer

Dhegiha: siⁿ-de (sⁿde) - tail, tail of an animal [Omaha/Ponca]; siⁿ-dse (iⁿ-dse) - tail [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-tse (s̨įce) - tail, animal's tail, part of the Osage costume, tail dancer at Osage War Dances, last part of a dance song [CQ-Osage]; siⁿ-je (sⁿje) - tail [Kaw]

 

deer tail headdress, roach

ta siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte kną) - roach (headress) [MS]

ta siⁿ-te a-knaⁿ (ta sīⁿte ga na), (ta sīⁿ tē aga na) - head dress of deer hair and turkey beard, with bone standard and tube, from George Red Eagle and John Quapaw [MH]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; siⁿ-te (s̨tt), (sįtt) - tail; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put, put on, put a singular, sitting, inanimate or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface

Dhegiha: ʰta siⁿ-dse a-gthoⁿ (ṭa-ⁿ-dse a-gthoⁿ) - deers tail headdress. a warriors decoration [FL-Osage]; ʰta siⁿ-tse (ʰtaas̨įce) - headdress, lit., deer tail [CQ-Osage];

 

ta siⁿ-te wa-knaⁿ (ttas̨tte wkną) - roach made of a deer's tail

cf. ta (tta) - deer; siⁿ-te (s̨tt), (sįtt) - tail; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put, put on, put a singular, sitting, inanimate or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface

Dhegiha: ta siⁿ-je wa-laⁿ (tasⁿje walⁿ) - roach, deer tail headdress [Kaw]

 

deer teeth

ta hi (ttah) - deer's teeth

cf. ta (tta) - deer; hi (hi) - tooth

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tooth or teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Kaw]

 

deer windpipe

ta to-te-xi-xi-we (ttatttexixwe) - deer's windpipe

cf. ta (tta) - deer; to-te o-xi-xi-we (ttte oxxiwe), to-te o-xiu-xiu-we (ttte oxxwe) - windpipe, trachea; to-te (ttte) - throat

Dhegiha: nu-de xi-xi-be (nde xixibe) - windpipe [Omaha]; nu-de xi-xi-be (nde qiqbe) - trachea, windpipe [Omaha/Ponca]; do-je xu-xu-be (dje xuxbe) - trachea, windpipe [Kaw]

 

deer womb, does womb

ta shi-o-zhi-ha (ttaoha) - doe's womb

cf. ta (tta) - deer; shi-o-zhi-ha (oha) - uterus; o-zhi-ha (iha) - sack, bag, pocket

Dhegiha: zhiⁿ-u-zhi-ha (zhiⁿzhiha) - placenta, uterus, sack of baby [Omaha/Ponca]

 

deer, black tailed deer

ta siⁿ-te sha (tta sįtt ) - black tailed deer

cf. ta (tta) - deer; siⁿ-te (s̨tt), (sįtt) - tail; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: ta-xti siⁿ-de sa-be (tqti sⁿde sbe) - black-tailed deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xti siⁿ-de sa-be (taxti iⁿde abe) - black tail deer [Omaha]; ʰta siⁿ-dse sa-be (ṭa-iⁿ-dse a-be) - black-tailed deer [FL-Osage]

 

deer, buck deer, male deer

ta ni-ka (tta nkka) - male deer, a buck

ta ni-ka (tah-nikkah) - male deer, buck deer (daim) [GI]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ni-ka (nkka) - man, male animal

Dhegiha: ta-xti nu-ga (tqti nga) - buck, male deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xti nu-ga (taxti nuga) - buck deer [Omaha]

 

ta wa-sha-ke hi (tta waʔke hi) - buck deer [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; wa-sha-ke (waʔke), (wʔak) - large, be large; hi (hi) - very; wa-sha-ke hi (wak hi) - big [AG]; ni-wa-sha-ke hi (n waʔke h) - bay, large body of water; wa-tʰi-shka wa-sha-ke hi (watʰka waʔke hi) - big river [MS]; pe-te wa-sha-ke hi (pptte waʔke hi) - big fire [MS]; si-po-za wa-sha-ke hi (sippza waʔke hi) - big toe [MS]; ni wa-sha-ke (n waʔke) - river; ma-xpi wa-sha-ke (maxp waʔke) - large clouds

Dhegiha: ʰta ʰtoⁿ-ga (ṭa ṭⁿ-ga) - big deer, a buck deer [FL-Osage]; ʰta ʰtaⁿ-ka (ʰta ʰt̨ka) - buck, male deer, lit., large deer [CQ-Osage]; ta taⁿ-ga (ttⁿga) - elk, buck elk [Kaw]

 

deer, fawn, little deer

ta zhi-ka (ttaka) - fawn

ta zhi-ka (tta ka) - little deer [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: ta-xti zhiⁿ-ga (tqti zhⁿga) - fawn, baby deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xti zhiⁿ-ga (taxti zhiⁿga) - fawn [Omaha]; ʰta gthe-zhe zhiⁿ-ga (ṭa-gth-zhe zhiⁿ-ga) - a young spotted deer, a fawn [FL-Osage]

