English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

B

 

bread

wa-ske (wske), wa-ske (wask) - bread, cake or any sort

wa-ske (wske) - bread [AG, OM]

wa-ske (uaskeh) - bread, loaf (pain) [GI]

wa-ske (w˙sGe) - bread [FS]

cf. wa-ske di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (wske dįǫ) - dumplings, corn; wa-ske ski-de (wskeskde) - cake; ma-ze-ni wa-ske (mazni wske) - cheese, lit. "milk cake"

ex: wa-ske koⁿ-bda (wske kkǫbd) - pass the bread (I want bread) [MS]

ex: wa-ske ka-xa hne (wske kγa hn) - you making bread (make bread!) [MS]

ex: wa-ske tʰe ta bde (wske tʰe tta bd) - I'm going to make bread (the bread, I'm going) [OM]

Dhegiha: wa-mu-ske (wamke) - bread, barley [Omaha]; wa-mu-ske (wamske) - wheat, bread, wheat bread [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-bo-ske (wa-b-ke) - wheat, flour [FL-Osage]; wa-bo-ski (wabski) - bread, wheat flour [Kaw]

 

bread, cornbread

wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread

cf. wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal, from di-taⁿ-ha (dittąha) to crank; wa-ske (wske) - bread

 

bread, fry bread

wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wkdtahą) - fry bread [MS, MR, FR]

cf. wa-ske (wske) - bread; we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (wkdi otahą) - fry, fried, cooked with grease

 

bread, rye bread

wa-ske taⁿ-ka (wske tt̨ka) - rye bread [MS]

cf. wa-ske (wske) - bread; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

bread, wheat bread

pe-zhe-xta wa-ske (ppexta wske) - wheat bread

cf. pe-zhe-xta (ppexta) - wheat, flour; wa-ske (wske) - bread

 

break

bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break, crush pi-xoⁿ (ppxǫ) - I, shpi-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - you

bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break [MS]

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing: inner instrumental prefix; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken, broke

Dhegiha: bi-xoⁿ (bixoⁿ) - fracture [Omaha]; bi-xoⁿ (bi-xoⁿ́) - to break down, to crease [FL-Osage]

 

da-xoⁿ (dax̨) - break by biting bda-xoⁿ (bdax̨) - I, ta-xoⁿ (ttax̨) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth: inner instrumental prefix; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken, broke

Dhegiha: tha-xoⁿ (tha-xⁿ) - to break by biting [FL-Osage]; tha-xoⁿ (aax̨) - break by biting, mouth [CQ-Osage]; ya-xoⁿ (yaxⁿ) - break with the teeth [Kaw]

 

di-xoⁿ (dix̨) - break, as a stick with the hands bdi-xoⁿ (bdxǫ) - I, ti-xoⁿ (ttxǫ) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling: inner instrumental prefix; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken, broke

Dhegiha: thi-xoⁿ (thixoⁿ) - fracture, break, broken [Omaha]; thi-xoⁿ (thi-xⁿ) - to break a stick in half [FL-Osage]; thi-xoⁿ (iix̨) - break by hand, break into two parts, break off a long item by using the hands [CQ-Osage]; yu-xoⁿ (yuxⁿ) - break or crack something by pulling or bending, but not necessarily in two [Kaw]

 

ka-xoⁿ (kax̨) - break something by hitting it a-xoⁿ (xǫ) - I, da-xoⁿ (dxǫ) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water: inner instrumental prefix; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken, broke

Dhegiha: ga-xoⁿ (gaxoⁿ) - break by striking [Omaha]; ga-xoⁿ (ga-xⁿ) - to break anything by striking it [FL-Osage]; ka-xoⁿ (kaax̨) - break by striking (a long object such as a stick), break off (a long object such as a stick) [CQ-Osage]; ga-xoⁿ (gaxⁿ) - break as a stick, nail, ear of corn by striking [Kaw]

 

a-ka-xoⁿ (kaxǫ) - break something by striking another object a-ka-xoⁿ (akaxǫ) - I, a-da-ka-xoⁿ (dakaxǫ) - you

            cf. ka-xoⁿ (kax̨) - break something by hitting it

 

po-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - shoot in two, break punching po-a-xoⁿ (poxǫ) - I, po-da-xoⁿ (pdaxǫ) - you, po-oⁿ-xoⁿ-we (Pǫxǫw) - we

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing: outer instrumental prefix; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken, broke

Dhegiha: bo-xoⁿ (bxoⁿ) - break, as a bone, by shooting [Kaw]

 

ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting pa-ba-xe (ppbaγe) - I, shpa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - you

cf. da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: ba-ba-xe (b-ba-xe) - to cut a cord or rope with a knife [FL-Osage]; ba-ba-ghe (babghe) - push apart, pull apart, to break a cord, etc. with the point of a knife or stick pushed firmly against it [Kaw]

 

di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling bdi-ba-xe (bdbaxe) - I, ti-ba-xe (ttbaxe) - you

cf. da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: thi-ba-xe (thi-b-xe) - to break a string in half [FL-Osage]; yu-ba-ghe (yubghe) - break or snap a cord by pulling with the hands [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet a-naⁿ-ba-xe (an̨baγe) - I, da-naⁿ-ba-xe (dan̨baγe) - you

cf. da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ba-xe (noⁿ-b-xe) - to break a cord with the feet, the breaking of a moccasin string, to break a shoe string [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-ba-ghe (naⁿbghe) - break something like a rope by foot or by machinery [Kaw]

 

i-di-shpe (dipe) - break off, break out

cf. o-shpe (op) - fragment; di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

Dhegiha: thi-shpe (th-shpe) - to break off a piece [FL-Osage]; yu-shpe (yushp) - pinch off, pull off a piece [Kaw]

 

i-ka-shpe (kape) - break from weight

cf. o-shpe (op) - fragment; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece; di-shpe (dip) - pull off something adhering

Dhegiha: ka-shpe (kap) - bit, portion (of any item) [CQ-Osage]; ga-shpe (gashp) - cut in two, cut loose from, cut, chip, or knock a piece off from, as with an ax [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break a-naⁿ-shoⁿ (an̨ǫ) - I, da-naⁿ-shoⁿ (dan̨ǫ) - you

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - dislocated, fallen, fallen off [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-shoⁿ (noⁿ-shⁿ) - to dislocate, to dislocate a joint in the leg or arm [FL-Osage]

 

ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up pa-to-we (ppttowe) - I, shpa-to-we (pttowe) - you

cf. da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of it's own accord

 

bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces pi-to-we (ppttowe) - I, shpi-to-we (pttowe) - you

cf. da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of it's own accord

Dhegiha: bi-tu-be (bitbe) - crumble, to make something crumble by weight or pressure, as an old log or stump [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces a-to-we (ttowe) - I, da-to-we (dttowe) - you

cf. ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter; ka-to-we (kattwe) - bruise; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of it's own accord

Dhegiha: ga-tu-be (gtube) - crush [Omaha]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]

 

naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something a-naⁿ-to-we (an̨ttowe) - I, da-naⁿ-to-we (dan̨ttowe) - you

cf. da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of it's own accord

 

ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open a-to-xi (ttoxi) - I, da-to-xi (dttoxi) - you

cf. ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch

 

ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object a-xde (xde) - I, da-xde (dxde) - you

cf. xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

Dhegiha: ga-xthe-ge (ga-xth-ge) - to crack something brittle like glass, china, or stone [FL-Osage]; ka-le-ke (kaalke) - shatter or break (eg., glass), shatter by striking or sudden movement, fracture (e.g., ones skull) [CQ-Osage]; ga-xle-ge (gaxlge) - smash or break a solid, hard object, such as an egg, glass, ice, stone, wood, or bone [Kaw]

