English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

F

 

food

o-naⁿ-bde (nąbde) - food, something to eat

cf. wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine; a-wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - table; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. something to stick food; pa-ze-de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wanⁿbde) - supper [MS]; o-zhi ska wa-noⁿ-bde (i ska wan̨bde) - bowl [MS]

Dhegiha: u-noⁿ-bthe (-noⁿ-bthe) - a grocery, food [FL-Osage]; o-noⁿ-bre (nǫbre) - food, groceries, rations, meal, dinner [CQ-Osage]

 

 

wa-da-tʰe  (wadtʰe) - food

wa-da-tʰe (wadtʰe) - food [FR]

cf. da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew; kda-tʰe (kda-tʰ) - to eat ones own; ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat; da-tʰe-ye (datʰye) - to have eaten

Dhegiha: wa-tha-te (wathte) - eat, food, lunch, meal [Omaha]; wa-tha-tse (wa-th-tse) - the eating of certain kinds of food [FL-Osage]; wa-ya-che (wayche) - food, different kinds of food [Kaw]

 

ta-ta noⁿ-hoⁿ (ttatt nǫh̨) - food

 

foolish

o-pa-ta-zhi (ppatti) - be foolish, silly o-aⁿ-pa-ta-zhi (ąppatti) - Im, o-di-pa-ta-zhi (dippatti) - youre

 

wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (whǫki) - wild, crazy, ill behaved aⁿ-wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (ąwhǫki) - I, di-wa-hoⁿ-ka-zhi (diwhǫki) - you

wa-haⁿ-ka zhi (whąk i) - crazy, wild [MS, AG, MW]

cf. wa-hoⁿ-ka (whǫk) - to be well behaved; zhi (-zhi) - not, negation, negative; wa-xo wa-haⁿ-ka zhi (uahŭ-uahunkajih) - whore, hooker (putain) [GI]

Dhegiha: wa-hoⁿ-ga zhi (whoⁿgazhi) - fearless, unafraid of the cold, not to be afraid of the cold, as said of one who does not seek a shelter, but continues traveling on foot or horseback [Kaw]

 

foot, feet

si (si) - foot

si (si) - foot, feet [MS, MR, AB, OM]

si (sih) - feet (pieds) [GI]

si (si˙) - foot [FS]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; si-ha (sih) - sole of the foot; si-po-za (sippza) - toe

ex: si taⁿ-ka (si ttą́ka) - big foot [OM]

ex: si xwiⁿ (si xwį) - stink feet [OM)]

Dhegiha: si (si) - foot, feet [Omaha/Ponca]; si (i) - foot [Omaha]; si (i) - foot [FL-Osage]; si (si) - foot, feet [CQ-Osage]; si (si) - foot, feet [Kaw]

 

foot, one foot, unit of measure

si-toⁿ-we (sttǫwe) - foot, one, unit of measure

cf. si (si) - foot; i-toⁿ-we (ttǫwe), i-tʰoⁿ-we (tʰǫwe) - bushel, measure for solids

Dhegiha: si e-tʰoⁿ-the (si tʰoⁿthe) - measure, foot, to measure someones feet [Omaha/Ponca]

 

football

ka-ta-pa (kkattapp) - football, possibly derived from ka (ka) + ta-pe (ttape)

ka-ta-pa (kkattapp) - football [AG]

ex: ka-ta-pa-we (kkattappwe) - (they) play ball [MS]

ex: oⁿ-ka-kdi  ka-ta-pa (ǫkkdi kkattapp) - come on, play ball [AG]

Dhegiha: ta-be (tab) - ball [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-be (ṭa-b) - ball [FL-Osage]; ʰta-pe (ʰtaap) - ball [CQ-Osage]; ta-be (tab) - ball [Kaw]

 

ta-diu-diⁿ-ha  (ta dyŭ dī ha) - football, from Red Sun and Jake Gokey [MH]

ta-diu-diⁿ-he (ttadd̨h) - ball [MS]

 

footprint, track, trail

si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

si-kde (sikd) - track, footprint [MS]

ex: si-kde tʰe (sikd-tʰe) - the footprint

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka si-kde (wąka skde) - bird's track(s)

ex: si-kde (sikd) - Track, male personal name of Old Man Hominy, SigDah Track [MS]

ex: si-kde a-shi-ti i-da-de (sikd itti idde) - I saw some footprints outside my house [MS]

ex: si-kde wi-ta zhi (sikd wtta i) - they're not my tracks [MS]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprint, track, trail, the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (i-gthe), (i-gth) - track, footprint [FL-Osage]; ʰta si-le ʰtawaⁿ (ʰtaaslee ʰtawą) - Tulsa, Oklahoma, literally, deer crossing town [CQ-Osage]; si-dle (sidl), si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, a trail [Kaw]

 

for nothing, without cause

o-xaⁿ ni-ke (xʔą nik) - for nothing, without cause

cf. ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking

ex: o-xaⁿ ni-ke da-hoⁿ-bde (xʔą nik dah̨bde) - there was no reason for your having such a dream [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ⁿ thiⁿ-ge (uⁿthiⁿg) - without cause, without permission, free, for nothing, without pay [Omaha/Ponca]; o-kaⁿ yiⁿ-ge (kaⁿyiⁿge) - without cause, for nothing, freely [Kaw]

 

forcibly push, forcibly shove

ba-xi de-de (bax ded) - push, shove suddenly, forcibly pa-xi da-a-de (ppxi dade) - I, shpa-xi de-da-de (pxi ddade) - you

cf. ba-xi (bax) - push off balance, shove; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; ba-xi-hi a-de (baxhi ade) - knock off, push off

Dhegiha: ba-xi (ba-x) - to arouse one from sleep by pushing [FL-Osage]; pa-xi (paaɣ) - push to awaken or make active, activate by pushing on [CQ-Osage]; ba-xi (bax) - rouse by nudging [Kaw]

 

ford

ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream ni bdi-te bde (ni bdtte bd) - I, ni ti-te te (ni tttte tt) - you

cf. ni (ni) - water; di-te (ditt) - cross a stream; de (de) - go; wa-di-te (wadtte) - Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfishs name [MS, JOD]; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed, interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - crossroads

Dhegiha: thi-te (i-t͓) - to cross, as a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; ni u-thi-ʰtse (ni--thi-ṭse) - to cross a ford [FL-Osage]; yu-tse (yuc) - cross, as a stream [Kaw]

 

di-te (ditt) - cross a stream bdi-te (bdtte) - I, ti-te (tttte) - you

cf. ni di-te-de (n dittde) - ford a stream; wa-di-te (wadtte) - Crosses Stream, Harry Crawfishs name [MS, JOD]; a-ki-di-te (kkiditte) - crossing each other; a-ki-di-te-te (kkiditttte) - crisscrossed, interlaced, as boughs, vines, etc.; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - crossroads

Dhegiha: thi-te (i-t͓) - to cross, as a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; ni u-thi-ʰtse (ni--thi-ṭse) - to cross a ford [FL-Osage]; yu-tse (yuc) - cross, as a stream [Kaw]

 

a-ni-zho-he (nihe) - ford a stream a-ni-zho-he (nihe) - I, a-da-ni-zho-he (danihe) - you

cf. ni (ni) - water; zho-he (ohe) - ford, wade

Dhegiha: ni-zhu-he (nzhuhe) - wade [Omaha]; zhu-he (zhhe) - to ford a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-he (zh-he) - to ford or wade a stream [FL-Osage]; zho-pshe (pe) - wade [CQ-Osage]; ni zho-pʰe (ni zhphe) - to ford, to wade in shallow water [Kaw]

