English to Quapaw Dictionary

Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources




fire, big fire

pe-te wa-sha-ke hi (pptte waʔke hi) - big fire [MS]

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; wa-sha-ke (waʔke), (wʔak) - large, be large; hi (hi) - very; wa-sha-ke hi (wak hi) - big [AG]; ma-xpi wa-sha-ke (maxp waʔke) - large clouds; ni wa-sha-ke (n waʔke) - river; si-po-za wa-sha-ke (sippza waʔke) - big toe [MS]; ta wa-sh'a-ke hi (tta waʔke hi) - buck deer, large deer [MS]


fire, go out, as a fire

ki-kde-zhe (kkikde) - go out, as a fire

cf. kde-zhe (kde) - spotted; ta-xde ki-kde-zhe (taxd kikde) - firecoal/spotted(=dead) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-gthe-zhe (ga-gth-zhe) - to put out a fire, the act of putting out a fire by striking with a wet blanket [FL-Osage]; gi-gthe-zhe (gi-gth-zhe) - fade, to lose color [FL-Osage]


fire, light a fire, kindle

te-de (tde) - light a fire, kindle te-a-de (tade) - I, te-da-de (tdade) - you, te-oⁿ-da-we (Tǫdawe) - we

te-de (tde) - make a fire (kindle) [OM]

cf. o-te-de (ottde), (otde) - fireplace; pe-ti-te-de (ppettttede) - match; ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something

ex: ma-ze te-de (mze tde), ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove [MS]

Dhegiha: i-ne-the (inthe) - burn, to set something on fire, burn something, cause something to burn [Omaha/Ponca]; dse-the (ds-the), ʰtse-the (ṭs-the) - to kindle as a fire [FL-Osage]; a-tse-the (cee) - build a fire on [CQ-Osage]; a-je-ye (jeye) - kindle a fire on an object [Kaw]; i-je-ye (ijye) - kindle, build a fire at/in a place [Kaw]


fire, make sparks from poking fire

di-xni-zhe (dixne) - sparks, make from poking fire bdi-xni-zhe (bdxnie) - I, ti-xni-zhe (ttxnie) - you

ex: pe-te a-ki-ba-xniⁿ-xniⁿ-zhe (pptte akbaxnįxn̨e) - I pushed at the fire often [JOD]

Dhegiha: xthiⁿ-zhe (qthⁿzhe) - spark, sparkle, sparkling, sending out sparks [Omaha/Ponca]; xthiⁿ-zha (xthiⁿ-zh) - sparks of a fire, sparks that fly upward from the sticks or fire drills used for starting a fire [FL-Osage]; liⁿ-zhe (l̨įe) - sparks that fly from a fire [CQ-Osage]


fire, to make a popping sound as wood in a fire

ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

cf. ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - popping sound, make with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte), ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound


fire, top heavy, unsteady by burning, said of a fire

ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning, said of a fire, not a personal act

cf. shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; naⁿ-te shoⁿ-da-da-zhi (n̨tte ̨dadi) - stout hearted; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; da-shoⁿ-da-da (dądad) - undermine; di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]; shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]


fire, warm oneself by the fire

ta-shti-te-ki-de (ttitekkide) - warm oneself by the fire ta-shti-te-a-ki-de (ttitekkide) - I, ta-shti-te-da-ki-de (ttitedkkide) - you

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shti-te (ttte) - warm, comfortably; ki-de (kkide) - cause oneself; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; di-shti-te b(ditit) - warm something in the hands; o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine [JOD]

Dhegiha: shti-de (shtde) - comfortable, warm, cozy [Omaha/Ponca]; shti-de (shtide) - warm by the sun [Omaha]; shti-de (sht-de) - to be warm [FL-Osage]; shtsu-tse (cuce) - warm [CQ-Osage]; ta-shtsu-e-ʰki-the (tacueʰke) - warm onself, as at a stove or fire, cause oneself to be warm [CQ-Osage]



ta-iⁿ-xe (tįγe) - firebrand

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature

ex: ta-iⁿ-xe naⁿ-si-ka (tįγe nąsik) - he knocked the firebrand out of the fire by stepping on it [JOD]

Dhegiha: da-wiⁿ-xe (d-wiⁿ-xe) - firebrand, torch, faggot [FL-Osage]; da-mi-ghe (dmighe), da-miⁿ-ghe (dmiⁿghe) - firebrand, branding iron [Kaw]



o-te-de (ottde), (otde) - fireplace

cf. te-de (tde) - light a fire, kindle; pe-ti-te-de (ppettttede) - match; ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something

ex: ma-ze te-de (mze tde), ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove [MS]

Dhegiha: u-ne-the (unethe) - hearth, fireplace [Omaha]; u-dse-the (u-ds-the) - a place hollowed out in the ground in which to place or kindle a fire, put fire into [FL-Osage]; o-tse-the (oce) - build a fireplace or fire, fireplace or fire for cooking or warming oneself, place to build a fire, stove [CQ-Osage]; o-jhe-ye (oǰye) - fireplace [Kaw]



sa-ki (sak) - hard, firm

cf. di-sa-ki (diski) - hard, moulded with hands; o-we sa-ki (ow sak) - [MS, JOD] - dried corn

Dhegiha: sa-gi (sag) - firm, hard, hard as sweet corn before it is boiled, tight, fast, difficult to untie or loosen [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-gi (gi) - solid, durable, hard, firm, tough [Omaha]; sa-gi (-gi) - firm, solid, durable, hard, lasting, tough, tough meat, strong, inflexible, not easily bent, to fasten firmly [FL-Osage]; sa-ki (saak) - tight, tightly, firm, solid, hard, strong, muscular, difficult, hard to do things with [CQ-Osage]; sa-gi (sag) - hard, firm, tight, tough, strong, muscular [Kaw]


si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm

cf. i-ye s-ze ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate; ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm



wo-hi-te (wohitte) - first


first daughter . Alice Crawfish Gilmore is recorded saying that they called her oldest sister, Ethel, si-ke (sik), this differs with the JOD/RR entries

si-ke (ske) - daughter, oldest daughter, first daughter, birth order name

si-ke (sik) - girl, what they called Ethel  [AG]

cf. si-ke (sik), (ske) - second daughter, birth name [JOD/RR]; si-ke zhi-ka (ske ika) - second daughter [JOD/RR]

ex: si-ke xda (ske xd) - skinny girl, what they called Ethel [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te niⁿ-khe (ske gtta . sttte nikh) - (oldest daughter) get up, your [AG]

Dhegiha: si-ge (sig) - fourth daughter, birth-order name [Omaha/Ponca]; si-ge (-ge), a-siⁿ-ga (aiⁿ́-ga) - the third daughter, special kinship term [FL-Osage]; a-siⁿ-ka (as̨ka) - third daughter [CQ-Osage]; si-ge (sig) - daughter, 3rd or 4th [Kaw]; si-ge pa-haⁿ-le (sig pahⁿle), a-siⁿ-ga pa-haⁿ-le (siiⁿga pahⁿle) - daughter, 3rd born [Kaw]; a-siⁿ-ga (asⁿga), a-si zhiⁿ-ga (as zhiⁿga) - daughter, 4th born [Kaw]; a-si hiⁿ-ga (ashiⁿga) - daughter, 4th born, youngest birth name [Kaw]


wi-naⁿ-e (win̨e), wi-naⁿ zhi-ka (win̨ ka) - first born daughter . Odestine McWatters says wi-na (win) for second daughter.  One of Maude Supernaws great granddaughters was nicknamed wi-na (win), as she was the second daughter in that family.  When Maude was asked how to say second daughter by her father, she said wi-na (win), this term differs with the JOD/RR entries and other Dhegiha.