 

ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle a-xde-xde (xdexde) - I, da-xde-xde (dxdexde) - you

cf. ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object; xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

 

di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash bdi-xde-xde (bdxdexde) - I, ti-xde-xde (ttxdexde) - you

cf. xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

Dhegiha: thi-xthe-xthe-ge (thi-xth-xthe-ge) - to shatter glass or other brittle substances with the hand [FL-Osage]; thu-le-ke (uulke) - cause to break, cause to shatter, break or shatter with the hands (e.g., a dish, an egg, a light bulb, a window) [CQ-Osage]; yu-le-ge (yuxlge) - crack something like an egg [Kaw]

 

break wind, fart

a-ki-zhe (kkii) - fart, break wind a-a-ki-zhi (akkii) - I, a-da-ki-zhi (dakkii) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-zhi-we (̨kakkiiwe) - we

a-ki-zhe (kkie) - fart [OM]

 

breast

ma-ze (maz) - breast

ma-ze (maz) - breast [OM]

cf. ma-ze-ni (mazni) - milk, lit. "breast water"; ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. "milk grease"; ma-ze-ni wa-ske (mazni wske) - cheese, lit. "milk cake"; ma-ze-pa (mazppa) - nipple of the breast; ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples

ex: ma-ze zhi-ka (maz ka) - little breasts [MS]

ex: ma-ze niⁿ-kʰe (maz nįkʰ) - the breast

ex: ma-ze ste-te (maz stett) - giant woman, hair to waist; waist length breast carried over her shoulders for suckling stolen children

Dhegiha: ma-ze (maz) - breast, udder [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ze (moⁿ-) - woman's breast [FL-Osage]; ba-ze (ba-) - a woman's breast, udder [FL-Osage]; pa-ze (paaz) - breast, udder [CQ-Osage]; ba-ze (baz) - breast [Kaw]

 

            ma-ze (maze) - suck at the breast a-ma-ze (amaze) - I, da-ma-ze (damze) - you

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze iⁿ (moⁿe iⁿ) - breast feed [Omaha]; ba-ze iⁿ (ba--iⁿ) - a child suckling at its mothers breast [FL-Osage]

 

breast bone, sternum

            moiⁿ-ke wa-hi (mǫke wah) - sternum, breast bone

cf. maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; wa-hi (wah) - bone

 

moiⁿ-ke o-po-xa (mǫke oppγa) - sternum, just above ka-xe i-pe (kkaγe ipe) where knife is inserted in butchering

 

breast, chest of a male

maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ge (moⁿge) - human chest, breast [Omaha]; moⁿ-ge (mⁿ-ge) - breast or chest of a human being [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ke (mą́ąke), moⁿ-ke (m̨ǫke) - chest [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ge (mⁿge) - chest of a man, breast of an animal [Kaw]

 

moiⁿ-ke iⁿ-te (mǫke įt) - angina, chest pain moiⁿ-ke aⁿ-te (mǫke ąt) - I, moiⁿ-ke di-iⁿ-te (mǫke dįte) - you

cf. maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - to have a pain, ache, hurt

 

ke moiⁿ-ke kde-zhe (kk mǫke kde) - turtle with spotted breast, water turtle

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; kde-zhe (kde) - spotted

 

ke moiⁿ-ke ska (kk mǫke ska) - turtle with white breast, water turtle

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; ska (ska) - white

 

maⁿ-ke a-di-ti-aⁿ-he (m̨ke dittąhe), maⁿiⁿ-ke a-di-ti-aⁿ-he (mą̨ke dittąh) - girth, presumably of chest

 

maⁿ-ke o-tʰiⁿ (mą́ke otʰ̨) - Hit in the Breast, male personal name [MS]

cf. maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿiⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), moiⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, chest of a male; i o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit

 

breathe

o-ni-aⁿ-hi-de (onįhid), (onąhde) - breathe o-ni-aⁿ-hi-a-de (onįhiade) - I, o-ni-aⁿ-hi-da-de (onįhidade) - you

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; o-ni-oⁿ-da-zhi (onǫkdzi) - sigh

Dhegiha: ni-u (niu) - to breathe [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-oⁿ (ni-ⁿ) - breath [FL-Osage]; o-ni-e (nie) - breathe, draw breath, sound [CQ-Osage]

 

breechcloth

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ (įttkną) - breech cloth, diaper

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ (įttkną) - diaper [MS]

iⁿ-ti-knaⁿ  (uⁿtsi ga noⁿ) - breechcloth, from John Quapaw [MH]

Dhegiha: zhe-a-ti-gthoⁿ (zhatigthoⁿ) - breechcloth, diaper [Omaha]; zhe-a-di-gthoⁿ (zhedigthoⁿ) - breechcloth [Omaha/Ponca]

 

bridge

na-xa-taⁿ (nxatt̨) - bridge

 

bridle

ma-ze o-knaⁿ (maz okn̨) - bridle

 

ma-ze hi oⁿ-ka-knaⁿ (moseh-hiŭnkaghena) - bridle (bride) [GI]

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron, gun; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into, put sg/si/in or cloth into

 

bright

taⁿ-ba (t̨ba), toⁿ-ba (t̨ba) - light, a

ex: tu toᵐ-ba (tu tᵐba) - bright green [OM]

 

bring

a-niⁿ ki (an̨ k) - bring back here a-bniⁿ pʰi (abn̨ pʰ) - I, a-tiⁿ shi (att̨ ) - you

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; ki (ki) - be returning to here; a-niⁿ de (an̨ d) - take away

ex: te-ska a-shi-oⁿ-he tʰaⁿ aniⁿ ki (ttska iǫh tʰą an̨ k) - bring the ox standing outside (the fence) here

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ a-kʰi (athⁿ akʰ) - he brought back [JOD-Omaha]; du-da a-thiⁿ gi a (duda athiⁿ gi a), du-da a-thiⁿ gi ga (duda athiⁿ gi ga) - command, bring here [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ gi (a-thiⁿ gi) - to fetch [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ ku (ⁿku) - bring it back [CQ-Osage]

 

naⁿ-hoⁿ-de (nąh̨de) - cultivate, bring to maturity naⁿ-hoⁿ-a-de (nąh̨ade) - I, naⁿ-hoⁿ-da-de (nąh̨dade) - you

cf. naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka (n̨hą ik) - girl who has reached puberty; she-mi naⁿ-haⁿ (mi n̨hą) - young girl; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - father's older brother, mans; wa-x'o naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; te-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (ttka n̨hą) - young, lit., new adult, recently grown up

Dhegiha: noⁿ-the (n̨ǫe) - raise, rear, bring up [CQ-Osage] . noⁿ-hoⁿ (noⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]

 

bristle

di-sha-ka (diakʔ) - bristle up, cause by handling bdi-sha-ka (bdakʔa) - I, ti-sha-ka (ttakʔa) - you

cf. ki-kdi-sha-ka (kkikdakʔa) - make one's hair stand on end

 

brittle

ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object a-xde (xde) - I, da-xde (dxde) - you

cf. di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash; xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

Dhegiha: ga-xthe-ge (ga-xth-ge) - to crack something brittle like glass, china, or stone [FL-Osage]; ka-le-ke (kaalke) - shatter or break (eg., glass), shatter by striking or sudden movement, fracture (e.g., ones skull) [CQ-Osage]; ga-xle-ge (gaxlge) - smash or break a solid, hard object, such as an egg, glass, ice, stone, wood, or bone [Kaw]

 

ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle a-xde-xde (xdexde) - I, da-xde-xde (dxdexde) - you

cf. di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash; xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