 

deer, female deer, doe

ta wa-xo (ttawxʔo) - doe, female deer

cf. ta (tta) - deer; wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal

Dhegiha: ta-qti miⁿ-ga (tqti mⁿga) - doe, female deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta mi-ga (ṭa-m-ga) - a female deer, a doe [FL-Osage]; ʰta miⁿ-ka (ʰta m̨įka) - doe, female deer [CQ-Osage]; ta miⁿ-ga (t mⁿga) - doe [Kaw]

 

deer, white tailed deer

ta siⁿ-te ska (tta sįtt ska) - white tailed deer

cf. ta (tta) - deer; siⁿ-te (s̨tt), (sįtt) - tail; ska (ska) - white

Dhegiha: ta-xti siⁿ-de ska (tqti sⁿde skǎ) - white-tailed deer [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta siⁿ-dse ska (ṭa-ⁿ-dse ka) - white-tailed deer [FL-Osage]; ta siⁿ-je ska (t sⁿjeska) - white tail deer [Kaw]

 

deerskin, deer hide, buckskin

ta ha (ttah) - deerskin

ta ha (tah-hah) - deer hide (peau de chevreuil) [GI]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ta ha hoⁿ-pe (ttah hǫp) - moccasins made of deerskin; ta ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - shirt, coat, mans tunic, made of buckskin; ta ha wa-ka-xe (ttah wakγe) - to tan deerskin

Dhegiha: ta-xti ha (tqtiha) - deer hide, deer skin [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta ha (ṭa-ha) - deer skin [FL-Osage]; ʰta ha (ʰtaaha) - buckskin, deerskin [CQ-Osage]; ta ha (tah) - deerskin [Kaw]

 

ta ha hoⁿ-pe (ttah hǫp) - moccasins made of deerskin

ta ha hoⁿ-pe (ta ha hūᵐ pa), (ta ha huᵐ pa), (ta ha hūⁿ pa), (ta ha hūᵐpa) - moccasins [MH]

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; hoⁿ-be (hǫb), hoⁿ-pe (hǫp) - shoes, moccasins; ta ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - shirt, coat, mans tunic, made of buckskin; ta ha wa-ka-xe (ttah wakγe) - to tan deerskin

Dhegiha: ʰta ha hoⁿ-be (ṭa-h hoⁿ-be) - deerskin moccasins [FL-Osage]

 

ta ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - shirt, coat, mans tunic, made of buckskin

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; o-ki-kdi-xda (okkkdixda), o-ki-kda-xda (okkkdaxda) - shirt; o-ki-kdi-o-xda (okkkdixda), o-ki-kdi-o-kda (okkkdikda) - shirt [MS]

Dhegiha: o-ʰku-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ) - clothes, literally, that which one puts oneself into [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰku-laⁿ (ʰkulą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰ-ki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in a shirt or dress, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-lo-xla (kiloxla), o-ki-laⁿ-xla (kilaⁿxla) - clothes, coat, shirt, tunic [Kaw]

 

ta ha wa-ka-xe (ttah wakγe) - to tan deerskin

cf. ta (tta) - deer; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; wa-ka-xe (wakγe) - tan a hide

Dhegiha: wa-ga-xe (wa-g-xe) - to make, to cause to be, a picture of, a symbol of, also used in expressing the idea of making things [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-ghe (wagghe) - to make them [Kaw]

 

defecate

zhe-ki-de (kide) - defecate, bowel movement

zhe-ki-de (ekde) - bowel movement [OM]

zhe-ki-de (gek-kideh) - defecate, bowel movement (lacher l'autre) [GI]

cf. zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement; ki-de (kkde), ki-de (kde) - cause oneself; te-zhe-ki-de (tekde) - urinate; te-zhe-ni (teni) - urine

ex: zhe-ki-de niⁿ-kʰe, shoⁿ-ke (ekde nįkʰ, ̨ke) - dog doo (he is defecating, the dog [MS]

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit, penis, male organ [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

 

zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement a-zhe (a) - I, da-zhe (da) - you, oⁿ-zha-we (ǫwe) - we

cf. zhe-ki-de (kide) - defecate, bowel movement; te-zhe-ni (teni) - urine; te-zhe-ki-de (tekde) - urinate

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit, penis, male organ [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

 

defend

o-do-ki-zhi (odkkii) - talk against, (not defend) o-do-a-ki-zhi (odakki) - I, o-do-da-ki-zhi (oddakki) - you

cf. zhi (zhi) - negative, negation, not

Dhegiha: u-thu-ki (u-th-ki) - to defend, to defend a friend or relative in a fight or altercation, to uphold in an argument  [FL-Osage]

 

Delaware Indians

            wa-paⁿ-da-kya (w-paⁿ-da-kyǎ) - Kwapa name for the Delaware Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ba-ni-ʰki (w-ba-ni-ḳi) - the Osage name for the Delaware Tribe [FL-Osage]; wa-ba-ni-ʰka ga-xa (w-ba-ni-ḳa ga-xa) - the name given Delaware Creek, Okla., by the Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-pa ni-ʰka (wpa nʰka) - Delaware tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]

