English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

E

 

eel

ho ste-te (hosttte) - eel

ho ste-te (hosttte) - eel [OM]

cf. ho (ho) - fish [MS, AB, OM]; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long; ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish

Dhegiha: hu we-sa (hu wsǎ) - eel, snakefish [Omaha/Ponca]; hu we-ʰtsa (hu wṭsa) - eel, snakefish [FL-Osage]; ho we-tsa (ho wtsa) - eel [Kaw]

 

effect, sign of sudden effect

i-naⁿ (in̨) - sign of sudden effect, sentence final

 

effort, make effort, try, decide

di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide bdi-knaⁿ (bdkną) - I, ti-knaⁿ (ttkną) - you

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - think, decide, form an opinion, plan; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - wise, be, have sense

ex: i-ki-di-kdaⁿ hne (kidikdą hn) - slow, go easy [MS]

            ex: wa-bdi-knaⁿ (wptik͓naⁿ′) - I am planning something

            ex: i-ti-knaⁿ (tik͓naⁿ) - you plan

            ex: i-di-knaⁿ ni-ka (dik͓naⁿ′ nik) - they were deciding

Dhegiha: hi-goⁿ i-thi-gthoⁿ (hgoⁿ thigthoⁿ) - tell, slowly, deliberately, to tell a myth, legend, or fable slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about, have on ones mind, want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

 

effort, with great effort

wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort

cf. wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong; wa-shkaⁿ-hi ka-xe (wak̨hi kγe) - strengthen, make strong; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wak̨ttąka) - powerful, all-powerful; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wa-ckⁿ t-k͓a) - a nickname of te zhi-ka (tejik͓a) of the Buffalo gens; All Powerful [JOD]; wa-shkoⁿ-hi a-ki-di-taⁿ (wak̨hi kkiditt̨) - to pull hard on

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-shkoⁿ-hi (washkⁿhi) - Strength (of Thunder), name [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ toⁿ-ga (washkoⁿ toⁿga) - strong, stout, brawn, mighty [Omaha]; a-wa-shkoⁿ (awashkoⁿ) - struggle [Omaha]; a-wa-shkoⁿ xti (awashkoⁿ xti) - endurance [Omaha]; u-wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - of wa-shkoⁿ (wackaⁿ), strength [Omaha/Ponca]; we-wa-shkoⁿ (wwashkoⁿ) - of wa-shkoⁿ (wackaⁿ), that which makes people exert themselves or make efforts [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkoⁿ ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-shkⁿ ṭoⁿ-ga) - great strength [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ ʰtaⁿ-ka (waak̨ʰtąka) - strong having great strength [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do one's best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

egg

i-ta (tta), wi-ta (-witt) - egg

cf. i-ta-de (ttade) - give birth to a child, bear a child; i-ta ha (tta h) - egg shell; i-ta o-zi (tta oz) - egg yolk; i-ta o-ska (tta osk) - egg white; si-kwi-ta (sikkwitt) - hens egg, chicken egg; wa-zhiⁿ-koi-ta (wįkitt) - birds egg

Dhegiha: we-ta (wta) - egg [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ta (wta) - egg [Omaha]; ba-ʰta (b-ṭa), ʰpa-da (p̣-da) - an egg [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ta (ʰpata) - egg [CQ-Osage]; i-ta (it) - egg [Kaw]

 

egg shell

i-ta ha (tta h) - egg shell

cf. i-ta (tta), wi-ta (-witt) - egg; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

Dhegiha: we-ta ha (wta ha) - egg shell [Omaha]; ʰpa-ta xu-ha (ʰpata xha) - eggshell [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-gi-ta xu-ha (wazhⁿgit xuh) - egg shell
[Kaw]

 

egg white

i-ta o-ska (tta osk) - egg white

cf. i-ta (tta), wi-ta (-witt) - egg; ska (ska) -white

Dhegiha: we-ta u-ska (wta u-ska), we-tu-ska (wtusk) - egg white, the white of an egg [Omaha/Ponca]; we-ta u-ska (wta uka) - egg white [Omaha]; ʰpa-ta-ska (ʰpataska) - egg white [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-gi-ta ska (wazhⁿgit sk) - egg white
[Kaw]

 

egg yolk

i-ta o-zi (tta oz) - egg yolk

cf. i-ta (tta), wi-ta (-witt) - egg; zi (zi) - yellow

Dhegiha: we-ta u-zi (wta ui) - egg yolk [Omaha]; pa-ʰta zi thiⁿ-kshe (p̣-ṭa i thiⁿ-kshe) - the yolk of an egg, egg-yellow-that is [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-ta zi (ʰpatazi) - egg yolk, lit. yellow of egg [CQ-Osage]; wa-zhiⁿ-gi-ta zi-hi (wazhⁿgit zhi) - egg yolk [Kaw]

 

egg, birds egg

wa-zhiⁿ-koi-ta (wįkitt) - birds egg, wa-zhiⁿ-ka (waįka) + wi-ta (witta)

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; i-ta (tta), wi-ta (witt) - egg; si-kwi-ta (sikkwitt) - hens egg, chicken egg

Dhegiha: wa-zhiⁿ-ga i-ta (wazhⁿga it), wa-zhiⁿ-gi-ta (wazhⁿgit) - birds egg [Kaw]; wa-zhiⁿ-ga ʰpa-da (wa-zhⁿ-ga p̣a-da) - birds egg [FL-Osage]

 

egg, chicken egg, hens egg

si-kwi-ta (sikkwitt) - hens egg, chicken egg

si-kwi-ta (sikkwitt) - egg [MS, AG, OM]

si-ka i-ta (sikkah-iktah) - hen egg, chicken egg (uf de poule) [GI]

cf. si-ka (skka) - chicken; i-ta (tta), wi-ta (-witt) - egg; wa-zhiⁿ-koi-ta (wįkitt) - birds egg

Dhegiha: zi-zi-kʰa (zizkʰa) - turkey, wild turkey or domestic turkey [Omaha/Ponca]; siu-ka (i-ka) - chicken [FL-Osage]; su-ʰka (sʰka) - chicken [CQ-Osage]; si-ka (ska) - chicken [Kaw]

 

egg, crack as an egg

ka-xi-xe (kaxix), (kaxxe) - crack something, as an egg a-xi-xe (xixe) - I, da-xi-xe (dxixe) - you

cf. di-xi-xe (dixxe) - crack nuts, nutcracker

Dhegiha: xi-xe (qxe) - broken in hollow object, broken in as any hollow object [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ge i-ga-xi-xe (tage igaxixe) - nut cracker [Omaha]; ga-xi-xe (ga-x-xe) - to break or crack hard substance like corn, nuts, etc., by striking [FL-Osage]; ka-xu-xe (kaaxɣe) - split, split open, crack or splinter by sudden impact [CQ-Osage]

 

di-xnaⁿ-zhe (dixn̨e) - crack something, as an egg bdi-xnaⁿ-zhe (bdxnąe) - I, ti-xnaⁿ-zhe (ttxnąe) - you

cf. xnaⁿ-zha-de (xnąde) - shivered to pieces

Dhegiha: thi-xthoⁿ-zhe (thi-xthⁿ-zhe) - to smash or to squash, as to smash ripe fruit, to pulverize [FL-Osage]; thi-loⁿ-zhe (il̨e) - chop, grind, grind up [CQ-Osage]; yu-xloⁿ-zhe (yuxlⁿzhe) - grind up, mash up, to reduce to small pieces or meal by turning around, as with a millstone, mash something up with your hands [Kaw]

 

eight

pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight

pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight [MS, AB, FR]

pi-da-bniⁿ (ppidbnį) - eight [MR]

pe-de-bnaⁿ (ppedbną) - eight [OM]

pe-da-bniⁿ (pehdaghenih) - 8 [GI]

pʰe-da-bniⁿ (p'eDBinį) - eight [FV]

pʰe-da-bne (p'eDBine) - eight [VG]

Dhegiha: pe-tha-bthiⁿ (pethbthiⁿ) - eight [Omaha/Ponca]; pe-tha-bthiⁿ (pethabthiⁿ) - eight [Omaha]; ʰki-e-do-pa (ḳi--do-pa) - eight, the archaic word for eight is ʰpe-tha-bthiⁿ (p̣e-tha-bthiⁿ) [FL-Osage]; ʰki-e-to-pa (ʰkietopa) - eight, literally two fours beside each other [CQ-Osage]; pe-ya-bliⁿ (pyabliⁿ) - eight [Kaw]; ki-a-do-ba (kiadba) - eight [Kaw]

 

eight apiece

pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, at a time

cf. pa-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight; naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną), na-na (-nan) - distributive of numerals

Dhegiha: pe-ya-bliⁿ yaⁿ-ye (pyabliⁿ yⁿye) - eight apiece, eight each, distributive [Kaw]; ki-a-do-ba yaⁿ-ye (kadba yⁿye) - eight apiece, eight each, distributive [Kaw]

 

eighteen

pe-da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ (ppedbnį knį) - eighteen, 8 sitting on 10, the contracted and more common form

pe-da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ (ppedbnį knį) - eighteen [MS]

cf. pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight; a-kniⁿ (aknį) - sit on

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ pe-tha-bthiⁿ (agthⁿpethbthiⁿ) - eighteen, the other eight [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ ʰki-e-do-ba (a-gthiⁿ ḳi-e-do-ba) - eighteen [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ ʰki-e-to-pa (lįį ʰkietopa), le-braⁿ a-liⁿ ʰki-e-to-pa (lbrą lįį ʰkietopa) - eighteen, eighteenth [(CQ-Osage]; a-liⁿ pe-ya-bli (alⁿpeybli) - eighteen [Kaw]; a-li ki-ya-do-ba (likiyadba) - eighteen [Kaw]

 

eighth

i-pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eighth

cf. pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight

Dhegiha: we-pe-tha-bthiⁿ (wpethbthiⁿ) - eighth, the eighth one [Omaha/Ponca]; we-pe-ya-bli (wpeybli) - eighth [Kaw]

 

eighty

kde-bdaⁿ pe-da-bniⁿ  (kdbdą ppedbnį) - eighty

kde-bdaⁿ pe-da-bniⁿ (kdbdą ppedbnį) - eighty [MS]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; pe-da-bniⁿ (ppedbnį) - eight

Dhegiha: gthe-ba pe-tha-bthiⁿ (gthba pthabthiⁿ) - eighty [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-bthoⁿ ʰki-e do-ba (gth-bthoⁿ ḳi-e do-ba) - gthe-bthoⁿ, ten; ḳi-e do-ba, eight - eight tens: eighty  [FL-Osage]; le-braⁿ ʰki-e-to-pa (lbrą ʰkietopa), le-braⁿ a-liⁿ ʰki-e-to-pa (lbrą lįį ʰkietopa) - eighty, eightieth [CQ-Osage]; le-blaⁿ ki-a-do-ba (lblaⁿ kadba) - eighty [Kaw]

 

elbow

i-sto-hi (isthi), iⁿ-sto-hi (įsthi) - elbow

i-sto-hi (isthi) - elbow [MS]

cf. i-sto (sto) - arm below the elbow

Dhegiha: a-stu-hi (astuhi) - elbow [Omaha/Ponca]; a-stu-hi (at-hi) - elbow [Omaha]; i-stu-hi (i-t-hi) - elbow [FL-Osage]; a-sto-hu (stohu) - elbow [Kaw]

 

i-sto (sto) - arm below the elbow

i-sto (iss-tŭ) - elbow (coude) [GI]

cf. i-sto-hi (isthi), iⁿ-sto-hi (įsthi) - elbow

Dhegiha: i-sto (iist) - elbow [CQ-Osage]

 

a di-ko-zhe ( dike) - bend the arm at the elbow

cf. a (a) - arm; di-ko-zhe (dike) - bend something; ko-zhe (ke) - crooked; di-ko-ko-zhe (dikkoe) - zigzag

Dhegiha: te-a-thi-gu-zhe (tethigzhe) - bent forelegs, the forelegs of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi-be thi-gu-zhe (zhbe thigzhe) - bandy-legged, bow legged [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gu-zhe (thguzhe) - crooked [Omaha]; bi-thi-gu-zhe (bithiguzhe) - bent [Omaha]; zhi-be thi-ku-zhe (zhibe thikuzhe) - bowlegged [Omaha]

 

a o-zhiⁿ-ka ( oįka) - arm below elbow, forearm

cf. a (a) - arm; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little

Dhegiha: a-u-zhiⁿ-ga (-u-zhiⁿ-ga) - lower or forearm, from the elbow down to and including the wrist [FL-Osage]; a-o-zhiⁿ-ga (ozhiⁿga) - arm below the elbow, radius [Kaw]

 

elder

sha-ke hi (ʔake h), (ʔak h) - old man, elder

sha-ke (jakeh) - old, elderly, aged (vieux) [GI]

cha (čʔa) - old [OM]

cf. sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very); sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿkʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchman's wife

Dhegiha:iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; te sha-ge (tshage) - old buffalo [Omaha]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very)

cf. sha-ke hi (ʔake h), (ʔak h) - old man, elder; sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿkʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchman's wife

Dhegiha:iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; te sha-ge (tshage) - old buffalo [Omaha]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

sha-ke xti (ʔke xt) - elders, the very old people

cf. sha-ke hi (ʔke h) - old, aged (very); sha-ke hi (ʔake h), (ʔak h) - old man, elder; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿkʰe (itγe ʔke ekxną nįkʰe) - the old Frenchman's wife

Dhegiha:iⁿ-sha-ge (iⁿshage) - old man, elder [Omaha]; te sha-ge (tshage) - old buffalo [Omaha]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭsa-g) - old age, a term applied to people and horses [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge (ṭs-ge) - father-in-law [FL-Osage]; ʰtsa-ge zhiⁿ-ga (ṭs-ge zhiⁿ-ga) - an old man [FL-Osage]; tsa-ke (cʔke) - my father-in-law used by a man addressing or referring to his wifes father; used by anyone referring to a mans father-in-law [CQ-Osage]; tsai-zhiⁿ (cʔiį) - elderly man; husband, typically used by an older woman speaking to or referring to her elderly husband [CQ-Osage]; tsa-ge (tsge) - old man; father-in-law; fail, be unable for lack of time [Kaw]; (tsge zhⁿga), (tsgehiⁿga) - elder; ancestor; any of the deities or supernatural beings, an old man, a venerable man; an ancestor; one of the ancients or supernatural beings: hence, applied to the deities; the father of one's father-in-law; old man; be old [Kaw]

 

elder aunt on mothers side

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

cf. iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature

cf. ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - mans fathers older brother

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

elder uncle on fathers side

i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - mans fathers older brother

cf. i-da-te (idtte) - his or her father; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

elder, a mans elder brother

i-zhiⁿ-de (įde), e-zhiⁿ-de (ęde) - man's elder brother wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your

Dhegiha: i-zhiⁿ-the (izhⁿthe) - elder brother [Omaha]; i-zhiⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - his elder brother, brother older than himself [FL-Osage]; i-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - his older brother (more precise than English his brother) [CQ-Osage]; i-zhi-ye (izhye) - mans elder brother [Kaw]

 

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder brother (male speaking)

wi-zhiⁿ-de (wi-jindheh) - my older brother (frere an) [GI]

Dhegiha: wi-zhiⁿ-the (wizhⁿthe) - elder brother [Omaha]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wi-zhⁿ-the) - my elder brother, my brother older than myself [FL-Osage]; wi-zhiⁿ-the (wįe) - my older brother (used only when speaker is male) [CQ-Osage]; wi-zhi-ye (wizhye) - my elder brother [Kaw]

 

            di-zhiⁿ-de (dįde) - your elder brother (speaking to a male)

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-the (įe) - your older brother (used only when speaking to a man) [CQ-Osage]; yi-zhi-ye (yizhye) - your elder brother [Kaw]

 

i-zhiⁿ-de-de (įdede), e-zhiⁿ-de-de (ędede) - to have as an elder brother i-zhiⁿ-de-a-de (įdeade) - I, i-zhiⁿ-de-da-de (įdedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zhi-ye-ye (izhyeye) - a man to have for an elder brother, to call someone i-zhi-ye (izhye) [Kaw]

 

elder, a mans elder sister

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), e-taⁿ-ke (eT̨ke) - sister, mans elder wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my, di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your

i-taⁿ-ke (itt̨ke), i-toⁿ-ke (itt̨ke) - sister [OM]

ex: wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

ex: jhi-taⁿ-ke wi-ta kjhi ta niⁿ-kʰe (ǰttą́ke wtta kǰi tta nįkʰ) - my sister is coming pretty soon, (should be wi-taⁿ-ke (wittą́ke) - my sister, not jhi-taⁿ-ke (ǰttą́ke), di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your sister [AG]

Dhegiha: i-ʰtoⁿ-ge (-ṭⁿ-ge) - sister, his elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtaⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - his/her older sister, i.e., the oldest among a group of sisters; not necessarily older than the person referred to by "his" or "her" [CQ-Osage]; i-taⁿ-ge (itⁿge) - mans or womans younger sister [Kaw]

 

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister

wi-taⁿ-ke (witt̨ke) - my older sister [MS, MR, AB, AG, OM]

Dhegiha: wi-taⁿ-ge (wiʇa′ge) - my sister [JOD-Omaha]; wi-ʰtaⁿ-ke (wiʰt̨ke) - my older sister, used when speaker is male or female, my sister, loosely used mutually among unrelated younger and older female speakers to show respect, my wife, lit., "my sister", used to refer to speaker's wife when they have no children and possibly to address her [CQ-Osage]; wi-taⁿ-ge (witⁿge) - my younger sister [Kaw]

 

di-taⁿ-ke (ditt̨ke) - your older sister

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-ge (thi-ṭⁿ-ge) - your sister [FL-Osage]; thi-taⁿ-ke (iʰt̨ke) - your older sister, used by anyone speaking to a man or a woman, referring both to a sister older than the addressee and to the oldest of the addressee's sisters, who may not be older than the addressee [CQ-Osage]; yi-taⁿ-ge (yitⁿge) - your younger sister [Kaw]

 

i-taⁿ-ke-de (itt̨kede) - sister, to have as an elder i-taⁿ-ke-a-de (itt̨keade) - I, i-taⁿ-ke-da-de (itt̨kedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-taⁿ-ge-ye (itⁿgeye) - to have for a sister, to call someone i-taⁿ-ge (itⁿge) - [Kaw]

 

elder, a womans elder brother

i-ti-to (itttto), i-ti-to (eTTo) - womans elder brother, his or hers wi-ti-to (witttto) - my, di-ti-to (ditttto) - your

Dhegiha: i-ti-nu (itnu) - elder brother [Omaha];  i-tsiⁿ-do (i-tsiⁿ́-do) - her elder brother [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsiⁿ-to (iʰic̨to) - her older brother, any of her brothers who is older than she is [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-do (icdo) - woman's eldest brother [Kaw]

 

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my brother, woman's elder (female speaking)

wi-ti-to (witttto) - my elder brother (female speaker) [MS]

Dhegiha: wi-tsiⁿ-do (wi-tsiⁿ́-do) - brother older than myself, woman speaking [FL-Osage]; wi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (wiʰc̨to) - my elder brother, oldest of speaker's brothers, not necessarily older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female, more precise than English, my older brother [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-do (wicdo) - my elder brother, female speaking; my step-brother, female speaking, older; my father's brother's son, older than myself, female speaking; my mother's brother's daughter's son, female speaking; my mother's sister's son, older than myself, female speaking [Kaw]

 

di-ti-to (ditttto) - your brother, womans elder (speaking to a female)

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsiⁿ-to (iʰic̨to) - your older brother, used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-do (yicdo) - your elder brother, addressing a woman [Kaw]

 

i-ti-to-de (ittttode) - brother, to have as an elder i-ti-to-a-de (ittttoade) - I, i-ti-to-da-de (ittttodade) - you

Dhegiha: i-tsi-do-ye (icdoye) - woman to have someone as her older brother, to call someone i-tsi-do (icdo) [Kaw]

 

elder, a womans elder sister

i-zhoⁿ-de (įde), e-zhoⁿ-de (ęde) - woman's elder sister wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my, di-zhoⁿ-de (dįde) - your

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-the ha (zhoⁿth ha) - older sister [JOD-Omaha]; i-zhoⁿ-the (i-zhⁿ-the) - her elder sister [FL-Osage]; i-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (įą) - her elder sister, more precise than English her sister [CQ-Osage]; i-zho-we (izhwe) - man or woman's elder sister [Kaw]

 

 

wi-zhoⁿ-de (wįde) - my elder sister (woman speaking)

Dhegiha: wi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (wįą) - my elder sister, older than the speaker, used only when speaker is female [CQ-Osage]; wi-zho-we (wizhwe) - my elder sister [Kaw]; wi-zho-we a (wzhowe ) elder sister! (female speaking - address form) [Kaw]

 

di-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (dįde) - your elder sister (speaking to a woman)

Dhegiha: thi-zhoⁿ-aⁿ (įą) - your older sister, used only when speaking to a woman [CQ-Osage]; yi-zho-we (yizhwe) - your elder sister [Kaw]

 

i-zhoⁿ-de-de (įdede), e-zhoⁿ-de-de (ędede) - to have someone as elder sister i-zhoⁿ-de-a-de (įdeade) - I, i-zhoⁿ-de-da-de (įdedade) - you

Dhegiha: i-zho-we-ye (izhweye) - have another woman as an elder sister [Kaw]

 

elder, old lady

wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

cf. wa-xo (waxʔ) - woman; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - mans fathers older brother

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

elder, old man, grown man

ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man

cf. ni-ka (nkka) - man; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - mans fathers older brother

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

elder, old, grown up, mature

naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), (nąh̨), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ) - old, grown up, mature aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (̨nąh̨) - I

cf. ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ n̨hą) - old lady [MS]; iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - older aunt; i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - mans fathers older brother

ex: wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (we naⁿh naⁿhaⁿ́ ĕt mikĕ́) - I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ (noⁿ) - adult animal, adult person, elder [Omaha]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿ-hoⁿ) - older person [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - an adult, to grow, to age, to mature [FL-Osage]; noⁿ (n̨ǫ) - be old, grow up to adulthood, mature, adulthood, grownups, adults, old folks, elders in times past, old ones, advanced age, old age [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-hoⁿ (nⁿhoⁿ) - adult [Kaw]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - old, mature [Kaw]

 

elderberries

ta-ni-ba-he-ta o-da-siⁿ (tanbahtta dasʔį) - elderberries

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; ta-ni-ba (tanba) - pipe; ta-ni-ba-he-ta hi (tanbahtta hi) - elder bush (Sambucus); ke-naⁿ-ba-xdo da-siⁿ (ken̨baxd dasʔ̨) - cactus fruit, what sticks...

Dhegiha: u-tha-siⁿ (uthsiⁿ) - connected, joined, in connection with, joined to [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha-ʰtsiⁿ (u-th-ṭsiⁿ) - attached, attachment, as fruit is attached to a vine or tree [FL-Osage]

 

elderbush

ta-ni-ba-he-ta hi (tanbahtta hi) - elder bush (Sambucus)

cf. ta-ni-na (tanba) - pipe; ta-ni-ba-he-ta o-da-siⁿ (tanbahtta dasʔį) - elderberries

Dhegiha: noⁿ-noⁿ-ba-hu to (noⁿnⁿbahu t) - elderberry, lit., blue pipe stem [Kaw]

 

elephant

o-ki-te ni-ke (okktte nke) - elephant, lit. without joints

cf. o-ki-te (okktte) - joint; ni-ke (nik) - none, to have, be lacking

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-tʰe (ukʰtʰe) - joint [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki-ʰtse (u-ḳ-ṭse) - joint [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-tsʰe (ʰkicʰe) - joint [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-che (okche), o-ku-che (okche) - joint, the place where two bones are joined [Kaw]

 

eleven

miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (m̨xti knį) - eleven

miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (mįxti aknį) - eleven [MS]

cf. miⁿ (mį) - a, one; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully, intensifier suffix; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one; a-kniⁿ (knį) - sit on

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ wiⁿ (agthⁿwiⁿ) - eleven, the extra one [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ wiⁿ xtsi (a-gthiⁿ́ wiⁿ xtsi) - eleven [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ wiⁿ-xtse (lįį w̨xce), le-braⁿ a-liⁿ wiⁿ-xtse (lbrą lįį w̨xce) - eleven, eleventh [CQ-Osage]; a-li mi-xtsi  (limxci) - eleven [Kaw]

 

kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbnąttą́ m̨xti knį) - eleven, 10 when 1 sitting on, same as miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (mįxti aknį), the contracted and more common form

kde-bnaⁿ miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (gĕdēhbŏnāh milchti-agheni) - 11 [GI]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; taⁿ (taⁿ) - when, if; miⁿ (mį) - a, one; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully, intensifier suffix; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one; a-kniⁿ (knį) - sit on

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ wiⁿ (agthⁿwiⁿ) - eleven, the extra one [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gthiⁿ wiⁿ xtsi (a-gthⁿ wiⁿ xtsi) - eleven [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ wiⁿ-xtse (lįį w̨xce), le-braⁿ a-liⁿ wiⁿ-xtse (lbrą lįį w̨xce) - eleven, eleventh [CQ-Osage]; a-li mi-xtsi  (limxci) - eleven [Kaw]

 

eleven times

miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (m̨xtiakn̨) - eleven times

cf. hi-numeral-a-ki-kde (hi-numeral-kkikde) - times, fold, x-fold; hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time; hi-naⁿ-pa a-ki-kde (hnąp kkikd) - double, twofold; hi-da-bniⁿ (hdabn̨) - thrice; hi-to-wiⁿ (htow̨) - four times; hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times; hi-shaⁿ-kiⁿ (h̨kk̨) - nine times; hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

 

elk

oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰa (̨pʰa) - elk

iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk [MS]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-poⁿ (oⁿpoⁿ) - elk [Omaha]; oⁿ-ʰpoⁿ (̨p̣oⁿ) - elk [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-pxaⁿ (̜pxą) - elk [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰaⁿ) - elk, probably the female [Kaw]

 

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ) - masculine name of the Kwapa oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) or Elk gens; Elk [JOD]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-poⁿ (ⁿpoⁿ) - Elk, male name [Omaha]

 

Elk Bent

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ ko-sha (aⁿ′-paⁿ kca) - masculine, Elk Bent (exact part unknown) (Geo R's name); 3rd name of Geo Redeagle, so called when given away to old Joe A Dr., "father" who adopted Geo & gave him this 3rd name-after Geo had very ill about to die [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; ko-zhe (ke) - crooked; di-ko-zhe (dike) - bend something; di-ko-ko-zhe (dikkoe) - zigzag

Dhegiha: te-a-thi-gu-zhe (tethigzhe) - bent forelegs, the forelegs of animals [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi-be thi-gu-zhe (zhbe thigzhe) - bandy-legged, bow legged [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-gu-zhe (thguzhe) - crooked [Omaha]; bi-thi-gu-zhe (bithiguzhe) - bent [Omaha]; zhi-be thi-ku-zhe (zhibe thikuzhe) - bowlegged [Omaha]; ko-sha (ksha) - crooked, bent a little [Kaw]

 

Elk Foot

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ si (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ s) - masculine of the Kwapa oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) gens: Elk Foot [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; si (si) - foot

Dhegiha: si (si) - foot, feet [Omaha/Ponca]; si (i) - foot [Omaha]; si (i) - foot [FL-Osage]; si (si) - foot, feet [CQ-Osage]; si (si) - foot, feet [Kaw]

 

Elk gens or clan

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ e-ni-ka-shi-ka (̨pʰǫ nikkaka) - elk gens or clan

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) - Elk gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ e-ni-ka-shi-ka (ⁿpaⁿ nikacka) - Elk People, obtained from Mrs. Stafford (Haka gentes, Haka side) [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man, clan

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ʰpoⁿ (̨p̣oⁿ) - Elk People, the name of the Hoⁿ-ga gentes who adopted the elk as their gentile name [FL-Osage]; o-pʰaⁿ ni-ka-shiⁿ-ga (pʰaⁿ nkashiⁿga) - Elk people (clan) [Kaw]

 

Elk that is Supernatural

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ wa-kaⁿ-ta (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ wa-kan′-t͓ă) - masculine of the Kwapa oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpaⁿ) gens; Elk that is Supernatural. A name of the chief, John Medicine [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta), wa-koⁿ-ta (wakǫ́ta) - God; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wa-kań-t͓ă) - masculine name of the Kwapa wakanta or Thunder-being gens, Thunder-being [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - power, of the sacred stones, name [Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God, the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisable, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰkǫ́ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wa-kⁿ-da) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

 

elk, Big Elk

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ taⁿ-ka (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ ta′-k͓a) - masculine name of the Kwapa Elk gens; Big Elk [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: oⁿ-poⁿ toⁿ-ga (ⁿpoⁿ toⁿga) - Big Elk, male name [Omaha]; o-pʰaⁿ taⁿ-ga (opʰⁿ tⁿga) - Big Elk, male name [Kaw]

 

elk, Carried an Elk on His Back

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ kiⁿ (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ kiⁿ′) - masculine name of the Kwapa oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (oⁿpʰŭⁿ) gens; Carried an Elk on his back [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back; ki-kiⁿ (kikʔ̨) - carry on one's own back, pack; kda-kiⁿ (kdakʔį) - carry one's own bundle or pack; ski-ke kiⁿ (skke kʔį) - carry a heavy load; wa-kiⁿ (wakʔ̨) - pack; i-kiⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders [MS]; maⁿ-o-zhi i-kiⁿ (m̨oi kʔį) - quiver strap

Dhegiha: iⁿ (iⁿ) - carry [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkiⁿ (ḳiⁿ) - to carry [FL-Osage]; kiⁿ (kʔ̨) - carry, carry on the back [CQ-Osage]; k'iⁿ (k'iⁿ) - pack on the back, carry on the back [Kaw]

 

elk, Standing Elk

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ na-zhiⁿ (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ n-jiⁿ) - masculine name of the Kwapa Elk gens; Standing Elk [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: oⁿ-poⁿ noⁿ-zhiⁿ (ⁿpoⁿ noⁿzhiⁿ) - Standing Elk, male name [Omaha]

 

 

elk, White Elk

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ ska (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ sk ) - masculine name of the Kwapa Elk gens; White Elk near by [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; ska (ska) - white

Dhegiha: oⁿ-poⁿ ska (ⁿpoⁿ ska) - White Elk, male name [Omaha]; o-pʰaⁿ ska (opʰⁿ ska) - White Elk, near at hand, male name [Kaw]

 

elk, Young Elk

oⁿ-pʰoⁿ zhi-ka (oⁿ′-pʰŭⁿ j-k͓a), (aