English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

G

 

grape

ha-zi (hzi) - grape

ha-zi (hzi) - grapes [MS, MR, FR, OM]

ex: ha-zi taⁿ-ka (hzi ttą́ka) - big grape [MS]

ex: ha-zi ma-zhoⁿ a-shi (hzi mą i) - grapes, out in the country [MS]

Dhegiha: ha-zi (hi) - grape [Omaha]; ha-zi (hi) - grapes [FL-Osage]; ha-zu (hazu) - grape [CQ-Osage]; ha-zu (hzu) - grapes, esp. fox grapes [Kaw]

 

grape dumplings

ha-zi te-ni (hzittni), ha-zi ta-ni (hzi ttan) - grape dumplings, grape soup [OM]

cf. ha-zi (hzi) - grapes; ta-ni (ttani) - soup; ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (ttanihǫ), ta-ni-o-hoⁿ-de (ttanihǫde), ta-niu-hoⁿ-de (ttanhǫde) - soup, beef soup; ta-ni-o-hoⁿ (t-ni-o-ho) - soup [LH]

Dhegiha: ha-zi (hi) - grape [Omaha]; ha-zi (hi) - grapes [FL-Osage]; ha-zu (hazu) - grape [CQ-Osage]; ha-zu (hzu) - grapes, esp. fox grapes [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta-ni (tan) - soup [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-ni (ṭa-n) - soup, broth [FL-Osage]; ʰta-ni (ʰtaani) - soup, broth, consomm [CQ-Osage]; ta-niⁿ (ta nⁿ) - soup [Kaw]

 

grape juice, wine

ha-zi ni (hazni) - wine, grape juice

ha-zi ni (hah-zinnih) - wine (vin) [GI]

cf. ha-zi (hzi) - grape; ni (ni) - water, liquid

Dhegiha: ha-zi ni (haini) - wine [Omaha]; ha-zi ni (h-i-ni) - juice of grapes, wine [FL-Osage]; ha-zu ni (hazunii) - grape juice [CQ-Osage]

 

grape vine

ha-zi kaⁿ-hiⁿ (hzi k̨hį) - grape vine

cf. ha-zi (hzi) - grape; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

 

grasp

o-naⁿ (on̨) - take hold of, seize, grasp o-bnaⁿ (obn̨) - I, o-taⁿ (ott̨) - you, oⁿ-ko-naⁿ-we (ǫknąwe) - we

ex: o-naⁿ (on̨) - he took hold of him [JOD]

ex: o-wa-naⁿ (waną) - he grasped them [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp͓ nikʰ waną iy) - the rabbit took hold of the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thoⁿ (thoⁿ) - arrest, grab, to take hold of or arrest them [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthⁿ) - grasp, seize, hold, grab, to grasp or seize an animal or inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thoⁿ (uthoⁿ) - catch, caught, clench, clasp, grasp, hold, handle [Omaha]; u-thoⁿ (u-thoⁿ) - to seize, to hold, to grasp [FL-Osage]

 

grasp or hold by the edge

di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge bdi-zi-pa (bdzippa) - I, ti-zi-pa (ttzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of one's own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

grasp or hold edge of ones own

kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold or grasp edge of ones own a-kdi-zi-pa (akdzippa) - I, da-kdi-zi-pa (dakdzippa) - you

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something; ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

 

grasp something for holding, hold

i-di-za-za (dizza) - hold, grasp something for holding i-bdi-za-za (bdizza) - I, i-ti-za-za (ttizza) - you

cf. i-kdi-za-za (kdizza) - stick to one here and there; i-di-ze (dize) - pull up, uproot; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive

 

grass

ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass

ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass [MS, AB, OM]

cf. ma-hiⁿ ni (mąh ni) - tea [AB, OM]; ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; ma-hiⁿ to (mah̨ tto) - green, lit. grass-blue; ma-hiⁿ-xta (mah̨xta) - flower; ma-hiⁿ-xta zhi-te (mah̨xta tte) - red, light red color

ex: ma-hiⁿ kʰe (mah̨ kʰe) - the grass

ex: ma-hiⁿ to-hi (mah̨ tthi) - green grass [MS]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ tu (moⁿ-hⁿ tu) - grass [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ (moⁿ-hⁿ) - grass [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (mąąh̨) - grass, hay [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (maⁿhⁿ) - grass, weeds [Kaw]

 

grass cutter, mower

we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter

cf. we (we) - with which to; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibγe) - to break by pulling; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: ga-ba-xe (ga-b-xe) - to break a string by striking with a stick [FL-Osage]

grass, dead grass in a pile, hay

pe-ska (ppska) - hay, dead grass in a pile

pe-ska (ppska) - hay [MS]

Dhegiha: pe-ska (p͓ska) - dead grass in a pile [JOD-Omaha]; (p̣-ka zhu-dse) - blue joint grass (Andropogon furcatus muhl, red) [FL-Osage]

 

grasshopper

hi-di-ho taⁿ-ka (hdiho tt̨ka) - grasshopper, largest of 3 types

 

mi-haⁿ-bde (mhąbde) - blackish grasshopper, smaller than hdiho, larger than ttittzi

 

ti-ta-zi (ttittzi) - grasshopper, smallest species

 

grating sound

da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound

cf. da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet a-naⁿ-ka-xe (an̨kʔaxe) - I, da-naⁿ-ka-xe (dan̨kʔaxe) - you

cf. ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing po-a-ka-xe (pakʔxe) - I, po-da-ka-xe (pdakʔxe) - you

cf. ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

grating, make grating sound by gnawing on

a-da-xi (daxʔi) - make grating sound by gnawing on, as a rat gnawing on wood or metal

cf. a-pa-xi (paxʔi) - cut meat from the bone; ka-xi (kaxʔ) - scrape, as hair from a hide

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta wa-hi a-da-xi (̨ke ttawhi daxʔ) - the dog gnawed the deer bone

 

grave

wa-xe (waxʔ) - grave

wa-xe (wax) - grave [MS]

cf. xe (xe) - bury; o-xe (xe) - cache; wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cellar, cache

ex: di-ko-te wa-xe (dikʔ tte wax) - digging a grave [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-xe (waq) - bury, to bury them [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xe (wa-x) - grave, the grave, to bury the dead, a funeral, a tomb [FL-Osage]; wa-xe (wax) - bury, to bury someone [Kaw]

 

mi-xe (mxe) - grave

cf. xe (xe) - bury; o-xe (xe) - cache; wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cellar, cache

Dhegiha: mi-xe (mqe), miⁿ-xe (mⁿqe) - grave [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-xe (mixe) - graveyard, tomb [Omaha]

 

gravy

we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy

we-ka-kdo-kdo (wkakdkdo) - gravy [LQ, AG, OM]

cf. kdo-kdo (kdkdo) - slimy, muddy, ropy, viscous; di-kdo-kdo (dikdkd) - mash, make mushy; o-ka-kdo (okkdo) - mired, become, stuck in mud; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - molasses, syrup, ropy sugar; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de kdo-kdo (wąke skde kdkdo) - syrup [OM]; a-be-di-kno-kno (ahpeh-dihknokenoh) - cabbage (choux) [GI]; a-be-jhi-ʰnoⁿ-ʰnoⁿ (abeǰʰnǫʰnǫ) - cabbage [AG, OM]

 

gray

xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

xo-te (xtte) - gray [FS]

cf. xo-te zhi-hi (xott ih) - roan; maⁿ-kdi-xtaⁿ xo-te (mąkdxtą xtte) - starling; to-ho xo-te (ttoh xott) - pale green; ni-xo-te (nixtte) - ashes; siⁿ-te shta xo-te (sįtt ta xtte) - opossum

Dhegiha: xu-de (qde) - gray, brown [Omaha/Ponca]; xu-de (xde) - gray [Omaha]; xo-de (x-de) - drab, a grayish color [FL-Osage]; xo-dse (x-dse) - gray, a gray line [FL-Osage]; xo-tse (xce) - gray, dull, color or finish, faded, grayish like ashes, smoky [CQ-Osage]; xo-je (xje) - grey, light blue [Kaw]

 

gray fox

to-ka xo-te (ttkka xtte) - grey fox

to-ka xo-te (ttkka xtte) - fox (gray fox) [MS]

cf. to-ka ha (tukkah-hah) - fox hide (peau de renard) [GI]; xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

Dhegiha: ti-kʰa xu-de (tkʰaqde) - fox, the common fox, which is gray and about a foot long [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-koⁿ xu-de (tikoⁿ xude) - red fox [Omaha]

 

gray squirrel

siⁿ-ka xo-te (s̨ka xtte) - gray squirrel

cf. siⁿ-ka sa (s̨ka s) - black squirrel; siⁿ-ka zi (s̨ka z) - fox squirrel

Dhegiha: siⁿ-ga xo-dse (ⁿ-ga xo-dse) - gray squirrel [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-ga (sⁿga) - squirrel, the reddish-gray or fox squirrel common in Nebraska and the Dakotas [Omaha/Ponca]; siⁿ-ga (iⁿga) - tree squirrel [Omaha]; siⁿ-ga (ⁿ-ga) - squirrel [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-ka (s̨ka) - squirrel [CQ-Osage]; siⁿ-ga (sⁿga) - fox squirrel, red squirrel [Kaw]

 

gray tree

zhaⁿ xo-te (ą xtte) - gray tree [MS]

zhaⁿ xo-te  (ǫ xtte) - post oak, Q. stellate

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-xu-dse (zhⁿ-xu-dse) - gray oak, Quercus borealis [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ-xo-dse hi (zhⁿ-xo-dse hi) - the gray tree, the post oak, this tree is sometimes known as the iron oak, but should not be confused with ironwood [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ xo-je hu (zhⁿ xoje h) - white oak tree, oak, white grey wood tree [Kaw]

 

gray, become gray from use or wear

i-ka-xo-te (kaxtte) - become gray from use or wear

cf. i () by means of, with which to; ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water; xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

 

gray, small duck with grey feathers

miⁿ-xa ti xo-te (m̨γa tti xtte) - small duck with grey feathers

cf. miⁿ-xa (m̨γa) - duck; xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

Dhegiha: mi-xa zhiⁿ-ga xo-dse (m-xa zhiⁿ-ga xo-dse) - teal duck [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-gha zhiⁿ-ga xo-je (mⁿgha zhⁿga xje) - wood duck [Kaw]

 

grayish-blue crane

pe-tʰaⁿ (pptʰą) - greyish-blue crane

cf. pe-tʰaⁿ zhi-ka (p-taⁿ j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa pe-tʰaⁿ (petaⁿ) or Crane gens; Young Crane. This name is borne by Amos New-House [JOD]; pe-tʰaⁿ e-ni-ka-shi-ka (ptaⁿ nikack͓a) - the Crane gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

Dhegiha: pe-toⁿ (ptoⁿ) - crane bird [Omaha]; pe-ʰtoⁿ (p̣e-ṭoⁿ) - crane, long-legged and long-necked bird [FL-Osage]; be-khaⁿ (bkhaⁿ) - crane [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpe-ʰtoⁿ xo-dse (p̣-ṭoⁿ xo-dse) - the gray crane [FL-Osage]; pe-kʰaⁿ xo-je (pkʰaⁿ xje) - gray crane [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpe-ʰtoⁿ ska (p̣-ṭoⁿ ka) - the white crane [FL-Osage]; pe-kʰaⁿ ska (p̣kʰaⁿ ska), be-kʰaⁿ ska (bkʰaⁿ ska) - whooping crane [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpe-ʰtoⁿ hiu stse-dse (p̣-ṭoⁿ hiu-stse-dse) - long legged crane, sandhill crane [FL-Osage]; pe-kʰaⁿ ta-hu yu-shiⁿ-zhe (pkʰaⁿ thu yushⁿzhe) - crooked necked crane [Kaw]

 

grayish, whitish, white in the distance

saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - whitish, grayish [JOD]

saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - white in the distance

cf. saⁿ (są) - white in the distance; siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ (sįtte s̨hą) - whitish grayish tail (of a rabbit) [JOD]zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - scarlet, pink; zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - pink [OM)]; ma-xe o-ta-saⁿ-haⁿ (maγe ottasąhą) - aurora; to soⁿ-ha (tu soⁿho) - pale green [JOD]; tu sa-ho (tu s-ho) - pale green [OM]; haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight

Dhegiha: soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

graze shooting and gash

po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash po-a-ste (paste) - I, po-da-ste (pdaste) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers; o-ste (oste) - crack, cracked, split; o-ste-ke (ostke) - crack, split; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; o-di-ste (odste) - split by pulling a knife through; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; o-ka-ste (okste) - split something by striking; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade

 

graze something while shooting

po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting po-a-kʰiⁿ-te (pakʰ̨tte) - I, po-da-kʰiⁿ-te (pdakʰ̨tte) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching; ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte) - miss, slip pushing something; da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at; di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte) - strike at and miss; kiⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (kk̨kkįtt) - slippery; naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it

Dhegiha: ba-kshiⁿ-dse (ba-kshⁿ-dse) - to miss an object at which a thrust is made, to scrape a hide [FL-Osage]; wa-kshiⁿ-dse (w-kshiⁿ-dse) - to miss hitting them [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-kshiⁿ-dse (noⁿ-kshⁿ-dse) - barely missing an object in kicking at it [FL-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-dse (thi-kshⁿ-dse) - failure to get a good grasp or hold [FL-Osage]; ka-kshiⁿ-tse (kak̨ce) - miss a target, miss out on by arriving late [CQ-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-tse (ik̨ce) - miss, fail at, be incorrect at, not get right, drop, let slip, let slip away [CQ-Osage]; ba-khiⁿ-je (bakhⁿje) - miss, slip with a spear, to fail in cutting an object with a knife [Kaw]

 

grease

sta-de (stde) - grease sta-a-de (stad) - I, sta-da-de (stdad) - you, sta-oⁿ-da-we (stǫdawe) - we

cf. i-sta-de (stade) - grease with; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da i-sta-de (ą ditt̨da stad) - wagon grease

Dhegiha: zna-the (znthe) - grease, lubricate, to grease, rub grease on [Omaha/Ponca]; sna-the (n-the) - to grease, to grease a wagon or oil machinery, to heal the wound of a child by using an ointment made from buffalo grease [FL-Osage]; sta-the (ste) - apply a substance, smear on, anoint, apply as salve or medicine to a wound, lit., cause to be smooth, paint, cream, grease, ointment [CQ-Osage]; sta-ye (stye) - grease something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-zna-the (wanathe) - painter [Omaha]; we-zna-the (wnathe) - lanolin, hand cream, cream, lotion, lubricant, wagon grease [Omaha]; we-sta-the (w-ta-the), we-sda-the (w-da-the) - ointment for the hair which is made from the fat of the buffalo, grease paint, paint, house paint, varnish, oil, oil for lubricating [FL-Osage]

 

i-sta-de (stade) - grease with i-sta-a-de (staad) - I, i-sta-da-de (stadad) - you

cf. sta-de (stde) - grease; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da i-sta-de (ą ditt̨da stad) - wagon grease

Dhegiha: i-ha i-zna-the (ha znathe) - ointment, lip grease, grease or ointment for the lips [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-i-noⁿ-ge i-zna-the (zhⁿinⁿge znathe) - axle grease, tar [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-e i-zna-the (nie inathe) - salve [Omaha]; noⁿ-be i-zna-the (noⁿbe nathe) - hand cream [Omaha]; i-sda-the (-da-the) - grease for the hair [FL-Osage]; ni-e i-sda-the (ni- i-da-the) - a salve, a medicine for healing, vaseline, ointment [FL-Osage]; i-sta-ye (staye) - grease an object with something [Kaw]; pa-hu i-sta-ye (pah istye) - hair oil, made of the fat of buffalo, deer, or elk [Kaw]

 

zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da i-sta-de (ą ditt̨da stad) - wagon grease

cf. zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (ą ditt̨da) - wagon, cart; zhoⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (jon-udit-tontah) - cart (char[r]ette) [GI]; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon; i-sta-de (stade) - grease with; sta-de (stde) - grease

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-i-noⁿ-ge i-zna-the (zhⁿinⁿge znathe) - axle grease, tar [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ha i-zna-the (ha znathe) - ointment, lip grease, grease or ointment for the lips [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-e i-zna-the (nie inathe) - salve [Omaha]; noⁿ-be i-zna-the (noⁿbe nathe) - hand cream [Omaha]; i-sda-the (-da-the) - grease for the hair [FL-Osage]; ni-e i-sda-the (ni- i-da-the) - a salve, a medicine for healing, vaseline, ointment [FL-Osage]; i-sta-ye (staye) - grease an object with something [Kaw]; pa-hu i-sta-ye (pah istye) - hair oil, made of the fat of buffalo, deer, or elk [Kaw]

 

grease, fat, lard, oil

            we-kdi (wkdi) - fat, grease, lard, oil

            we-kdi (wkti) - grease, fat [JOD]

            we-kdi (weghetih) - oil (huile) [GI]

we-kdi (wkdi) - lard, grease [AB]

we-kjhi (wkǰ) - lard, grease [OM]

cf. we-kdi u-do-bi-tʰaⁿ (wkdi odbitʰaⁿ) - fat wrapped around [JOD]; ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. milk grease; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]; ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil; a-ta-kaⁿ we-kdi (ttakką wkdi) - lamp oil; ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - lamp, coal oil

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

great

a-ta-pa (ttappa) - great, exceeding, often, always [JOD]

a-ta-pa (ttapp) - too

cf. a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much; a-ta-pa-xti (ttappaxt) - off and on, at regular intervals [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ta (ta) - extreme, exceedingly, excellent, chief one, beyond, over, far beyond, furthest [JOD-Omaha]; a-ta-shoⁿ (atashoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

great care, take great care of, watch out for, beware of, refrain from

a-ki-toⁿ-we (kkitt̨we) - watch out for, beware of, take great care of, refrain from a-a-ki-toⁿ-we (akkitt̨we) - I, a-da-ki-toⁿ-we (dakkitt̨we) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-toⁿ-wa-we (̨kakkittǫwawe) - we

cf. toⁿ-we (t̨we), taⁿ-we (t̨we) - look at something; a-taⁿ-we (tąwe), (ttąwe) - look upon; o-ki-toⁿ-we (kitt̨we) - depend on someone; o-toⁿ-we (ot̨we) - look at singular/animate/object; o-toⁿ-we (tǫwe) - look at plural/animate/objects; wa-ki-toⁿ-we (wakttǫwe) - scout for someone; wa-toⁿ-we (wat̨we) - scout, reconnoiter; wa-toⁿ-we de (wat̨we d) - go as a scout, reconnoitre

ex: a-ki-toⁿ-wa (kkittǫw) - take care!

ex: shi-zhi-ka a-ki-toⁿ-wa (ika kkittǫw) - take great care of the infant!

Dhegiha: a-gi-doⁿ-be (-gi-doⁿ-be) - watches over whatever is his own [FL-Osage]; a-ⁿki-ʰtoⁿ-be (-ḳi-ṭoⁿ-be) - discreet, to guard ones self against trouble [FL-Osage]; a-ki-toⁿ-pe (kitǫpe) - watch over, tend someone who is not a family member or not close [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (kiʰtǫpe) - watch over, look after, look at ones own things or people, watch over, look after, look at ones own [CQ-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰtoⁿ-pe (ʰkiʰtǫpe) - watch over oneself, watch oneself, look at oneself, look after oneself, watch over each other, watch over things for oneself, watch over ones own things [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-doⁿ-be (gidoⁿbe) - look at something, examine something, watchover [Kaw]; a-ki-toⁿ-be (kitoⁿbe) - see for oneself, look at an object closely to understand for oneself, to scrutinize [Kaw]

 

great crowd, sitting upon one another, crowding together upon one another

a-ki-kniⁿ-xti (kkikn̨xti) - in a great crowd, crowding together upon one another, sitting upon one another

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-ki-kniⁿ (akkniⁿ) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ti hi-we i-ya (kkikn̨xti tt tʰtti hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-gthiⁿ (-ḳi-gthiⁿ) - to sit upon one another [FL-Osage]; a-gi-liⁿ (giliⁿ) - sit on ones own [Kaw]

 

great deal, not a little

haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi (h̨ęi), (h̨eą) - not a little, a great deal [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ she-mi ke wa-ki-shka-te haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi wa-saⁿ-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą em ke wkiktte h̨eą was̨de tʰ̨ ną) - then-girl-the plural-played with them-a great deal-she liked (prized) them-the standing-past sign [JOD]

ex: xa-ke haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi niⁿ (γak h̨ęi n̨) - he cried out-not a little-the moving one [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ wa-xpa-ni-de haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eką n̨ wah̨nįk tʰą waxpnid h̨eą tʰą ną) - then-so-the moving-orphan-the standing-treated her miserably-a great deal-the standing-past sign [JOD]

 

great effort, with a great effort, with all ones might

a-zho-wa-xti (owxti) - with a great effort, with all ones might [JOD]

cf. a-zho-wa hi (aow hi) - as fast as possible [JOD]; ki-zho-wa (kiwa) - quick, handy

ex: a-zho-wa-xti so-te hi kde ke (owxti stte h kde k) - with great effort/with all her might, very fast/rapidly, she went homeward [JOD]

 

a-zho-wa hi (aow hi) - as fast as possible [JOD]

cf. a-zho-wa-xti (owxti) - with a great effort, with all ones might [JOD]; ki-zho-wa (kiwa) - quick, handy

ex: a-zho-wa hi pa (owa hi pp) - they were doing their best (to escape) [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰ a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xda te a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

 

great effort, with great effort, hard

wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort

cf. wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong, with an effort, all ones might; wa-shkaⁿ-hi ka-xe (wak̨hi kγe) - strengthen, make strong; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wak̨ttąka) - powerful, all-powerful; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wa-ckⁿ t-k͓a) - a nickname of te zhi-ka (tejik͓a) of the Buffalo gens; All Powerful [JOD]; wa-shkoⁿ-hi a-ki-di-taⁿ (wak̨hi kkiditt̨) - to pull hard on

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-shkoⁿ-hi (washkⁿhi) - Strength (of Thunder), name [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ toⁿ-ga (washkoⁿ toⁿga) - strong, stout, brawn, mighty [Omaha]; a-wa-shkoⁿ (awashkoⁿ) - struggle [Omaha]; a-wa-shkoⁿ xti (awashkoⁿ xti) - endurance [Omaha]; u-wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - of wa-shkoⁿ (wackaⁿ), strength [Omaha/Ponca]; we-wa-shkoⁿ (wwashkoⁿ) - of wa-shkoⁿ (wackaⁿ), that which makes people exert themselves or make efforts [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkoⁿ ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-shkⁿ ṭoⁿ-ga) - great strength [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ ʰtaⁿ-ka (waak̨ʰtąka) - strong having great strength [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do one's best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

great horned owl

wa-po-ka he taⁿ (wappka he tt̨) - great horned owl, Bubo virginianus

cf. wa-po-ka (wappka) - owl; wa-po-ka (wappoka) - hoot owl [MS]; wa-po-ka (uampŭka) - owl (hibou) [GI]; wa-pʰo-ka (wa˙p'˙Ga) - owl, gray owl [FS]; wa-po-ka-wa-na-xe (wappka wanγe) - owl, eared, Asio otus; he (he) - horn, antler

Dhegiha: wa-pʰ-ga-ha-da (wapʰgahada), wa-pʰu-ga-ha-ha-da (wapʰgahahda) - short-eared owl [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-pu-ga-ha-ha-da (wapgahahada) - barred owl [Omaha]; wa-ʰpo-ga (wa-p̣-ga) - the gray owl, the gray owl is an Osage symbol of night, it is also a life symbol, it is a bird that succeeds in bringing its young safely to maturity [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰpo-ka (waʰpka) - owl [CQ-Osage]; wa-poⁿ-ga (wapⁿga) - small owl, not the screech owl, hoot owl, the small owl whose cry is, oo! oo! oo! ooooo! [Kaw]

 

great many

a-na-hi-te-xti (anhittxti) - many, a great many

cf. a-na-hi-te (anhitte) - much; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

 

great many people

ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi (nkkaka hi hi) - a great many people

cf. ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man;  zho-hi (hi) - much, many; hi (hi) - very; zho-hi ka-xe (hi kγe) - to multiply; shi-zhi-ka zho-hi hi (ika hi hi) - family, a lot of children [MS]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi-naⁿ te-da-we i-ya, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰ nkkaka hi h tti hwi-n̨ tʔdaw iy, iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰ) - it is said (they say) that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

green

to (tto) - blue, green, grue

to (to) - blue or green [MR]

tʰo (t'o˙) - blue and green [FS]

to (tuh) - green (vert) [GI]

to (tto) - blue [FR, LQ, OM]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ to (wą tto) - paroquet; ma-hiⁿ to (mah̨ tto) - green, lit. grass-blue; ma-xpi to (maxp tto) - blue, sky blue color; naⁿ-ka to (ná-ka tu) - Blue Back, masculine of the (Kwapa) oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) gens: Blue Back [JOD]; naⁿ-ka to zhi-ka (náka tu jik͓) - masculine name, Little Green Back [JOD]; ke-da to (k-da tú) - masculine name, Blue Sky; killed father of wa-zhiⁿ da-kniⁿ (wajĭⁿ daktiⁿ) and son of miⁿ xaⁿ-sa (miⁿ qaⁿsa) [JOD]; iⁿ-to-ska to (įttosk tto) - blue beads; to-ho (ttho) - blue, green, grue; to hi (ttohi) - blue [MS]

Dhegiha: tu (tu) - blue, green [Omaha/Ponca]; tu (tu) - any blue [Omaha]; ʰto (ṭo) - green [FL-Osage]

 

green corn

wa-shtaⁿ-ka (wat̨ka) - green corn

cf. shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk) - soft; di-shtoⁿ-ka (dit̨ka) - hold a soft object; a-bi-shtaⁿ-ka (bitąka) - sit softly on, as when a horse is saddled with a blanket; pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, soft part; naⁿ-ta o-shtaⁿ-ka (nątt otąk) - ear lobe

Dhegiha: shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - soft, puffy, bunched [Omaha/Ponca]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿga) - soft [Omaha]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿ-ga) - soft [FL-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ka (t̨ka) - soft [CQ-Osage]; shtoⁿ-ga (shtoⁿg) - be soft [Kaw]

 

green grass

ma-hiⁿ to-hi (mah̨ tthi) - green grass [MS]

cf. ma-hiⁿ to (mah̨ tto) - green, lit. grass-blue; ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass; to (tto) - blue, green, grue; hi (hi) - very; to hi (ttohi) - blue [MS]; zhaⁿ to-hi (ą ttohi) - mulberry tree [MS]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ tu (moⁿhiⁿtu) - grass [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ ʰto-ho (moⁿ-hⁿ ṭo-ho) - greens, vegetables [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ ʰto-ho (mąąh̨ ʰtho) - green, literally, blue/green grass [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ ʰto-ho e-koⁿ (mąąh̨ ʰtho ekǫ) - green, literally, like blue/green grass [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ to-ho (maⁿhⁿtho) - weed, a green grass [Kaw]

 

green, blue, grue

to-ho (ttho) - blue, green, grue

tu-hu (tuh) - pale blue [OM]

tu-hu (tu-h) - pale blue [LH]

cf. to (tto) - blue, green, grue; sa to-ho (s ttho) - dark blue or green; to-ho xo-te (ttoh xott) - pale green

Dhegiha: ʰto-ho (ṭ-ho) - green or blue [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ho (ʰtho) - blue [CQ-Osage]; to-ho (tho) - blue or bluish black, green; Kaw color terminology lumps blue and green together, with light blue being considered more like gray. So, in English where we might say sky blue and pea green, in Kaw it would be, in effect, sky tho and pea tho, that is, tho in each case [Kaw]

 

green, bright green

to toⁿ-ba  (tu tomba), to toⁿ-be (tu tombe) - bright green [LH]

tu toᵐ-ba (tu tᵐba) - bright green [OM]

cf. to (tto) - blue, green, grue; taⁿ-ba (t̨ba), toⁿ-ba (t̨ba) - a light

 

green, dark blue or green

sa to-ho (s ttho) - dark blue or green

cf. sa (sa) - black; to-ho (ttho) - blue, green, grue; to-ho xo-te (ttoh xott) - pale green

Dhegiha: sa-be tu e-goⁿ (sbe tu goⁿ) - blue, black, bluish black [Omaha/Ponca]; tu e-goⁿ sa-be (t goⁿ sbe) - dark blue [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-sa-be (tsbe) - dark blue or green, sky blue [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰto-sa-be (ṭ-a-be) - black-green: blue [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ho sa-pe (ʰtho spe) - purple, lit., blue black [CQ-Osage]

 

green, lit. grass-blue

ma-hiⁿ to (mah̨ tto) - green, lit. grass-blue

cf. ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass; to (tto) - blue, green, grue; ma-hiⁿ to-hi (mah̨ tthi) - green grass [MS]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ tu (moⁿhiⁿtu) - grass [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ ʰto-ho (moⁿ-hⁿ ṭo-ho) - greens, vegetables [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ ʰto-ho (mąąh̨ ʰtho) - green, literally, blue/green grass [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ ʰto-ho e-koⁿ (mąąh̨ ʰtho ekǫ) - green, literally, like blue/green grass [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ to-ho (maⁿhⁿtho) - weed, a green grass [Kaw]

 

green, pale green

to saⁿ-haⁿ (tto s̨hą) - pale green

to soⁿ-ha (tu soⁿho) - pale green [JOD]

tu sa-ho (tu s-ho) - pale green [OM]

cf. to (tto) - blue, green, grue; saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - whitish, grayish [JOD]; saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - white in the distance; saⁿ (są) - white in the distance; zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - scarlet, pink; zhi-te saⁿ-haⁿ (tte sąh̨) - pink [OM)]; haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight; ma-xe o-ta-saⁿ-haⁿ (maγe ottasąhą) - aurora; siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨tte s̨hą) - whitish tail [JOD]

Dhegiha: soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

to-ho xo-te (ttoh xott) - pale green

cf. to-ho (ttho) - blue, green, grue; xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

Dhegiha: ʰto-ho xo-dse (ṭ-ho-xo-dse) - a bluish gray [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰto-ho (ṭ-ho) - green or blue [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ho (ʰtho) - blue [CQ-Osage]; to-ho (tho) - blue or bluish black, green [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xu-de (qde) - gray, brown [Omaha/Ponca]; xu-de (xde) - gray [Omaha]; xo-de (x-de) - drab, a grayish color [FL-Osage]; xo-dse (x-dse) - gray, a gray line [FL-Osage]; xo-tse (xce) - gray, dull, color or finish, faded, grayish like ashes, smoky [CQ-Osage]; xo-je (xje) - grey, light blue [Kaw]

 

green, raw, unripe

sa-ka (sakk) - raw, green, unripe

Dhegiha: sa-kʰa (skʰa) - raw, uncooked, green, unripe, said of plums, choke cherries, or grapes when they are hard [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-ʰka (-ḳa) - raw, uncooked [FL-Osage]; sa-kaⁿ (skaⁿ) - something raw [Kaw]

 

greeting, hello

ha-we (haw) - hello, greeting

ha-we (haw) - hello [AG, OM]

ex: naⁿ-pe o-di-zhoⁿ-zhoⁿ, ha-we (nąp dįǫ, haw) - hello, shake hands [MS]

Dhegiha: a-ho (ah) - hello (male) [Omaha]; ha-we (ha-w) - to greet, ha-ve (ha-v) - female, to greet [FL-Osage]; ha-we (haw) - hello, female speakers may say either ha-we (haw) or ha-ve (hav/havu), where v is a sound between English v and a semivoiced w, this word is the one place such a sound occurs in Osage [CQ-Osage]; ha-we (haw) - hello (female speaking) [Kaw]; ho-we (how) - yes, male speech; also, well!, as a sentence launcher or salutation, which may be used to introduce a topic, and thank you!, in modern times (21st century) it has come to be used exclusively as the masculine form for hello. [Kaw]; ho (ho) - hello, male speech [Kaw]

 

greeting, how are you

hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (hǫnįkʰ) - how are you?, greeting

hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (hǫ nįkʰ) - how are you? [OM]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - 2sg continuative aux sitting

ex: hoⁿ (hǫ) - what is the matter [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she (h̨ dtʰ̨e) - what is the matter with you? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ zhoⁿ-kʰe (hǫ ǫkʰ) - what is the matter with you who recline? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ wa-xo di-ta (hą waxʔ dtta) - what is the matter with your woman/wife [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta (h̨e nkka dtta) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ i-she naⁿ (hǫ i ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ i-she (hą i) - what did you say? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ she (h̨ ) - what did you say? [OM]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ a-doⁿ (hoⁿ -doⁿ) - why, what [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ (h̨ǫ), ha-oⁿ (haǫ) - do how, do however, do in whatever way, do what, do what with, do what about, do whatever with, do whatever [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-kʰe (niⁿkʰe) - second person singular [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ-kshe (nįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd sg. sitting object [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-khe (hniⁿkh) - continuative you, while sitting [Kaw]

 

hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - 2sg continuative aux moving

ex: hoⁿ (hǫ) - what is the matter [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she (h̨ dtʰ̨e) - what is the matter with you? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ zhoⁿ-kʰe (hǫ ǫkʰ) - what is the matter with you who recline? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ wa-xo di-ta (hą waxʔ dtta) - what is the matter with your woman/wife [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta (h̨e nkka dtta) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ i-she naⁿ (hǫ i ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: haⁿ i-she (hą i) - what did you say? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ she (h̨ ) - what did you say? [OM]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ a-doⁿ (hoⁿ -doⁿ) - why, what [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ (h̨ǫ), ha-oⁿ (haǫ) - do how, do however, do in whatever way, do what, do what with, do what about, do whatever with, do whatever [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thiⁿ-she) - 2sg aux, in motion [JOD-Omaha]; tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thⁿ-she) - you who are going [FL-Osage]; thaiⁿ-she (aį), thaⁿ-she (ąą) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 2nd sg. subject (action or state may continue from past to present, corresponding to English perfect have/had been [CQ-Osage]; ya-yi-she (yayish) - continuative, you (sg), while moving (or not visible) [Kaw]

 

ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (haǫ ni) - how are you? (how are you doing?) [AG]

jhi-e ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (ǰe hǫ n) - how are you? (how are you doing?) [AG]

cf. zhoⁿ (ǫ) - you do, be; ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - 2sg continuative aux moving; di-e (de) - you

ex: iⁿ-kdaⁿ, ha-zhoⁿ ni-kʰe, i-ke (įkd̨, hą nikʰ, ik) - first son/what you do?/you who sit/she said [JOD]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ shkoⁿ-ta (hǫ kǫtt) - what do you want with it? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ wi-ke (hą wik) - what are you (plural) doing? [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-zhoⁿ (oⁿ) - how you do [JOD-Omaha]; ha-zhoⁿ (h-zhoⁿ) - what are you doing?, what did you do? [FL-Osage]; ha-zhoⁿ (haǫ) - how are you doing it?, what did you do with it?, what did you do?, what did you do about it?, whatever you do. [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - what (F), hau (hau) - what (M) - [Omaha]; ha (haa) - indefinite, many of the question words are indefinites with initial ha (haa) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (ⁿ) - you do it [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - you do [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ (ǫ) - you do [CQ-Osage]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - you do [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thiⁿ-she) - 2sg aux, in motion [JOD-Omaha]; tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thⁿ-she) - you who are going [FL-Osage]; thaiⁿ-she (aį), thaⁿ-she (ąą) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 2nd sg. subject (action or state may continue from past to present, corresponding to English perfect have/had been [CQ-Osage]; ya-yi-she (yayish) - continuative, you (sg), while moving (or not visible) [Kaw]

 

grieved, sad

naⁿ-te shi-ke (n̨tte ke) - sad, grieved naⁿ-te aⁿ-shi-ke (n̨tte ąke) - I, naⁿ-te di-shi-ke (n̨tte dike) - you

cf. naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart; shi-ke (ke) - bad; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted

Dhegiha: noⁿ-de pi-a-zhi (noⁿde piazhi) - hard hearted [Omaha]; noⁿ-de (nⁿde) - heart [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-de (noⁿde) - heart [Omaha]; noⁿ-dse (nⁿ-dse), thⁿ-dse - the heart [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-tse (ną́ące), thaⁿ-tse (ą́ące) - heart [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-je (nⁿje) - heart [Kaw]

 

wa-xpa-ni (waxpni) - poor, pitiful aⁿ-wa-xpa-ni (ąwxpan) - Im, di-wa-xpa-ni (diwxpan) - youre

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ wa-xpa-ni-de (wah̨nįk tʰą waxpnid) - (they) treated the orpan miserably [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xpa-ni (nkkaka waxpn) - poor people [MS]

ex: wa-xpa-ni (waxpni) - pity me [OM]

ex: wa-xpa-ni mi (waxpni m) - pity for myself [OM]

ex: wa-xpa-ni ska (waxpni sk) - my pity for you, Im pitying you, pity you [OM]

Dhegiha: wa-xpa-ni (waqpni), wa-xpa-thiⁿ (waqpthiⁿ) - poor, to be poor [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xpa-thiⁿ (waxpathiⁿ) - poverty, poor [Omaha]; wa-xpa-thiⁿ (wa-xp-thiⁿ) - to suffer from exhaustion, in need, poverty-stricken, poor in spirit, in great grief, in sorrow, a mourner [FL-Osage]; wa-xpa-thiⁿ (waxpį), wa-xpaiⁿ (waxpį), wa-xpeiⁿ (waxpį) - poor, poverty stricken, pitiful, humble, long suffering as the victim of pain, poverty, or ill fortune [CQ-Osage]; wa-xpa-yiⁿ (waxpyiⁿ) - be humble, pitiful, be poor, to feel poorly, feel ill [Kaw]

 

grind or scrape or while cutting

pa-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - scrape or grind while cutting pa-a-ka-xe (pakʔxe) - I, pa-da-ka-xe (pdakʔxe) - you

cf. ba-ka-xe (bakʔxe) - make scratching sound; bi-ka-xe (bikʔxe) - scratching sound by pressing; da-ka-xe (dkʔax) - make grating sound; da-ka-ka-xe (dakʔkʔaxe) - make gnawing sound; di-ka-xe (dikʔxe) - scratch superficially; di-ka-ka-xe (dikʔkʔaxe) - scratching sounds, as a dog; ka-ka-xe (kakʔxe) - make a scraping sound; naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - make grating sound with feet; po-ka-xe (pkʔaxe) - grating sound from probing

Dhegiha: ba-ka-xe (bakxe) - to make a scraping sound by scraping with glass [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-ka-xe (thakaxe) - to make a grating noise by gnawing [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰka-xe (ḳa-xe) - scraping sound, the sound of scraping china dishes [FL-Osage]; ga-ʰka-xe (ga-ḳa-xe) - sound of grating [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰka-xe (thi-ḳ-xe) - the clicking, rattling sounds as from the sharpening of a knife, or from the rattling of plates, or from the tail of a rattlesnake [FL-Osage]; ka-ghe (kghe) - rattling, scratching or grating [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bakghe) - to make a grating sound of a file in filing, to push a stick firmly against some hard object, which it cannot penetrate, and from which it glances off [Kaw]; ba-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - make the grating sound, as in sawing through bone or metal [Kaw]; bo-ka-ghe (bkaghe) - grating sound, as in punching or shooting against bone or metal and glancing off, ricochet [Kaw]; bu-ka-ghe (bukghe) - to make a grating sound by pressure, esp. on metal [Kaw]; ga-ka-ghe (gakghe) - make a grating sound on metal; rattle, as stones in a can [Kaw]; naⁿ-ka-ghe (naⁿkghe) - to make a grating sound by walking on, or by machine, to make a grating or creaking sound by walking on thin metal, or by machinery coming in contact with it [Kaw]; ya-ka-ghe (yakghe) - make a grating noise [Kaw]

 

grind, pound corn in a mortar

wa-pʰe (wapʰ) - pound, grind corn in a mortar a-wa-pʰe (awpʰe) - I, wa-da-pʰe (wadpʰe) - you

cf. pʰe (pʰe) - pound something in a mortar

Dhegiha: pshe (pshe) - to pound corn into fine meal [FL-Osage]; pʰe (ph) - pound in a mortar, as corn or wheat [Kaw]

 

grindstone, sharpen, as on a grindstone

ka-moⁿ-kʰi-de (kam̨kʰide) - sharpen, as on a grindstone ka-moⁿ-a-kʰi-de (kam̨akʰide) - I, ka-moⁿ-da-kʰi-de (kam̨dakʰide) - you

Dhegiha: a-ba-moⁿ (bamoⁿ) - file, to file something [Omaha/Ponca]; i-bi-moⁿ (ibimoⁿ) - file, to file with [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ba-moⁿ (wbamoⁿ) - file, saw, hand-saw [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ba-moⁿ (webamoⁿ) - file [Omaha]; ba-moⁿ (ba-mⁿ) - to file with a rasp, to file, to remove the outer skin of corn by rubbing [FL-Osage]; we-ba-moⁿ (w-ba-moⁿ) - file, a steel file [FL-Osage]; ba-maⁿ (bamⁿ) - rub or file [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-thi-moⁿ (wthimoⁿ) - razor-strop, hone, whet-stone, something used for sharpening [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-moⁿ (thi-mⁿ) - to sharpen [FL-Osage]; i-thi-moⁿ (i-thi-moⁿ) - to grind with [FL-Osage]; thi-moⁿ (iim̨) - sharpen [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ i-yu-maⁿ (mⁿhiⁿ yumⁿ) - whetstone, knife sharpener [Kaw]

 

grip, lose grip, slip over

di-kʰiⁿ-te (dikʰ̨tte) - lose grip, slip over bdi-kʰiⁿ-te (bdkʰįtte) - I, ti-kʰiⁿ-te (ttkʰįtte) - you

cf. ba-kʰiⁿ-te (bakʰ̨tte ) - miss, slip pushing something; bi-kʰiⁿ-te (bikʰ̨tte ) - rub a slippery surface; da-kʰiⁿ-te (dakʰ̨tte) - bite at and miss, snap at; ka-kʰiⁿ-te (kakʰ̨tte ) - strike at and miss; naⁿ-kʰiⁿ-te (nąkʰ̨tte) - kick at and miss, pass by; pa-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - cut at something and miss it; po-kʰiⁿ-te (pkʰįtte) - graze something while shooting

Dhegiha: thi-kshiⁿ-dse (thi-kshⁿ-dse) - failure to get a good grasp or hold, fail to grasp [FL-Osage]; thi-kshiⁿ-tse (ik̨ce) - drop, let slip, let slip away, miss, fail at, be incorrect at, not get right [CQ-Osage]; yu-khiⁿ-je (yukhⁿje) - slip in grasping or holding, drop something; miss when reaching for something, to fail to grasp an object which is too active and eludes capture [Kaw]

 

grizzly bear

maⁿ-tʰo (mątʰ), moⁿ-chʰo (mǫčʰ) - grizzly bear

cf. maⁿ-tʰo tʰaⁿ (mątʰ tʰą) - the grizzly

Dhegiha: moⁿ-chʰu (moⁿchʰ) - grizzly bear [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-chu (moⁿchu) - grizzly bear [Omaha]; miⁿ-ʰtsu (miⁿ-ṭs) - grizzly bear [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-cho (miⁿch) - grizzly bear [Kaw]

 

grizzly bear, Ancestral or First Grizzly Bear

maⁿ-tʰo haⁿ-ka (maⁿt hak͓a) - masculine name, Ancestral or First Grizzly Bear [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-tʰo (mątʰ), moⁿ-chʰo (mǫčʰ) - grizzly bear; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral, first

 

grizzly bear, Black Grizzly Bear

maⁿ-tʰo sa (maⁿt s) - masculine name, Black Grizzly Bear [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-tʰo (mątʰ), moⁿ-chʰo (mǫčʰ) - grizzly bear; sa (sa) - black, black that is near, distinct

 

grizzly bear, Young Grizzly Bear

maⁿ-tʰo zhi-ka (maⁿ-t j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa mant enikack͓a or Grizzly bear gens, Young Grizzly Bear [JOD]

maⁿ-tʰo zhi-ka (maⁿt jik͓a) - masculine name, Little Lion (Young Grizzly Bear) [JOD]

cf. maⁿ-tʰo (mątʰ), moⁿ-chʰo (mǫčʰ) - grizzly bear; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: mi-tsiu zhiⁿ-ga (mi-tsi-zhiⁿ-ga) - Little Grizzly Bear, male personal name [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-cho zhiⁿ-ga (miⁿch zhⁿga) - Young Grizzly Bear, male name [Kaw]

 

groan

i-ka-toⁿ (kattǫ) - grunt, groan, moan i-da-ka-toⁿ (idkattǫ) - I, i-da-ka-toⁿ (dakattǫ) - you

Dhegiha: i-ka-toⁿ (ikatoⁿ), i-ga-toⁿ (igatoⁿ) - grunt, moan, groan [Omaha]; i-ga-tʰoⁿ (gatʰoⁿ) - grunt, groan [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ga-ʰtoⁿ (-ga-ṭoⁿ) - to groan, to moan [FL-Osage]

 

groove in an arrow shaft

maⁿ di-kde-ze (mą dkdeze) - groove in an arrow shaft

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; di (di) - by hand, pulling; kde-ze (kdez) - striped

Dhegiha: moⁿ thu-gthe-ze (mⁿ-thu-gthe-e) - the grooves made in an arrow shaft [FL-Osage]; maⁿ yu-le-ze (mⁿ yulze) - groove in an arrow shaft, screw of any sort [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-thi-gthe-ze (uthgtheze) - screw [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-gthe-ze (uthgthee) - screw [Omaha]

Dhegiha: thi-gthe-ze (thi-gth-e) - to draw stripes [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: gthe-ze (gthze) - striped [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-ze (gtheze) - striped [Omaha]; gthe-ze (gthe-) - striped [FL-Osage]; le-ze (lze) - striped, lined, having lines [CQ-Osage]; le-ze (lez) - striped [Kaw]

 

groove, rut, make by pulling

o-di-xo-we (odxowe) - rut, groove, make by pulling o-bdi-xo-we (obdxowe) - I, o-ti-xo-we (ottxowe) - you

cf. di-xo (diγ) - mark, scratch, draw line; di-xo-we (diγwe) - drag something along; da-xo-we (daxwe) - drag with teeth, draw into mouth

Dhegiha: thi-xu (thix) - draw, mark, to make marks on paper, to make marks such as are made on arrows [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xu (thixu) - sketch, mark [Omaha]; thi-xu (thi-x) - to scratch marks on rocks or draw lines on paper [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-e (thi-x-e) - to drag something on the ground [FL-Osage]; thi-xu-we (thi-x-we) - to drag some dead animal by rope, to lead a horse to water [FL-Osage]; thi-xo-we (iiɣwe), thi-xo-e (iiɣe), thi-xo (iiɣ) - drag [CQ-Osage]; yu-gho-we (yughwe) - drag, pull behind [Kaw]

 

grope around, feel ones way

di-taⁿ-taⁿ (ditt̨ttą) - feel one's way, grope around bdi-taⁿ-taⁿ (bdttąttą) - I, ti-taⁿ-taⁿ (ttttąttą) - you

cf. di-taⁿ (ditt̨) - feel, touch something; di-taⁿ-kde (ditt̨kde) - touch to attract attention

Dhegiha: thi-tʰoⁿ-tʰoⁿ (thitʰoⁿtʰoⁿ) - to touch or grasp repeatedly, to feel ones way by touching [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-toⁿ-toⁿ (thitoⁿtoⁿ) - feel [Omaha]; yu-taⁿ-taⁿ (yutⁿtaⁿ) - feel one's way, as a blind person, or as one does in the dark [Kaw]

 

ground

taⁿ-na (ttąn) - ground

cf. taⁿ-na e-ka-xna (ttąn ekxna) - tree frog, lit. wife of the ground

Dhegiha: toⁿ-de (tⁿde) - the ground [Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-de (toⁿde) - earth, ground [Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-de (ṭⁿ-de) - ground [FL-Osage]; taⁿ-je (tⁿje) - ground [Kaw]

 

ground hog

xo-ka (xka) - ground hog, possibly badger

Dhegiha: xu-ga (qga) - badger [Omaha/Ponca]; xu-ga (xga) - badger [Omaha]; xo-ga (x-ga) - badger [FL-Osage]; xo-ka (xoka) - badger [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-ga (xⁿga) - badger [Kaw]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ xu-de (moⁿthⁿqude) - prairie dog [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-thiⁿ xu-de (moⁿthiⁿ xude) - ground hog, prairie dog [Omaha]; moⁿ-thiⁿ xo-dse (moⁿ-thⁿ-xo-dse) - a prairie dog [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ xo-je zhiⁿ-ga (maⁿyⁿxje zhⁿga), maⁿ-yiⁿ xo-je hiⁿ-ga (maⁿyⁿxje hⁿga) - prairie dog [Kaw]

 

ground squirrel

he-ta (htta) - ground squirrel

cf. he-xthiⁿ (hqthiⁿ) - chipmunk, ground squirrel [Omaha/Ponca]; he-xthiⁿ (hxthiⁿ) - ground squirrel [Omaha]; he-xthi zhiⁿ-ga (h-xthi zhiⁿ-ga) - little ground squirrel [FL-Osage]; he-xliⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (hxliⁿ zhⁿga) - ground squirrel [Kaw]

 

ground, drum on ground or floor with feet

naⁿ-ko-ke (nąkkke) - drum on ground or floor with feet a-naⁿ-ko-ke (an̨kkoke) - I, da-naⁿ-ko-ke (dan̨kkoke) - you

cf. ba-ko-ke (bakkke) - drum, thump as on a door; bi-ko-ke (bikkke) - drum on something with palm; ka-ko-ke (kakkke) - beat a drum; po-ko-ke (pkkoke) - rumbling from shooting against

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ko-ge (noⁿ-k-ge) - a thud, as of stamping the foot [FL-Osage]

 

ground, earth, soil, dirt

ma-ni-ka (mankka) - earth, soil, ground

ma-ni-ka (mankka) - ground, earth, dirt, soil [MS, OM]

ma-ni-ka (monick-kah) - soil, ground, earth (terre de la) [GI]

ma-ni-ka (man˙kka) - earth, dirt, ground [FS]

cf. ma-ni-ka de-xe (mankka dγe) - pottery, clay pottery; ma-ni-ka di-haⁿ-haⁿ (mankka dih̨hą) - earthquake; ma-ni-ka o-ka-kdo (mankka okkdo) - quicksand; ma-ni-ka shi-we (mankka we) - worm, earthworm

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ-kʰa zi (moⁿthⁿkʰa z) - yellow earth, used in painting [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-thiⁿ-ʰka (moⁿ-thⁿ-ḳa), moⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (moⁿ-iⁿ́-ḳa) - ground, earth, soil, clay, mud [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-thiⁿ-ʰka (mǫįʰka), maⁿ-iⁿ-ʰka (mą́įʰka) - soil, ground, earth, clay, mud, dirt [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ-ka (maⁿyⁿka) - earth, ground, clay, soil [Kaw]

 

ground, on the ground, down below, below

ki-ha-ti (kihtti) - down below, below, on the ground [JOD]

cf. ki-ha (kih) - down [JOD]; ti (-tti) - at, by, in; ki-ha-knaⁿ (kihkną) - helped her off (the horse) [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didn't want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze naⁿ zhoⁿ koⁿ-da-zhi i-ya-we ki-ha-ti (kįttą h̨nąppze ną ǫ kǫda iywe kihtti) - then when it was dark, she did not want to sleep at the bottom, they say [JOD]

ex: ki-ha-ti ti maⁿ-tʰe ki-we (kihtti tt m̨tʰe kwe) - down below within the lodge, they arrived there [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-ha (kih) - down, downward, down into [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-ha-di (kihdi) - down below [JOD-Omaha]; ʰki (ḳi) - down upon the ground [FL-Osage]

 

ground, paw the ground, as dog or horse

wa-ka-ko (wakkʔo) - paw the ground, as dog or horse

cf. we-ka-ko (wkakʔo) - flesher for hides; we-ba-ko (wbakʔo) - scraper or flesher for hides; di-ko (dikʔ) - dig with knife, spade or paws

Dhegiha: we-ga-u (wgau) - of ga-u (gau), a scraper used in fleshing a hide, by pulling or scraping towards the operator [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ga-ʰku (w-ga-ḳu) - skin scraper [FL-Osage]; ga-ku (ga-ḳu) - scrape [FL-Osage]; we-ga-ko (wgako) - scraper, flesher for hides [Kaw]; ga-ko (gak) - to paw away the earth or snow, as horses do; scrape off, as snow, with an instrument, as a hoe or ax [Kaw]

 

ground, plant a post in the ground

po-za (pza) - plant a post in the ground po-a-za (paza) - I, po-da-za (pdaza) - you, po-oⁿ-za-we (pǫzawe) - we

cf. zhoⁿ po-za (ǫ pza) - post, fence post

Dhegiha: mu-za (mza) - plant, as a post [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ mu-za (zhoⁿ mua) - tripod [Omaha]; bo-za (b-a) - to plant a post in the ground [FL-Osage]; bo-za (bza) - fence post, marker, monument; plant a post or stick in the ground, to plant a post or stick in the ground, either obliquely, as a tripod for a kettle, or perpendicularly, as a fence post [Kaw]

 

group

sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, sg/st/in; sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather, council of a gens

Dhegiha: thi-sto-the (thi-to-the), thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]; stu-e (tu-e) - gathering [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - to convene or to assemble, a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kiist) - assemble as for a council, gather for a council, meet and talk things over [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]; gu-sto (gust) - assemble, meet together [Kaw]

 

sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group; sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather, council of a gens

Dhegiha: thi-sto-the (thi-to-the), thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]; stu-e (tu-e) - gathering [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - to convene or to assemble, a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kiist) - assemble as for a council, gather for a council, meet and talk things over [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]; gu-sto (gust) - assemble, meet together [Kaw]

 

sto-de hi naⁿ-zhiⁿ (stod hi ną̨) - stand in a group

cf. sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand; sto-de hi (stod hi) - collected in a heap, grouped; sto-de i-tʰe-de (stod itʰde) - collect small objects in a group; ma-hiⁿ sto-de (mah̨ stde) - haystack; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; sto-de knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap; sto-de-wa-zhi (stodwai) - place plural/animate objects in one place; a-ki-sto-de i-tʰe-de (kkistde itʰde) - pile up, make a heap; ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather, council of a gens

Dhegiha: thi-sto-the (thi-to-the), thi-stu-the (thi-t-the) - gathered in folds [FL-Osage]; stu-e (tu-e) - gathering [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - to convene or to assemble, a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a session [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kiist) - assemble as for a council, gather for a council, meet and talk things over [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gist) - assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]; gu-sto (gust) - assemble, meet together [Kaw]

 

bdo-ka (bdka) - circular, round, whole, entire

cf. o-ma-ni-ka bdo-ka (omnikka bdok) - year, an entire year; ho bdo-ka (ho bdka) - sucker, lit. round fish; a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever

ex: bdo-ka o-di-o-za-hi o-wa-xde (bdok odizah waxde) - in a very short time, he overtook the entire group [JOD]

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: bthu-ga (bthga) - round, circular, whole, entire, all [Omaha/Ponca]; bthu-ga (bthuga) - all, round, cylinder, entire, whole [Omaha]; btho-ga (bth-ga) - round, cylindrical, entire, a whole thing, a whole, a dollar [FL-Osage]; bro-ka (brka) - in bulk, wholesale, in large quantities, overall, undivided, by the yard, in large pieces, not merely pieces of some item but the entire item, in its entirety, fully, whole, entire, complete, dollar [CQ-Osage]; blo-ga (blga) - the whole, the entire thing, all, dollar [Kaw]

 

grouse

sho taⁿ-ka (o tt̨ka) - prairie hen, pinnated grouse

cf. sho-shta (ta), shu-shta (ta) - quail, partridge; shi-o-shta (ita) - partridge; shi-shta (ta) - quail

Dhegiha: shu (sh) - prairie hen, in winter [Omaha/Ponca]; shu (shu) - prairie chicken, lesser chicken [Omaha]; shu taⁿ-ga (shtaⁿga) - prairie chicken, quail [Kaw]

 

growl

xniⁿ-ke (xnįk), xdiⁿ-ke (xdįk) - growl, snarl as a dog or wolf

cf. di-xdiⁿ-ke (dixd̨ke), di-xniⁿ-ke (dixn̨ke) - to make growl

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ (qthiⁿ) - to snarl or growl, like a dog or wolf [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl [Omaha]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl of an animal [FL-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - growl, as a dog or wolf [Kaw]

 

di-xdiⁿ-ke (dixd̨ke), di-xniⁿ-ke (dixn̨ke) - to make growl bdi-xdi-ke (bdxdįke) - I, ti-xdiⁿ-ke (ttxdįke) - you

cf. xniⁿ-ke (xnįk), xdiⁿ-ke (xdįk) - growl, snarl as a dog or wolf

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ (qthiⁿ) - to snarl or growl, like a dog or wolf [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl [Omaha]; xthiⁿ (xthiⁿ) - growl of an animal [FL-Osage]; xliⁿ (xlⁿ) - growl, as a dog or wolf [Kaw]

 

grown, grown up, mature, old

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą, nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ, nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature aⁿ-naⁿ-hoⁿ (̨nąh̨) - I, di-naⁿ-hoⁿ (dnąh̨) - you, wa-naⁿ-hoⁿ-we (wnąhǫwe) - we

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature, adult; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt [OM]; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - a mans fathers older brother; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de), naⁿ-haⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (̨nąh̨) - me grownup [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (mįt̨ nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka i-niⁿ pa naⁿ (waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek in̨ pa n̨) - grown women wore short dresses [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shiⁿ-ʰto noⁿ-hoⁿ (shⁿ-ṭo-noⁿ-hoⁿ) - a bachelor, a single man [FL-Osage]; shi-do noⁿ-hoⁿ (shdo noⁿhoⁿ) - a youth, a young man that is nearly grown [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wakʔ n̨h̨) - a woman who has been married, but who is now alone, a widow [JOD-Osage]; wa-ko noⁿ-hoⁿ (wak noⁿhⁿ) - grown woman  [Kaw]

 

grubbing hoe

zhoⁿ-koⁿ da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ) - grubbing hoe

cf. zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; ke (kʔe) - dig with a grubbing hoe

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkoⁿ) - root [Omaha]; zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkⁿ) - a root, the roots of trees etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (zhoⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - roots of any plant or tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ kaⁿ (̨ą kʔą) - root or roots of a tree, bush, etc. [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (zhⁿkaⁿ) - root of a plant or tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - dig, pare, peel [Omaha/Ponca]; e (e) - they excavate [Omaha]; ʰke (ḳe) - to dig [FL-Osage]; ke (kʔ) - dig, dig up [CQ-Osage]; ke (ke) - dig [Kaw]

 

zhoⁿ-koⁿ i-da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ) - grubbing hoe

cf. zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line; i () - instrumental, with which to; ke (kʔe) - dig with a grubbing hoe

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkoⁿ) - root [Omaha]; zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkⁿ) - a root, the roots of trees etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (zhoⁿ-ḳoⁿ) - roots of any plant or tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ kaⁿ (̨ą kʔą) - root or roots of a tree, bush, etc. [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (zhⁿkaⁿ) - root of a plant or tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e (e) - dig, pare, peel [Omaha/Ponca]; e (e) - they excavate [Omaha]; ʰke (ḳe) - to dig [FL-Osage]; ke (kʔ) - dig, dig up [CQ-Osage]; ke (ke) - dig [Kaw]

 

grubbing hoe, dig with a grubbing hoe

ke (kʔe) - dig with a grubbing hoe a-ke (akʔ) - I, da-ke (dakʔ) - we

cf. zhoⁿ-koⁿ da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ), zhoⁿ-koⁿ i-da-ke (̨kkǫ dakʔ) - hoe, grubbing

ex: to ke de-naⁿ-wi (t kʔe d-ną-wi) - they usually dig for potatoes [JOD]

ex: to ke pa-i (to kʔe p-i) - they were digging potatoes [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-naⁿ-bde ki-ha naⁿ to ke da-we (in̨ wan̨bde kih ną t kʔe dwe) - when they finished eating, they went to dig potatoes again [JOD]

Dhegiha: e (e) - dig, pare, peel [Omaha/Ponca]; e (e) - they excavate [Omaha]; ʰke (ḳe) - to dig [FL-Osage]; ke (kʔ) - dig, dig up [CQ-Osage]; ke (ke) - dig [Kaw]

 

grue

to (tto) - blue, green, grue

to (tto) - blue [FR, LQ, OM]

to (to) - blue or green [MR]

to (tuh) - green (vert) [GI]

tʰo (t'o˙) - blue and green [FS]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ to (wą tto) - paroquet, parakeet; iⁿto-ska- to (įttosk tto) - blue beads; ma-hiⁿ to (mah̨ tto) - green, lit. grass-blue; ma-xpi to (maxp tto) - blue, sky blue color, lit. cloud-blue

Dhegiha: tu (tu) - blue, green [Omaha/Ponca]; tu (tu) - any blue [Omaha]; ʰto-ho (ṭ-ho) - green or blue [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ho (ʰtho) - blue [CQ-Osage]; to-ho (tho) - blue or bluish black, green [Kaw]

 

to-ho (ttho) - blue, green, grue

to-ho (tu-h) - pale blue [LH]

tu-hu (tuh) - pale blue [OM]

cf. to-ho xo-te (ttoh xott) - pale green; sa to-ho (s ttho) - blue or green, dark

Dhegiha: ʰto-ho (ṭ-ho) - green or blue [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ho (ʰtho) - blue [CQ-Osage]; to-ho (tho) - blue or bluish black, green [Kaw]

 

grumble

wa-di-si-ha (wadsiha) - grumble wa-bdi-si-ha (wabdsiha) - I, wa-ti-si-ha (wattsiha) - you, oⁿ-wa-di-si-ha-we (ǫwdisihawe) - we

 

grunt, groan, moan

i-ka-toⁿ (kattǫ) - grunt, groan, moan i-da-ka-toⁿ (idkattǫ) - I, i-da-ka-toⁿ (dakattǫ) - you

Dhegiha: i-ka-toⁿ (ikatoⁿ), i-ga-toⁿ (igatoⁿ) - grunt, moan, groan [Omaha]; i-ga-tʰoⁿ (gatʰoⁿ) - grunt, groan [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ga-ʰtoⁿ (-ga-ṭoⁿ) - to groan, to moan [FL-Osage]

 

guard, wrist guard

xaⁿ-ta-pa (xąttppa) - wrist guard

 

guilty

e-maⁿ (mą), e-waⁿ (wą), e-woⁿ (wǫ) - to be cause of trouble, be blameworthy

cf. e-wa-ki-koⁿ ka-xe (wakikʔǫ kγe) - trouble, bring on oneself

ex: hau, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-woⁿ niⁿ (ha, mat̨ke wǫ n̨) - ho, the rabbit is the guilty one! [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-woⁿ (woⁿ) - cause to happen [Omaha]; e-woⁿ-xti (woⁿxti) - cause sin [Omaha]; e-woⁿ a-ka (-woⁿ a-ka) - the causer, one who caused the mischief, to blame [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ (ewǫ), e-waⁿ (ewą) - he does it, he did it [CQ-Osage]; e-moⁿ (moⁿ) - be to blame, be culpable, be at fault [Kaw]

 

gullet

we-da-shti-te (wdattte) - gullet

cf. da-shti (dat) - swallow; da-shti-te (dattte) - swallow; da-sniⁿ (dasn̨) - swallow; da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi (dasn̨wa) - they had not eaten up, they had not devoured all [JOD]; kda-sniⁿ (kdasn̨) - swallow ones own (food), devour

Dhegiha: we-tha-zniⁿ (wthazniⁿ) - throat, esophagus, gullet, the swallower [Omaha/Ponca]; we-tha-hni (w-tha-hni) - the gullet, that by which we swallow [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: tha-sniⁿ (asnⁿ) - to swallow [JOD-Omaha]; tha-hni (tha-hn) - to gulp or swallow [FL-Osage]; tha-niⁿ (aan̨į) - consume, eat up or drink up, devour [CQ-Osage]; ya-hniⁿ (yahnⁿ) - swallow [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-stsu-tse (th-stsu-tse) - to draw into the mouth by inhalation [FL-Osage]; tha-shtsu-e (aace) - swallow (food or drink) [CQ-Osage]

 

gun

ma-ze (mze) - iron, gun

ma-ze (mze) - gun, metal, iron [MS]

maⁿ-ze (m̨ze) - gun also iron [FS]

cf. ma-ze taⁿ-ka (maz tt̨ka) - cannon; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol; ma-ze so-te (mze stte) - rifle

Dhegiha:  moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron, metal [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (mⁿ-e) - iron or any kind of metal [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mą́ze) - metal of any kind, lead or iron, wire, cable [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze (mⁿze) - iron, metal in general [Kaw]

 

gun, aim a gun

ma-ze a-di-taⁿ (mze dittą) - aim a gun

cf. ma-ze (mze) - gun, iron; a-di-taⁿ (dittą) - aim at something; maⁿ a-di-taⁿ (m̨ dittą) - to aim at with a bow

 

gun, cock a gun

ma-ze di-zha-ke (mze dike) - cock a gun

cf. ma-ze (mze) - gun, iron; di-zha-ke (dike) - pick, pull open, peel

 

gun, pistol

ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol

cf. ma-ze (mze) - gun, iron; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; di-te-shka (dittek), (dittka) - shorten, cut short, saw off; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; che-shka (chshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; je-shka (jeshka) - short [Omaha]; ʰpa-xpe ʰtse-shka (p̣a-xpe ṭse-shka) - the short stunted oak [FL-Osage]

 

ma-ze shte-ka (mozeh-schtekkeh) - pistol (pistolet) [GI]

ma-ze shte-ka (maz tka) - pistol, short gun

cf. ma-ze (mze) - gun, iron; shte-ka (tka), (tek) - short; shte-ka hi (tka hi), (tek hi) - short [MS]; hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha shte-ka (hǫb̨tteha tka) - slippers, lit., short moccasin flaps; wa-tʰe shte-ka (watʰ tek) - short dress [JOD]; di-ti wa-hi o-shte-ka (dtti wahi otka) - short rib

 

gun, rifle

ma-ze so-te (mze stte) - rifle

ma-ze so-te (mŏzeh-sutteh) - rifle (carabine, rifle) [GI]

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron, gun; so-te (sott) - fast, swift of an animal, rapidly; ma-ze taⁿ-ka (maz             tt̨ka) - cannon; ma-ze te-shka (maz ttka) - pistol

 

gunpowder

si-di (sid) - gunpowder

cf. si (si) - grain, seed, pit, kernel; si-di i-bi-xtaⁿ (sid bixtą) - tattoo marks, rubbed in with gunpowder

 

guts, entrails

shi-we (we), shiu-we (we), shu-we (we) - guts, entrails

cf. ma-ni-ka shi-we (monikka-chiweh) - worm, bowels of the soil (ver un) [GI]; shi-we di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (we diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs

Dhegiha: shi-be (shbe) - entrails, intestines, guts, innards [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be (shbe) - bowels, intestines [Omaha]; shi-be (sh-be), shiu-be (shi-be), shu-be (sh-be) - entrails, the viscera, intestines [FL-Osage]; shu-pe (pe) - intestines, appendix, colon, entrails, insides, stomach area, stomach [CQ-Osage]; shu-we (shwe), shu-be (shbe) - guts, intestines, entrails [Kaw]

 

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