 

broad

o-zaⁿ-te (ozątt) - broad, as a field, a low level

cf. o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom, same as o-zo-ti-o-we (ozttiow), name of a Quapaw town in Arkansas; o-zo-ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: o-zu (o-) - a lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber, o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber (the name of the village) [Kaw]

 

broken

o-shto-te (ottte) - broken in, caved in

cf. di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot; ka-shto-te (kattte) - open a barrel

 

xte-xte (xtxte) - disorderly (mass), broken up

cf. di-xde-xde (dixdxde) - break glass, smash; ka-xde (kaxd) - smash, break a brittle object; ka-xde-xde (kaxdxde) - smash, break something brittle

 

brooch

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kkakną) - a button

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (i kus a ga nŭ) - brooch, from Mrs. Clabber [MH]

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kakną) - to button i-ka-she-a-knaⁿ (kaekną) - I, i-ka-she-da-knaⁿ (kaedkną) - you

 

broom

we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom

we-ka-ti-zhe (wkatte) - broom [FR]

cf. ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away; kda-ti-ze (kdattze) - sweep out one's house

Dhegiha: ga-dsi-zhe (ga-ds-e) - to scrape, to sweep away bits of wood [FL-Osage]; ka-tsiⁿ-zhe (kaac̨e) - scrape or push aside [CQ-Osage]

 

brother-in-law, a mans brother-in-law

i-ta-haⁿ (itthą) - brother-in-law wi-ta-haⁿ (witthą) - my, di-ta-haⁿ (ditthą) - your

Dhegiha: i-ʰta-hoⁿ (i-ṭa-hoⁿ) - brother-in-law, his sisters husband, his fathers sister or his wifes brother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtaⁿ-ha (iʰt̨ha) - his brother-in-law (his wifes brother or his sisters husband, his/her fathers sisters husband (his/her paternal uncle by marriage, more precise than English his/her uncle) [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) - man's brother-in-law, his wife's brother, his wife's sister's, aunt's, or niece's husband (lists all the men who could be called i-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) in the traditional Kaw kinship system [Kaw]

i-ta-haⁿ-de (itthąde) - to have as brother-in-law

Dhegiha: i-ta-haⁿ-ye (ithaⁿye) - to have for a brother- in-law, to call someone i-ta-haⁿ (ithaⁿ) [Kaw]

 

brother-in-law, a woman's husband's brother

i-shi-ke (ikʔe) - brother, woman's husband's wi-shi-ke (wiikʔ) - my, di-shi-ke (diikʔ) - your

Dhegiha: i-shi-ke (i-sh-ke) - a womans brother-in-law, her sisters husband or her husbands brother [FL-Osage]; i-shi-ke (ikʔe) - her sisters husband, her husbands brother, or her husbands sisters husband (more precise than English her brother-in-law) [CQ-Osage]; i-shi-ke (ishke) - brother-in-law, woman's husband's brother, this term means (or meant at that) "her potential husband," referring to the practice of a man taking his brother's widow as a wife [Kaw]

 

i-shi-ke-de (ikʔede) - she, to have as brother-in-law i-shi-ke-a-de (ikʔeade) - I, i-shi-ke-da-de (ikʔedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-shi-ke-ye (ishk'eye) - call someone brother- in-law or "potential husband" [Kaw]

 

brother, a mans elder brother

i-zhiⁿ-de (įde) - brother, man's elder wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - his elder brother, brother older than himself [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - his older brother (more precise than English his brother) [CQ-Osage]; i-zhi-ye (izhye) - mans elder brother [Kaw]

 

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder brother (male speaking)

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wi-jindheh) - my older brother (frere an) [GI]

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-the (wi-zhⁿ-the) - my elder brother, my brother older than myself [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wįe) - my older brother (used only when speaker is male) [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhi-ye (wizhye) - my elder brother [Kaw]

 

            di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - your older brother (used only when speaking to a man) [CQ-Osage]; yi-zhi-ye (yizhye) - your elder brother [Kaw]

 

i-zhiⁿ-de-de (įdede) - to have as an elder brother i-zhiⁿ-de-a-de (įdeade) - I, i-zhiⁿ-de-da-de (įdedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zhi-ye-ye (izhyeye) - a man to have for an elder brother, to call someone i-zhi-ye (izhye) [Kaw]

brother, a mans younger brother

i-saⁿ-ka (isą́ka), i-soⁿ-ka (is̨ka) - someone's younger brother wi-saⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my, di-saⁿ-ka (dis̨ka) - your

Dhegiha: i-soⁿ-ga (i-oⁿ́-ga) - a younger brother [FL-Osage]; i-soⁿ-ka (isⁿka) - his younger brother, more precise than English his brother [CQ-Osage]; i-soⁿ-ga (isⁿga) - man's younger brother [Kaw]

 

wi-saⁿ-ka (wisą́ka) - my younger brother (male speaking)

wi-saⁿ-ka (wisą́ka) - my brother [MS]

wi-soⁿ-ka (wi-sonkah) - younger brother (frere cadet) [GI]

wi-saⁿ-ge (wis̨ge) - my brother or male cousin [OM]

Dhegiha: wi-soⁿ-ga (wi-oⁿ́-ga) - brother, younger than myself, this is the ordinary use of the kinship term for my younger brother, but the same term is used ceremonially when no blood relationship exists, one member of a tribe may address members of the other gentes of the same division with this term [FL-Osage]; wi-soⁿ-ka (wis̨ka) - my younger brother, younger than the speaker, used only when speaker is male, also used by both men and women for related or unrelated younger male [CQ-Osage]; wi-soⁿ-ga (wisⁿga) - my younger brother, male or female speaking; my younger step-brother, male or female speaking; my father's brother's son, younger than, myself, male or female speaking; my mother's sister's son, younger than myself, male speaking or female speaking; my father's father's brother's son's son, younger than myself, male speaking; my wife's sister's husband [Kaw]

 

di-saⁿ-ka (disą́ka) - your younger brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: thi-soⁿ-ga (thi-oⁿ́-ga) - your brother [FL-Osage]; thi-soⁿ-ka (is̨ka) - your younger brother, used when speaking to a man [CQ-Osage]; yi-soⁿ-ga (yisⁿga) - your younger brother [Kaw]

 

i-saⁿ-ka-de (is̨kade) - brother, have as a younger i-saⁿ-ka-a-de (is̨kaade) - I, i-saⁿ-ka-da-de (is̨kadade) - you

Dhegiha: i-soⁿ-ga-ye (isⁿgaye) - man to have someone for a younger brother, to call someone i-soⁿ-ga (isⁿga) [Kaw]

brother, a womans elder brother

i-ti-to (itttto) - brother, woman's elder, his or hers wi-ti-to (witttto) - my, di-ti-to (ditttto) - your

Dhegiha: i-tsiⁿ-do (i-tsiⁿ́-do) - her elder brother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsiⁿ-to (iʰic̨to) - her older brother, any of her brothers who is older than she is [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-do (icdo) - woman's eldest brother [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my brother, woman's elder (female speaking)

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my elder brother (female speaker) [MS]

Dhegiha: wi-tsiⁿ-do (wi-tsiⁿ́-do) - brother older than myself, woman speaking [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (wiʰc̨to) - my elder brother, oldest of speaker's brothers, not necessarily older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female, more precise than English, my older brother [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-do (wicdo) - my elder brother, female speaking; my step-brother, female speaking, older; my father's brother's son, older than myself, female speaking; my mother's brother's daughter's son, female speaking; my mother's sister's son, older than myself, female speaking [Kaw]

 

di-ti-to (ditttto) - your brother, womans elder (speaking to a female)

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (iʰic̨to) - your older brother, used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-do (yicdo) - your elder brother, addressing a woman [Kaw]

 

i-ti-to-de (ittttode) - brother, to have as an elder i-ti-to-a-de (ittttoade) - I, i-ti-to-da-de (ittttodade) - you

Dhegiha: i-tsi-do-ye (icdoye) - woman to have someone as her older brother, to call someone i-tsi-do (icdo) [Kaw]

 

brought

a-kda-niⁿ kdi (akdnį kd) - to have brought back one's own

cf. a-kda-niⁿ (akdnį) - have, keep one's own (relation, property, etc.); kdi (kdi) - to have come back here; a-kda-niⁿ de (akdnį de) - take one's own with one; to go with one's own (relatives, etc.)

ex: i-yo-wi taⁿ a-kda-niⁿ kdi kʰe (yowi ttą akdnį kd kʰe) - when he was wounded they (his relations) brought him (or his body) home

ex: i-di-yo-wi taⁿ a-di-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (diyowi ttą adkdanį kdiw) - when you were shot they brought you back hither

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-yo-wi taⁿ aⁿ-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (ąn̨yowi ttą ̨kdanį kdiw) - when I was shot they brought me back hither

ex: we-yo-wi taⁿ wa-kda-niⁿ kdi-we (wyowi ttą wkdanį kdiw) - when we were shot they brought us back hither

Dhegiha: a-gtha-bthiⁿ a-gthi (agthbthiⁿ agthi) - bring ones own home [Omaha]; a-la-yiⁿ li (alyiⁿ l) - brought ones own back (home) [Kaw]

 

brow

i-shta na-xa-xe (it naxax) - eyebrow

cf. i-shta (it) - eye

Dhegiha: i-shta na-xi-xe (ishtnaqxe) - brow ridge, the ridge above the eyes [Omaha/Ponca]; (ishtnaqxe hiⁿ) - eyebrows [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta noⁿ-xi-xe (iⁿshta noⁿxixe) - eyebrow [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta noⁿ-xo-xe hiⁿ (iⁿ-sht noⁿ-xo-xe hiⁿ) - eyebrows [FL-Osage]; i-shta ni-xu-ghe (isht nixghe) - brow ridge, bone under the eyebrows [Kaw]

 

i-shta di-hiⁿ (it dihį) - eyebrows [MS]

cf. i-shta i-di-hiⁿ (it idih̨) - eyelash

Dhegiha: i-shta the-hiⁿ (ishtthehⁿ) - eyelashes [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta the-hiⁿ (iⁿshta thehiⁿ) - eyelash [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta hiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-hiⁿ) - eyebrows [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta hiⁿ (įįthįį) - eyebrows [CQ-Osage]; i-shta hiⁿ (ishthiⁿ) - eyebrows, eyelashes [Kaw]

 

i-shta-ta-he (itttahe), i-shte-ta-he (itttahe) - eyebrows

 

brown

i-zi (iz) - brown

i-zi (iz) - brown [MS]

 

hiⁿ-ta-zi (hįttaz) - brown, oak colored

Dhegiha: ta-zi-hi (taazhi) - brown, become brown by application of heat, be browned, fried [CQ-Osage]

 

bruise

ka-to-we (kattwe) - bruise

cf. ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces

 

brush

ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away a-tʰi-ze (tʰize) - I, da-tʰi-ze (dtʰize) - you

cf. we-ka-ti-zhe (wkatte) - broom [FR]; we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - broom; ba-ti-ze (battze), ba-tʰi-ze (batʰze) - move something by pushing; ba-ti-ze (battze) - move something by pushing; bi-ti-ze (bittze) - move something by pressing/blowing; di-ti-ze (dittze) - move by pulling something; ki-pa-ti-ze (kppattze) - move one's possession by pushing; ki-kdi-ti-ze (kkkdittze) - move something for one's own benefit; naⁿ-ti-ze (nąttze) - kick along, move something with feet; po-ti-ze (pttize) - move something by punch-/shooting

 

ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside pa-ha-ta de-a-de (pphatta deade) - I, shpa-ha-ta de-da-de (phatta ddade) - you

cf. ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot

 

di-kdi-kdi-da (dikdkdida) - scratch out, brush out as animals

 

buck

ta ni-ka (tta nkka) - deer, male, a buck

ta ni-ka (tah-nikkah) - male deer, buck deer (daim) [GI]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, ruminant, meat, esp. dried meat; ni-ka (nkka) - man, as opposed to a woman, male animal

 

ta wa-sh'a-ke hi (tta waʔke hi) - buck deer [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, ruminant, meat, esp. dried meat; wa-sha-ke (waʔke) - large, be large; hi (hi) - very

 

bucket

iⁿ-ni-da-ki (̨nidaki) - bucket

i-ni-da-ki (nidaki) - bucket [MS]

 

buckeye

ta i-shta (tta it) - buckeye, deer eye [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, ruminant, meat, esp. dried meat; i-shta (it) - eye

Dhegiha: ʰta-shka hi (ṭ-shka hi) - buckeye, Aesculus, a kind of tea is made from this tree and taken just before a sweat bath to bring up bile, this is also the name given to the white oak tree [FL-Osage]; ʰta-shka hi (ʰtka hi) - buckeye tea, used in sweat lodge before a peyote meeting to induce vomiting [CQ-Osage]

 

bud

zhoⁿ-xda (ǫxd) - bud

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xda (xda), xta (xta) - bud, flower, blossom; ma-hiⁿ-xta (mah̨xta) - flower; o-we xda (we xd) - corn blossom

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-xtha (zhⁿ-xtha) - tree buds or blossoms [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-la (̨ąlaa) - bud, blossom, or flower on a tree [CQ-Osage]

 

zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te (̨xda tte) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, when the buds are red

            cf. zhoⁿ-xda (ǫxd) - bud; zhi-te (tte), (itt) - red

 

zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te hi (̨xda tte hi) - redbud tree, Cercis Canadensis

                        cf. zhoⁿ-xda (ǫxd) - bud; zhi-te (tte), (itt) - red; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

 

buffalo

te (tte) - buffalo

te (tte) - buffalo [MS]

te (teh) - buffalo (buffle) [GI]

Dhegiha: te (te) - buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse (ṭse) - bison [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - buffalo [CQ-Osage]; tse (ce) - buffalo, usually the cow [Kaw]

 

buffalo bull

te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull, domestic bull

te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull, male buffalo [MS, OM]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; to-ka (tka) - male animal

Dhegiha: te nu-ga (tenga) - buffalo bull, male buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse do-ga (ṭse d-ga) - buffalo bull [FL-Osage]; ʰtse to-ka (ʰceetoka) - buffalo bull [CQ-Osage]; tse doⁿ-ga (cedⁿga) - buffalo, buffalo bull [Kaw]

 

buffalo bull, Standing Buffalo Bull

te to-ka na-zhiⁿ (te t-k͓a n-jiⁿ) - masc. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Standing Buffalo bull [JOD]

cf. te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: tse doⁿ-ga na-zhiⁿ (cedⁿga nzhiⁿ) - male name, Standing Buffalo Bull [Kaw]

 

buffalo bull, Two Buffalo Bulls

te to-ka noⁿ-ba (tetk͓a naⁿp͓) - masc. name, Two Buffalo Bulls [JOD]

cf. te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Dhegiha: te nu-ga noⁿ-ba (tenganoⁿba) - male name, Two Buffalo Bulls [Omaha]

 

buffalo bull, Walking Buffalo Bull

te to-ka ma-ni (te t-k͓a m-ni) - masc. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Walking Buffalo bull [JOD]

cf. te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: tse doⁿ-ga maⁿ-yiⁿ (cedⁿga mⁿyiⁿ) - male name, Walking Buffalo Bull [Kaw]

           

buffalo calf

te zhi-ka (tteka) - buffalo calf

te zhi-ka (tteka) - buffalo calf, also male personal name [MS]

te zhi-ka (te j-k͓a) - masc. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Calf [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig) - little, small, young