 

zho-he (ohe) - ford, wade

cf. a-ni-zho-he (nihe) - ford a stream

Dhegiha: zhu-he (zhhe) - to ford a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-he (zh-he) - to ford or wade a stream [FL-Osage]; zho-pshe (pe) - wade [CQ-Osage]

 

forearm

a o-zhiⁿ-ka ( oįka) - arm below elbow, forearm

cf. a (a) - arm; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little

Dhegiha: a-u-zni (uzni) - forearm, the lower part of the arm [Omaha/Ponca]; a-u-zni (ani) - lower arm [Omaha]; a-u-zhiⁿ-ga (-u-zhiⁿ-ga) - lower or forearm, from the elbow down to the wrist [FL-Osage]; a-o-zhiⁿ-ga (ozhiⁿga) - arm below the elbow, radius [Kaw]

 

forehead

pe (ppe) - forehead

ex: pe niⁿ-kʰe (pp nįkʰ) - the forehead

Dhegiha: pe (pe) - forehead [Omaha]; pe (p) - the forehead [FL-Osage]; ʰpe (ʰpe) - forehead [CQ-Osage]; pe (pe) - forehead [Kaw]

 

forehead, smooth forehead

pe o-shta (pp ot) - forehead

cf. pe (ppe) - forehead; o-shta (ot) - smooth place [JOD]; shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare; ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded

            ex: pe o-shta niⁿ-kʰe (pp ot nįkʰ) - the forehead

Dhegiha: u-shna (c͓n) - a bare place [Omaha/Ponca]; shna (shna) - shed hair [Omaha]; ʰpe-shta  (ʰpeet) - smooth forehead [CQ-Osage]; shta (shta) - hairless, destitute of hair [FL-Osage]; shta (shta) - smooth, hairless, bald [Kaw]

 

fork in a road

o-zhoⁿ-ke ki-di-zhoⁿ-ka (ǫke kkdiǫk) - fork in a road

cf. o-zhoⁿ-ke (ǫke) - road; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ka-ki-zhe (ǫke kake) - winding road; o-zhoⁿ-ke a-ki-di-te (ǫke kkiditte) - crossroads; ka-xnaⁿ o-zhoⁿ-ke (kaxn̨ ǫke) - migratory route, hunting route; pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da o-zhoⁿ-ke (pptte ̨ditt̨da oǫke) - railway lit. fire wagon road

Dhegiha: moⁿ i-tʰa-xe zhoⁿ-kʰa (moⁿ tʰaxe zhⁿkʰa) - forked arrow tip [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-be zhoⁿ-ka (iⁿbe zhoⁿka) - Forked Tail Kite, Swallow Tail Hawk [Omaha]; ni u-ʰki-thi-zhoⁿ-ʰka tse (ni--ḳi-thi-zhoⁿ-ḳa tse) - The Forks, the confluence of the Osage and Little Osage Rivers [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-be zhoⁿ-ʰka wiⁿ (ⁿ-be-zhoⁿ-ḳa-wiⁿ) - Forked Tail Kite Woman, female personal name [FL-Osage]; ni o-i-zhaⁿ-ka (ni ozhaⁿka) - fork in a river [Kaw]; o-i-zhaⁿ-ka (ozhaⁿka), o-wi-zhaⁿ-ka (wizhaⁿka) - fork of a road or stream, mouth of a stream [Kaw]

 

fork, a table fork

wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork

wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (waną́bde baxto) - fork [OM]

wa-naⁿ-bdi-ba-xto (waną́bdibaxto) - fork [MS]

wa-naⁿ-bdi-ba-xto (wan̨bdibaxto) - fork, lit. something to stick food [JOD]

cf. wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; wa-sa i-ba-xdo-xdo (was baxdoxd) - small pieces of black bear meat roasted on sticks or spits [JOD]; i-ba-xdo (baxdo) - stuck in him [JOD]; i-ki-pa-xdo (kkippaxd) - stick oneself, prick; ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus [MS]; ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear; o-po-xdo (opxdo), o-po-kto (opkto) - shoot through something

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

forked lightning

di-kdi-ze (dikdze) - forked lightning, forked

di-kdi-ze (dikdze) - lightning [MS]

di-kdi-ze (di-kt-ze) - masculine name of the Kwapa tandań or tandań wanták͓a gens, Forked Lightning [JOD]

che-ka-zhi-ze (čekaze), de-ka-di-zhe (dekade) - lightning [OM]

Dhegiha: thi-gthi-ze (thigthze) - lightening, forked lightening [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gthi-ze (thgthie) - electricity [Omaha]; thi-gthi-ze (thi-gth-e) - to make striped marks [FL-Osage]; thi-gthe-ze (thi-gth-e) - to draw stripes [FL-Osage]; thi-gthe-gthe-ze (thi-gth-gthe-e) - the lightning that breaks into branches, forked lightning [FL-Osage]; thi-le-le-ze (illeze) - reduplicated form, forked lighting, literally, making repeated stripes [CQ-Osage]; yu-le-le-ze (yulleze) - forked lightning [Kaw]

 

forty

kde-bdaⁿ to-wa (kdbdą twa) - forty

kde-bdaⁿ to-wa (kdbdą twa) - forty [MS]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; to-wa (twa) - four

Dhegiha: gthe-ba du-ba (gthbadba) - forty [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-bthoⁿ do-ba (gthe-bthoⁿ do-ba) - ghte-bthoⁿ, ten; do-ba, four - four tens: forty [FL-Osage]; le-braⁿ to-pa (lbrą topa) - forty, fortieth [CQ-Osage]

 

four

to-wa (twa) - four

to-wa (twa) - four [MS, MR, FR, AB, AG, OM]

to-wa (tŭah) - 4 [GI]

tʰo-wa (t'wa) - four [FS]

ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (m̨tą nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

Dhegiha: du-ba (dba) - four [Omaha/Ponca]; do-ba (d-ba) - four [FL-Osage]; to-pa (topa) - four [CQ-Osage]; to-ba (tba) - four [Kaw]

 

four bits, half dollar, fifty cents

de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, fifty cents, four bits

de-ska-da to-wa (dskada tow) - half dollar, fifty cents [LQ]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali 'money', French escalin '            shilling'; to-wa (twa) - four

ex: de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents

ex: ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents

ex: de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp), de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits

ex: de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - quarter, twenty-five cents

ex: de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

 

four each, by fours

to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours

cf. miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece; naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece; da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes, 3 apiece; sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives; sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, at a time; pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens; pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, at a time; shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines; kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece/at a time; da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens, 13 apiece; sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each; pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, at a time; shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each; kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece; kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each; wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each, (distributive)

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]

 

four times

hi-to-wiⁿ (htow̨) - four times

cf. to-wa (twa) - four; hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time; hi-naⁿpa-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times; hi-da-bniⁿ (hdabn̨) - thrice; hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times; hi-shaⁿ-kiⁿ (h̨kk̨) - nine times; hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

 

fourteen

to-wa a-kniⁿ (twa knį) - fourteen

to-wa a-kniⁿ (twa knį) - fourteen [MS]

cf. to-wa (twa) - four; ; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ du-ba (agthⁿduba) - fourteen, fourteen [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ do-ba (a-ghtiⁿ́ do-ba) - fourteen [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ to-pa (lįį topa), le-braⁿ a-liⁿ to-pa (lbrą lįį topa) - fourteen, fourteenth [CQ-Osage]; a-li do-ba (alidba) - fourteen [Kaw]

 

fourth finger, the fourth finger

naⁿ-piu-za i-to-wa tʰe (nąpza towa tʰe) - the fourth finger [MS]

cf. naⁿ-pe o-za (nąp oz), naⁿ-piu-za (nąpza) - finger; i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral; tʰe (tʰe) - the

 

fourth toe

si-po-za zhi-ka o-ba-taⁿ (sippza ka obttą) - fourth toe, next to the little toe

cf. si-po-za zhi-ka (sippza ka) - little toe; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe; hi o-ta-ho-kde o-ba-taⁿ (h ottahokd obttą) - teeth, bicuspid

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi u-thi-zoⁿ u-thu-a-tʰoⁿ (siphi uthzoⁿ uthatʰoⁿ) - fourth toe, toe next to the middle toe [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa-hi u-a-zhiⁿ-ga u-thu-a-toⁿ (iphi uazhiⁿga uthuatoⁿ) - fourth toe [Omaha]

 

fourth, fraction

i-to-wa-ka (towaka) - fourth, fraction

cf. i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral; to-wa (twa) - four

 

fourth, ordinal numeral

i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral

cf. naⁿ-piu-za i-to-wa tʰe (nąpza towa tʰe) - fourth finger [MS]; i-to-wa-ka (towaka) - fourth, fraction

ex: e-ti i-to-wa tʰaⁿ o-do-ha-ke ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti towa tʰą odhake kkikn̨wi) - they put down the fourth, last born for him [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-du-ba (wduba) - fourth [Omaha]; we-du-ba (wduba) - the fourth one [Omaha/Ponca]; we-do-ba (wdo-ba) - the fourth [FL-Osage]; we-to-pa (wtoopa) - fourth [CQ-Osage]; we-do-ba (wdoba) - fourth, ordinal number [Kaw]

 

fold down

a-di-be-xiⁿ (dibex̨) - fold down

cf. di-be-xiⁿ (dbexʔ̨) - bend down, pull down

ex: hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha a-di-be-xiⁿ (hǫb̨tteha dibex̨) - turn down the flaps of moccasins

 

fold flat, flatten

di-bda-ska (dibdska) - flatten, fold flat bdi-bda-ska (bdbdaska) - I, ti-bda-ska (ttbdaska) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; bda-ska (bdska) - flat; ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Platte river, NE; ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Nebraska [OM]; iⁿ-chʰoⁿ bda-ska (̨čʰǫ bdska) - flying squirrel; zhaⁿ bda-ska (ąbdska) - board; naⁿ-pe bda-ska i-tʰiⁿ (nąp bdask itʰ̨) - slap; wa-kdi-shka bda-ska (wakdka bdska), wa-xti-shka bda-ska (waxtka bdska) - bedbug, flat insects

Dhegiha: btha-ska (bthska) - flat [Omaha/Ponca]; btha-ska (bth-ka) - flatten [FL-Osage]; bra-ska (braska) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ska (blska) - flat, as the edges, not the surfaces, of something [Kaw]

 

fold in a bundle, wrap

o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle o-bdi-shiⁿ (obdį) - I, o-ti-shiⁿ (ottį) - you, oⁿ-ko-di-shiⁿ-we (ǫkdiįwe) - we

cf. niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers; wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron; we-do-di-shiⁿ (wdodį) - pie; pa-hi o-di-shiⁿ, pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (pah-hŭ-odischih) - bonnet (bonnet) [GI]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shiⁿ (uthshiⁿ) - cover, to cover, as with a garment [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shiⁿ (u-th-shiⁿ) - to wrap anything up [FL-Osage]; o-thi-shi (oi) - wrap, cover for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc. [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-shiⁿ (yishiⁿ) - to bundle up in a cloth or blanket [Kaw]; o-yu-shiⁿ (oyshiⁿ) - bundle something up, cover something by surrounding it [Kaw]

 

fold, times, x-fold

hi-numeral-a-ki-kde (hi-numeral-kkikde) - times, fold, x-fold

ex: hi-naⁿ-pa-a-ki-kde (hnąp kkikd) - double, twofold

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-koⁿ kʰi-gthe (shⁿkoⁿ kʰgthe) - nine times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-boⁿ kʰi-gthe (gthboⁿ kʰgthe) - ten times in succession, ten times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]

 

fold, wrinkle

be-shoⁿ (bes̨) - wrinkle, fold

cf. be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bes̨sǫ); be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold

 

be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bes̨sǫ) - wrinkled, in folds

cf. be-shoⁿ (bes̨) - wrinkle, fold; be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold

 

be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-de (bes̨sǫ in̨de) - wrinkle up, fold be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-a-de (bes̨sǫ in̨ad) - I, be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-naⁿ-da-de (bes̨sǫ in̨dad) - you

cf. be-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (bes̨sǫ) - wrinkled, in folds; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put sg/si/in or cloth/paper; be-shoⁿ (bes̨) - wrinkle, fold

 

for a long time

ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]

jhi-aⁿ-hi (jhįhi), zhoⁿ-hi (ǫ́h) - longtime [OM]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi ki-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ekk̨ nįkʰtti ttįhi ki iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ-miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

 

ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago

 

ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti taⁿ (ttįtti ttą) - in the olden times-when [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti e-koⁿ pa naⁿ i-ya-we (ttiątt ek̨ pp ną iywe) - in the olden times they were like that, they say [JOD]

 

for someone, to put/set ones own down for someone

ki-ki-knaⁿ (kkik͓n̨) - she put down her own for him; she put down it, her own, for him [JOD]

cf. ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set ones own, put; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put

 si/in; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put, put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ni a-shka ki taⁿ pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki-knaⁿ ( odhake n ka k tą ppah nįkʰ kkikn̨) - that-last one-water-near-reached here again-when-head-the (part)-she put down her own for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti i-to-wa tʰaⁿ o-do-ha-ke ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti towa tʰą odhake kkikn̨wi) - they put down the fourth, last born for him [JOD]

 

for what reason

ha-ki (hki) - why, for what reason

cf. ha-ki (hki) - where

 

forenoon

hoⁿ-ba i-haⁿ-ke (hǫba ihąke), hoⁿbe-haⁿ-ke (hǫbhąk) - morning, forenoon

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost; miⁿ haⁿ-pe-haⁿ-ke (m̨ hąphąk) - nearly noon; haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day; haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke te (h̨ba h̨kette) - dawn, nearly; pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - it's almost dark [MS]; pa-zi de haⁿ-ke (ppzi d hąk) - nearly night

 

hoⁿ-ba i-haⁿ-ke-taⁿ (hǫba ihąkettą), haⁿ-be-haⁿ-ke-taⁿ (hąbhąkttą) - forenoon, in or during

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ke (h̨ke) - nearly, almost; miⁿ haⁿ-pe-haⁿ-ke (m̨ hąphąk) - nearly noon; haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke te (h̨pa h̨kette) - nearly day; haⁿ-ba haⁿ-ke te (h̨ba h̨kette) - dawn, nearly; pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - it's almost dark [MS]; pa-zi de haⁿ-ke (ppzi d hąk) - nearly night

 

forest

zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-toⁿ (ott̨), o-taⁿ (ott̨) - abound; xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T., lit., cedars abound in it; near Quapaw, OK; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

 

forever

a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-ta-i te (atʰ̨ttai tte) - future time, at some; a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future; ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą) - when (in the future); ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time; bdo-ka (bdka) - entire, whole, circular, round

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-xti-a-di (atʰⁿqtidi) - when, in the remote past [Omaha/Ponca]; a-toⁿ-a-di-ya (atoⁿadiya) - when [Omaha]; ha-toⁿ-doⁿ (ha-tⁿ doⁿ) - when [FL-Osage]; ha-ʰtoⁿ-dsi (ha-ṭoⁿ-dsi) - when, at what time [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-tsi (haatx̨ci), ha-kxaⁿ-tsi (haakx̨ci) - when in the past, at what time in the past [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakhⁿda) - when, at what future time [Kaw]; ha-khaⁿ-ji (hakhⁿji) - when, at what past time [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bthu-ga (bthga) - round, circular, whole, entire, all [Omaha/Ponca]; bthu-ga (bthuga) - all, round, cylinder, entire, whole [Omaha]; btho-ga (bth-ga) - round, cylindrical, entire, a whole thing, a whole, a dollar [FL-Osage]; bro-ka (brka) - in bulk, wholesale, in large quantities, overall, undivided, by the yard, in large pieces, not merely pieces of some item but the entire item, in its entirety, fully, whole, entire, complete, dollar [CQ-Osage]; blo-ga (blga) - the whole, the entire thing, all, dollar [Kaw]

 

forget

a-kdaⁿ-niⁿ (kdąn̨) - forget a-a-kdaⁿ-bniⁿ (akdąbn̨) - I, a-da-kdaⁿ-tiⁿ (dakdąttį) - you, oⁿ-ka-kdaⁿ oⁿ-niⁿ (̨kakdą ǫn̨) - we, I and one other, oⁿ-ka-kdaⁿ oⁿ-niⁿ-we (̨kakdą ǫn̨we) - we

cf. kdaⁿ-ni-ke (kdąnke) - drunk, confused

Dhegiha: a-gthoⁿ-thiⁿ (-gthoⁿ-thiⁿ) - to forget, failure to remember, unable to recall something that is past [FL-Osage]; a-loⁿ-thiⁿ (lǫį) - get drunk [CQ-Osage]; gthoⁿ-thiⁿ (gthⁿthiⁿ) - foolish, silly [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ-thiⁿ (gthoⁿ́-thiⁿ) - to be drunk [FL-Osage]; loⁿ-thiⁿ (l̨į) - be drunk, inebriated, intoxicated [CQ-Osage]; loⁿ-yiⁿ (lⁿyiⁿ) - foolish, bewildered, distracted [Kaw]

 

form an opinion, plan, think, decide

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan i-bdi-kdaⁿ (bdikdą) - I, i-ti-kdaⁿ (ttikdą) - you

i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately

cf. di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - wise, be, have sense

ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

            ex: wa-bdi-knaⁿ (wptik͓naⁿ́) - I am planning something [JOD]

            ex: i-ti-knaⁿ (tik͓naⁿ) - you plan [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ (tik͓naⁿ) - you decide [JOD]

            ex: i-di-knaⁿ ni-ka (dik͓naⁿ́ nik) - they were deciding [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell, slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legend, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about, have on one's mind, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

fortnight

haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (hą́ba wattxi) - Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba wa-ʰkoⁿ-da-gi thoⁿ-ba (ⁿ-ba wa-ḳoⁿ-da-gi thoⁿ-ba) - once in two weeks, a fortnight [FL-Osage]

 

fox hide

to-ka ha (ttkka ha) - fox hide

to-ka ha (tukkah-hah) - fox hide (peau de renard) [GI]

cf. to-ka xo-te (ttkka xtte) - fox, grey; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

Dhegiha: ti-kʰa xu-de (tkʰaqde) - fox, the common fox, which is gray and about a foot long [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-koⁿ xu-de (tikoⁿ xude) - red fox [Omaha]

 

fox squirrel

siⁿ-ka zi (s̨ka z) - fox squirrel

cf. siⁿ-ka (s̨ka) - squirrel; zi (zi) - yellow; siⁿ-ka sa (s̨ka s) - black squirrel; siⁿ-ka taⁿ-ka (s̨ka tt̨ka) - badger; siⁿ-ka xo-te (s̨ka xtte) - gray squirrel

Dhegiha: siⁿ-ga (sⁿga) - squirrel, the reddish-gray or fox squirrel common in Nebraska and the Dakotas [Omaha/Ponca]; siⁿ-ga (iⁿga) - tree squirrel [Omaha]; siⁿ-ga (ⁿ-ga) - squirrel [FL-Osage]; siⁿ-ka (s̨ka) - squirrel [CQ-Osage]; siⁿ-ga (sⁿga) - fox squirrel, red squirrel [Kaw]

 

fox, grey fox

to-ka xo-te (ttkka xtte) - fox, grey

to-ka xo-te (ttkka xtte) - fox, grey fox [MS]

cf. xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray; to-ka ha (ttkka ha) - fox hide

Dhegiha: ti-kʰa xu-de (tkʰaqde) - fox, the common fox, which is gray and about a foot long [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-koⁿ xu-de (tikoⁿ xude) - red fox [Omaha]

 

fraction

i-da-bni-ka (dabnika) - third, fraction

cf. i-da-bniⁿ (dabn̨) - third, ordinal numeral; da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three

 

i-to-wa-ka (towaka) - fourth, fraction

cf. i-to-wa (towa) - fourth, ordinal numeral; to-wa (twa) - four

 

i-sa-taⁿ-ka (sattąka) - fifth, fraction

cf. i-sa-taⁿ (sattą) - fifth, ordinal numeral; sa-toⁿ (sttoⁿ), sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five

 

fragment

o-shpe (op) - fragment

cf. zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight; pa-shpe (pap) - cut out a piece with a knife, to cut it out with a knife (that portion) [JOD]; pa-shpa-shpa (ppapa) - dice, cut into small pieces; di-shpa-shpa (dippa) - tear into pieces; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

Dhegiha: u-shpe (u-shp) - a fragment [FL-Osage]; o-shpe zhiⁿ (opį) - fragment, small piece, chip, bit, bits and baubles, ones small things, change left over after purchase, coins, small change, pennies [CQ-Osage]

 

frame, door frame

ti-zhe ba-si (tte bas) - door frame

cf. ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

 

Fraxinus, ash tree

ta-shna hi (ttan̨hi) - ash tree, Fraxinus

Dhegiha: ta-zhnoⁿ-ge (tazhnge) - ash tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-zhnoⁿ-ge (tazhnoⁿge) - ash tree [Omaha]

 

free, let go

di-shtaⁿ de-de (dit̨ ded) - let go, free

cf. di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ the-the (thishtoⁿ thethe) - turn loose, release [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ ga-xe (thi-shtⁿ ga-xe) - to discharge one employed [FL-Osage]; thi-shtoⁿ gthe ga-xe (thi-shtⁿ gthe ga-xe) - to release one from confinement, to let one go free who has been under arrest, to liberate a captive [FL-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ ye-ye (yushtⁿ yye) - to drop or let go of something suddenly [Kaw]

 

Frenchman, whiteman

i-shta-xe (itxe) - Frenchman, whiteman

iⁿ-shta-xe (inschtacheh) - French (Franais) [GI]

i-sta-ge (istge) - French [OM]

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; i-shta-xe (itxe) - eyelash; i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - negro, lit. dark whiteman

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchman's wife

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-xiⁿ) - yellow eyes, a white man [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (įįtxįį) - white person, French person, Canadian or English person, light eyes, gray, brown, or yellow eyes [CQ-Osage]; i-shta-xe (ishtxe) - white man, Frenchman, eyebrows [Kaw]

 

fresh meat

ta to-ka (ttatkka), ta do-ka (ttadkka) - meat, fresh

cf. ta (tta) - meat, especially dried meat; to-ka (tkka) - wet

ex: ta to-ka niⁿ-kʰe (ttatkka-nįkʰ) - the meat

Dhegiha: ta nu-ka (tanka) - fresh meat [Omaha/Ponca]; ta nu-ka (tanuka) - fresh meat [Omaha]; ʰta do-ʰka (ṭ-do-ḳa) - meat [FL-Osage]; ta do-ka (ta dka) - fresh meat, raw meat [Kaw]

 

Friday

ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat

ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday [MS]

cf: ta (tta) - meat, dried meat, deer, da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew, zhi (i) - not, negative, da-tʰa-zhi (datʰi) - fast, not to eat, da-tʰa-zhi (dati) - ate not [JOD]

            ta da-tʰa zhi (tta dtʰa i) - Friday, eat no meat [RR-Quapaw]

Dhegiha: ʰta tha-ta zhi hoⁿ-ba (ṭa-th-ta-zhi hoⁿ-ba) - ṭa - meat, tha-ta - eat, zhi - not, hoⁿ-ba - day, day not eat meat, Friday [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-pa ʰta tha-tsʰa zhi (hą́ąpa ʰtaaacʰai) - Friday, literally, day of no meat eating [CQ-Osage]; ta ya-cha zhi (ta ychazhi) - Eats no Deer, subclan of the Kaw deer clan [Kaw]

 

fried meat, cooked with the grease

ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, meat, especially dried meat; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - dried meat, especially buffalo, elk, or deer meat, jerky [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (ta) - dried meat [Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - the deer, meat of any kind, deer [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - deer, doe, fawn, buck, meat [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - deer, meat of any sort [Kaw]

 

fried, fry

we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

cf. we-kdi (wkdi) - fat, grease, lard, oil; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil; ta (t) - by extreme temperature

ex: ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

            ex: wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

friend

ko-ta (kkta) - friend ko-ta wi-ta (kkta wtta) - my, ko-ta di-ta (kkta dtta) - your

ko-ta (kkta) - friend [AB, AG)]

ex: koi ko-ta wi-ta (ki kkta wtta) - that's my friend [MS]

Dhegiha: i-ʰka-ge (ikʰge) - friend, his male friend [Omaha/Ponca]; ka-ge-ho (kagho) - friend [Omaha]; i-ka-ge (ikage) - friendship, buddy [Omaha]; ʰko-tha (ḳ-tha), ʰku-tha (ḳu-tha) - a friend [FL-Osage]; i-ʰko-tha (i-ḳ-tha) - a friend, fellow [FL-Osage]; ʰko-tha (ʰka) - friend [CQ-Osage]; i-ʰko-wa (iʰkwa) - friend [CQ-Osage]; ko-ya (kya) - friend, confidant [Kaw]

 

o-do-wa-ki (odwakki) - to side with them, to defend them [JOD]

cf. o-do-ki-zhi (odkkii) - talk against, not defend

ex: o-do-wa-ki (odwakki) - he sided with them [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-koⁿ za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke nkkaka odwakki ek̨ zan-xti tʔewade k̨da ną iy) - therefore the rabbit, who sided with the (Indians) people wanted to kill all of the black bears, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thu-ki (u-th-ki) - to defend, to defend a friend or relative in a fight or altercation, to uphold in an argument [FL-Osage]

 

wa-do-ta-di (wadttadi) - friend of different tribe

Dhegiha: tho-da (th-da) - peace, peaceful [FL-Osage]; tho-da-the (th-da-the) - to be friendly, to be on friendly terms with another person, peaceful relationship between two tribes, reciprocity [FL-Osage]; wa-tho-da-the (wa-th-da-the) - to make peace [FL-Osage]; wa-tho-da-ʰki-the (wa-th-da-ḳi-the) - relative, relation, kinship [FL-Osage]; u-tho-da-ʰki-the (-tho-da-ḳi-the) - relative, kindred, natural ties of kin [FL-Osage]; tho-ta-the (tae) - regard as a friend [CQ-Osage]; tho-da-ʰki-e (th-da-ḳi-e) - reconcile, reconciliation [FL-Osage]; tho-ta-ʰki-the (taʰkie) - become aquainted with each other, regard each as friends, hold each other dear, take or regard each other as relatives, be related [CQ-Osage]; i-tho-ta-ʰki-the (iitaʰkie) - make a friend of, person who is made into a friend [CQ-Osage]

 

frighten, scare

di-na-xi-da (dinxida) - scare, frighten ti-na-xi-da (ttinaxida) - you

cf. na-xi-da (naγida) - to be scared

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xi-tha (noⁿxitha) - scare [Omaha]; xi-tha (qtha) - through fear of failure, reluctant, doubtful, to hate to undertake, to think that someone will not answer for the purpose [Omaha/Ponca]; xi-tha (xi-th) - lack of confidence [FL-Osage]; ʰki-xi-tha (ʰkxia) - despair, mistrust oneself, not trust oneself, doubt oneself, give up [CQ-Osage]

 

fringe

hiⁿ-ha (hįh) - fringe, border of a hide

 

ka-zi-zi-te (kazzitte) - fringe

cf. ka-zi-zi-di (kazzid) - snip into shreds (with scissors); ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge

 

frog

wa-xno-shka  (waxnka) - frog

wa-xno-shka (waxnka) - frog [MS]

Siouan: hna-shka (hnaka) - frog [Dakota]; gna-shka (gnak) - frog [Lakota]

 

frog, tree frog

taⁿ-na e-ka-xna (ttąn ekxna) - tree frog, lit. wife of the ground

cf. taⁿ-naⁿ (ttąn) - ground; i-ka-xnaⁿ (ikxną), e-ka-xnaⁿ (ekxną), i-ka-xnoⁿ (ikxnǫ) - wife, mans wife

 

from that same time on

e-ki-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ekkttątʰ̨) - from that same time on

 

from the other side

ma-sa-ni-tʰaⁿ (masantʰaⁿ) - from the other side [JOD]

cf. ma-sa-ni (masni) - on opposite side, across; a horizontal object, a road or river

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-tʰaⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ ną́a masantʰaⁿ nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i-ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-ka-saⁿ (kįttą k̨-į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtott-inih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then-just as they started home-when-shoe-other one-on one side-pull ye it off from her-he was saying it to them-it is said-police [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-sa-ni (masni) - other side, the other side, to the other side, on the other side [JOD-Omaha]; ma-sa-ni-a-ta-taⁿ (masniattaⁿ) - from the other side [JOD-Omaha]; ni ma-sa-ni-a-ta ma (n masniat ma) - those on the other side of the river [JOD-Omaha]; ma-sa-ni-a-ta (masniata) - to the other side of [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-soⁿ thiⁿ-tʰa (moⁿ-ⁿ thiⁿ-ṭa) - on one side [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-soⁿ-i-ʰta (moⁿ-oⁿ--ṭa) - at the other side [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-tsʰe-ʰta (mącʰʰta) - other side, on/to the other side, underneath, inner one or innermost one [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-tsiⁿ-ha (mąc̨ha) - to or on the other side, opposite [CQ-Osage]; ma-siⁿ (masⁿ), mo-siⁿ (mosⁿ) - other side of something, as a stream; in the direction of the other side; on one of two sides [Kaw]

 

from then on

e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on

e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - thence, subsequently [JOD]

cf. e-shoⁿ-we e-ti-tʰaⁿ (ęwe etttʰą) - and from then on

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-baⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį h wattbą tt mįkʰ, etttʰą okdxʔxʔwe k! iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di-taⁿ (edtaⁿ) - since then, thence, from that time, from that cause, from that [JOD-Omaha]; e-dsi-toⁿ (e-ds-toⁿ) - thence, from that place [FL-Osage]; tsi txaⁿ (ci txą) - from [CQ-Osage]; e-ji-khaⁿ (ejkhaⁿ) - there, from, thither, from that place [Kaw]

 

from then on, and from then on

e-shoⁿ-we e-ti-tʰaⁿ (ęwe etttʰą) - and from then on

cf. e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then; e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on; e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on; ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, far away

 

from then on, therefore

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on

cf. e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on; e-shoⁿ-we e-ti-tʰaⁿ (ęwe etttʰą) - and from then on; ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, far away

 

from this place

de-she-tʰaⁿ (deetą́) - from this place [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ ka-ki-de-de (deetą́ kkidde) - from this place-going in that direction [JOD]

 

from what

ho-wa-tʰe-ta-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, nearby

 

ho-wa-tʰe-ti-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, far away

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-da-i te i-te i-da-ki-de te i-ye niⁿ i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwatʰtti tʔdai tt-itte idkide tt, iy nį iy waxʔka nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

cf. ho-wa (hwa) - where; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on; e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on; e-shoⁿ-we e-ti-tʰaⁿ (ęwe etttʰą) - and from then on; ho-wa-tʰe-ta-tʰaⁿ (hwatʰetttʰą) - from what sg/st/in or cl/in, nearby

 

from whatever place

ha-ki-tʰaⁿ (haktʰą) - from whatever place

cf. ha-ki-de-de-tʰaⁿ (hkidedtʰą) - where from, from whatever place; ha-ki (hki) - where; ha-ki-de-de (hkidede) - where, which direction; ha-ki e-hi-te (hak ehitt) - anywhere, (where+soever) [JOD]; ha-ke hi-te (hak hitt), ha-ke i-te (hak itt) - wherever, anywhere

 

from whatever place, where from

ha-ki-de-de-tʰaⁿ (hkidedtʰą) - where from, from whatever place

cf. ha-ki (hki) - where; ha-ki-de-de (hkidede) - where, which direction; ha-ki-tʰaⁿ (haktʰą) - from whatever place

ex: ha-ki-wa-de-de (hkiwadede) - how do you get over there, which road, how do you go? [MS]

 

from, on the opposite side from

i-ki-xa-ta (ikkixtta) - on the opposite side from; of a house, tent, etc.

cf. i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on opposite side of something

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąh, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was nįkʰ) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they said) [JOD]

 

front part of upper leg

de-ta-ba-kaⁿ (dttabkką) - front part of upper leg

cf. de-ta (dtta) - upper part of leg; de-ta-ba-ko (dttabakk) - leg above the knee, thigh; de-ta-ba-ko wa-hi (dttabakk wah) - femur, thigh bone

 

frost, killing frost

xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke (x̨įke) - frost, killing frost

cf. xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke zhi-ka (x̨įke ka) - frost, light frost

Dhegiha: xe-woⁿ-ge (qewⁿge) - frost on the ground, but not on vegetation, be frost on the ground, but not on any vegetation that can be damaged [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-woⁿ-ge (xwoⁿge) - frost [Omaha]; xe-moⁿ-ge (x-moⁿ-ge) - frost, hoarfrost [FL-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ke (xmąke) - dew, frost [CQ-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ge (xmaⁿge) - frost [Kaw]

 

frost, light frost

xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke zhi-ka (x̨įke ka) - frost, light frost

cf. xaⁿ-iⁿ-ke (x̨įke) - frost, killing frost; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: xe-woⁿ-ge (qewⁿge) - frost on the ground, but not on vegetation, be frost on the ground, but not on any vegetation that can be damaged [Omaha/Ponca]; xe-woⁿ-ge (xwoⁿge) - frost [Omaha]; xe-moⁿ-ge (x-moⁿ-ge) - frost, hoarfrost [FL-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ke (xmąke) - dew, frost [CQ-Osage]; xe-maⁿ-ge (xmaⁿge) - frost [Kaw]

 

fry, fried

we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

cf. we-kdi (wkdi) - fat, grease, lard, oil; o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil; ta (t) - by extreme temperature

ex: ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

            ex: wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

Dhegiha: we-gthi (wgthi) - fat, grease, oil, the soft fat of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; we-gthi (w-gthi) - grease, oil, kerosene [FL-Osage]; we-li (wli) - oil, lard, grease or similar substance such as shoe polish, gasoline, kerosene [CQ-Osage]; we-li (wli), we-dli (wdli) - grease, oil [Kaw]

 

frybread

wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

cf. wa-ske (wske), (wask) - bread; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-mu-ske (wamske) - wheat, bread, wheat bread [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-bo-ske (wa-b-ke) - wheat, flour [FL-Osage]; wa-bo-ski (wabski) - bread, wheat flour [Kaw]

 

fruit, cactus fruit

ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo da-siⁿ (ken̨baxd dasʔ̨) - cactus fruit, what sticks...

cf. ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd) - cactus plant; ta-ni-ba-he-ta o-da-siⁿ (tanbahtta dasʔį) - elderberries

Dhegiha: u-tha-siⁿ (uthsiⁿ) - connected, joined, in connection with, joined to [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha-ʰtsiⁿ (u-th-ṭsiⁿ) - attached, attachment, as fruit is attached to a vine or tree [FL-Osage]

 

fruit, orange fruit

kaⁿ-te hi (kką́tte h) - orange fruit

kaⁿ-te hi (kką́tte h) - orange (fruit) [MS]

koⁿ-te hi (kk̨tte h) - orange (fruit) [OM]

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple [MS, OM]; kaⁿ-te hi (kkątthi) - apple tree [MS]; kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe (kk̨tte įxe) - apple; kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe (kongteh - ipicheh) - apple (pomme) [GI]; kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe hi (kk̨tte įx hi) - apple tree; kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe si (kk̨tte įxe s) - apple seed; kaⁿ-te si (kk̨tte s) - apple seed [MS]; kaⁿ-te ni (kkąttni) - apple juice [MS]; kaⁿ-te si (kkątt si) - peach stone; kaⁿ-te si i-koⁿ (kuⁿ ta sī ī kuⁿ) - peach stone dice (different type), from Lizzie Cedar [MH]; kaⁿ si koⁿ (gŭⁿ sē gŭⁿ) - peach stone dice, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]; kaⁿ si koⁿ (gŭⁿ sǐ kŭⁿ) - dice (turtle), kia tuⁿka, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]; kaⁿ-te zhi-ka (kkątte ka) - cherry; kaⁿ-te zhi-ka (kkątt ka) - plum; kaⁿ-te shta (kkątt ta) - plum; kaⁿ-te shta (konteh-schtah) - pear (poire) [GI]; kaⁿ-te shta si (kkąttt si) - plum pit; kaⁿ-te waⁿ-poⁿ-shta (konteh uonponschtah) - plum, prune (prune) [GI]; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (kkątt tt̨ka) - peach, clingstone; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (konteh-tonkah) - peach (pche fruit) [GI]; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka hi (kkątt tt̨ka hi) - peach tree, clingstone