cf. wi-na (win), wi-naⁿ (win̨) - daughter, second daughter, birth name [MS]; wi-na (wi-n) - second girl [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-naⁿ (wi-naⁿ́) - the ordinal birth-name for the first daughter [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; wi-noⁿ (winⁿ), wi-na-u (wina) - first daughter, woman's name [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-na (m-na) - this special kinship term used by a father and mother for their first daughter, the term is also used by other members of the family, it is not a personal name, it is however, a gentile name, by which she may be addressed by anybody [FL-Osage]; mi-noⁿ (m-noⁿ) - the first daughter, special kinship term [FL-Osage]; mi-na (mina) - eldest daughter [CQ-Osage]; mi-naⁿ-ga (mnaⁿga) - daughter, 1st (JOD), 2nd (MR) [Kaw]


first gens, ancestral gens

haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens

haⁿ-ka (háʞa) - ancestral gens [JOD]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́ga) - leader or first, implies the idea of ancient, or first, people; those who led, moiety or tribal half representing the earth and its water [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; huⁿ-ga (huⁿ́ga) - ancient one, the one who goes before, leader, peace as symbolized by a little child [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; haⁿ-ka (hák͓a) - the name of the gentes on the right side of the Osage tribal circle [JOD-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka), hoⁿ-ga (h̜ga) - the name of the two great tribal divisions of the Osage Tribe, the division representing the earth with its water and dry land.  The word signifies sacred or holy, an object that is venerated.  It is also the name of a subdivision representing the dry land of the earth.  The dark-plummed eagle is spoken of by this term, because of its symbolic use; a child chosen as an emblem of innocence in a peace ceremony is called Hoⁿ-ga.  The origin of the word, being obscure, can not be analyzed [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - sacred, holy, bald eagle, dark-plummed eagle, earth division of the Osage tribe, innocence emblem in peace ceremony, a child [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (hⁿga zhⁿga) - little eagle gens [Kaw]; haⁿ-ga taⁿ-ga (hⁿga tⁿga) - black eagle [Kaw]; haⁿ-ga taⁿ-ga (hⁿga tⁿga) - eagle clan, gens, named after the black eagle [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - Haⁿ-ka, male personal name [MS]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ga (hⁿ-ga), (hun ka), (hun-kah), (hunkah) - The-Sacred-One, The Consecrated One, male personal name [Osage]


haⁿ-ka ska (hą́ka sk) - White Haⁿ-ka, male name [MS]

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens or first gens; ska (ska) - white


haⁿ-ka-xti (há-k͓a-qti) - masculine name of the Kwapa haⁿ-ka (haga) gens; Real Hak͓a or Haga

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens or first gens; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully, intensifier suffix

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ga-xti (hⁿgaxti) - Original Hnga, Real Hnga, male name [Omaha]


haⁿ-ka zhi-ka (há-k͓a j-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa haⁿ-ka e-ni-ka-shi-ka (hák͓a nikack͓a) or haga gens; Young Ha͓ka

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens or first gens; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ka zhiⁿ-ka (hun ka shin ka) - Young Hun ka, Little Earth, male name [Burns-Osage]; haⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (hⁿga zhⁿga) - Young Haga or Ancestor, male name [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka tʰi-de (hák͓a tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by; ka-xe tʰi-de (kqe tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]; ka-hi-ke tʰi-de (k͓ahk͓e tdĕ) - masculine name, father of Louis Angell [JOD]; name translates to Passes Along Chief; called Lame Chief because of being lame, Lame Chief (b. 1800 d. 1874) was father to Tall Chief; kde-taⁿ tʰi-de (ktqetăⁿ́ tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]; maⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-de (maⁿniⁿ́ tdĕ́) - masculine name [JOD]; mi tʰi-de (mi tidĕ) - Sun Passes Along, sister of Mrs. Stafford [JOD]; shoⁿ-ke tʰi-de (cắk͓e tdĕ) - masculine name [JOD]; wa-koⁿ-ta tʰi-de (wa-kń-t͓a ti-dĕ) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; The Thunder Being Passed on or Advanced. The first name of Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

Dhegiha: haⁿ-ga tsi-ye-ta (hⁿga ciyta) - the Haga or Gray Eagle Passes (and we see him) [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka shi-wa-xta (hák͓a ciwqta) - masculine name [JOD]


haⁿ-ka na-zhiⁿ (hák͓a najiⁿ́) - masculine name, Frank Buffalo [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ) - stand, continue, to stand, to continue, keep doing something [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿzhiⁿ) - get up, arise, standing, rise up [Omaha]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to rise or stand, stood [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-zhiⁿ (nąą̨), naⁿ-zhi (nąą) - stand, be standing, stand up, get up, terminate ongoing activity preparatory to departing, stop, cause to stop, halt, detain someone who is passing by [CQ-Osage]; na-zhiⁿ (nazhⁿ), naⁿ-zhiⁿ (naⁿzhⁿ) - stand, stand up [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hą́ka mi ttxi) - female name, Angel Queen [MS]

haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hą́ka mi ttxi) - female name, Fannie Goodeagle Richards mothers name [FR]

            haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hak͓a mi tqi) - female name, Difficult Female Haⁿ-ka [JOD]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ mi te-xi (wa-jiⁿ́ mi t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Bird Female Difficult (to be won or captured). Wife of wa-zhiⁿ ska (wajiⁿ ska) of the same gens [JOD]; mi te-xi (mi tqi) - daughter of Mrs. S & mother of Victor Griffin; mi te-xi zhi-ka (mi tqi jik͓) - female name, Jennie Thompsons sister, drowned in Hominy Creek [JOD]; kde-taⁿ mi te-xi (ktqetăⁿ́ mi teqi) - female name, Hawk Female Difficult (to be won or captured) [JOD]; maⁿ-shaⁿ mi te-xi (maⁿ́caⁿ mitqi) - female name, Feather Female Difficult [JOD]; maⁿ-shka mi te-xi (mańcka mi tqi) - female name, Crawfish Female Difficult [JOD]

Dhegiha: haⁿ-ka miⁿ ʰtse-xi (h̨ka m̨į ʰcxį) - female name, The Favored [Osage]; haⁿ-ga mi tse-xi (hⁿga mi cxi) - female name [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka mi (hák͓a mi), haⁿ-ka miⁿ (hák͓a miⁿ́) - female name, has same mother with Mrs Peter Clabber mi-hi-ta (mhita) [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ka (háʞa) - ancestral or first gens [JOD]; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ka mi (hun-kah-me), hoⁿ-ga-wiⁿ (hoⁿ-ga-wiⁿ) - Eagle Woman [Osage]; haⁿ-ga mi (hⁿga mi) - Hanga Female, female name [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka maⁿ-niⁿ (hák͓a maⁿ́niⁿ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿthⁿ) - to walk [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿ-thiⁿ), moⁿ-iⁿ (moⁿ-ⁿ) - to walk, exist [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-thiⁿ (mą̨), maⁿ-iⁿ (m̨į) - walk, go by walking, go by foot, go away, go, go on, get moving, go ahead, approach, move in closer, stay, act or live a certain way, go around a certain way [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ (maⁿyⁿ) - walk, move [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka kʰe (hák͓a kĕ) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: haⁿ-ga kye (hⁿga kye) - The Reclining Hanga or Ancestor, male name [Kaw]


haⁿ-ka da-kniⁿ (Honkadagni) - masculine name, Treaty of St. Louis with the Quapaw (1818)

haⁿ-ka da-kniⁿ (Hunkatugonee) - masculine name, Treaty with the Quapaw (1824)

cf. haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens; ki-da-kni (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased; a-hi da-kniⁿ (hi dk͓niⁿ) - masculine name, Good Wings, 1/2 bro (now dead) of Geo R-was 35 or 40 when died, older than Geo R. [JOD]; hoⁿ-pa da-kniⁿ (hŭⁿ́p͓a dk͓niⁿ) - masculine name, Good Day, Nice/Fine Day, Peaceful Day [JOD]; mi da-kniⁿ (mi dak͓niⁿ) - female name, Good Sun [JOD]; wa-xo da-kniⁿ (waq' dk͓niⁿ) - female name, Good Woman, Joe Lanes wife, her mother was zha-wiⁿ (jawiⁿ́), Beaver Female, Mother Choteau [JOD, MS]; wa-zhiⁿ da-kniⁿ (wa-jiⁿ′ d-ktiⁿ) - masculine name of the Kwapa Bird gens; Pretty Bird. Son of ke-da to (keda tu) and grandson of mi-xaⁿ-sa (mi q'aⁿsa)

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (thgthiⁿ) - good, used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid, to like like, to be pleased, to like [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį) - be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, good, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli) - good, to be good [Kaw]



Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ga-a-gthiⁿ (hⁿ-ga-a-gthiⁿ), hoⁿ-ka tha-gthi (hunk a log ny) - Good-Eagle, male personal name, refers to the eagle that is good to the people [Osage]


wa-zhiⁿ haⁿ-ka (wąhą́ka) - Haⁿ-ka Bird, Angel, Sacred Bird, male personal name, personal name of Louis Angell, Tallchief, ka-hi-ka-ste-te, Maude Supernaw stated that her father, Louis Angell, belonged to the Snake Clan [MS]

wa-zhiⁿ haⁿ-ka (wa-jiⁿ́ ha-k͓) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens, Ancestral or First Bird [JOD]