Dhegiha: te zhiⁿ-ga (tezhiⁿga) - name, Little Buffalo [Omaha]; te zhiⁿ-ga (tezhⁿga) - buffalo calf, young buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse zhiⁿ-ga (ṭse zhi-ga) - little buffalo, unborn calf [FL-Osage]; ʰtse zhiⁿ (ʰceę) - small buffalo, unborn buffalo calf, any unborn calf, a valued food, especially for older people without good teeth, at peyote church the older ones get unborn calf as the best part of the beef at breakfast, along with corn, fruit, and water, these are the four things allowed, PM [CQ-Osage]; tse hiⁿ-ga (cehiⁿga) - buffalo calf [Kaw]

 

buffalo cow

te miⁿ (ttem̨) - buffalo cow

te mi (te m) - female name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; miⁿ (mį), mi (mi) - female

Dhegiha: te miⁿ-ga (temⁿga) - female buffalo, buffalo cow [Omaha/Ponca]; te mi-ga (te miga) - buffalo cow [Omaha]; ʰtse mi-ga (ṭse m-ga) - female buffalo, a cow [FL-Osage]; ʰtse miⁿ-ka (ʰceem̨įka) - buffalo cow [CQ-Osage]; tse miⁿ-ga (ce mⁿga) - buffalo cow [Kaw]

 

buffalo cow, Buffalo Female Difficult (to be won or captured)

te mi-te-xi (te m-t-qi) - fem. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Female Difficult (to be won or captured) [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

Dhegiha: te mi-te-xi (tmitexi) - female name, Sacred Buffalo Cow [Omaha]; ʰtse mi-ʰtse-xi (ṭse mi-ṭse-xi) - female name, Sacred Buffalo Woman [FL-Osage]

 

buffalo cow, Buffalo Female Rising (Standing Up)

            te mi ki-ta (te m k͓ită′) - female name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; ki-ta (ktta), gi-ta (gtta) - arise, get up

           

buffalo cow, Little Buffalo Girl, Buffalo Girl

            te mi zhi-ka (tte m ka) - Little Buffalo Girl [MR]

te mi zhi-ka (t mi-j-k͓a) - fem. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Buffalo Girl; Myrtle Angell [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig) - little, small, young

Dhegiha: tse miⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (cemⁿzhⁿga) - female name, Small Buffalo Female [Kaw]

 

buffalo cow, Sacred Buffalo Cow

            te mi haⁿ-ka (tmi ha′k͓a) - female name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female

Dhegiha: ʰtse wi hoⁿ-ga (ṭse-w-hoⁿ-ga) - Buffalo-Sacred-Cow, female personal name [FL-Osage]

 

buffalo cow, .

            te mi a-shnaⁿ niⁿ (te m acnaⁿ′ niⁿ) - female name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female

 

buffalo cow, .

         te miⁿ xi (te miⁿ′qi) - female name, Te name (Osage-Kwapa) [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; mi (mi), miⁿ (mį) - female

 

buffalo heart

te naⁿ-te (tten̨tte) - buffalo heart

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; naⁿ-te (n̨tte), noⁿ-te (n̨tte), naⁿ-de (n̨de) - heart

Dhegiha: te noⁿ-de (tenⁿde) - heart of a buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse noⁿ-dse (ṭse-nⁿ-dse) - buffalo heart [FL-Osage]

 

buffalo hide

te-ha (tteh) - buffalo skin, hide

te-ha (tteh) - buffalo hide, buffalo skin [MS]

te-ha (teh-hah) - buffalo hide (peau de buffle) [GI]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; te-ha maⁿ-iⁿ-taⁿ (tteh mąįttą) - buffalo robe

Dhegiha: te-ha (tha) - buffalo hide, buffalo skin, buffalo hide obtained during the summer hunt, with thin hair [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-ha (ṭs-ha) - buffalo skin, buffalo hide [FL-Osage]; tse-ha (cha) - buffalo robe [Kaw]

           

buffalo horn

te-he (tteh) - buffalo horns

te-he (tte h) - buffalo horn [MS]

te-he (te-hĕ′) - masculine name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens; Buffalo Horn [JOD]

                        cf. te (tte) - buffalo; he (he) - horn, antler; ta-he (ttah) - antlers, deer

Dhegiha: te-he (the) - buffalo horn, spoon, so called because the Omahas and Poncas made them of buffalo horn [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-he (ṭse-he) - buffalo horn [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-he (ʰceh) - buffalo horn [CQ-Osage]; tse-he (ceh) - horn of the buffalo cow [Kaw]

 

Buffalo Woman, female buffalo

te wa-xo (te wqu) - female name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman, also female animal

 

buffalo, Ancestral Buffalo

te a haⁿ-ka (te ha-k͓) - masc. name of the Kwapa Buffalo gens, Ancestral Buffalo [JOD]

 

buffalo, Little White Buffalo

            te ska zhi-ka (tte ska ka) - Little White Buffalo, also male personal name [MS]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; ska (ska) - white; zhi-ka (ik, ka), zhi-ga (ig) - little, small, young

 

bug

            wa-kdi-shka  (wakdka), wa-xti-shka (waxtka) - insect, reptile

wa-kdi-shka (wakdka) - bug [MS]

cf. wa-kdi-shka bda-ska (wakdka bdska) - bedbug, "flat insects"; wa-kdi-shka taⁿ-ka (wakdka tt̨ka) - alligator, "large reptile"

Dhegiha: wa-gthi-shka (wagthshka) - insect, reptile, snake [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-gthu-shka (wa-gth-shka) - bug, any kind of bug, a worm, an insect [FL-Osage]; wa-lu-shka (walka) - bug, insect, worm, vermin, joker in a deck of cards [CQ-Osage]; wa-lu-shka (walshka) - insect [Kaw]

 

bull

te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull, domestic bull

te to-ka (ttetka) - buffalo bull, male buffalo [MS, OM]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; to-ka (tka) - male animal

Dhegiha: te nu-ga (tenga) - buffalo bull, male buffalo [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse do-ga (ṭse d-ga) - buffalo bull [FL-Osage]; ʰtse to-ka (ʰceetoka) - buffalo bull [CQ-Osage]; tse doⁿ-ga (cedⁿga) - buffalo, buffalo bull [Kaw]

 

bullbat

iⁿ-taⁿ (̨ttą), i-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - nighthawk, bullbat

cf. iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - owl, horned owl [MS]; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ ha (įtʰ̨ha) - owl skin with feathers on; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ hi (įtʰ̨hi), iⁿ-tʰaⁿ he (įtʰ̨he) - owl fan; iⁿ-tʰaⁿ hi (in taⁿ hē) - owl feather fan for brushing away evil in medicine tent in mescal (peyote) ceremony, from George Red Eagle [MH]

 

bullet

we-ki-te (wkkitte) - bullet

we-ki-te (we-kitteh) - bullet of a gun (balle de fusil) [GI]

we-ki-te (weh-kitteh) - lead, bullet (plumb) [GI]

cf. ki-te (kktte) - shoot at something; we-ki-te ste-te (wkkitte sttte) - cartridge; we-ki-te zhika (wkkitte ka) - bird shot; ki-ki-te (kkkitte) - shoot (at) something for someone; ki-ki-te (kkikktte) - shoot one another, battle, "shoot one another"

Dhegiha: ki-de (kide) - shoot [Omaha]; kʰi-de (kʰde) - shoot [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰku-dse (ḳ-dse) - to shoot [FL-Osage]; ʰku-tse (ʰkce) - shoot someone, shoot at someone, fire a gun, shoot a bow and arrow [CQ-Osage]; ku-je (kje) - shoot at something [Kaw]

 

bumblebee

he-zi-ka taⁿ-ka (hzikka tt̨ka) - bumblebee

he-zi-ka taⁿ-ka (hzikka tt̨ka) - bumblebee [MS]

cf. he-zi-ka (hzikka) - bee; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large; he-zi-ka (hzikka) - wasp [MS]; he-zi-ka niⁿ-te ski-ta (hzikka n̨tte sktta) - wasp; he-zi-ka ski-de (hzikka skde) - honey

 

bundle

o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle o-bdi-shiⁿ (obdį) - I, o-ti-shiⁿ (ottį) - you, oⁿ-ko-di-shiⁿ-we (ǫkdiįwe) - we

cf. niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers; wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron; we-do-di-shiⁿ (wdodį) - pie; pa-hi o-di-shiⁿ, pa-ho-di-shiⁿ (pah-hŭ-odischih) - bonnet (bonnet) [GI]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shiⁿ (uthshiⁿ) - cover, to cover, as with a garment [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shiⁿ (u-th-shiⁿ) - to wrap anything up [FL-Osage]; o-thi-shi (oi) - wrap, cover for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc. [CQ-Osage]; a-yi-shiⁿ (yishiⁿ) - to bundle up in a cloth or blanket [Kaw]; o-yu-shiⁿ (oyshiⁿ) - bundle something up, cover something by surrounding it [Kaw]

 

we-kiⁿ (wkʔį) - pack, bundle carried on back

cf. kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back; ki-kiⁿ (kikʔ̨) - carry on one's own back, pack; i-kiⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders; maⁿ o-zhi i-kiⁿ (m̨oi kʔį) - quiver strap; wa-kiⁿ (wakʔ̨) - pack; ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load

Dhegiha: u-iⁿ (iⁿ) - a pack or bundle carried on the back [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; kiⁿ (kiⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

kda-kiⁿ (kdakʔį) - carry one's own bundle or pack a-kda-kiⁿ (akdakʔį) - I, da-kda-kiⁿ (dakdakʔį) - you

cf. kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

 

burglar, robber, thief

wa-maⁿ-da-shtaⁿ (wam̨dat̨) - thief, who steals habitually

cf. maⁿ-da (mąd), moⁿ-da (mǫd) - steal something; shtaⁿ (tą) - habitual aspect suffix

Dhegiha: wa-moⁿ-thoⁿ-shtoⁿ (wamoⁿ thoⁿshtoⁿ) - burglar, robber, thief [Omaha]; wa-moⁿ-thoⁿ-shtoⁿ (wa-mⁿ-thoⁿ-shtoⁿ) - one who is in the habit of stealing, a thief [FL-Osage]; wa-maⁿ-thoⁿ-shtaⁿ (wam̨ąǫtą) - thief, robber [CQ-Osage]; wa-moⁿ-yoⁿ-shtaⁿ (wamⁿyoⁿshtaⁿ) - thief [Kaw]

 

burn

ta (t) - by extreme temperature

cf. ta-skaⁿ (tską) - melt; ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove; ta-da-xiⁿ (tdaγį) - evaporate from heat or cold; ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), ta-iⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wekdtahą) - frybread [MS, MR, FR]

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: na (n) - by extreme temperature [Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - by heat, a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction, to feeze, frozen [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) - by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; bnaⁿ (bną), bdaⁿ (bdą) - smell, emit any odor

Dhegiha: da-bthoⁿ (d-bthoⁿ) - to smell something cooking or burning [FL-Osage]; ta-braⁿ (tabrą) - dmell from heating or body heat, emanate an odor while being heated, as in cooking/burning, refers to either a good or bad odor [CQ-Osage]; da-bla (dblaⁿ) - smell, give off a burning odor, give off a smell due to burning, as gum or cedar [Kaw]

 

ta-shi-ke (tke) - ruin something by burning it

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly

 

ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure

 

ta-ta-ze (tattze) - crackle while burning

cf. bi-ta-ze (bittze) - crackle when squeezed; da-ta-ze (dattze) - crackling sound by biting; di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; ka-ta-ze (kattze) - crackling sound of sticks; naⁿ-ta-ze (nąttze) - crack, make noise by stepping

Dhegiha: da-da-da-ze (d-da-da-e) - throwing out sparks, as do some kinds of wood when burning [FL-Osage]; da-da-ze (dadze) - give off sparks [Kaw]

 

ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

cf. ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - popping sound, make with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte), ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound

 

ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting

 

ta-te-shka (ttteka) - shorten by burning, burn off

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby; bi-te-shka (bittek) - press down, rub down; da-te-shka (dattek) - bite off, shorten; di-te-shka (dittek) - shorten, cut short, saw off; ka-te-shka (kattek) - shorten by chopping off; pa-te-shka (ptteka) - cut short with a knife; po-te-shka (ptteka) - shorten by shooting/punching

Dhegiha: te-shka (tshka) - short [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-shka (ṭse-shka) - short, stunted [FL-Osage]

 

ta-te-shka-de (tttekade) - shorten by burning, burn off ta-te-shka a-de (ttteka de) - I, ta-te-shka da-de (ttteka dde) - you

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; te-shka (ttek) - short, stubby

 

ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - burst, to cause by burning

cf. di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch

 

ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

cf. ba-to-zhe (batte) - crack, make sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - crack, make sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack one's finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - crack, make sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - cracking sound, make with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - crack, make sound thrusting

 

ta-wa-di-shta (twadta) - burn off, clear by burning

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature; wa-di-shta (wadta) - visible, plain; di-shta (dit) - smoothe, plane, sand; ka-wa-di-shta (kawdita) - uncover, open up; naⁿ-wa-di-shta (nąwdita) - uncover with the feet; pa-wa-di-shta (pwadita) - skin an animal

 

ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down

cf. bi-xa-da (bixda) - fall of own weight, cause to; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

 

ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base ta-xa-da-de-a-de (txadadad) - I, ta-xa-da-de-da-de (txadaddade) - you

 

ta-zi-ka (tzikka) - burn to a point

cf. ba-zi-ka (bazkka) - sharpen; bi-zi-ka (bizkka) - sharpen by rubbing, hone; da-zi-ka (dazkka) - chew to a point, sharpen; di-zi-ka (dizkka) - sharpen; ka-zi-ka (kazkka) - sharpen, as with an axe, whittle; kdi-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen pulling toward oneself; ki-di-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen something for someone; pa-zi-ka (pzikka) - whittle to a point

 

ta-zi-ka-de (tzikkade) - burn to a point ta-zi-ka-a-de (tzikkade) - I,  ta-zi-ka-da-de (tzikkadde) - you

 

ta-zi-pa (tzippa) - burn along the edge of something

cf. ba-zi-pa (bazppa) - edge, nudge, push on edge; bi-zi-pa (bizppa) - sit/lie on the edge, to perch; da-zi-pa (dazppa) - bite along the edge, nip; di-zi-pa (dizppa) - grasp or hold by the edge; ka-zi-pa (kazppa) - chop, cut at the edge; kdi-zi-pa (kdizppa) - hold, grasp edge of one's own; ki-di-zi-pa (kdizippa) - hold along the edge for someone; naⁿ-zi-pa (nązppa) - walk along the edge of something; pa-zi-pa (pzippa) - cut along the edge with a knife; po-zi-pa (pzippa) - punch along the edge of something

 

burr

shaⁿ-iⁿ-tiⁿ (̨įttį) - sandburrs, sandspurs

 

to-di-xa-ta hi (ttdixtta hi) - cockleburs

 

to-di-xa-ta taⁿ-ka hi (ttdixtta tt̨ka hi) - cockleburr, the large; Jimpson weed

 

burr oak

            ta-shka (ttak) - acorn of the burr oak

Dhegiha: ta-shka (tshka) - acorn [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-shka (tshka) - acorn [Omaha]