 

delay

o-sti-te (stitte) - slow, be late, to delay oⁿ-sti-te (̨stitte) - I, o-di-sti-te (disttte) - you

o-sti-te (stitte) - slow [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te niⁿ-kʰe (ske gtta . sttte nikʰ) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

Dhegiha: skoⁿ wa-zniⁿ-de (shkⁿ waznⁿde) - slow, movement, to be slow and deliberate in one's movements, to work slowly or take a long time to do something [Omaha/Ponca]; we-sni-de (wenide) - slow [Omaha]; wa-sni-de (wanide) - tardy, late [Omaha]; wa-stu-dse (wa-t-dse) - slow movements, slow walking or moving [FL-Osage]; o-shtsu-tse (ocuce) - slowpoke, slow person, pokey one [CQ-Osage]

 

 

deliberately

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan i-bdi-kdaⁿ (bdikdą) - I, i-ti-kdaⁿ (ttikdą) - you

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense

ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell, slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legend, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea (Omaha); i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about, have on one's mind, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

a-ka-zhi-kde (kaikd) - work deliberately a-a-zhi-kde (aikd) - I, a-da-zhi-kde (daikd) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-zhi-kda-we (̨kakikdwe) - we

 

den, cave

wa-ma-shoⁿ-te (wamǫtte) - cave, den

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shoⁿ-de (moⁿshoⁿde) - deep hole, abyss, pit, deep beyond thinking, den, burrow [Omaha]; moⁿ-shoⁿ-dse (moⁿ-shⁿ-dse) - a hole in the ground, as a gopher, badger, or squirrel makes [FL-Osage]; ma-sho-je (mashje) - hole in the ground, pit, den, cave [Kaw]

 

denial, expresses denial

oⁿ-te (ǫtt) - expresses denial, sentence final modal particle, uninflected

 

dense

a-ki-sho-ka (kkika) - crowded, thick, dense, plentiful

cf. sho-ka (ok) - thick; di-sho-ka (diok) - roughen, to callous

ex: wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

Dhegiha: a-ki-shu-ga (aki shuga) - dense [Omaha]; a-kʰi-shu-ga (kʰishga) - thick, dense, crowded, plentiful, as leaves on the ground or houses close together [Omaha/Ponca]; a-kʰi-sho-ga (-ḳi-sho-ga) - dense, density, dense crowd, a dense forest [FL-Osage]

 

dent

di-ski-ta (disktta) - dent, tie tightly leaving mark bdi-ski-ta (bdskitta) - I, ti-ski-ta (ttskitta) - you

Dhegiha: thi-sku-da (thiskda) - mark by tying or drawing rope over, to mark across the grain by tying or drawing a rope over the surface [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ski-da (thi-k-da) - to tie something tightly, to make an indention [FL-Osage]; yu-ski-da (yuskda) - mark, make a mark with the hands, to make a groove or depression in a bag, or a mark on the leg of a person or animal by tying it very tightly [Kaw]

 

departed

ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yon

cf. ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that sg/mv/an over there; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that sg/si/an, yon

Dhegiha: ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that person or thing over there beyond the speaker and hearer, the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yon

cf. ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that sg/st/an, yon; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: go-da toⁿ (g-da toⁿ) - that person standing yonder [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that person or thing over there beyond the speaker and hearer, the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]

 

depend on someone

o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone o-a-toⁿ-we (att̨we) - I, o-da-toⁿ-we (datt̨we) - you

cf. a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from; toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

Dhegiha: a-gi-doⁿ-be (-gi-doⁿ-be) - watches over whatever is his own [FL-Osage]; a-ⁿki-ʰtoⁿ-be (-ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - discreet, to guard ones self against trouble [FL-Osage]; a-ki-toⁿ-pe (kitǫpe) - watch over, tend someone who is not a family member or not close [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰtǫpe) - watch over, look after, look at ones own things or people, watch over, look after, look at ones own [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkiʰtǫpe) - watch over oneself, watch oneself, look at oneself, look after oneself, watch over each other, watch over things for oneself, watch over ones own things [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-doⁿ-be (gidoⁿbe) - look at something, examine something, watchover [Kaw]; a-ki-toⁿ-be (kitoⁿbe) - see for oneself, look at an object closely to understand for oneself, to scrutinize [Kaw]

 

depression at base of sternum

ka-xe i-pe (kkγe ip) - depression at base of sternum

 

depth, a certain depth

she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

cf. she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height; a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

 

depth, equal or like

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze ekǫ), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth; a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

 

depth, half that depth

miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd-) - half (of that measure); miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth; a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like

 

desert

pi-za (ppza) - desert, dust [MS]

pi-za (ppza) - sand

Dhegiha: pi-za (piz) - sand [Omaha/Ponca]; pi-za ba-he (pa bahe) - desert [Omaha]; ʰpi-za (p̣i-) - sand, silt [FL-Osage]; ʰpu-za (ʰpuz) - sand [CQ-Osage]; pu-za (puz) - sand [Kaw]

