English to Quapaw Dictionary

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Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

E

 

enough

e-naⁿ (en̨) - enough

cf. e (e) - that, aforementioned, he, she, it; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; she-naⁿ (ną) - enough; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

Dhegiha: e-noⁿ xti (enoⁿxji) - only, single [Omaha/Ponca]; e-noⁿ (e-nⁿ) - sole, exclusive, that only, it alone [FL-Osage]; the-noⁿ (th-noⁿ) - this much [FL-Osage]; e-na (een), e-naⁿ (een̨) - be the only, that only, enough, therefore, thats why [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]; ye-naⁿ (ynaⁿ), ye-noⁿ (ynoⁿ) - this many, this much, this number [Kaw]

 

she-naⁿ (ną) - enough

cf. she () - that, those, objects not near the speaker, but visible; e-naⁿ (en̨) - enough; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

ex: ka-she-naⁿ na-ha (kaną nah) - don't do that! [AB]

Dhegiha: she-noⁿ (shenoⁿ) - enough [Omaha]; tha-she-na (thashna) - of she-na (cena), to finish with the mouth, to tell all the news, leaving none to be told by others, to suck a piece of candy, till all is gone [Omaha/Ponca]; the-noⁿ (th-noⁿ) - this much [FL-Osage]; ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - be ended, finished, thats all, something is finished, closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashhnaⁿ) - that's all, that is enough, just this much [Kaw]; ye-naⁿ (ynaⁿ), ye-noⁿ (ynoⁿ) - this many, this much, this number [Kaw]

 

enough, big enough, of that size

she-na-ska (enask) - big enough, of that size

cf. de-na-ska (denask) - of this size; e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size; ka-na-ska (kanask) - of that size; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each, (distributive); ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big/small, what size; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big is each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big

Dhegiha: a-thoⁿ-ska (athoⁿka) - size [Omaha]; the-thoⁿ-ska (th-thoⁿ-ka) - this size [FL-Osage]; ga-she-yaⁿ-ska (gashyaⁿska), ga-she-yoⁿ-ska (gashyoⁿska) - of a certain size, be that size, be that big, be big enough [Kaw]

 

enough, deep enough, a certain depth

she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

 

enough, long enough, a certain length

she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

cf. ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ) - half that length; de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this (much)

Dhegiha: ga-she-khaⁿ (gashkhaⁿ) - end, so long and no longer [Kaw]

 

enough, tall enough, a certain height

she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

 

enough, the end

shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

cf. shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫn̨) - finally, mv/an/sb; shoⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - finally; shoⁿ-tʰe (ǫtʰ) - finally

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - fit, proper, as it should be, enough, that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit, stop, ready [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete, perfect, it is done [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-a-ba (shⁿ-a-ba) - finally, at length [FL-Osage]; sho-iⁿ-da (shⁿ-iⁿ da) - enough, satisfying [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ (ga-shⁿ) - it is enough, sufficient [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ (kaą) - enough of some activity, final point, end [CQ-Osage]

 

enter

o-pʰe (opʰ) - enter, as a lodge o-a-pʰe (opʰe) - I, o-da-pʰe (odpʰe) - you, oⁿ-ko-pa-we (ǫkPawe) - we

Dhegiha: o-pa bi (up̣-bi) - enter [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰpe (u-p̣) - to enter [FL-Osage]; o-ʰpe (oʰp) - enter or go in/into, enter formally as into a peyote meeting [CQ-Osage]; o-pʰe (oph) - enter [RR-Kaw]

 

entire

bdo-ka (bdka) - circular, round, whole, entire

cf. o-ma-ni-ka bdo-ka (omnikka bdok) - year, an entire year; ho bdo-ka (ho bdka) - sucker, lit. round fish; a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

Dhegiha: bthu-ga (bthga) - round, circular, whole, entire, all [Omaha/Ponca]; bthu-ga (bthuga) - all, round, cylinder, entire, whole [Omaha]; btho-ga (bth-ga) - round, cylindrical, entire, a whole thing, a whole, a dollar [FL-Osage]; bro-ka (brka) - in bulk, wholesale, in large quantities, overall, undivided, by the yard, in large pieces, not merely pieces of some item but the entire item, in its entirety, fully, whole, entire, complete, dollar [CQ-Osage]; blo-ga (blga) - the whole, the entire thing, all, dollar [Kaw]

 

entrails

shi-we (we), shiu-we (we), shu-we (we) - guts, entrails

cf. ma-ni-ka shi-we (monikka-chiweh) - worm (ver un) [GI]; shi-we di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (we diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs

Dhegiha: shi-be (shbe) - entrails, intestines, guts, innards [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be (shbe) - bowels, intestines [Omaha]; shi-be (sh-be), shiu-be (shi-be), shu-be (sh-be) - entrails, the viscera, intestines [FL-Osage]; shu-pe (pe) - intestines, appendix, colon, entrails, insides, stomach area, stomach [CQ-Osage]; shu-we (shwe), shu-be (shbe) - guts, intestines, entrails [Kaw]

 

entrance to a lodge

ti-zhe (tte), (tti) - door, entrance to a lodge

ti-zhe (tti) - door [MS]

ti-zhe (tigeh) - door (porte) [GI]

cf. ti-zhe ba-si (tte bas) - door frame; ti-zhe i-da-kdaⁿ (tte idkdą) - door flap; ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-de (tti kaspe ka itʰde) - to shut the door a little

ex: ti-zhe a-ka-spe zhi-ka i-tʰe-da (tti kaspe jka itʰed) - shut the door a little!

Dhegiha: ti-zhe-be (tizhbe) - door, doorway, entrance to a tent, lodge, or house [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-zhe (ṭs-zhe), ʰtsi-zhe-be (ṭs-zhe-be) - the door of a house or tipi [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe (ʰci) - door [CQ-Osage]; ʰtsi-zhe-pe (ʰcipe) - doorway, threshold, formal, used especially for God's doorway at funerals [CQ-Osage]; tsi-zhe-be (cizhbe) - door, doorway [Kaw]

 

equal

kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in

cf. koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ a-zhi (kk̨ze kǫ i) - copy, write over again; koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ-kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - quantity, number, equal in; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - size, of equal; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - length, of equal; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - height, of equal

Dhegiha: i-goⁿ-za (goⁿa) - copy [Omaha]; goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-goⁿ (goⁿ- ḳi-goⁿ) - alike, resembling [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze ʰki-toⁿ-ha (goⁿ- ḳi-toⁿ-ha) - equal in height [FL-Osage]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- 'thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-ʰki-ʰkoⁿ (kǫzʰkiʰkǫ) - similar to or like each other, resembling each other [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]; go-ze ei-ki-khaⁿ (gze kikhaⁿ) - equal length [Kaw]; go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

equal in quantity, number

kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity; mi-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity

Dhegiha: go-ze e-na (gze na) - equal, even in number or quantity, an even number [Kaw]

 

equal or like depth

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

 

equal, of equal height

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

equal, of equal length

kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length

cf. kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in; ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

 

equal, of equal size or like

kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal size or like

cf. miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; de-na-ska (denask) - of this size; ka-na-ska (kanask) - of that size; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; she-na-ska (enask) - big enough size, of that size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big/small, what size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each, distributive; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big is each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; go-ze e-yoⁿ-ska (gze yoⁿska) - equal in size, as large as, same size [Kaw]

 

err

e-koⁿ-zhi (ek̨i), e-kaⁿ-zhi ka-xe (ek̨i kγe) - wrong, do accidentally, err

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; zhi (i) - negative, not; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause; e-kaⁿ xti (kąxt), e-koⁿ xti (ek̨xti) - really, just so

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ-a-zhi (egoⁿazhi) - wrong, illegal, inaccurate, incorrect, false [Omaha]; e-koⁿ-zhi (kǫi) - not be like this or that, be not thus, be otherwise, unseemly, inappropriate, not right, unsuitable, unfitting, ill-advised, wrong [CQ-Osage]; e-go-zhi (gozhi) - not like, not so, not as [Kaw]

 

escape

ki-di-ze (kkdize) - escape from confinement

 

kde-de (kdde) - escape, get away

 

evade

naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded a-naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (an̨knǫda) - I, da-naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (dan̨knǫda) - you

cf. ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-knoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: bi-gthoⁿ-tha (b-gthoⁿ-tha) - to miss hold [FL-Osage]; bo-gthoⁿ-tha (b-gthoⁿ-tha) - to miss a mark [FL-Osage]; ga-gthoⁿ-tha (ga-gthⁿ-tha) - failure to knock a man down by striking him [FL-Osage]; thi-gthoⁿ-tha (thi-gthⁿ-tha) - to fail to get a good hold or grasp, to let a child drop to the floor by accident [FL-Osage]; ba-laⁿ-ya (blaⁿya) - fail cutting in cutting or sawing by missing the object, to make a mistake in cutting or sawing [Kaw]; bo-laⁿ-ya (blaⁿya) - miss in shooting punching, or blowing; make a mistake in shooting, punching, or blowing with the mouth [Kaw]; bu-laⁿ-ya (bulⁿya) - miss while trying to jump upon, to press down on an object, as a rabbit, which suddenly jumps aside, going beyond the effect of the pressure, one assumes this refers to a rabbit that is being hunted or trapped [Kaw]; da-laⁿ-ya (dlaⁿya) - miss, as sparks [Kaw]; ga-laⁿ-ya (galⁿya) - fail to knock down or kill by striking, fail to cut wood, as with an ax, caused by the ax's brushing or slipping by the object without hitting it [Kaw]; naⁿ-laⁿ-ya (naⁿlⁿya) - miss one's footing, miss a place one jumps for, miss what one kicks at [Kaw]; ya-laⁿ-ya (yalⁿya), ya-laⁿ-ye (ylaⁿye) - miss with the mouth, as when trying to bite or swallow something, deceive, call names, lie [Kaw]; yu-laⁿ-ya (yulⁿya), yu-laⁿ-ye (yulaⁿye) - miss or fumble in trying to grasp or pull an object which is too large laⁿ-ye (lⁿye) to be handled [Kaw]

 

evaporate

ta-da-xiⁿ (tdaγį) - evaporate from heat or cold

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature

Dhegiha: na (n) - by extreme temperature [Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - by heat, a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction, to feeze, frozen [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) - by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

even I

wi-e-hi-taⁿ (wihitt̨) - I myself, even I

cf. wi-e (we) - I, me; wi-e e-miⁿ-kʰe-ti (we mįkʰtti) - as for me; wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me; wi-e-naⁿ (wen̨), wi-naⁿ (wną) - only I, I alone; wi-e-taⁿ (wettą) - if it were I; wi-e-te-te (wettett) - I or whoever was meant; wi-e-zha (wea) - but I, whereas I

Dhegiha: wi-e (we) - I, me [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-e (w-e) - I, me [FL-Osage]; wi-e (we) - me, I [CQ-Osage]; wi-e (wi) - I, me [Kaw]

 

even with, parallel, opposite

e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

cf. e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite; koⁿ-ze (kk̨ze), kaⁿ-ze (kk̨ze) - equal in

Dhegiha: ʰkoⁿ-za-ha gthiⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha gthiⁿ) - to sit side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha moⁿ-thiⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha moⁿthiⁿ) - to walk side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za-ha zhoⁿ (ḳⁿ-a-ha zhoⁿ) - to lie side by side [FL-Osage]; ʰkoⁿ-za shkoⁿ (ḳoⁿ- shkoⁿ) - simultaneous [FL-Osage]

 

even, get even

e-ki-kaⁿ (kikʔ̨) - get even, pay off a wrong e-ki-a-kaⁿ (kiakʔ̨) - I, e-ki-da-kaⁿ (kidakʔ̨) - you

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ-gi-ʰkoⁿ (-goⁿ-gi-ḳoⁿ) - retaliation of one individual upon another [FL-Osage]; e-gi-wa-gi-ʰkoⁿ (-gi-wa-gi-ḳoⁿ) - revenge, injury for injury received, retaliation of one tribe on another tribe [FL-Osage]

 

koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ a-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ką kʰide) - I, koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ da-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ką dkʰide) - you

cf. koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; kʰi-de (kʰide) - cause to

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

 

even, so much as

ke-hi-te (khitte) - even, so much as

ex: wa-hi mi ke-hi-te da-xoⁿ na-ha (wah m k͓hitĕ taqŭⁿ nah) - beware, you so much as break one bone . [JOD]

 

evening

pa-ze (ppze) - evening

cf. a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall; pa-ze de (ppazde) - evening; pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening; a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something

ex: e-shoⁿ e-ti pa-ze he-be hi a-kde (ę ett ppze hbe h akd) - so already (that) evening I started home

ex: pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - it's almost dark [MS]

Dhegiha: pa-ze (pze) - evening, dusk, time between afternoon and night [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-ze (pe) - evening [Omaha]; pa-ze (p-e) - evening, close of the day [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ze (ʰpze) - evening, in the evening time, not quite dark yet, night [CQ-Osage]; pa-ze (pze) - evening, late fternoon [Kaw]

 

evening meal

pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]

cf. pa-ze (ppze) - evening; de (de) - this, now; wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine

Dhegiha: pa-ze wa-tha-tʰe (pze wathtʰe) - supper, dinner, evening meal [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-ze wa-tha-te (pae wathate) - supper [Omaha]; pa-ze wa-noⁿ-bthe (p-e wa-noⁿ-bthe) - an evening meal [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ze wa-noⁿ-bre (ʰpze wan̨bre) - supper, evening meal [CQ-Osage]

 

evening, at night, after dark

pa-ze de (ppazde) - evening

pa-ze de (ppazde) - at night [MS]

pa-ze de (pze d) - after dark, evening went [JOD]

cf. pa-ze (ppze) - evening; pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]; a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening; a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something

ex: pa-ze-de haⁿ-ke (ppzed hąk) - it's almost dark [MS]

ex: pa-zi de haⁿ-ke (ppzi d hąk) - nearly night

koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ pa-ze de (k͓icⁿtaⁿ pze d) - then it became night [JOD]

pa-ze de taⁿ kniⁿ-wi (pazĕ d taⁿ k͓nⁿwi) - after dark they camped [JOD]

pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-ke-ti ki-wi (pze d hak͓ tⁿ nikĕti kiwi) - almost dark, they returned home [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-ze the (paze the) - this evening [Omaha]; ʰpa-ze the (ʰpze e) - this evening [CQ-Osage]

 

evening, darken, become evening on someone or something

a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening; pa-ze (ppze) - evening; pa-ze de (ppazde) - evening; pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]

ex: na-xi-da-hi aⁿ-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (nxidahi ̨hąnąppze) - it got dark around me suddenly

ex: a-di-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (dihąnąppaze) - it got dark on you

ex: wa-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-za-we (whąnąppzawe) - it got dark on us

Dhegiha: a-ga-ha-na-pa-ze (gahanapze) - to be dark over, to overshadow [Omaha/Ponca]; haⁿ-iⁿ-pa-ze (haⁿⁿpaze) - to get dark [Kaw]

 

evening, darkness

haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening

haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hą́nąppze) - dark [AG]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; pa-ze (ppze) - evening; a-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hąnąppze) - darken, become evening on someone or something; a-pa-ze (appze) - nightfall; pa-ze de (ppazde) - evening; pa-ze de wa-naⁿ-bde (ppazde wan̨bde) - supper [MS]

Dhegiha: u-ga-ha-na-pa-ze (ughanapze) - darkness [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ga-hoⁿ-noⁿ-pa-ze (uga honnon pae) - black out, darkness [Omaha]; hoⁿ-noⁿ-pa-ze (hⁿ-noⁿ-pa-e) - night darkness, hoⁿ (hoⁿ), night; noⁿ-pa-ze (noⁿ-pa-e), darkness: jail, this refers to the gloomy aspect of the prison [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-naⁿ-ʰpa-ze (h̨ąnąʰpze) - night, at night, dark, darken, become/get dark, dark night, darkness of night, jail, guardhouse, prison [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (hⁿnaⁿpze) - be darkness, be dark [Kaw]; o-ga-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze daⁿ (oghaⁿnaⁿpze-daⁿ) - during darkness, the other Kansa use haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (haⁿnaⁿpaze), but o-ga-haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (oghaⁿnaⁿpaze) may be an archaic word, and it agrees with the Ponca in form [Kaw]

 

ever

shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide), shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide) - always, ever, never

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿ-shoⁿ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (̨ǫwe) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

 

every single one

za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

cf. za-ni (zan) - all, all of the; hi (hi), (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody, total [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

 

everybody

za-ni (zan) - all, all of the

za-ni (zan) - all [AB]

i-za-ni (zani) - all [AG]

cf. za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

ex: za-ni o-zha ki-we (zan a kiw) - everbody come dance [MS]

ex: o-zha za-ni ki-wa-we (a zan  kiwawe) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ba o-zha hne za-ni (ą́ba a hn zan) - whole bunch of them dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand [AG]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody, total [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

 

everyone

be-ni-zhi (bnii) - everyone

cf. be (be) - who; beni (ben) - companionless [JOD]; be-a-zhi (bai) - nobody

Dhegiha: e-be (be) - who, somebody, someone [Omaha/Ponca]; be (be) - whoever, anyone of them [FL-Osage]; pe (pe) - who, whom, to who, whose turn, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one [CQ-Osage]; be (be), (be) - who, someone, somebody [Kaw]

 

za-ni (zan) - all, all of the

za-ni (zan) - all [AB]

i-za-ni (zani) - all [AG]

cf. za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

ex: za-ni o-zha ki-we (zan a kiw) - everbody come dance [MS]

ex: o-zha za-ni ki-wa-we (a zan  kiwawe) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ba o-zha hne za-ni (ą́ba a hn zan) - whole bunch of them dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand [AG]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody, total [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

 

everything

za-ni (zan) - all, all of the

za-ni (zan) - all [AB]

i-za-ni (zani) - all [AG]

cf. za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody, total [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

 

evil spirit, devil, Satan

sha-taⁿ-ka (ʔatt̨ka), cha-taⁿ-ka (čʔatt̨ka) - evil spirit, Satan

sha taⁿ-ka (ʔa ttą́ka) - devil [MS]

cf. sha-taⁿ-ka o-ma-ni (ʔatt̨ka omni) - Devil's Promenade, OK

Dhegiha: tsa toⁿ-ga (ṭs ṭoⁿ-ga) - tsa (ṭs), a contraction of we-tsa (we-ṭs) - snake, toⁿ-ga (ṭoⁿ-ga) - big, Satan, the Osage did not know the name of Satan till the missionaries came [FL-Osage]; tsa ʰtaⁿ (cʔ htą́ą) - devil, Satan, possibly a contraction of we-ts'a (wcʔa) - snake + ʰtaⁿ (htą́ą), ʰtaⁿ-ka (htą́ka) - big, perhaps borrowed from English Satan [CQ-Osage]

 

exceedingly

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ta-shoⁿ (atashoⁿ) - severe, too much, exceed, excess [Omaha]

 

naⁿ-e-he (nąhe) - exceedingly, very very

 

xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

cf. shiⁿ-xti (įxt) - fat, very, really; sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people; a-na-hi-te-xti (anhittxti) - many, a great many

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

Dhegiha: xti (qti) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

excell

di-ho-taⁿ (dihttą) - do well, to excell bdi-ho-taⁿ (bdhottą) - I, ti-ho-taⁿ (tthottą) - you

cf. ho-taⁿ (httą) - good

Dhegiha: thi-u-doⁿ (thidoⁿ) - to make good, to repair [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-tha-gthiⁿ (thi-th-gthiⁿ) - to improve, to make better [FL-Osage]; thu-tha-liⁿ (ualį) - make good, fix, remedy, bless [CQ-Osage]

 

exchange

i-ki-kaiⁿ-de (kkikkaįde) - trade, barter, exchange i-ki-kaiⁿ-a-de (kkikkaįade) - I, i-ki-kaiⁿ-da-de (kkikkaįdade) - you

cf. i-ki-kaiⁿ-ki-de (kkikkįkkde) - trade something of someone's on him

Dhegiha: i-ki-koⁿ-wiⁿ-the (ikkoⁿwiⁿthe) - change, trade [Omaha]; i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ-the (-ḳi-ḳa-wiⁿ the) - to exchange, to trade, to barter [FL-Osage]; i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ (ʰkiʰkawį) - exchange, trade, swap, change [CQ-Osage]

 

exist

niⁿ (nį), (nyį) - be in a location, exist bniⁿ (bn̨) - I, tiⁿ (tt̨) - you, oⁿ-niⁿ-we (ǫn̨we) - we

ex: dedtą bniⁿ (dedtaⁿ p͓nⁿ), dketitaⁿ bniⁿ (dk͓ettaⁿ p͓nⁿ) - I am Dhegiha [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - to be [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ (̨) - be a certain way, live as, exist as, be characterized by the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - to be, to be so, to be such a one, indicates permanent or long-term condition [Kaw]

 

ni (ni) - alive, conscious

ex: ni-de (nde) - save a life, cause to live

Dhegiha: ni (ni) - to exist, to live [FL-Osage]; ni (n) - live, be alive, be living, be well or all right, be in good health [CQ-Osage]; ni (ni) - live, to be alive [Kaw]

 

ni tʰaⁿ, ni toⁿ (ni-ton) - life, existence (vie) [GI]

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - 3sg standing continuative auxiliary; taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

Dhegiha: ni ta (nta) - alive, life [Omaha]

 

ni o-kniⁿ (ni-unkani) - live, exist (vivre) [GI]

cf. ni (ni) - alive, conscious; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) -  sit in, dwell in, live in; oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį) - we, 1pl continuative auxiliary moving

 

ti-ta (titt) - live, be alive aⁿ-ti-ta (̨titta) - I, di-ti-ta (dtitta) - you

cf. ki-ti-ta (k͓tit) - revived, came to life again [JOD]

 

expected, do more than expected

ka-chʰaⁿ-he naⁿ (kkačʰ̨he -ną) - do more than expected

 

expedition

ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - migrate, go on hunting expedition

cf. ka-xnaⁿ o-zhoⁿ-ke (kaxn̨ ǫke) - migratory route, hunting route

Dhegiha: ga-xthoⁿ (gaqthⁿ) - hunting party, a hunting party including all or most of a tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xthoⁿ-the (ga-xthⁿ-the) - to migrate, to go on a hunting expedition [FL-Osage]; ka-loⁿ-the (kaalⁿe) - travel, migrate, go on a hunting expedition [CQ-Osage]; ga-xlaⁿ (gaxlⁿ) - migrate, go an on extensive hunting expedition with many or all of the tribe; to go with a large party, each man taking his household [Kaw]

 

expend, to expend someones property

ni-ki-de (nkide) - to expend someones property

cf. wa-ni-ki-de (wankide) - give away someones property; wa-ni-de (wande) - to be generous; give away; ni-wa-de (nwade) - exterminate, lit. leave none; ni-de hi (nid hi) - use up, take or destroy all

ex: o-ki-hi-ta ni-ki-de tʰe (okhitta nkide tʰe) - he is anxious to expend it all

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-the) - to spend money, to give away ones own possessions till all are gone, to exterminate, to destroy utterly, annihilate, [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - be out of, be lacking, give away, divest oneself of [CQ- Osage]; yiⁿ-ye (yⁿye) - exterminate, wipe out, to bring to nothing [Kaw]; yiⁿ-wa-ya-be (yⁿwaybe) - he was exterminating them [Kaw]

 

expert

ki-shkaⁿ (kkik̨) - quick, expert at something a-ki-shkaⁿ (kkiką) - I, da-ki-shkaⁿ (dkkiką) - you

Dhegiha: gi-shkoⁿ (gishkⁿ) - to be quick or handy at doing something [Omaha/Ponca];
gi-shkoⁿ e-goⁿ (gishkⁿ goⁿ) - quickly [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-shkoⁿ xti (gishkⁿ qti) - very rapidly, very fast, very quickly [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-shkoⁿ xti e-goⁿ (gishkⁿqtigoⁿ) - very quickly or suddenly [Omaha/Ponca]

 

pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) also pi-noⁿ (ppnǫ), do well, expresses precocity pi-moⁿ (ppmǫ) - I, shpi-zhoⁿ (pǫ) - you

cf. pi-naⁿ (ppną), pi-noⁿ (ppnǫ) - do well at something precociously

Dhegiha: pi-oⁿ (pioⁿ) - fix [Omaha]; pi-oⁿ (pi-ⁿ) - expert, skillful [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-oⁿ (ʰpǫ) - know how to do something, learn, be skilled at or expert in [CQ-Osage]

 

explode

ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, exploding water

ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - pop (soda pop) [LQ, OM]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder; di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - burst, to cause by burning

Dhegiha: ni-ga-ʰto-xe (ni-g-ṭo-xe) - to splash water with the hands [FL-Osage]; ni-noⁿ-ʰto-xe (ni-nⁿ-ṭo-xe) - splash with the foot [FL-Osage]; ni ka-pxo-ʰke (niikapxoʰke) - soda pop, soft drink, lit., liquid explodes [CQ-Osage]; ni ga-pʰo-ke (ni gaphke), ni ga-pʰo-ki (n gaphki) - soda pop [Kaw]

 

exposure, wither from exposure to heat

ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

cf. te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-ta-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching

 

express

oⁿ-te (ǫtt) - expresses denial, sentence final modal particle, uninflected

expresses precocity, do well

pi-oⁿ (ppiʔ̨) also pi-noⁿ (ppnǫ), do well, expresses precocity pi-moⁿ (ppmǫ) - I, shpi-zhoⁿ (pǫ) - you

cf. pi-naⁿ (ppną), pi-noⁿ (ppnǫ) - do well at something precociously

Dhegiha: pi-oⁿ (pioⁿ) - fix [Omaha]; pi-oⁿ (pi-ⁿ) - expert, skillful [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-oⁿ (ʰpǫ) - know how to do something, learn, be skilled at or expert in [CQ-Osage]

 

expresses uncertainty, such and such

te te (tte tt) - such and such, expresses uncertainty, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ te te (hǫn̨ttą tte tt)

cf. e-te te (tte tt) - perhaps, maybe; wi-e te-te (wettett) - I or whoever was meant

 

extend

noⁿ-pe da-ki-a-ti (nǫp dakkiatt̨) - extend the arm towards person

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; da-ki-a-tiⁿ (dakkiatt̨) - hand, stretch out to someone

 

bi-te (bitt) - hands, extended to person address pi-te (pptte) - I, shpi-te (ptte) - you

 

exterminate

ni-wa-de (nwade) - exterminate, lit. leave none ni-a-wa-de (niawade) - I, ni-wa-da-de (niwadade) - you, ni-oⁿ-wa-da-we (niǫwadawe) - we

cf. ni-de hi (nid hi) - use up, take or destroy all; wa-ni-ki-de (wankide) - give away someones property; wa-ni-de (wande) - to be generous, give away

ex: o-ki-hi-ta ni-ki-de tʰe (okhitta nkide tʰe) - he is anxious to expend it all

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-the) - to exterminate, to destroy utterly, annihilate, to spend money, to give away ones own possessions till all are gone [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - be out of, be lacking, give away, divest oneself of [CQ- Osage]; yiⁿ-ye (yⁿye) - exterminate, wipe out, to bring to nothing [Kaw]; yiⁿ-wa-ya-be (yⁿwaybe) - he was exterminating them [Kaw]

 

ni-de hi (nid hi) - use up, take or destroy all ni-a-de (niade) - I, ni-da-de (nidade) - you

cf. ni-wa-de (nwade) - exterminate, lit. leave none; wa-ni-ki-de (wankide) - give away someones property; wa-ni-de (wande) - to be generous, give away

ex: o-ki-hi-ta ni-ki-de tʰe (okhitta nkide tʰe) - he is anxious to expend it all

Dhegiha: ni-the (n-the) - to exterminate, to destroy utterly, annihilate, to spend money, to give away ones own possessions till all are gone [FL-Osage]; ni-the (ne) - be out of, be lacking, give away, divest oneself of [CQ- Osage]; yiⁿ-ye (yⁿye) - exterminate, wipe out, to bring to nothing [Kaw]; yiⁿ-wa-ya-be (yⁿwaybe) - he was exterminating them [Kaw]

 

extinguish

a-da-zhi (dai) - extinguish, scatter a-da-a-zhi (dai) - I, a-da-ta-zhi (datti) - you, a-da-oⁿ-zhi-we (daǫwe) - we

cf. ta (t-) - burn; zhi (-i) - not

Dhegiha: na-zhi (nzhi) - to go out, as a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-na-zhi (thinzhi) - light turned off [Omaha]; da-zhi (d-zhi) - to extinguish a fire [FL-Osage]; thi-da-zhi (thi-d-zhi) - to put out a fire with the hands, to put out a light [FL-Osage]; ta-zhi (tai) - go out, not burn, become extinguished [CQ-Osage]; thu-ta-zhi (uutai), thi-ta-zhi (iiti) - turn off, switch off, extinguish [CQ-Osage]; da-zhi (dzhi) - be extinguished, to have gone out, as a fire [Kaw]

 

extreme temperature

ta (t) - by extreme temperature

cf. ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning; ta-shi-ke (tke) - ruin something by burning it; ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up; ta-ka-te (tkkatte) - hot, to be hot; ta-skaⁿ (tską) - melt; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat or cold; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat; ma-ze ta-de (mze tde) - stove; ta-da-xiⁿ (tdaγį) - evaporate from heat or cold; ta we-kdi o-ta-haⁿ (tta wkdi otahą) - fried meat, cooked with the grease [MS]; wa-ske we-kdiu-ta-haⁿ (wask wekdtahą) - frybread [MS, MR, FR]

ex: a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn (turn on the lantern, make it burn) [MS]

Dhegiha: na (n) - by extreme temperature [Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - by heat, a prefix denoting fire or the effects of fire in its destruction, to feeze, frozen [FL-Osage]; ta (ta) - by extreme of temperature, by heat or cold [CQ-Osage]; da (d) - instrumental prefix indicating effect of fire, heat, or extreme cold (more often heat than cold) [Kaw]

 

eye

i-shta (it) - eye

i-shta (it) - eye(s) [MS, MR, AB, OM]

iⁿ-shta (inschta) - eye, eyes (il-yeux) [GI]

i-shta (i˙D) - eye(s) [FS]

cf. i-shta-bni (itbni) - tear, tears; i-shta we-de da-kniⁿ-zhi (it wde dakn̨i) - be nearsighted; i-shta xi-te (it xtte) - blind, be blind; i-shta-xe (itxe) - Frenchman, whiteman; i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - negro, lit. dark whiteman

ex: i-shta niⁿ-kʰe (it nįkʰ) - the eye

ex: i-shta a-toⁿ-we miⁿ-kʰe (it t̨we mįkʰ) - I'm looking at it [MS]

Dhegiha: i-shta (isht) - eye [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta (iⁿshta) - eyes [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta (iⁿ-sht) - eye, eyes [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta (įįt), i-shta (iit) - eye [CQ-Osage]; i-shta (isht) - the eye, pair of eyes [Kaw]

 

eye, birds eyes

wa-zhiⁿ-ka e i-shta (wąka it) - birds eyes

            cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; i-shta (it) - eye

Dhegiha: i-shta (isht) - eye [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta (iⁿ-sht) - eye [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta (įįt), i-shta (iit) - eye [CQ-Osage]; i-shta (isht) - eye [Kaw]

 

eye, buckeye

ta i-shta (tta it) - buckeye, deer eye [MS]

cf. ta (tta) - deer, ruminant, meat, esp. dried meat; i-shta (it) - eye

Dhegiha: ʰta-shka hi (ṭ-shka hi) - buckeye, Aesculus, a kind of tea is made from this tree and taken just before a sweat bath to bring up bile, this is also the name given to the white oak tree [FL-Osage]; ʰta-shka hi (ʰtka hi) - buckeye tea, used in sweat lodge before a peyote meeting to induce vomiting [CQ-Osage]

 

eyes, close the eyes

i-shta di-iⁿ-ze (it dįze), di-iⁿ-ze (dįze) - blink, wink, close the eyes bdi-iⁿ-ze (bdįze) - I, ti-iⁿ-ze (ttįze) - you

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta thi-piⁿ-ze (iⁿshta thpiⁿe) - blink [Omaha]; thu-piⁿ-ze (upʔ̨ze) - blink [CQ-Osage]; i-shta yu-piⁿ-ze (isht yupⁿze) - shut the eyes tightly, blink [Kaw]; yu-piⁿ-ze (yupⁿze) - close the eyes [Kaw]

 

eye, iris of the eye

i-shta o-shaⁿ-shaⁿ (it oą̨) - iris of the eye

 

eye, pupil of the eye

i-shta o-sha (it oa), i-shto-sha (ita) - pupil of the eye

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: i-shtu-sha-be (ishtshabe) - iris, dark part of the eye [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta u-sha be-thoⁿ (iⁿshta usha bethoⁿ) - pupil of the eye [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta u-sha-be (iⁿ-sht u-sha-be) - the dark of the eye, the pupil [FL-Osage]; i-shta sa-be (isht sbe) - pupil of the eye, lit., eye-black [Kaw]

 

i-shta maⁿ-te hi zhi-ka hi sa (ita m̨tte hi ika hi sa) - pupil of the eye

 

eye, white of the eye, cornea

i-shto-ska (itska) - cornea, i-shta (ita) + o-ska (oska)

cf. i-shta (it) - eye(s); ska (ska) - white

Dhegiha: i-shtu-ska (ishtskă) - cornea, white of the eye [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta u-ska thoⁿ (iⁿshta uka thoⁿ) - white of the eye [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta o-ska (iⁿ-shta--ka) - the white of the eyes [FL-Osage]; i-shto-ska (ishtska) - cornea of the eye, white of the eye [Kaw]

 

eyebrow

i-shta na-xa-xe (it naxax) - eyebrow

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta noⁿ-xi-xe (iⁿshta noⁿxixe) - eyebrow [Omaha]; i-shta na-qi-xe (ishtnaqxe) - brow ridge; the ridge above the eyes [Omaha/Ponca]; i-shta na-qi-xe hiⁿ (ishtnaqxe hiⁿ) - eyebrows [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta noⁿ-xo-xe hiⁿ (iⁿ-sht noⁿ-xo-xe hiⁿ) - eyebrows [FL-Osage]; i-shta ni-xu-ghe (isht nixghe) - brow ridge, bone under the eyebrows [Kaw]

 

i-shta di-hiⁿ (it dihį) - eyebrows [MS]

cf. i-shta i-di-hiⁿ (it idih̨) - eyelash

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta hiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-hiⁿ) - eyebrows [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta hiⁿ (įįthįį) - eyebrows [CQ-Osage]; i-shta hiⁿ (ishthiⁿ) - eyelashes, eyebrows [Kaw]; i-shta-hiⁿ maⁿ-shi-ta (ishthiⁿ maⁿshta) - eyebrow [Kaw]

 

i-shta-ta-he (itttahe), i-shte-ta-he (itttahe) - eyebrows

 

eyeglasses

i-shta wa-sko-knaⁿ (itwaskkną) - eyeglasses

i-shta wa-sko-knaⁿ (it waskkną) - glasses, eye glasses, i-shta (it) - eye + wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible + o-knaⁿ (kną) - put on [MS]

cf. i-ye wa-ska (iywaska) -  interpreter, lit. talk clear; da-wa-ska (dawska) - clearly, plainly; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set one's own, put; pa-ho-knaⁿ (ppahkną), pa-hi o-kdaⁿ (pphi kdą), pa-hi o-knaⁿ (pphi kną) - hat, cap; iⁿ-te o-kdaⁿ (̨tte kdą) - mask

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze i-shta u-gthe (moⁿe ishtaugthe) - eye glasses, bifocal [Omaha]; moⁿ-ze iⁿ-shta u-gthoⁿ (moⁿ-e iⁿ-sht u-gthoⁿ) - eyeglasses [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-ze iⁿ-shto-laⁿ (m̨ze įįtolą) - glasses, eyeglasses, spectacles, lorgnette, any device worn over the eye or eyes, lit., metal to place on the eyes [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ze i-shto-laⁿ (mⁿze ishtlaⁿ) - glasses, eyeglasses [Kaw]

 

eyelash

i-shta i-di-hiⁿ (it idih̨) - eyelash

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; hiⁿ (hį) - hair of the body, down of bird; i-shta di-hiⁿ (it dihį) - eyebrows [MS]

Dhegiha: i-shta-the-hiⁿ (ishtthehⁿ) - eyelashes [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta the-hiⁿ (iⁿshta thehiⁿ) - eyelash [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta-hiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-hiⁿ) - eyebrows [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-hiⁿ (įįthįį) - eyebrows [CQ-Osage]; i-shta hiⁿ (ishthiⁿ) - eyelashes, eyebrows [Kaw]

 

i-shta xe (itxe) - eyelashes [MR]

cf. i-shta-xe (itxe) - Frenchman, whiteman; i-shta-xi sha (itxi ) - negro, lit. dark whiteman

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (iⁿ-sht-xiⁿ) - yellow eyes, a white man [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-xiⁿ (įįtxįį) - white person, French person, Canadian or English person, light eyes, gray, brown, or yellow eyes [CQ-Osage]; i-shta-xe (ishtxe) - white man, Frenchman, eyebrows [Kaw]

 

eyelid

i-shta-ha (itha) - eyelid

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

ex: i-shta-ha (itha nįkʰ) - the eyelid

Dhegiha: i-shta-ha (ishtha) - eyelid [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shta-ha (iⁿshta ha) - eyelid [Omaha]; iⁿ-shta-ha (iⁿ-sht-ha) - skin of the eye [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-shta-ha (įįthaa) - eyelid [CQ-Osage]; i-shta kaⁿ-ha (ishtkaⁿha) - eyelids, upper or lower [Kaw]; i-shta xu-ha (ishtxuha) - eyelids, lit., eye skin [Kaw]

 

eyelid, lower eyelid

i-shta-ha to-shi (itha to) - lower eyelid

cf. i-shta-ha (itha) - eyelid; to-shi (to) - low, lower; i-ha-zho to-shi (ha to) - lower lip; to-shi-hi-ta (tihtta) - at the bottom of something; di-to-shi (ditti) - pull down something as a window

ex: i-shta-ha to-shi kʰe (itha to kʰe) - the lower eyelid

Dhegiha: nu-shi (nshi) - low [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-shi-xchi (nshiqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-nu-shi (ganshi) - to cut or throw low [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha (nshiha) - low, short, down below [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-shi-a-ha-xchi (nshihaqchi) - very low [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-nu-shi (thi nushi) - dim [Omaha]

 

eyelid, upper eyelid

i-shta-ha maⁿ-shi (itha mą) - upper eyelid

cf. i-shta-ha (itha) - eyelid; maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven; i-ha-zho maⁿ-shi (ha mą) - upper lip; di-maⁿ-shi (dim̨i) - pull up high; maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend; maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit.talks on high; maⁿ-shi hi (mą hi) - cliff; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain

ex: i-shta-ha kʰe (itha mą kʰe) - the upper eyelid

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (mⁿ-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

 

eyes, both eyes

iⁿ-shta ni-koⁿ-ni  (inschta nikkoni) - both eyes (deaux yeux) [GI]

cf. i-shta (it) - eye; ni-kaⁿ-ni (nkkąn), ni-koⁿ-ni-hi (nikk̨nihi) - pair, both; si ni-kaⁿ-ni (si nkkąn) - both feet

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ʰku-wiⁿ (nⁿ-ḳu-wiⁿ) - the two, both [FL-Osage]; na-ʰkoⁿiⁿ (naʰkǫ̨), naⁿ-ʰko-wiⁿ (nąʰkwį) - pair, couple, the two of them [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-koⁿ-mi (nⁿkoⁿm) - pair, both, couple, two together [Kaw]

 

eye, close an eye

to-zhi (ti) - wink, close an eye

i-shta to-zhi (it ti) - closed eye

Dhegiha: iⁿ-shta thi-do-zhe (iⁿ-sht thi-do-zhe) - to wink, to nictitate [FL-Osage]; i-shta-the thi-to-zhe (iite iite) - wink or blink the eyes, lit., mash the eyelids, wink at, blink the eyes at [CQ-Osage]

 

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