 

ta-shka hi (ttakhi) - burr oak, burr, Quercus macrocarpa

 

burst

ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing pa-to-xi (ppttoxi) - I, shpa-to-xi (pttoxi) - you

cf. di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder

 

bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight pi-to-xi (ppttoxi) - I, shpi-to-xi (pttoxi) - you

 

ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open a-to-xi (ttoxi) - I, da-to-xi (dttoxi) - you

 

naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something a-naⁿ-to-xi (an̨ttoxi) - I, da-naⁿ-to-xi (dan̨ttoxi) - you

 

po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch po-a-to-xi (pattxi) - I, po-da-to-xi (pdattxi) - you

ex: ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, "exploding water"

ex: ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - pop (soda pop) [LQ, OM]

 

ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - burst, to cause by burning

 

ka-bda-ze (kabdze), ka-bda-se (kabdse) - burst

cf. di-bda-ze (dibdze) - tear, rip, rupture; naⁿ-bda-ze (nąbdaze) - tear, rip one's shoes

 

bury

xe (xe) - bury

cf. mi-xe (mxe) - grave; wa-xe (waxʔ) - grave; o-xe (xe) - cache; wa-ti-xe (wattxe) - cellar, cache

ex: di-ko-te wa-xe (dikʔ tte waxʔ) - digging a grave [MS]

Dhegiha: xe (xe) - bury [Omaha]; xe (qe) - bury, cache, to bury a corpse, to bury or cache food such as corn or dried meat [Omaha/Ponca]; xe (xe) - to bury, to inter, to place in a grave [FLOsage]; xe (xe) - bury [Kaw]

 

bush

hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

hi (hi) - stalk, trunk of tree [FS]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg, tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, tooth, leg [Omaha]; hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-sa hi (m̨sa h) - dogwood bush or tree, Cornus

            cf. maⁿ-sa (m̨sa) - dogwood, Cornus

Dhegiha: moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrowood [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sa hu (m̨ǫsa hu) - dogwood, arrow shaft tree [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-sa hu (mⁿsa hu) - dogwood, the arrow shaft bush [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree, lit. "cracks across the grain"

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping

 

po hi (phi) - hawthorn bush, black

cf. po (po) - black haw

Dhegiha: bo hu (boh) - black hawthorn tree [Kaw]

 

pe-zi-ka hi (ppzika h) - gooseberry bush

cf. pe-zi-ka (ppzika) - gooseberry

Dhegiha: pe-zi (pei) - gooseberry [Omaha]; pe-zi-ga (p̣-i-ga) - gooseberries [FL-Osage]; pe-ze-ga hu (pzega h) - gooseberry bush [Kaw]

 

sha-zhi-ka hi (ika h) - whortleberry bush(es)

            cf. sha-zhi-ka (ika) - whortleberries

 

sha-zhi-ka taⁿ-ka (ika tt̨ka) - whortleberry bush, the large

cf. sha-zhi-ka (ika) - whortleberries

 

ta-ni-ba-he-ta hi (tanbahtta hi) - elder bush (Sambucus)

cf. ta-ni-na (tanba) - pipe; ta-ni-ba-he-ta o-da-siⁿ (tanbahtta dasʔį) - elder bush (Sambucus)

Dhegiha: noⁿ-noⁿ-ba-hu to (noⁿnⁿbahu t) - elderberry, lit., blue pipe stem [Kaw]

 

ti-o-spaⁿ hi (ttispąhi) - hawthorn bush or tree, red

cf. ti-o-spaⁿ (ttispą) - red haw

Dhegiha: ta-spoⁿ hi (taspⁿhi) - red hawthorn, thorn-apple tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-spaⁿ hu (taspⁿ hu) - the red hawthorn tree [Kaw]

 

wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka hi (watstotta kka hi) - hazel bush

cf. wa-ta-sto-ta sha-ka (watstotta kka) - hazel nut; wa-ta-sto-ta (watstotta) - pecan nut

 

wa-xe-ka hi (waxka hi) - blackberry bush

 

wa-xe-ka ma-ni hi (waxka mni h) - dewberry bush

 

wa-xe-ka xo-te hi (waxka xtte h) - raspberry bush

 

zhi-we taⁿ-ka hi (we tt̨ka hi) - wahoo bush

 

bushel

i-toⁿ-we (ttǫwe), i-tʰoⁿ-we (tʰǫwe) - bushel, measure for solids

cf. si-toⁿ-we (sttǫwe) - foot; one, unit of measure

 

bushes

o-xda (oxd) - thicket, bushes

Dhegiha: u-xtha-be (uxthbe) - forest, timber, in the woods [Omaha]; o-xtha-be (o-xtha-be), u-xtha-be (u-xth-be) - thicket, a dense forest, a grove, woods [FL-Osage]; o-xla-be (oxlbe) - brush, bushes, undergrowth, a thicket [Kaw]

 

but

e-toⁿ (ett̨) - and, but

 

e-de (ed) - but, sign of past time

Dhegiha: e-de (de) - but [Omaha/Ponca]

 

wi-e-zha (wea) - I, but I, whereas I, contrastive

Dhegiha: wi-e-zha (wezha) - I, in contrast to others, marks a contrast between the speaker and someone else [Omaha/Ponca]

 

di-e-zha (dea) - you, contrastive

Dhegiha: thi-e-zha (thezha) - you on the one hand; you on the other hand [Omaha/Ponca]

 

oⁿ-ko-we-zha (ǫkwea) - we, contrastive, "we, on the one hand"

 

butt, collide, run into

a-ki-pa-i-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt a-a-ki-pa-bnaⁿ (akkippbną) - I, a-da-ki-pa-taⁿ (dakkipptt̨) - you

cf. a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-pa (-ḳi-pa) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

 

butter

ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter, lit. "milk grease"

ma-ze-ni we-kdi (mazni wkdi) - butter [MS]

ma-ze-ni we-kjhi (mazni wkǰ) - butter [AG, OM]

cf. ma-ze (maze) - breast; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake we-kdi (wkdi) - grease, lard, oil

Dhegiha: ma-ze-ni we-gthi (mazni wgthi) - butter, milk grease [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-ze-ni we-ghti (ba--ni-we-gthi) - butter, cream [FL-Osage]; pa-ze-ni we-li (paaznii wli) - butter, literally, milk grease, cream [CQ-Osage]

 

butterfly

ti-na (tna) - butterfly

Dhegiha: wa-ti-ni-ni-ka (watninika) - butterfly [Omaha]; dsi-oⁿ dsi-oⁿ (dsi-ⁿ dsi-oⁿ) - butterfly [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ-kiⁿ e-zhiⁿ (k̨įkįįę) - butterfly [CQ-Osage]; gi-yaⁿ (giyⁿ), gi-aⁿ (giⁿ) - butterfly [Kaw]

 

buttocks

ni-te (ntte), niⁿ-te (n̨tte)  - buttocks, person or animal

ni-te (ntte) - buttocks, rear [MS, OM]

ni-te (nik-teh) - buttocks, rump, hindquarters (fesses) [GI]

cf. ni-te ka-zhi (ntte ki) - toilet paper; niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers

Dhegiha: ni-de (nde) - buttocks [Omaha]; ni-dse (n-dse) - hips, rump, posterior, the lower part of the back, the hips, haunch, body [FL-Osage]

 

ni-te-a-zho (nitteo) - rump, buttocks

cf. ni-te (ntte), niⁿ-te (n̨tte)  - buttocks, person or animal; zho (o) - flesh, meat, skin