 

desiderative particle

e-ska (ska) - desiderative particle, sentence initial

 

kaⁿ (kką) - desiderative particle, sentence final

 

desirable

o-xta (xta) - good, desirable oⁿ-xta (̨xta), o-aⁿ-xta (oąxta) - I, o-di-xta (dixta) - you

cf. o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love; o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect; xta-de (xtad) - love; xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love one's own (relative, kin); xta-wi-de (xtawid) - I love you;

Dhegiha: xta-the (xtthe) - like, adore [Omaha]; xta-the (qtthe) - love, like, to love a person or thing, to like, to think well of [Omaha/Ponca]; u-xta (-xta) - marvelous, pleasing, mysterious, lovable, to prize highly, to hold a thing as precious or valuable [FL-Osage]; o-xta (xta) - be precious, dear or beloved, valuable, marvelous, important, special, right, respectable [CQ-Osage]; o-xta (xta) - pleasing [Kaw]

 

desire

koⁿ-da (kǫd) - want, desire, wish koⁿ-bda (kk̨bda) - I, shkoⁿ-ta (k̨tta) - you, koⁿ-da (k̨da) - he/she, aⁿ-koⁿ-da (ąk̨da) - we dual, I and one other, aⁿ-koⁿ-da-we (ąk̨dawe) - we

cf. koⁿ-da zhi (kǫd i) - to not want, not like

ex: koⁿ-bda (kkǫbd) - I want [OM]

ex: bda-taⁿ koⁿ-bda (bdatt̨ kkǫbd) - I want a drink [MS]

ex: a-wa-naⁿ-bde koⁿ-bda (awnąbd kkǫbd) - I want to eat [MS]

ex: wa-shiⁿ koⁿ-bda (wą kkǫbd) - I want some meat (bacon, fat meat) [AG]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance) [MS]

ex: wa-ske koⁿ-bda (wske kkǫbd) - pass the bread (I want bread) [MS]

ex: ta-bde bde koⁿ-bda miⁿ-kʰe (tbde bd kkǫbd mįkʰ) - I want to go hunting [MS]

ex: wa-tʰe koⁿ-bda (watʰ kkǫbd) - I want a dress [OM]

ex: shkoⁿ-ta (kǫtt) - do you want? [OM]

ex: ni shkoⁿ-ta (ni kǫtt) - do you want water? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (hǫ kǫtt) - what do you want with it? [MS]

ex: ta-toⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (tttǫ kǫtt) - what do you want? [OM]

ex: wa-tʰe shkoⁿ-ta (watʰ kǫtt) - do you want a dress? [OM]

ex: ma-kaⁿ-sha shkoⁿ-ta (makką́a kǫtt) - do you want coffee? [AG]

ex: jhi-e ma-kaⁿ sha shkoⁿ-ta niⁿ-kʰe (jhe makką́a kǫtt nikʰ) - do you want coffee?' [AG]

ex: wa-ka-ka-xe shkoⁿ ki-de te shkoⁿ-ta (wakkaγe kǫ kde tt kǫtt) -do you want to go to the show? [OM]

ex: jhi-e ni-zhi shkoⁿ-ta (jhe ni kǫtt) - do you want the rain? [AG]

ex: i-za-ni oⁿ-ka-kdi wa-naⁿ-bde shkoⁿ-ta (zani ǫkkdi waną́bde kǫtt) - come on, all of you, if you want to eat [AG]

ex: ni-zhi koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe (ni kǫd nįkʰ) - they want rain [MS]

Dhegiha: goⁿ-tha (goⁿtha) - desire, crave, want [Omaha]; goⁿ-tha (goⁿ-tha) - to want, to desire, to prefer [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-tha (k̨a) - want, desire [CQ-Osage]; goⁿ-ya (gⁿya) - want, wish, hope, he/she/it wants it [Kaw]

despite

koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

cf. koi-shoⁿ-e (kįe) - no matter what; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), (kįtta) - thus, accordingly, in that way; koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - that way, in, therefore

 

destabilize

ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at pa-shoⁿ-da-da (ppǫdada) - I, shpa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdada) - you

cf. shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]

 

naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose a-naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (an̨ǫdada) - I, da-naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (dan̨ǫdada) - you

cf. shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]

 

destroy

ni-de hi (nid hi) - use up, take or destroy all ni-a-de hi (niade hi) - I, ni-da-de hi (nidade hi) - you

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-the) - to exterminate, to get rid of, to destroy, to destroy utterly, annihilate, to give away ones own possessions till all are gone, to spend money [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - be out of, be lacking, divest oneself of, give away [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ye (yⁿye) - exterminate, wipe out [Kaw]

 

devil

sha-taⁿ-ka (ʔatt̨ka) - evil spirit, Satan

sha taⁿ-ka (ʔa ttą́ka) - devil [MS]

cf. sha-taⁿ-ka o-ma-ni (ʔatt̨ka omni) - Devil's Promenade, OK

Dhegiha: tsa toⁿ-ga (ṭs ṭoⁿ-ga) - tsa (ṭs), a contraction of we-tsa (we-ṭs) - snake, toⁿ-ga (ṭoⁿ-ga) - big, Satan, the Osage did not know the name of Satan till the missionaries came [FL-Osage]; tsa ʰtaⁿ (cʔ htą́ą) - devil, Satan, possibly a contraction of we-ts'a (wcʔa) - snake + ʰtaⁿ (htą́ą), ʰtaⁿ-ka (htą́ka) - big, perhaps borrowed from English Satan [CQ-Osage]

 

i-sa-hoⁿ wa-ka-xe (issahon-wakkah-heh) - devil, demon, fiend (diable) [GI]

 

Devils Promenade, Oklahoma

sha-taⁿ-ka o-ma-ni (ʔatt̨ka omni) - Devil's Promenade, OK

cf. sha-taⁿ-ka (ʔatt̨ka) - evil spirit, Satan; sha taⁿ-ka (ʔa ttą́ka) - devil [MS]; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: u-moⁿ-thiⁿ (u-mⁿ-thiⁿ) - to walk or move in, in it he moves [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-thiⁿ (om̨į) - walk in, be in, among, or throughout an area or a group of peple, be active within, live [CQ-Osage]; o-maⁿ-thiⁿ (mąį) - walk amoung folks, live among others [CQ-Osage]

 

devour

kda-sniⁿ (kdasn̨) - swallow one's own (food) also devour a-kda-sniⁿ (akdsnį) - I, da-kda-sniⁿ (dakdsnį) - you

cf. da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - swallow

Dhegiha: tha-zhniⁿ-de (thazhnⁿde) - swallow, to bolt down food without chewing it, to swallow whole [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-hni (tha-hn) - to gulp or swallow, to devour [FL-Osage]; ya-hniⁿ (yahnⁿ) - swallow [Kaw]

 

dewberry

wa-xe-ka ma-ni (waxka mni) - dewberry

cf. wa-xe-ka ma-ni hi (waxka mni h) - dewberry bush

 

wa-xe-ka ma-ni hi (waxka mni h) - dewberry bush

cf. wa-xe-ka ma-ni (waxka mni) - dewberry; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

 

wa-xo-ka taⁿ-ka (waxka tt̨ka) - dew berry

cf. mi-wa-she shka (miwe k) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, when the wa-xo-ka taⁿ-ka (waxka tt̨ka), dewberries are ripe in Summer

 

Dhegiha

de-ka (dek) - Dhegiha people

Dhegiha: dhgiha (egiha) - belonging to the people of this land, those dwelling here, the aborigines or home people [JOD-Omaha]; the-ga (the-ga) - here, at this place [FL-Osage]; the-ga-ha (the-g-ha) - here, in this region, in this neiborhood, local [FL-Osage]; the-ka (eek) - these, here, there, be here [CQ-Osage]; the-ka-ha (eekha) - this way [CQ-Osage]; the-ki-ha (eekha) - those from around here, Dhegiha [CQ-Osage]; ye-ga-ha (yegha) - the name by which the Kansa called themselves when in their own country, literally, those here or those moving this way, the people of this land. If challenged, as in the dark, when on his own reservation, a Kansa will say, yeg bliⁿ a or yegha bliⁿ a - I am a Yegha [Kaw]

 

diaper

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ (įttkną) - diaper [MS]

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ (įttkną) - breech cloth, diaper

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ  (uⁿtsi ga noⁿ) - breechcloth, from John Quapaw [MH]

Dhegiha: zhe-a-ti-gthoⁿ (zhatigthoⁿ) - breechcloth, diaper [Omaha]; zhe-a-di-gthoⁿ (zhedigthoⁿ) - breechcloth [Omaha/Ponca]

 

diaphragm

pa-xaⁿ-noⁿ-ta (ppax̨nǫtt) - diaphragm, caul, omentum

Dhegiha: ʰtse pa-xe-noⁿ-ta (ṭse-p̣-xe-noⁿ-ta) - the diaphragm [FL-Osage]; tse pa-xiⁿ-naⁿ-ta (ce pxiⁿnaⁿt) - buffalo caul or diaphragm [Kaw]

 

diarrhea

ta iⁿ-te (tta ̨te) - diarrhea, to have diarrhea ta i-aⁿ-te (tt ąt) - I, ta i-di-iⁿ-te (tt dįte) - you

Dhegiha: zhe-shtoⁿ (zhshtoⁿ) - diarrhea, bowl action, to have frequent bowel actions, have diarrhea [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-xe ta (paxe ta) - diarrhea [Omaha]; iⁿ-gthe ni-gthu-ze (iⁿ-gth ni-gthu-e) - diarrhea, cholera morbus, dysentery [FL-Osage]