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de (kⁿde) - a plum, plums [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-de (koⁿde) - plum [Omaha]; ʰko-dse (ḳⁿ-dse) - plums, any kind of fruit, as plums, peaches, apples, applied to fruit in general [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-tse (ʰką́ące) - apple, fruit [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-je (kje) - plum [Kaw]

 

fruit, pick fruit

di-we (diw) - pick fruit, berries, etc. bdi-we (bdwe) - I, ti-we (ttwe) - you

Dhegiha: ʰkoⁿ-dse thu-we (ḳⁿ-dse thu-we) - fruit picking [FL-Osage]

 

full

o-she-xti (exti) - full

cf. o-she (e) - plentiful, plenty, a lot; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully; wa-she (wa) - rich, be rich; ka-wa-she (kawe) - make in abundance

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (they have a lot of money) [MS]

Dhegiha: u-she (-she) - plenty, plentiful [FL-Osage]; o-she (e) - exist plentifully, lots, abundance, plenty, profusion of something [CQ-Osage]

 

full moon

mi-aⁿ-pa shoⁿ-shoⁿ (mįpa ̨ǫ) - full moon

cf. mi-aⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-oⁿ-pa (mįpa), mi-aⁿ-ba (mįba) - moon; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ) - round, spherical; hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke shoⁿ-shoⁿ (hǫbn̨ke ̨ǫ) - pea; ma-kaⁿ shoⁿ-shoⁿ (makk̨ ̨ǫ) - pills (medicine), lit. globular medicine [OM]; to shoⁿ-shoⁿ (tǫǫ) - Irish potato [MS, AB, OM]; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (dįǫ) - mould spherical with hands; wa-ske di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (wske dįǫ) - corn dumplings

 

full of, covered with

ba-ni (bni) - covered with, full of

cf. ba-di-di-te (badditte) - cover in a mass, swarm upon

Dhegiha: ba-thi-de (bathde) - full, swarming or covered with [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-yu-iⁿ-da-je (bayiⁿdje) - be full of, covered with, thick with [Kaw]

 

full, be full, as a container

o-ki-pi (okppi) - be full, as a container oⁿ-ki-pi (̨kippi) - Im, di-ki-pi (dkippi) - youre

cf. naⁿ-pe o-ki-pi (nąp kkipp) - handful; ki-pi ka-xe (kppi kγe) - to fill; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away si/in/, a part/cloth; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; pi-ki-zhi (ppkii) - to put away ones own [JOD]; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii), zhoⁿ-pi-zhi (ǫppi) - wooden box, truck; xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]

ex: o-zhi-ha ki-pi ka-xe (iha kppi kγe) - he filled the bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pi (kipi) - full, brim full [Omaha]; u-gi-pi (u-g-p̣i) - full, will contain no more, replete [FL-Osage]; o-kiu-ʰpiu (okʰp), o-ku-ʰpi (kuʰpi) - full of, have a fullness of, be filled with, be full, be flooded, full amount, houseful [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-pi (ogpi) - be full, filled, full as a box, barrel, kettle, etc., filled as a lodge or room with people, full as with worms, maggots, etc. [Kaw]

 

full, handful

naⁿ-pe o-ki-pi (nąp kkipp) - handful

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; o-ki-pi (okppi) - be full, as a container

ex: o-zhi-ha ki-pi ka-xe (iha kppi kγe) - he filled the bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pi (kipi) - full, brim full [Omaha]; u-gi-pi (u-g-p̣i) - full, will contain no more, replete [FL-Osage]; o-kiu-ʰpiu (okʰp), o-ku-ʰpi (kuʰpi) - full of, have a fullness of, be filled with, be full, be flooded, full amount, houseful [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-pi (ogpi) - be full, filled, full as a box, barrel, kettle, etc., filled as a lodge or room with people, full as with worms, maggots, etc. [Kaw]

 

full, to be full

o-bi-ske (obske) - to be full

 

full, to fill full after eating

we-naⁿ-te (wnątte) - to fill full after eating we-a-naⁿ-te (wanątte) - I, we-da-naⁿ-te (wdanątte) - you, we-naⁿ-ta-i (wnaⁿti), we-naⁿ-ta-wi (wnaⁿtwi), we-naⁿ-ta-we (wnaⁿtwe) - they

ex: we-naⁿ-ta-i (wnaⁿti) - they felt full after eating [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-noⁿ-de (wnoⁿde) - full, to feel full after eating [Omaha/Ponca]; we-noⁿ-de (w-noⁿ-de) - gratified, satiated [FL-Osage]; we-noⁿ-dse (w-noⁿ-dse) - to feed until filled to satisfaction [FL-Osage]; we-naⁿ-tse (wenące) - be full, filled, have ones hunger sated [CQ-Osage]; we-naⁿ-je (wnaⁿje) - full, satisfied after a meal [Kaw]

 

fully, real, very

xti (-xti) - very, real, fully, intensifier suffix

ex: miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one [MS, MR, FR, AG, OM]

ex: o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect

ex: o-she-xti (exti) - full

ex: a-na-hi-te-xti (anhittxti) - many, a great many

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka-xti (waxʔikaxti), wa-xo zhi-ka hi (waxʔik hi) - aged woman

ex: te-xti (tʔxti) - dead, stone cold

ex: shiⁿ-xti (įxt) - fat, very, really

ex: sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

ex: e-koⁿ xti (ek̨ xti), e-kaⁿ xti (ką xt) - really, just so

ex: e-shoⁿ-xti (ęxti) - just so [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-be xti (hǫb xti) - moccasins

ex: we-sa-xti (wsʔaxti) - rattlesnake, real snake

ex: mi xti (m xti) - myself, I indeed

ex: o-ka-xpa xti (okxpa xti) - town name, Real Quapaws

ex: shi-ke-xti (kext) - very bad

ex: hoⁿ-a-bde a-tʰaⁿ-he, shi-ke-xti i-da-hoⁿ-bde (h̨abde tʰąh, kext idhǫbd) - Ive had dream, I dreamed a very bad dream [JOD]

ex: za-ni-xti (zanxti) - every single one

ex: za-ni-xti te-a-wa-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde (zanxti tʔewadawe idhǫbd) - every single one, they killed us all, I dreamed that [JOD]

ex: a-kda-xti (kdaxti) - to suffer exceedingly

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti (akʰknį-xti) - in a great crowd, crowding together upon one another, sitting upon one another [JOD]

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ta hi-we i-ya (akʰknį-xti tti tʰetta hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, they say' (JOD)]

ex: e-naⁿ-xti (nąxti) - nothing but that, only that

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka naⁿ-xti wa-da-tʰe-we i-ya (was ke nkkaka-nąxt wdatʰwe iy) - the black bears only ate people, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-xti-shka naⁿ-xti ta-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha waxtka-nąxt ttatʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in future [JOD]