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka), wa-zhiⁿ (wą) - bird; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ hoⁿ-ga (wazhⁿhoⁿga) - First of Birds, male name [Omaha]


pe-te haⁿ-ka (pptte hą́ka) - Fire Haⁿ-ka, Old Man Fire, male name [MS]

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral/first gens


ma-shaⁿ haⁿ-ka (m-caⁿ há-k͓a), (maⁿ́caⁿ hak͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Ancestral Quill-Feathers [JOD]

cf. ma-shaⁿ (mą), ma-shoⁿ (mǫ) - feather, wing or quill feather; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens, first gens

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shoⁿ hoⁿ-ga (mⁿshoⁿ hoⁿga) - refers to feathers on pipe, personal name [Omaha]; moⁿ-shoⁿ hoⁿ-ga (mⁿ-shoⁿ-hoⁿ-ga) - Sacred Plume, male personal name, referto eagle plumes worn by priests [FL-Osage]; ma-shoⁿ haⁿ-ga (mshoⁿ hⁿga) - male name, Haⁿga Quill-Feather [Kaw]


first on one side then on the other

i-ki-di-toⁿ (ikdittǫ) - first on one side then on the other [JOD]

cf. i-ki-di-toⁿ-toⁿ (kkidttǫttǫ) - back and forth, interchange

ex: shi-naⁿ-naⁿ i-ki-di-toⁿ o-pʰe niⁿ i-ya-we (in̨ną ikdittǫ opʰ nį iywe) - again and again, first on one side then on the other, he was paddling, they said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi i-ki-thi toⁿ-ga (thi ikithi toⁿga) - reverse, convert [Omaha]; i-ʰki-thi-ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-ḳi-thi-ṭoⁿ-ga) - to interchange, permutation [FL-Osage]


first son, first born son

iⁿ-knaⁿ (įkn̨) - first son [JOD]

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi-ka (įkd̨ ka) - first born son

iⁿ-kdaⁿ zhi (įkd̨ ) - first son [MS]

ex: (įkn̨, hą nikʰ, ik) - first son, what are you doing?, she said to him [JOD]

ex: (įkn̨, wą kkte d-nih) - first son, go shoot some birds! [JOD]

ex: (įkn̨, ąkkde tt, ik tʰą) - first son, lets go home, he said to him [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti kʰi naⁿ, iⁿknaⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (tt tʰtti kʰ ną, įkn̨, nąppįhi mįkʰ, iy) - when they reached home, she said, first son I am hungry [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, be ti di-ki niⁿ-ha (įkn̨, be tt dikʔ nįhą) - first son, who would give you a lodge  [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-knaⁿ, da-kdi a-e (įkn̨, dakd ae) - first son, you have come home? [JOD]

ex: e-ti da, iⁿ-knaⁿ (tti d, įkn̨) - first son, you go there! [JOD]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿgthⁿ) - first son, a birth order name [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿ-gthⁿ) - special kinship term for the first son, one that only the immediate family uses [FL-Osage]; i-loⁿ-ʰpa (il̨ǫʰpa) - fist son in any clan [CQ-Osage]; i-loⁿ (il̨ǫ), i-loⁿ-taⁿ (il̨ǫʰtą) - eldest son [CQ-Osage]; i-lo-a-pa (ilapa) - first born son [Kaw]


kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, oldest boy's birth name, this differs with the JOD/RR entries, [MR] and [OM] are recorded saying kʰa-ke (kʰke) as oldest boy

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - oldest boy [MR, OM]

kʰa-ke (kʰke) - boy closer to you [AG]

cf. kʰa-ke (kʰke) - son, third son's birthname [JOD/RR]; kʰa-ke zhi-ka (kʰak ka) - son, 4th son's birthname [JOD/RR]

Dhegiha: ka-ge (kge) - younger brother [Omaha]; ʰka-ge (ḳa-ge), ʰka-ge wa-ha-ge (ḳa-ge wa-ha-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers, the younger brothers serve as messengers for the elder brothers [FL-Osage]; kxa-ke (kxke) - third son or subsequent son, synonymous with kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį) - third son or subsequent son in any clan [CQ-Osage]; kʰa-ge (kʰage) - 3rd son, all the way down past 3rd [Kaw] 


kʰa-zhiⁿ (kʰį) - son, first

Dhegiha: ʰka-zhiⁿ-ga (ḳ-zhiⁿ-ga) - the third son, special kinship term, little brother [FL-Osage]; kxa-zhiⁿ (kxį), kxa-zhiⁿ-ka (kxįka) - third son or subsequent son in any clan [CQ-Osage]; kha-hiⁿ-ga (khhiⁿga) - fifth-born son, youngest [Kaw]; kha-hiⁿ-ga-xtsi (khhiⁿgxci) - seventh-born son or smallest [Kaw]


first time, arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not one's home) to get one's own object

a-kda tʰi (kda tʰ) - arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not one's home) to get one's own object (horse, child, gun, etc.) a-kda a-tʰi (kda atʰ) - I, a-da-kda da-tʰi (adkda datʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-kda oⁿ-ka-tʰi-we (ǫkkda ǫktʰiwe) - we

cf. a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch one's own; a-kda kde (kda kd) - go homeward for one's own; tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi, iⁿ-kaⁿ, i-ke (awkda atʰ, įkk̨, ik) - he said to her, I have come for you (my own), grandmother [JOD]


first, ahead

e-taⁿ-ni (ett̨ni) - first, ahead wi-taⁿ-niⁿ (wttąnį) - I, di-taⁿ-niⁿ (dttąnį) - you

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-baⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį h wattbą tt mįkʰ, etttʰą okdxʔxʔwe k! iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d! iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first, and I will join you later on

ex: e-taⁿ-ni kʰi (ett̨ni kʰ) - she arrived home first [JOD]

ex: e-taⁿ-ni kda-i (ett̨ni kd-i) - they started home first [JOD]

ex: (kįttą ett̨ni kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨ni kʰ) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters) [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-toⁿ-thi (itoⁿ́thi) - ahead, first [Omaha]; i-toⁿ-thi a-ta (itoⁿthi ata) - ahead, advance [Omaha]; si i-tʰoⁿ-thiⁿ a-ta (s tʰⁿthiⁿata) - forefeet, front feet of an animal [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ʰtoⁿ-thiⁿ-a-ʰta (i-ṭoⁿ́-thiⁿ-a-ṭa) - to the front [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtoⁿ-thiⁿ ʰki-the (i-ṭoⁿ́-thiⁿ ḳi-the) - to go first, to go ahead [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtoiⁿ (iʰtį) - the future, the days to come, onward in time [CQ-Osage]; i-to-mi-ta-ha (itmitha) - in front, towards the front [Kaw]



ho (ho) - fish

ho (ho) - fish [MS, AB, OM]

ho (hŭh) - fish (poisson) [GI]

ho (ho˙) - fish [FS]

Dhegiha: hu-hu (huh) - fish [Omaha/Ponca]; hu-hu (huhu) - fish [Omaha]; ho (ho) - fish [FL-Osage]; ho (h) - fish [CQ-Osage]; ho (ho) - fish, fishes [Kaw]


fish bladder

ho sho-ka (ho kka) - fish bladder

cf. ho-te ho-sho-ka (hott hoka) - trout


fish gall

ho pi-zi (ho ppzi) - fish gall

cf. ho (ho) - fish; pi-zi (ppiz), piu-zi (pz) - gall; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pi-zi (wąka ppzi) - birds gall