 

dice

koⁿ-se-koⁿ (gŭⁿ sē gŭⁿ) - peach stone dice, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]

koⁿ-si-koⁿ (gŭⁿ sǐ kŭⁿ) - dice (turtle), kia tuⁿka, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]

cf. i-koⁿ (kǫ), i-kaⁿ (ką) - gamble, bet; i-ka-zo-zo i-koⁿ (kazzo kǫ) - cards, playing cards; kaⁿ-te si i-koⁿ (kuⁿ ta sī ī kuⁿ) - peach stone dice (different type), from Lizzie Cedar [MH]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-su (kʔ̨su), koⁿ-se (kʔ̨se) - dice, Osage dice [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-su-koⁿ (kʔ̨sukʔ̨) - play dice, Osage dice game [CQ-Osage]; ko-se koⁿ (k'se kⁿ) - shoot dice [Kaw]; ko-su i-koⁿ (k'su ik'ⁿ) - play a gaime with six brass nail-heads [Kaw]; ko-su i-koⁿ (k'ⁿsu ik'ⁿ) - shoot dice, originally with six brass nails [Kaw]; ko-su (k'su) - brass nails, studs, used as dice [Kaw]; ko-se (k'se), ko-su (k'su) - brass nails, such as are put on women's knife-sheaths, something that they made, little round things out of bone (studded with brass nails) and played games with them: ko-se (k'se), those [with] little spots - dice [Kaw]

 

kaⁿ-te si i-koⁿ (kuⁿ ta sī ī kuⁿ) - peach stone dice (different type), from Lizzie Cedar [MH]

cf. kaⁿ-te si (kkątt si) - peach stone; i-koⁿ (kǫ), i-kaⁿ (ką) - gamble, bet; i-ka-zo-zo i-koⁿ (kazzo kǫ) - cards, playing cards; koⁿ-si-koⁿ (gŭⁿ sǐ kŭⁿ) - dice (turtle), kia tuⁿka, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]; koⁿ-se-koⁿ (gŭⁿ sē gŭⁿ) - peach stone dice, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ (wakoⁿ) - gamble, bet [Omaha]; i-ʰkoⁿ(-ḳoⁿ) - to gamble, to contend in gambling [FL-Osage]; koⁿ (kʔ̨) - play, gamble [CQ-Osage]; i-koⁿ (k'oⁿ), (ik'ⁿ) - gamble, to contend in a race or other competition [Kaw]

 

dice, cut

pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces pa-a-shpa-shpa (pappa) - I, pa-da-shpa-shpa (pdappa) - you

cf. di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; o-shpe (op) - fragment

Dhegiha: shpa-shpa (shpashpa) - fragment [Omaha]; u-shpa-shpa (ushpshpa) - piece, remnant [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpa-shpa (b-shpa-shpa) - to cut an apple or potato into many pieces with a knife [FL-Osage]; ga-shpa-shpa (gashpshpa) - chip off many pieces [Kaw]

 

didnt

zhi (-zhi) - not, negation, negative wa-zhi (wa) - we not

ex: wi-na-x'oⁿ zhi (winaxʔ̨ i) - I didn't hear you [MS]

ex: bda-taⁿ zhi (bdatt̨ i) - I don't/didn't drink

ex: da-taⁿ zhi (datt̨ i) - she/he doesn't/didn't drink

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ shoⁿ-ke o-di-ho zhi (hǫn̨ttą ̨ke diho i) - why didn't dog, didn't bark at you? [MS]

ex: koⁿ-da zhi e (kǫd i e) - she didn't like it (she didnt want it) [MS]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (zhi) - not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negative, negator [CQ-Osage]; zhi (zhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

die

te (tʔe) - die aⁿ-te (ątʔ) - I, di-te (ditʔ) - you, wa-ta-we (watʔwe) - we

te (teh) - die, pass away (mourir) [GI]

cf. te-de (tʔede) - kill; te-hi (tʔe hi) - death [OM]; te-xti (tʔxti) - dead, stone cold also te-xti hi (tʔexti hi) with a second intensifier; te-ki-de (tʔkkide) - kill someone's (relation, etc); da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: te ki-da-kniⁿ pa naⁿ (tʔe kidknį pa ną) - they liked to die

Dhegiha: te (te) - to die, to be dead [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse (ṭse) - to die, decease, demise, defunct, to swoon, to faint [FL-Osage]; tse (cʔ) - die, death, the dead, dead person [CQ-Osage]; tse (tse) - dead, to die, be dead [Kaw]

 

die, certain to die

te ki-ha (tʔ kih) - certain to die, be terminal aⁿ-te aⁿ-ki-ha (ątʔ ąkha) - I, di-te di-ki-ha (ditʔ dikha) - you

cf. te (tʔe) - die; ki-ha (kih) - finish, quit

Dhegiha: te (te) - to die, to be dead [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse (ṭse) - to die, decease, demise, defunct, to swoon, to faint [FL-Osage]; tse (cʔ) - die, death, the dead, dead person [CQ-Osage]; tse (tse) - dead, to die, be dead [Kaw]

 

die, crack and die from being cut

ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut as corn

cf. ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

die, dry up and die

ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

cf. ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching

 

die, said of one's kin

ki-te (kitʔ) - die, said of one's kin aⁿ-te (ątʔ) - I, di-te (ditʔ) - you

cf. ki (k) - ones own; te (tʔe) - die

ex: shoⁿ-ke ki-te (̨ke kitʔ) - his/her dog died

ex: ni-ka ki-te (nkka kitʔe) - widow, to lose one's husband

ex: wa-xo ki-te (waxʔ kitʔ) - widower

ex: wa-xo ki-te niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ kitʔ nįkʰ) - the widower

Dhegiha: gi-tse (g-tse) - to lose a relative by death [FL-Osage]; gi-tse (gits) - one's own (kinsman or animal) to die on one [Kaw]

 

different

e-zhi (i) - another, different

cf. e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different; di-e-zhi (die) - change, alter, abrogate

Dhegiha: a-zhi (azhi) - strange [Omaha]; e-zhi (-zhi) - not that kind [FL-Osage]; e-zhi (ezhi) - odd, unusual, of a different kind, inappropriate, unsuitable, different, other, otherwise, strange [CQ-Osage]; e-zhi (zhi) - other, different, another [Kaw]

 

e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

cf. e-zhi (i) - another, different; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals; di-e-zhi (die) - change, alter, abrogate

Dhegiha: a-zhi (azhi) - strange [Omaha]; e-zhi (-zhi) - not that kind [FL-Osage]; e-zhi (ezhi) - odd, unusual, of a different kind, inappropriate, unsuitable, different, other, otherwise, strange [CQ-Osage]; e-zhi (zhi) - other, different, another [Kaw]

 

difficult

wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

cf. o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

Dhegiha: wa-te-xi (watxi) - difficult action with a purpose, male name [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse-xi (wa-ṭs-xi) - difficult to destroy, to be tenacious of life, stingy, ungenerous, not liberal, penurious [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtse-xi (waʰcxi) - be difficult, hard, challenging, not easy to do [CQ-Osage]

wa-tse-xi (wacxi) - be hard, difficult to endure, something difficult, be difficult [Kaw]

 

o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

cf. wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price; ; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

Dhegiha: u-ʰtse-xi (-ṭse-xi) - acts difficult to perform, such as warlike acts required to be performed in order to win honors and rank [FL-Osage]; te-xi (txi) - difficult, hard do [Omaha]; ʰtse-xi (ʰcxi) - sacred, precious, difficult [CQ-Osage]

 

mi te-xi (mi tqi) - female name, daughter of Mrs. S & mother of Victor Griffen [JOD]

cf. mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-te-xi (wiⁿtexi) - Sacred Female, female name [Omaha]; mi-te-xi (mitexi) - Sacred Moon, female name [Omaha]; mi-ʰtse-xi (m-ṭse-xi) - Sacred Sun, female personal name [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-ʰtse-xi (mįįʰcxi) - precious female, difficult female, stout daughter [CQ-Osage]; mi-tse-xi (mcexi) - Female Precious, Difficult to Obtain, female name [Kaw]; miⁿ-tse-xi (miⁿ cxi) - Difficult Moon, female name [Kaw]

 

mi te-xi zhi-ka (mi tqi jik͓) - female name, Jennie Thompson's sister, drowned in Hominy Creek [JOD]

cf. mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-te-xi (wiⁿtexi) - Sacred Female, female name [Omaha]; mi-te-xi (mitexi) - Sacred Moon, female name [Omaha]; mi-ʰtse-xi (m-ṭse-xi) - Sacred Sun, female personal name [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-ʰtse-xi (mįįʰcxi) - precious female, difficult female, stout daughter [CQ-Osage]; mi-tse-xi (mcexi) - Female Precious, Difficult to Obtain, female name [Kaw]; miⁿ-tse-xi (miⁿ cxi) - Difficult Moon, female name [Kaw]

 

haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hą́ka mi ttxi) - Difficult Female Haⁿ-ka, female personal name [FR]

haⁿ-ka mi-te-xi (ha′k͓a mi tqi) - female name, daughter of k͓ahk͓e [JOD]

haⁿ-ka mi-te-xi (haⁿ-ka mi-te-xi) - Angel Queen, Maude Angel-Thompson-Supernaws name; Fannie Goodeagle Richards mother's name

cf. haⁿ-ka (háʞa) - ancestral gens, first gens; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: haⁿ-ga mi tse-xi (hⁿga mi cxi) - female name [Kaw]; . hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́ga) - leader or first, implies the idea of ancient, or first, people; those who led, moiety or tribal half representing the earth and its water [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; huⁿ-ga (huⁿ́ga) - ancient one, the one who goes before, leader, peace as symbolized by a little child [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; haⁿ-ka (hák͓a) - the name of the gentes on the right side of the Osage tribal circle [JOD-Osage]; hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́-ga) - The-sacred-one, Personal name [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-ga (hⁿ-ga) - the name of the two great tribal divisions of the Osage Tribe, the division representing the earth with its water and dry land.  The word signifies sacred or holy, an object that is venerated.  It is also the name of a subdivision representing the dry land of the earth.  The dark-plummed eagle is spoken of by this term, because of its synbolic use; a child chosen as an emblem of innocence in a peace ceremony is called Hoⁿ-ga.  The origin of the word, being obscure, can not be analyzed [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - sacred, holy, bald eagle, dark-plummed eagle, earth division of the Osage tribe, innocence emblem in peace ceremony, a child [CQ-Osage]