 

button

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kkakną) - a button

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (i kus a ga nŭ) - brooch, from Mrs. Clabber [MH]

i-ka-she-knaⁿ (kakną) - to button i-ka-she-a-knaⁿ (kaekną) - I, i-ka-she-da-knaⁿ (kaedkną) - you

 

buy

ki-niⁿ (kin̨) - buy something from someone a-bniⁿ (abn̨) - I, da-tiⁿ (datt̨) - you, oⁿ-niⁿ-we (ǫn̨we) - we

 

wa-niⁿ (wan̨) - buy, trade wa-bniⁿ (wabn̨) - I, wa-tiⁿ (watt̨) - you, oⁿ-wa-niⁿ-we (ǫwnįwe) - we

cf. we-niⁿ (wnį) - sell

 

ni-zhi di-ze (ni diz) - buy on credit ni-zhi bdi-ze (ni bdze) - I, ni-zhi ti-ze (ni ttze) - you

cf. ni-zhi (ni) - credit, a debt; di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive; ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone

            Dhegiha: yu-ze (yuz) - to buy [Kaw]

 

buzz

ga-xoⁿ-xoⁿ-te (gaγ̨γǫtte) - buzzing, humming sound

 

buzzard

he-ka taⁿ-ka (hek tt̨ka) - buzzard, Cathartes aura

he-ka taⁿ-ka (hek tt̨ka) - buzzard [MS]

he-ka (heh-kah) - vulture (vautour) [GI]

cf. ma-ni he-ka (man hkka) - hawk, brown, "bird hawk"

Dhegiha: he-ga (hga) - turkey-buzzard, Cathartes aura [Omaha/Ponca]; he-ga (he-g) - turkey buzzard [FL-Osage]; he-ka (hka) - buzzard, hawk [CQ-Osage]; he-ga (hga) - buzzard [Kaw]

 

by cutting with a knife

            pa (p) - by cutting with a knife: outer instrumental prefix

ex: pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord

ex: pa-se (pse) - cut off with a knife

ex: pa-shi-ke (pike) - ruin by cutting with a knife

ex: pa-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - cut apart, disjoint

Dhegiha: ma (ma) - by cutting with a knife [Omaha/Ponca]; ba (ba) - a prefix to denote the act of cutting with a knife [FL-Osage]; pa (p) - by use of a sharp edge, by cutting [CQ-Osage]; ba (b) - instrumental prefix: by cutting with a blade [Kaw]

 

by foot, action of the foot

naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot: inner instrumental prefix

ex: naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet

ex: naⁿ-ka-xe (nąkʔxe) - grating sound, make with feet

ex: naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose

ex: naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (nąwappą) - bleed, cause by kicking

Dhegiha: naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot [Omaha/Ponca]; naⁿ (nąą) - on or with ones foot or feet, by foot [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ (naⁿ) - instrumental prefix: by foot, by using the foot or feet [Kaw]

 

by hand, pulling

di (di) - by hand, pulling: inner instrumental prefix

ex: di-a-ze (dize) - pull open

ex: di-bda-ska (dibdska) - flatten, fold flat

ex: di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands

ex: di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high

Dhegiha: thi (thi) - by hand, pulling [Omaha/Ponca]; thi (thi) - action with the hand [FL-Osage]; thu (u), thi (i) - action by hand; cause, make (not necessarily by hand) [CQ-Osage]; yu (yu) - instrumental prefix: cause by using the hands; also, a general causative [Kaw]

 

by means of, with which to

i (-) - verb stem, instrumental, comitative

ex: i-di-shi-we (diwe) - a key, i () by means of, with which to + di-shi-we (diwe) - to open up, to open

ex: i-ka-pʰe (kapʰe) - a comb, i () by means of, with which to + ka-pʰe (kapʰ) - to comb

ex: i-ka-za (kaza) - a whip, i () by means of, with which to + ka-za (kaz), ga-za (gaz) - to whip

ex: ni i-da-taⁿ (ni dattą́) - cup, water - with which to drink [MS]

Dhegiha: i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to [Omaha/Ponca]; i (i) - with which to [FL-Osage]; i () - with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to [CQ-Osage]; i () - with, using, by means of, instrumentive locative [Kaw]

 

we (we-)

ex: we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - a mower, a grass cutter, ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut a cord in two

ex: we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - a plow, di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil

ex: we-ka-ti-ze (wkattze) - a broom, ka-ti-ze (kattze), ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away

ex: we-da-shti-te (wdattte) - the gullet, da-shti-te (dattte) - swallow

ex: we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, "whiten with it"

Dhegiha: we (we-) - that by which, with which to, to make with, that which is used to/for [FL-Osage]; we (w-) - the prefixes wa + regularly combine to form we [CQ-Osage]

 

i-yaⁿ (iy̨) - with, by means of, i + ʔǫ

 

yaⁿ (yą) - with, by means of, noun suffix

 

by mouth

da (da) - by mouth: inner instrumental prefix

ex: da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two

ex: da-shi-ke (dake) - speak badly of or incorrectly

ex: da-shta (dat) - lick, taste

ex: da-tʰe (datʰ) - eat, chew

Dhegiha: tha (tha) - by mouth [Omaha/Ponca]; tha (aa) - by mouth [CQ-Osage]; ya (ya) - instrumental prefix: by mouth, by using the mouth, as in eating, biting, speaking, etc. [Kaw]

 

by pressing, rubbing

bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing: inner instrumental prefix

ex: bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms

ex: bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle

ex: bi-shi-ke (bike) - ruin by pressing, squash

ex: bi-te-ka (bitteka) - shine, polish rubbing

Dhegiha: bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing [Omaha/Ponca]; pu (pu) - by pressing down on with movement back and forth, by smoothing [CQ-Osage]; bu (bu) - instrumental prefix: by generalized pressure, by pushing or rubbing [Kaw]

 

by pushing

ba (ba) - by pushing: inner instrumental prefix

ex: ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around

ex: ba-shi-ke (baik) - ruin by poking a hole in

ex: ba-shta (bat) - smoothe, sand, plane

ex: ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate

Dhegiha: ba (ba) - by pushing [Omaha/Ponca]; ba (ba) - an act of pushing [FL-Osage]; pa (paa) - by pushing away or by hand, by pushing or pressing on something (either compacting or spreading it), by pushing up and away with the hands [CQ-Osage]; ba (ba) - instrumental prefix: by pushing, or with a pointed object [Kaw]

 

by shooting, blowing

po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching: outer instrumental prefix

ex: po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

ex: po-shi-ke (pike) - spoil something by punching it

ex: po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound

ex: po-wa-paiⁿ (pwappąⁿ) - cause to bleed from a thrust

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ) - by shooting, blowing [Omaha/Ponca]; po (p) - by means of sudden intrusive action e.g., by shooting, by punching [CQ-Osage]; bo (b) - instrumental prefix: by punching, blowing with the mouth, by shooting [Kaw]

 

by striking, wind, water

ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water: inner instrumental prefix

ex: ka-ko-ke (kakkke) - beat a drum

ex: ka-shi-ke (kake) - spoil something by striking it

ex: ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

ex: ka-ti-ze (kattze, ka-tʰi-ze (katʰze) - knock, sweep, brush away

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - by striking, wind, water [Omaha/Ponca]; ga (ga) - by blows [FL-Osage]; ka (kaa) - by striking, by sudden application of force or sudden movement [CQ-Osage]; ga (ga) - instrumental prefix: by striking or impact [Kaw]

 

by temperature, extreme temperature

ta (t) - by extreme temperature: outer instrumental prefix

ex: ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - smell of something burning, to

ex: ta-shi-ke (tke) - ruin something by burning it

ex: ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up

ex: ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot

Dhegiha: na (n) - by extreme temperature [Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - by heat, a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction, to feeze, frozen [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) - by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

 Back to Top