 

fumble

di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold bdi-kdoⁿ-da (bdkdǫda) - I, ti-kdoⁿ-da (ttkdǫda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: thi-gthoⁿ-tha (th-gthoⁿ-tha) - fail to get a good grip, to drop by accident [FL-Osage]; yu-laⁿ-ya (yulⁿya), yu-laⁿ-ye (yulaⁿye) - miss or fumble in trying to grasp or pull an object which is too large to be handled [Kaw]

 

di-shnoⁿ-da (din̨da) - let slip, fumble something bdi-shnoⁿ-da (bdnǫda) - I, ti-shnoⁿ-da (ttnǫda) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-shnoⁿ-da (ban̨da) - push at and fail or miss; bi-shnoⁿ-da (bin̨da) - fail, miss applying pressure; da-shnoⁿ-da (dan̨da) - slip in eating, talking, etc; ka-shnoⁿ-da (kan̨da) - miss the mark striking at something; naⁿ-shnoⁿ-da (nąn̨da) - lose one's footing, slip; pa-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - fail to cut something with a knife; po-shnoⁿ-da (pnǫda) - miss a target shooting

Dhegiha: zhnoⁿ (zhnoⁿ) - verb root, to miss, let fall, zhnoⁿ-tha (c͓naⁿa), ba-zhnoⁿ (bac͓naⁿ), bu-zhnoⁿ (buc͓naⁿ), tha-zhnoⁿ (ac͓naⁿ), thi-zhnoⁿ (ic͓naⁿ), ga-zhnoⁿ (gac͓naⁿ), ma zhnoⁿ (mac͓naⁿ), mu-zhnoⁿ (muc͓naⁿ) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-shta-te de-de (dittte dde) - take hold of but fumble bdi-shta-te de-a-de (bdttte dade) - I, ti-shta-te de-da-de (ttttte ddade) - you

cf. de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; di-shtaⁿ de-de (dit̨ ded) - let go, free

Dhegiha: yu-shta-je (yushtje) - pick up suddenly, grab up, snatch up [Kaw]

 

fun, make fun of, laugh often

i-xa-xa (xaxa) - laugh often, make fun of

cf. i-xa (xa) - laugh, smile; i-xa de-de (xa dde) - giggle, laugh much

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we

was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe: dissike hnįh ʔ̨w) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were very cruel to mankind [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xa-xa (ixaxa) - humiliate, ridicule, harass [Omaha]; i-xa-xa (i-x-xa) - to ridicule [FL-Osage]

 

fur

hiⁿ (hį) - fur, hair of the body, down of bird

cf. ta hiⁿ (ttah̨) - deers hair da-ka-hiⁿ (dakhį) - whiskers, sideburns; di-ba-hiⁿ (dibhį) - beard; ta-te-hiⁿ (ttatthį) - hair on the sides of the head, hair on the temples; i-ha-hiⁿ (hah̨) - mustache

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke hiⁿ (mat̨ke h̨) - rabbit fur [JOD]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair on body, fur [Omaha]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - hair or fur, hair of the human body, also the hair of an animal [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ (h̨į) - hair, whiskers, fur, fuzz as on a peach [CQ-Osage]; hiⁿ (hiⁿ) - fur, body hair, feathers [Kaw]

 

further away

ko-ti (ktti) - further away

cf. ko-ti te-ta (kott ttett) - beyond; si-o-ti ko-ti te-ta (sitti kkott ttett) - the day before yesterday; ka-sa-ni ko-ti te-ta (kasni kkott ttett) - day after tomorrow

Dhegiha: gu-di-ha-ta-tʰoⁿ (gdihattʰoⁿ) - beyond, far, from beyond, from far away [Omaha/Ponca]

 

further, the further one, that singular/standing/animate

ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that sg/st/an, the further one

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the st/an; tʰaⁿ (-tʰą) - continuative auxiliary, sg/st/an

ex: ko-wa-he-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that sg/st/in, yon

ex: ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those pl/st/an, yon

ex: ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that sg/ly/an or in, yon

ex: ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those pl/si or ly, yon

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that sg/mv/an, yon

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that sg/si/an or in, yon

ex: ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those pl/mv/an, yon

 

future tense

ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta mįkʰ) - I, ta niⁿ-kʰe (tta nįkʰ) - you; taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ttąkatʰ̨), ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (tta ǫkatʰ̨) - we, I and one other

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I'll come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: a-kde  ta  miⁿ-kʰe  (akd tta mįkʰ) - I'm going home (I will be going home) [MS]

ex: wi-e mo-sho-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we mokki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

ex: bda-taⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ tta mįkʰ) - I will be drinking

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: a-wi-ki-pa ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkipp tt mįkʰ) - I will meet you

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą tt tta nikʰ) - why will you be going?, why are you going? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ sh-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ą́kakd tta ̨katʰą) - we are going home (me and you are going home) [MS]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔak tʰą ni oh watt̨ akid tta tʰ̨ ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - will, shall, potential or future marker [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta (ṭa) - shall, he shall, you shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - future tense marker, will, be going to, could, so that it could/might be, what if, were it the case that, would be [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - future potential or intentive aspect [Kaw]

 

ta-i (ta) - we shall, lets [JOD]

ta-i (ta) - will (plural) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - let us (lets) kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i (odkdaxʔxʔ ta) - youall will give the scalp yell [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi ta-i, wa-xo-zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔik ik nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i (tai) - will, plural [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i (ta-i) - we shall, lets [Omaha]; ʰtai (ʰtai) - lets, clause final element conveying an extortion or suggestion for a group including the speaker and at least two other persons [CQ-Osage]

 

ta-i-tʰe (taitʰ) - shall (plural), they shall [JOD]

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka e-naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in the future [JOD]

ex: wa-na-xe di-ni-ke ta-i-tʰe (wanγe dinke taitʰ) - youall shall be without a soul, spirit, and mind [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-da wi-te-ke e-ta-we di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd wtteke ettwe ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta-i-te (ta te) - shall [Omaha]; ta-i-te (tait) - will surely, shall, shall surely [JOD-Omaha]; ta-i-tʰe (ta-i-tʰe) - shall [Omaha]; ʰta-i-tse (ṭa--tse) - they shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta-i-te (ṭa i te) - they will [FL-Osage]

 

te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall, will be

ex: bda-taⁿ te (bdatt̨ tte) - I will/would drink

ex: pa-hi-o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d!  iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

ex: ni-zhi te (ni tte) - its going to rain [OM]

ex: ni-zhi te (nii tte) - it will rain

ex: e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: te (te) - will [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets [CQ-Osage]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

future, at some future time

a-tʰaⁿ-ta-i te (atʰ̨ttai tte) - at some future time

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever; ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future; ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time

Dhegiha: a-taⁿ-daⁿ (ataⁿ́daⁿ) - at what time (of the day) [JOD-Omaha]; ha-toⁿ-doⁿ (ha-tⁿ doⁿ) - when [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakhⁿda) - when, at what future time [Kaw]

 

future, when in future

ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-ta-i te (atʰ̨ttai tte) - at some future time; ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time; a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

Dhegiha: a-taⁿ-daⁿ (ataⁿ́daⁿ) - at what time (of the day) [JOD-Omaha]; ha-toⁿ-doⁿ (ha-tⁿ doⁿ) - when [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakhⁿda) - when, at what future time [Kaw]

 

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