 

shoⁿ-ke mi-te-xi (că′k͓e m tqi) - female name [JOD]

cf. shoⁿ-ke (̨ke) - dog; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

 

hoⁿ-pa mi-te-xi (hŭⁿ′p͓a mi tqi) - female name, daughter of ha′k͓a nⁿ [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ba (hą́ba), haⁿ-pa (hą́pa), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ba (hąb), hoⁿ-ba (hǫb) - light, the morning light; hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba (ⁿba) - day [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-ba (hⁿ-ba) - day [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-pa (hą́ąpa) - day, today [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ba (hⁿba) - day [Kaw]

 

te mi-te-xi (te m-t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Female Difficult (to be won or captured) [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

Dhegiha: te mi-te-xi (tmitexi) - female name, Sacred Buffalo Cow [Omaha]; ʰtse mi-ʰtse-xi (ṭse mi-ṭse-xi) - female name, Sacred Buffalo Woman [FL-Osage]

 

wa-zhiⁿ mi te-xi (wa-jiⁿ′ mi t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Bird Female Difficult (to be won or captured?). Wife of wa-zhiⁿ ska (wajiⁿ ska) of the same gens. [JOD]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird, wa-zhiⁿ (wą), (waį) - bird (abbreviated); mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wazhiⁿga) - chicken, fowl, any bird, older term, wa-zhiⁿ (wazhiⁿ) - bird (abbreviated)  [Omaha]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wa-zhⁿ-ga) - any bird or fowl, wa-zhiⁿ (wa-zhⁿ) - bird (abbreviated) [FL-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wa̜ka) - bird, wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - bird (abbreviated)  [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga (wazhⁿga) - bird, small birds, wa-zhiⁿ (wazhⁿ) - bird (abbreviated) [Kaw]

 

kde-taⁿ mi te-xi (ktqetăⁿ′ mi teqi) - female name [JOD]

cf. kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk, smallest species; kde-taⁿ (kdet̨) - hawk [MS]; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: gthe-doⁿ wiⁿ-te-xi (gthedⁿ wiⁿtexi) - Sacred Female Hawk, female name [Omaha]; le-daⁿ mi (ledⁿ mi) - Hawk Female, female name [Kaw]

 

zha-we mi-te-xi (jwe m teq) - female name, maⁿ-da kdi-he (maⁿda ktihĕ′) wife of ka-hi-ke st-te (k͓ahik͓e stĕ′tĕ) [JOD]

cf. zha-we (we) - beaver; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

Dhegiha: zha-be (zhbe) - beaver [Omaha/Ponca]; zha-be (zh-be) - beaver [FL-Osage]; zha-pe (pe) - beaver [CQ-Osage]; zha-be (zhbe) - beaver [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-shaⁿ mi te-xi (maⁿ′caⁿ mitqi) - female name [JOD]

cf. ma-shaⁿ (mą), ma-shoⁿ (mǫ) - feather, wing or quill feather; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: ma-shoⁿ (mshoⁿ) - quill feather [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shoⁿ (moⁿshoⁿ) - feather, hackle feather [Omaha]; moⁿ-shoⁿ (mⁿ-shoⁿ) - feather, plume, plumage [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shaⁿ (mą́ą), maⁿ-shoⁿ (mą́ǫ), moⁿ-shoⁿ (m̨ǫ) - feathers of certain kinds of birds, such as eagle, hawk, and macaw, fan made of feathers as used in peyote meeting [CQ-Osage]; mo-shoⁿ (mshoⁿ), mo-sho (msho) - feather, quill feather [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-shka mi te-xi (man′cka mi tqi) - female name, Crawfish Female Difficult (to be won or captured?) [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-shka (m̨ka), moⁿ-shka (m̨ka) - crawfish; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; te-xi (ttexi) - difficult, hard to do, sacred, precious

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shka (moⁿshka) - shrimp, crab, lobster, crayfish [Omaha]; moⁿ-shkoⁿ (mⁿ-shkoⁿ) - crawfish [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shka (mⁿshka) - crawfish, crawdad [Kaw]

 

e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - The Only Precious, Difficult One, female personal name [OM]

cf. e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; e-naⁿ (en̨) - enough; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį), (m̨) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price

Dhegiha: e-naⁿ (enaⁿ′) - that only [JOD-Omaha]; e-no xji (enoⁿxji) - only, single [Omaha]; e-noⁿ (e-nⁿ) - only one, sole, exclusive [FL-Osage]; e-noⁿ xtsi (e-nⁿ-xtsi) - he, she, or it alone [FL-Osage]; e-na (een), e-naⁿ (een̨) - be the only one, that only, therefore, that's why, enough [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [KaW]

 

difficult, hard, to be firm

si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm

cf. ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm; i-ye si-ze ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate; sa-ki (sak) - hard, firm

 

 

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