Dhegiha: pi-zi (piz) - gall, gall bladder [Omaha]; pi-zi (p̣i-) - liver gall [FL-Osage]; ho pi-zi (h-p̣i-i) - fish gall [FL-Osage]; pu-ze (puz) - gall, bile [Kaw]; ho pu-zi (ho puz) - fish gall [Kaw]


fish hook

wa-hi ko-ke (wah kkke) - fish hook, lit. bent bone

cf. wa-hi (wah) - bone; wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line


fish liver

ho pi (hopp) - fish liver

cf. ho (ho) - fish; pi (ppi), piu (pp) - liver; ta pi (ttapp) - deers liver

Dhegiha: pi (pi) - liver [Omaha]; pi (p̣i) - liver [FL-Osage]


fish net

ho we-ki-xe (ho wkixe) - fish net


fish people, gens, clan

ho i-ni-ka-shi-ka (h inkkaka) - fish people, gens, left moiety, Hanga gens; from ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (ttodimą) - one of the five original Quapaw villages mentioned in early French narratives, often spelled Toriman or Thoriman by the French

ho i-ni-ka-shi-ka (h inkkak͓a) - the Fish gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

ho i-ni-ka-shi-ka (hu nikacka) - Fish people, obtained from Mrs. Stafford (five gentes not on the Haka side) [JOD]

cf. ho (ho) - fish

Dhegiha: ho i-ni-ʰka-shi-ga (h i-ni-ḳa-shi-ga) - Fish people, the name of a gens [FL-Osage]


fish scales

ho she-naⁿ-ke (ho nąkke) - fish scales


fish spear

ho we-ba-xto (ho wbaxto) - fish spear, with which to stab/pierce fish

cf. ho (ho) - fish; we (w-) - with which to; ba-xdo (baxd), baxto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear; wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto), wa-naⁿ-bdi-ba-xto (wan̨bdibaxto) - fork, a table fork, lit. "something to stick food"; i-ba-xdo-xdo (baxdoxd) - small pieces of meat roasted on sticks or spits [JOD]; ka-naⁿ-ba-xdo (ken̨baxd), ki-ne-ba-xdo (kinbaxd) - cactus plant; naⁿ-ta ba-xto (nątt baxt) - perforations for earrings; pa ba-xto (pp baxt) - nose perforation for ring

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]


fish tail, tail fin

ho i-be (ho be) - fish tail or tail fin

cf. ho (ho) - fish; i-be (be) - tail of bird; i-behiⁿ (behį) - tail feathers; i-be zhi-ka (be zkka) - hawk, red tailed or sparrow

Dhegiha: i-be (be) - tail feathers, birds tail [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-be (iⁿbe) - tail feathers, birds tail [Omaha]; iⁿ-be (ⁿ-be), oⁿ-be (ⁿ-be) - the tail of a bird, the buttocks [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-pe (̨pe) - hip, hips, tail, buttocks [CQ-Osage]; i-be (be), u-be (be) - bird tail [Kaw]


a-shke (ke) - fin of any kind, as on a fish


fish weir

ho we-bi-ti (ho wbitti) - fish weir (made of willow)


fish, buffalo fish

kaⁿ-ni (k̨ni) - buffalo fish


fish, catfish

to-ze  (ttze) - catfish, mud catfish

to-ze (ttze) - catfish [MS]

Dhegiha: tu-ze (tze) - dark catfish, found in the Missouri River [Omaha/Ponca]; tu-ze (te) - catfish [Omaha]; ʰto-ze (ṭ-e) - catfish [FL-Osage]; ʰto-ze (ʰtze) - catfish [CQ-Osage]


wa-to-ze (wattze) - catfish


mi-xe (mix) - the large black catfish


mi-xe ha sa-ki (mix ha ski) - smallest catfish, six to twelve inches

cf. ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; sa-ki (sak) - hard, firm


mi-zhaⁿ-iⁿ (mįį) - yellow catfish


ho taⁿ-ka (hŭh-tunkah) - catfish (catfish, angl) [GI]

cf. ho (ho) - fish; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large


fish, dogfish

ho ta-ma (ho ttma) - dogfish


fish, drumfish

ho da-tʰe (ho dtʰe), ho da-te (ho dtte) - drumfish


fish, garfish

ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish

ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi  sttte) - garfish [MS, OM]

cf. ho (ho) - fish; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; ste-te (sttte) - long, tall

Dhegiha: hu pa-si zne-de (hu psi znde) - gar pike, fish with a long nose tip [Omaha/Ponca]; hu pa-si sne-de (hupinede) - garfish [Omaha]; hu pa-si stse-e (hu p-i stse-e) - long nosed fish, garfish [FL-Osage]; ho pa-su stse-je (ho psu scje) - gar, lit. long nosed fish [Kaw]


fish, jack fish

mi-da (mda) - jack fish, (related to pike)


fish, spoonbill, paddlefish

pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, to stir up with the nose, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River

cf. pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; o-do-ka-hi (odokhi) - to stir, to stir up, to paddle; ta-ni-ka-hi (tankahi) - sumac, lit. "mix with tobacco"; ka-hi (kah) - fan someone

Dhegiha: u-thu-ga-hi (uthu gahi) - stir [Omaha]; moⁿ-de u-thu-ga-hi (moⁿde uthugahi) - oars [Omaha]; noⁿ-be u-thu-ga-hi (noⁿbe uthugahi) - wave at [Omaha]; siⁿ-de kʰe u-thu-ga-hi-hi (sⁿde kʰe uthgahih) - to switch the tail back and forth, to wag the tail [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thu-ga-hi (u-th-ga-hi) - to paddle, to stir up what is cooking or boiling [FL-Osage]; o-tho-ka-hi (okahi) - stir [CQ-Osage]


fish, sucker fish

ho bdo-ka (ho bdka) - sucker, lit. round fish

cf. ho (ho) - fish; bdo-ka (bdka) - circular, round, whole, entire

Dhegiha: hu bthu-ga (hubthga) - round fish [Omaha/Ponca]


fish, trout

ho-te ho-sho-ka (hott hoka) - trout

cf. ho sho-ka (ho kka) - fish bladder


fish, whitefish

pa-xa-koⁿ (ppxʔakk̨), (pxʔakkǫ) - whitefish


fishing line

wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ (wah kkke kk̨) - fishing line

cf. wa-hi ko-ke (wah kkke) - fish hook, lit. bent bone; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant, sinew, string, line, vein, artery

ex: wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ tʰe (wah kkke kk̨ tʰe) - the fishing line

Dhegiha: koⁿ (koⁿ) - sinew, root, string [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel, veins, artery, root, string [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ʰkoⁿ) - a vein or blood vessel, roots of trees or plants, sinew [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kʔą) - root [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein, artery, root, sinew, string [Kaw]


fist, clench the fist

noⁿ-pe di-ski-ke (nǫp diskke) - clench the fist

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; di-ski-ke (diskke) - clench, pack in the hands

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be thi-ski-ge (noⁿ-b thi-ki-ge) - hand folded, the fist [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-pe a-ski-ke (nǫǫp askke) - fist [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-be yu-ski-ge (naⁿb yuskge) - to make a fist, clench the fist [Kaw]



ki-shoⁿ-i (kįi) - it fits (them) [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her


Dhegiha: gi-shoⁿ (gishoⁿ) - be for [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - fit, proper, as it should be, enough, that will do [Omaha/Ponca]



sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five

sa-toⁿ (sttǫ) - five [MR, FR, AB, AG, OM]

sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five [MS]

sa-toⁿ (satton) - 5 [GI]

sa-toⁿ (sttǫ) - five [FS]

Dhegiha: sa-toⁿ (stoⁿ) - five [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-ʰtoⁿ (a-ṭoⁿ) - five [FL-Osage]; sa-ʰtaⁿ (sʰtą) - five [CQ-Osage]; sa-taⁿ (staⁿ) - five [Kaw]


five apiece, by fives

sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives

cf. miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece; naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece; da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes, 3 apiece; to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours; sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, at a time; pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens; pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, at a time; shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines; kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece/at a time; da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens, 13 apiece; sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each; pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, at a time; shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each; kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece; kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each; wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each, (distributive)

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]


five cents or fifteen cents, depending on the time

pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - picayune, 5 or 15 cents, depending on the time

pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą) - nickel, five cents [MS, OM]

pi-kai-oⁿ (ppikkaǫ) - 5 cents [JOD]

Dhegiha: pi-kiu (pikiu) - Picayunne or Nickel Band, named after the French coin [Kaw]


pe-ta-yoⁿ (petyǫ), (ppetyǫ) - picayune, 15 cents, approximately 15 cents


ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents [AG]

cf. ska-di (skdi), ska-ti (skti) - coinage, amount, measure [AG]; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (ikąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc., from iskali in Muskogean, escalin in French; de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one, exactly one; pe-ta-yoⁿ (petyǫ), (ppetyǫ) - picayune, 15 cents, approximately 15 cents; pi-kai-aⁿ (ppikkaą), pi-kai-oⁿ (ppikkaǫ) - picayune, 5 or 15 cents, depending on the time


Five Mile Creek

i-kaⁿ-ska-de sa-taⁿ wa-tʰi-shka (kąskde sattą watʰika) - Five Mile Creek, I.T.

cf. i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.; ma-zhaⁿ i-kaⁿ-ska-de miⁿ-xti (mą ikąskde mįxti) - one mile; sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five; wa-tʰi-shka (watʰka) - creek

Dhegiha: wa-chʰi-shka (wachʰshka) - creek, stream [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-chi-shka (wachshka) - creek, brook [Omaha]; wa-ʰtsi-shka (wa-ṭsi-shka) - a brook, obsolete among the Osage, but still used by the Omaha [FL-Osage]; wa-chiⁿ-shka (wachⁿshka) - river, small, a stream or creek, archaic [Kaw]


five, just five, only five

            sa-taⁿ hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

cf. sa-taⁿ (sttą) - five; hi (hi) - very; with numerals: just, only


fix, repair

ki-ka-xe (kikγe) - fix, repair a-ki-pa-xe (akppaγe) - I, da-ki-shka-xe (dakkaγe) - you

cf. ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: gi-ʰka-xe (gi-ḳ-xe) - to repair a house or some implement [FL-Osage]; gi-ga-xe (gi-g-xe) - vamp, repair, mend [FL-Osage]; ki-ka-xe (kikaɣe) - make over, do over, repair of fix something belonging to oneself or to another person, repair a torn place in a dress, redo, feform, make or produce for someone [CQ-Osage]


flame, very high blaze, flame

pe-te shte maⁿ-shi hi (ppettte m̨i h) - very high blaze, flame [JOD]

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; pe-te shte (ppettte) - blaze; maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative

Dhegiha: pe-de (pde) - fire, match [Omaha/Ponca]; pe-de (pede) - fire, matchstick [Omaha]; ʰpe-dse (p̣-dse) - fire [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-tse (ʰpece) - fire, cooking fire, meeting fire, cooking stove gas fire [CQ-Osage]; pe-je (pje) - fire [Kaw]


flap, door flap

ti-zhe i-da-kdaⁿ (tte idkdą), ti-zhi-da-kdaⁿ (ttidkdą) - door flap

cf. ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

Dhegiha: ti-zhe-be (tizhbe) - door, doorway, entrance to a tent, lodge, or house [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-zhe (ṭs-zhe), ʰtsi-zhe-be (ṭs-zhe-be) - the door of a house or tipi [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe (ʰci) - door [CQ-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe-pe (ʰcipe) - doorway, threshold, formal, used especially for God's doorway at funerals [CQ-Osage]; tsi-zhe-be (cizhbe) - door, doorway [Kaw]


ti-zhe (tti) - door flap [JOD]

ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

ti-zhe (tti) - door [MS]

ti-zhe (tigeh) - door (porte) [GI]

ex: ti-zhe di-a-ze (tti dize) - she pulled the door flap aside, she opened the door [JOD]

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

Dhegiha: ti-zhe-be (tizhbe) - door, doorway, entrance to a tent, lodge, or house [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-zhe (ṭs-zhe), ʰtsi-zhe-be (ṭs-zhe-be) - the door of a house or tipi [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe (ʰci) - door [CQ-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe-pe (ʰcipe) - doorway, threshold, formal, used especially for God's doorway at funerals [CQ-Osage]; tsi-zhe-be (cizhbe) - door, doorway [Kaw]


flaps, moccasin flaps

hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha (hǫb̨tteha) - moccasin flaps

cf. hoⁿ-be (hǫb), hoⁿ-pe (hǫp) - shoes, moccasins

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-be di-ha (hiⁿbdiha) - the flaps of a moccasin, which can be turned up around the ankle, or down over the moccasin [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-be iⁿ-dse ha (hⁿ-be iⁿ-dse ha) - the lappets, the face of the moccasin [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-be ji-ha (hoⁿbjiha) - moccasin flap [Kaw]


hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha a-di-be-xiⁿ (hǫb̨tteha dibex̨) - turn down the flaps of moccasins

cf. hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha (hǫb̨tteha) - moccasin flaps; a-di-be-xiⁿ (dibex̨) - fold down; cf. di-be-xiⁿ (dbexʔ̨) - bend down, pull down


hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha ni-ke (hǫb̨tteha nik) - slippers, lit. without moccasin flaps

cf. hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha (hǫb̨tteha) - moccasin flaps; ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿge) - blank, obsolete, zero, vanish, nothing, none, erosion, absent, lack [Omaha]; thiⁿ-ge (thⁿ-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]


hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha shte-ka (hǫb̨tteha tka) - slippers, lit., short moccasin flaps

cf. shte-ka (tka), (tek) - short; shte-ka hi (tka hi), (tek hi) - short [MS]; ma-ze shte-ka (maz tka) - pistol, short gun; wa-tʰe shte-ka (watʰ tek) - short dress [JOD]; di-ti wa-hi o-shte-ka (dtti wahi otka) - short rib


flaps, smoke hole flaps

ti-ho-kaⁿ i-da-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką idkabnį) - smoke hole flaps

cf. ti-ho-kaⁿ (tthokką) - smoke hole; a-ka-bniⁿ (kabnį) - cover, hang down evenly over an object

ex: ti-ho-kaⁿ a-ka-bniⁿ (tthokką kabnį) - to close the triangular ends of the tent skins forming the smoke-hole

Dhegiha: ti hu-ga-bthiⁿ tha (ti hugabthiⁿ tha) - smoke flaps [Omaha]; ti hu-koⁿ (ti hukoⁿ) - stovepipe, smoke hole, flue chimney [Omaha]; ti-hu-koⁿ (thukoⁿ) - smoke hole at the top of a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-hu-ʰkoⁿ (ṭs-hu-ḳoⁿ) - smoke hole of a tent or lodge, this was generally made in the top of the tent or lodge, so that the smoke in rising would pass out [FL-Osage]; tsi-ho-ka (choka) - smoke hole of a lodge, chimney [Kaw]


flared, curved

be-shiⁿ (bį) - curved, flared

cf. di-be-shiⁿ (dibę) - bend something backwards

Dhegiha: be-shiⁿ (b-shiⁿ) - the shape of a china cup which flares at the top [FL-Osage]



o-ki-aⁿ-ba (kkiąba) - flash

cf. aⁿ-ba (̨ba) - morning, before daybreak; haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; haⁿ-ba (hąb), hoⁿ-ba (hǫb) - light, the morning light; ti o-haⁿ-ba-de (tt oh̨bade) - window, what admits light; di-aⁿ-ba (dįba) - sheet lightning; taⁿ-ba (t̨ba), toⁿ-ba (t̨ba) - a light



bda-ska (bdska) - flat

cf. zhaⁿ bda-ska (ąbdska) - board, flat wood; di-bda-ska (dibdska) - flatten, fold flat; iⁿ-chʰoⁿ bda-ska (̨čʰǫ bdska) - flying squirrel; ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Nebraska [OM]; ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Platte river, NE

Dhegiha: bda-ska (bdska) - flat [RR-Quapaw]; btha-ska (bthska) - flat [Omaha/Ponca]; btha-ska (bth-ka) - flatten [FL-Osage]; bra-ska (braska) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ska (blska) - flat, as the edges, not the surfaces, of something [Kaw]


flat insect, bedbug

wa-kdi-shka bda-ska (wakdka bdska), wa-xti-shka bda-ska (waxtka bdska) - bedbug, flat insects

cf. wa-kdi-shka (wakdka) - bug, insect, reptile; bda-ska (bdska) - flat

Dhegiha: wa-gthi-shka btha-ska (wagthshka bthska) - chinch, chinch bug, flat insect [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-gthi-shka btha-ska (wagthishka bthaska) - bed bug [Omaha]


flat, level

bda-da (bdda) - flat, level

Dhegiha: btha-tha (bththa) - level [Omaha/Ponca]; btha-tha (bth-tha) - broad, wide [FL-Osage]; bra-tha (braa) - broad, wide and smooth, as a prairie, smoothed out [CQ-Osage]; bla-ya (blya) - level, without cuts or hills [Kaw]


flatten by pressure/blowing

bi-sti-sti (biststi) - flatten by pressure/blowing pi-sti-sti (ppstisti) - I, shpi-sti-sti (pstisti) - you

cf. a-kniⁿ bi-sti-sti (knį biststi) - chair with inner springs


flatten from pulling something

di-sto-de (distde) - flatten from pulling something bdi-sto-de (bdstode) - I, ti-sto-de (ttstode) - you

cf. ka-sto-de (kastde) - smooth out, as feathers


flatten, fold flat

di-bda-ska (dibdska) - flatten, fold flat bdi-bda-ska (bdbdaska) - I, ti-bda-ska (ttbdaska) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; bda-ska (bdska) - flat; ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Platte river, NE; ni bda-ska (ni bdska) - Nebraska [OM]; iⁿ-chʰoⁿ bda-ska (̨čʰǫ bdska) - flying squirrel; zhaⁿ bda-ska (ąbdska) - board; naⁿ-pe bda-ska i-tʰiⁿ (nąp bdask itʰ̨) - slap; wa-kdi-shka bda-ska (wakdka bdska), wa-xti-shka bda-ska (waxtka bdska) - bedbug, flat insects

Dhegiha: btha-ska (bthska) - flat [Omaha/Ponca]; btha-ska (bth-ka) - flatten [FL-Osage]; bra-ska (braska) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ska (blska) - flat, as the edges, not the surfaces, of something [Kaw]


flay, skin with a knife

di-xa (diγ) - flay, skin with a knife bdi-xa (bdγa) - I, ti-xa (ttγa) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xa-be (thi-x-be) - to flay, to strip off skin, to torture [FL-Osage]

gha-be (ghbe), gha-we (ghwe) - root flay, strip, remove skin [Kaw]



ta-kde-ska (takdska) - flea

ta-kde-ska (takdska) - flea [MS]

tʰa-kde-ska (t'aGeDsGa) - flea [FS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta-kde-ska a-niⁿ niⁿ (̨ke takdska an̨ nį) - dog got fleas [MS]

Dhegiha: da-t'e-ga (dt'ega) - flea [Omaha/Ponca]; da-te-ga (datega) - flea [Omaha]


flee, run away

ha-ze (hze) - run away, flee a-ha-ze (ahze) - I, da-ha-ze (dahze) - you

cf. ki-ha-ze (khaze) - run, flee from

ex: ha-za-wi (hzaw) - they fled [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ke taⁿ-ha shoⁿ-zhi-ka miⁿ-xti-naⁿ-naⁿ a-niⁿ aⁿ-ha-ze da-we (waxʔ twa ke t̨ha ̨ika m̨xtin̨ną nį ̨hze dwe) - the four women, each took a pup as they fled [JOD]

Dhegiha: ha-ze (h-e) - to flee, to flee from danger, to run away out of harms reach, to escape [FL-Osage]; ha-ze (hze) - run away, flee [Kaw]


ki-ha-ze (khaze) - run, flee from a-ha-ze (haze) - I, da-ha-ze (dhaze) - you

cf. ha-ze (hze) - run away, flee

Dhegiha: gi-ha-ze (g-ha-e) - to shun, to avoid, to evade [FL-Osage]


flesh, skin, meat

zho (o) - flesh, meat

zho (o) - flesh, skin [MS, OM]

zho (jŭh) - meat (viande) [GI]

zho (o) - flesh [FS]

cf. zho zhi-te (otte) - Indian; i-ha-zho (ha) - lip; te-ska zho (ttesk o) - beef [AB, AG]; ta zho (tta) - venison, deer flesh/meat [JOD]; wa-sa zho (was o) - black bear meat, lit. black bear - flesh, body [JOD]; zho-i-ka (oka), (ika) - body, self; zho-ka-te (kkatte) - fever, to have a fever; zho do-ka-niⁿ hi ( dokknį h) - naked, nude; ni-te-a-zho (nitteo) - rump, buttocks

ex: shoⁿ-hi-te aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe, aⁿ-te taⁿ zho za-ni ta-xaⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿki-ye (̨hite ątʔ tta mįkʰ, ątʔ tą zan txʔąkid-nihĕ́, ąn̨kiye) - well/at any rate I am going to die, when I'm dead barbecue all my flesh for me, he said to me [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe taⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe tʔą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu (zhu) - flesh, body [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu (zhu) - flesh or body [FL-Osage]


flesher for hides

we-ka-ko (wkakʔo) - flesher for hides

cf. we-ba-ko (wbakʔo) - scraper or flesher for hides

Dhegiha: we-ga-u (wgau) - scraper, scarper used in fleshing hides [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ga-ʰku (w-ga-ḳu) - skin scraper [FL-Osage]; we-ga-ko (wgako) - scraper, flesher for hides [Kaw]


we-ba-ko (wbakʔo) - scraper or flesher for hides

cf. we-ka-ko (wkakʔo) - flesher for hides



ki-ka-ze (kikze) - it flew up on her [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-ze (̨kaze) - it flew up on me [JOD]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ąkaze h k̨ hi ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰe naⁿ ki-ka-ze kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (watʰ ną kikze ką-k iywe) - dress-only(?)-it flew up on her-she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing)-they say [JOD]


flicker, red shafted flicker, yellow hammer

zaⁿ-zi-ka (z̨zikka) - flicker, red shafted; yellow winged woodpecker

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zi-ga (zⁿziga) - red-shafted flicker, woodpecker [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-zi-ga (ⁿ-i-ga) - the flicker, yellow hammer, belongs to the woodpecker family [FL-Osage]; thoⁿ-zi-ga (thoⁿiga) - flicker bird [Omaha]; zi-zi-ga taⁿ-ga (zziga tⁿga) - the flicker [Kaw]


flint arrowhead

maⁿ-hiⁿ si (m̨hį s) - arrowhead

maⁿ-hiⁿ si (maⁿ hī sǐ) - arrowhead charm representing "Fire-man" or more probably "Flint-fire-man". When under the influence of "mescal (peyote) the Indians think that they can commune with this being by holding the charm in their hand, from George Red Eagle [MH]

ex: wa-naⁿ-'iⁿ (wŭ nŭ ī) - medicine necklace, this is worn in the "mescal" (peyote) ceremony. It bears an arrowhead charm maⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿ hī si) representing Flint-Fire, panther claw (m t) [maⁿ-tʰo (mątʰ) - grizzly bear] representing the panther that shows the way to the spirit world, and a medicine root m kuⁿ [ma-kaⁿ (makk̨) - medicine] "to make everything all right in the lodge." Any of these may be "talked to" by people under the influence of "mescal" by holding the charm in the hand. This speciman was very hard to get, from Solomon Quapaw [MH]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ-si (mⁿ-hiⁿ-i) - flint arrow point [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-hiⁿ-si ba-xtha (mⁿ-hiⁿ-i ba-xtha) - fire flint [FL-Osage]; iⁿ maⁿ-hiⁿ su (ⁿ mⁿhiⁿ s) - flint arrowhead [Kaw]



po-ta-xe (pttaγe) - to flip, withforefinger/thumb po-a-ta-xe (poattaγe) - I, po-da-ta-xe (pdattaγe) - you

Dhegiha: bo-da-ghe (bdaghe) - flip [Kaw]


di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip bdi-xa-da (bdxada) - I, ti-xa-da (ttxada) - you

cf. bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

Dhegiha: xi-a-tha (qitha) - fall, to fall as when walking on solid ground, fallen, fallen down [Omaha/Ponca]; xi-a-tha (xiatha) - fell [Omaha]; xi-a-tha (x-a-tha) - to fall [FL-Osage]; xi-tha (x-tha) - to topple, to fall, to die, to perish [FL-Osage]; xi-tha (xa) - fall, stumble, fall down, stumble and fall, topple, euphemism for die, pass away [CQ-Osage]; xi-ya (xya) - fall down, but not from a height, said of someone or something already touching the ground [Kaw]; bu-xi-ya (buxya) - cause to fall due to pressing or leaning on, to make anything fall (when one end touches the ground) by pushing against it with the hands, by pressing or leaning on it [Kaw]



ka-ha (kah) - float

ex: ni o-ka-ha-ha (ni okhaha) - floated along on the water [JOD]

ex: ni-ti o-ka-ha-ha niⁿ-kʰe (ntti okhaha nįkʰ) - he was floating along in the water [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ga-ha (ugha) - float, drift in water, adrift [Omaha]; u-ga-ha-ha (ughah) - float, ripple, to float along in tiny ripples [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-ha-ha (ga-h-ha) - floating, swinging up and down to the rhythm of the waves [FL-Osage]; u-ga-ha-ha (u-g-ha-ha) - floating about [FL-Osage]; ga-ha (gah) - blown along, as by the wind, ga-ha (gah) does not take pronouns, to use this word, put any word that means 'come' or 'go' after it and only conjugate the 'come' or 'go' verb [Kaw]


i-ka-xa (kaxa) - float up against, bump, hook on as when floating by aⁿ-naⁿ-ka-xa (ąn̨kaxa) - I, i-di-ka-xa (dikaxa) - you


flood, overflow

ni-taⁿ (ntą) - flood, overflow

ni-taⁿ (ntą) - flood [MS]

ni-taⁿ (ni taⁿ́) - male name, Overflow [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-toⁿ (ntoⁿ) - flood [Omaha]; ni-doⁿ (ni-dⁿ) - a flood, the overflowing of a stream, a freshet [FL-Osage]; ni-taⁿ (nitą), ni-ta (nita) - flooding water, running water that is flooding, as over a spillway, elephant [CQ-Osage]; ni-daⁿ (nidⁿ) - flood, high water, freshet [Kaw]


a-biⁿ-te (bįtte) - overflow; said of a flood that washes mud over the ground



a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - floor

a-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - to stand upon

cf. a () - on, upon; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand; iⁿ-ka-bde a-na-zhiⁿ (įkbde anį) - Lovers Leap near Quapaw, OK; a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on one's own; o-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand in a place

ex: a-na-zhiⁿ kʰe (naį kʰe) - the floor

Dhegiha: a-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (-noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to stand on [FL-Osage]; a-naⁿ-zhiⁿ (nąąį) - stand on top of, be superior to in some quality, step on, step in [CQ-Osage]; a-na-zhiⁿ (nazhiⁿ), a-no-zhiⁿ (nozhiⁿ) - stand on something, step on something [Kaw]


floor, drum on ground or floor with feet

naⁿ-ko-ke (nąkkke) - drum on ground or floor with feet a-naⁿ-ko-ke (an̨kkoke) - I, da-naⁿ-ko-ke (dan̨kkoke) - you

cf. ba-ko-ke (bakkke) - drum, thump as on a door; bi-ko-ke (bikkke) - drum on something with palm; ka-ko-ke (kakkke) - beat a drum; po-ko-ke (pkkoke) - rumbling from shooting against

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ko-ge (noⁿ-k-ge) - a thud, as of stamping the foot [FL-Osage]



pe-zhe-xta (ppexta) - wheat, flour

pe-zhe xta (ppexta) - flour [MS, AB]

pe-zhe xta (pehghexdah) - flour (farine) [GI]

pe-zhe-xta (ppexta) - flour [JOD]

cf. pe-zhe xta (ppexta) - wheat, flour; pe-zhe xta wa-ske (ppexta wske) - wheat bread; pe-zhe xda-he sto-de (ppe xdhe stde) - wheat stack; pe-zhe xta si (ppexta si) - rice [OM]; pe-zhe xta si zhi-ka (ppext si ka) - rice [JOD]

ex: pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde (ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde) - flour-barrel-filled-set up in a row [JOD]

Dhegiha: pe-zhe (pzhe) - grass [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpe-zhe (p̩-zhe) - grass or hay, weeds [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-zhe (ʰpe) - weed, sage, sage brush [CQ-Osage]; pe-zhe (pzhe) - hay, weeds, grass [Kaw]



ma-hiⁿ-xta (mah̨xta) - flower

cf. ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass; o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom; zhoⁿ xda (ǫxd) - bud

Dhegiha: xtha (xtha) - reduce, blossom [Omaha]; xtha (xtha) - blossoms of any kind [FL-Osage]; ʰla sk (ʰlaask) - flower [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ʰla (ą́ąʰlaa ) - blossom or flower on a tree [CQ-Osage]; xla (xla) - flower, bud on a tree [Kaw]


maⁿ-hi sta (mąhstą) - flower [MS]

cf. ma-hiⁿ (mah̨) - grass

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ tu (moⁿhⁿtu) - grass [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ (moⁿ-hⁿ) - grass [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (mąąh̨) - grass, hay [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ (maⁿhⁿ) - grass, weeds [Kaw]


flush out with the feet, drive

naⁿ-zhi-we (nąwe) - drive, flush out with the feet a-naⁿ-zhi-we (an̨iwe) - I, da-naⁿ-zhi-we (dan̨iwe) - you

cf. ba-zhi (ba) - drive something or someone off; ba-zhi de-de (ba dde) - scare out, flush out; wa-ba-zhi (wba) - drive them off [MS, FR]

Dhegiha: ba-si (bas) - to drive one animal [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-a-ze (baaz) - to drive, as a pony or ox [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-a-ze (ba ae) - drive [Omaha]; ba-a-ze (ba ae) - scare [Omaha]; ba-zhi (ba-) - to drive away [FL-Osage]; ka-zhi (kaa) - drive a vehicle, herd animals [CQ-Osage]; ga-zhiⁿ (gazhⁿ) - whip, drive a horse [Kaw]


flush out, scare out

ba-zhi de-de (ba dde) - scare out, flush out pa-zhi de-a-de (ppi dade) - I, shpa-zhi de-da-de (pi ddade) - you

cf. ba-zhi (ba) - drive something or someone off; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; wa-ba-zhi (wba) - drive them off [MS, FR]; naⁿ-zhi-we (nąwe) - drive, flush out with the feet

Dhegiha: ba-si (bas) - to drive one animal [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-a-ze (baaz) - to drive, as a pony or ox [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-a-ze (ba ae) - drive [Omaha]; ba-a-ze (ba ae) - scare [Omaha]; ba-zhi (ba-) - to drive away [FL-Osage]; ka-zhi (kaa) - drive a vehicle, herd animals [CQ-Osage]; ga-zhiⁿ (gazhⁿ) - whip, drive a horse [Kaw]


flute, to call to

ki-baⁿ (kibą) - flute, to call to

ki-baⁿ (gī boⁿ) - flute of cedar, from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

ki-baⁿ (gī boⁿ) - flute of cane, used by a lover to signal to his sweetheart, or to play when one "feels lonesome", from Geroge Red Eagle [MH]

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; wa-te-baⁿ (wattb̨) - to give the attacking cry [JOD]; wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I call to them; wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal

ex: ki-baⁿ o-bi-xoⁿ (kibą obγǫ) - flute-blowing on [JOD]

ex: o-zha a-di-shtaⁿ ki-baⁿ o-bi-xoⁿ pa naⁿ (a ditą kibą obγǫ p ną) - they quit dancing when a flute was blown [JOD]

ex: kdaⁿ-ni-ke ki-baⁿ, i-she koⁿ-bda zhi, kdaⁿ-ni-ke  ki-baⁿ ta (kdąnke kibą, i kkǫbd i, kdąnke kibą ta) - I dont want you to say, when Im drinking around here [MS]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msanttą nkkaka m̨ kibą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-boⁿ (kiboⁿ) - invite [Omaha]; gi-boⁿ (g-boⁿ) - to call from a distance, to summon, to call to appear [FL-Osage]; ki-ʰpaⁿ (kʰpą) - call, invite ones relative(s) [CQ-Osage]; ki-paⁿ (kpą) - call or visit to ask or summon someone to attend or appear before others, invite someone, not a relative [CQ-Osage]; gi-baⁿ (gibⁿ) - call to ones own children, etc. [Kaw]; gi-baⁿ (gbaⁿ) - call to someone, call to another, call to anothers child, etc. [Kaw]


fly against or into

o-i-naⁿ (iną) - fly against or into, as insects fly into the eyes


fly, a species of fly

ti-o-kde (ttikde) - a species of fly


fly, blow fly

haⁿ-te-ka taⁿ-ka (h̨tʔeka tt̨ka), hoⁿ-te-ka taⁿ-ka (h̨tteka tt̨ka) - fly, blow fly

cf. haⁿ-te-ka (h̨tʔeka), hoⁿ-te-ka (h̨tʔeka), hoⁿ-te-ka (hǫtteka) - fly, house fly; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large


fly, butterfly

ti-na (tna) - butterfly

Dhegiha: wa-ti-ni-ni-ka (watninika) - butterfly [Omaha]; dsi-oⁿ dsi-oⁿ (dsi-ⁿ dsi-oⁿ) - butterfly [FL-Osage]; dsiⁿ-tha ʰtoⁿ-ga (dsiⁿ-tha ṭoⁿ-ga) - large butterfly [FL-Osage]


fly, dragonfly

ti-te-ska (ttittska) - dragonfly


fly, horsefly

zhoⁿ-kde-shka (ǫkdka) - horse fly

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-gthi-shka (zhⁿ-gthi-shka) - horsefly [FL-Osage]


fly, house fly

haⁿ-te-ka (h̨tʔeka), hoⁿ-te-ka (h̨tʔeka), hoⁿ-te-ka (hǫtteka) - fly, house fly

hoⁿ-te-ka (h̨tʔeka) - fly (house fly) [MS]

cf. haⁿ-te-ka taⁿ-ka (h̨tʔeka tt̨ka), hoⁿ-te-ka taⁿ-ka (h̨tteka tt̨ka) - fly, blow fly

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-te-ga (hⁿtega) - fly, insect [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-te-ga (hoⁿtega) - house fly [Omaha]; hoⁿ-ʰtse-ga (hⁿ-ṭse-ga) - common house fly [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ʰtse-ka (hą́ʰceka) - fly, housefly [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-tse-ga (hⁿcega) - fly, bull fly [Kaw]


fly, to fly

ki-aⁿ (kį), ki-oⁿ (kį) - fly

ki-oⁿ (kį) - fly (as birds) [MS]

Dhegiha: gi-oⁿ (giⁿ) - fly, to fly [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-oⁿ (gi-ⁿ) - to fly [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (k̜į) - fly, as birds do, ride in an airplne [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-yaⁿ (giyaⁿ) - fly over, fly on [Kaw]


flying squirrel

iⁿ-chʰoⁿ bda-ska (̨čʰǫ bdska) - flying squirrel

cf. iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ tt̨ka) - rat; bda-ska (bdska) - flat; iⁿ-chʰaⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ka), iⁿ-chʰoⁿ-ka (įčʰ̨ka) - mouse; i-chʰoⁿ pa-zi-ta-da (įčʰ̨ppazttad) - field mouse

Dhegiha: iⁿ-choⁿ btha-xe (iⁿ-chⁿ-btha-xe) - a flying squirrel [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-choⁿ bla-ghe (iⁿchⁿ blghe) - flying squirrel [Kaw]



a-bi-xe (biγe) - boil, foam

ex: ni a-bi-xe (ni biγe) - to boil, as water

Dhegiha: a-bi-xe (bixe) - to boil, to foam [Omaha/Ponca]; a-bi-xe (abixe) - boil [Omaha]; a-bi-xe (-bi-xe) - the boiling of water [FL-Osage]; a-pu-xe (puγe) - boil, as food boils when cooking, foam up [CQ-Osage]; a-bu-ghe (bughe) - boil, as water [Kaw]


ni ta-xe (ni ttxe) - foam

cf. ni (ni) - water; ta-xe (ttxe) - knob, knobby, knot

Dhegiha: ʰta-xe (ṭa-xe) - knot, knob [FL-Osage]; ta-ta-xe (tataxe) - knobby [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ta-xu-xe (taqxe) - froth, foam, bubbles on the surface of a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xu-xe (taxxe) - bubble, froth, foam, lather [Omaha]; ʰta-ʰto-xa (ṭa-ṭ-xa) - foam, froth, soapsuds, saliva [FL-Osage]



ma-sho-te (matte) - fog

cf. sho-te (tte) - smoke; ma-sh-sho-te (motte) - dust; i-ka-sho-te (katte) - blizzard

Dhegiha: shu-de ma-hoⁿ (shdemhoⁿ) - mist, fog, mist, dense fog [Omaha/Ponca]; u-shu-de (ushde) - smoky, foggy, turbid [Omaha/Ponca]; u-shu-de (ushude) - hazy, brackish [Omaha]; shu-de moⁿ-hoⁿ (shude moⁿhoⁿ) - fog [Omaha]; moⁿ-sho-de moⁿ-iⁿ (moⁿ-sh de-moⁿ-iⁿ) - Travelers in the Mist [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sho-dse (moⁿ-sh-dse) - dust blown or carried by the wind [FL-Osage]; i-ʰki-sho-dse (i-ḳi-sho-dse) - haze, mist, fog [FL-Osage]; i-ʰki-sho-tse (ʰkioce) - fog [CQ-Osage]; sho-je (shje) - smoke, fog, to smoke [Kaw]; i-ki-sho-je (kishje) - to be foggy, misty [Kaw]


folkloric figures in Quapaw mythology

miⁿ-xo-ke (mįxke) - folkloric figures in Quapaw mythology

Dhegiha: mi-xu-ga (mixuga) - lewd man, refers homosexual behavior [Omaha]; te miⁿ-xu-ga (temⁿquga) - freemartin, hermaphrodite buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-xo-ke (miixke) - homosexual, lesbian, gay person [CQ-Osage]; ʰtse miⁿ-xu-ga (ṭse-mⁿ-xu-ga) - a hermaphrodite buffalo [FL-Osage]; miⁿ-xo-ge (miⁿxge) - catamite, male or femal, between a man and a woman, homosexual, gay, lesbian, hermaphrodite; JOD regarding the m-a-lo-shka: a mythical race of beings, with large heads, and long hair, dwelling in solitary places, to which they are supposed to entice unwary Indians. Their victims become crazy, and live as miⁿ-x-ge - hermaphrodites [Kaw]


follow their trail or tracks

o-do-he (odhe) - trail, track, follow their trail/tracks [JOD]

ex: o-do-wa-he (odwahe) - trailing them [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thu-he (uthhe) - follow, abide, cradle [Omaha]; u-thu-he (uthhe) - to follow [JOD-Omaha]


follow, go with, attend

e-ti o-i-he (tti ih) - follow, go with, attend

cf. e-ti (ett), (tti) - there


following along

o-pa (op) - following along [JOD]

ex: ni o-pa a-niⁿ kda-wi (n op an̨ kdwi) - they took him homeward along/following the water (river) [JOD]

ex: o-zhoⁿ-ke e-zhi o-pa (ǫke i op) - she followed along a different road [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ʰpa (u-p̣) - length and breadth [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰki-gtha-dse u-ʰpa (w-ḳi-gtha-dse u-p̣a) - to obey the law [FL-Osage]; u-gi-ʰpa (u-g-p̣a) - to obey, to retrace [FL-Osage]; o-pxa (opx), o-pxaⁿ (opx̨) - follow as a path, go through or down as a road [CQ-Osage]; o-pha (oph) - follow the course of a stream or a road [Kaw]


following behind, or after

a-shi-aⁿ-he (įhe) - behind, or after him JOD]

a-shi-aⁿ-he (iąh) - afterward [JOD]

cf. a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - last of a party or series; a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago); a-shi-oⁿ-he-ta (iǫhttą) - later, afterward; a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - outside of (an enclosure); a-shi-ta (atta) - behind, at or to the back or rear

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he niⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke wa-zhiⁿ-ke ki-te niⁿ taⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he i-ya-we ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mat̨ke nį įhe nį iywe, h̨ka ęke wąka kktte nį t̨ įhe iywe mat̨ke) - the rabbit followed along behind, they say, when Haⁿ-kas son was shooting birds, rabbit followed along behind him, they say [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-te a-shi-aⁿ-he ni-she (e h̨tte įhe niĕ) - why are you following behind? [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka wa-da-ki-te naⁿ maⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ te a-shi-aⁿ-he a-ni-he (wąka wadkkitt n̨ m̨ wibdze am̨bdį tte įhe anih) - when you shoot the birds, Ill walk behind you getting the arrows for you [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-da-de naⁿ-haⁿ wi-bdi-ze a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ te a-shi-aⁿ-he (in̨ wąka tʔdade nąh̨ wibdze am̨bdį tte įhe) - if you kill a bird again, Ill walk behind and get it for you [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ a-shi-aⁿ-he de (wah̨nįk tʰą iąh d) - the orphan went afterward (behind them, after them) [JOD]

Dhegiha: ha-shi (hashi) - last [Omaha]; ha-shi (h-shi) - the last one, the end of things, Omega [FL-Osage]; ha-shi (haa), (hai) - last, in the back of, behind [CQ-Osage]; ha-shi (hshi), (hash) - last, tail end [Kaw]


following, following its course

u-ha (uh) - following, following its course [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔak tʰą ni oh watt̨ akid tta tʰ̨ ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: ni o-ha naⁿ kde e-shoⁿ-hi ki i-ya-we (n oh ną kd ǫhi k iywe) - she followed the course of the stream/water heading home, after some time she reached home, they say [JOD]

ex: o-ha de (ha d) - to go in that direction, go along that path [JOD]

ex: hi-da-ta-kde o-ha de (hidttakde ha d) - she ascended the ladder [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ha (uh) - following, following it, following the course [JOD-Omaha]; u-ha u-ga-shoⁿ (uha ugashoⁿ) - tour [Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of, from [CQ-Osage]


Back to Top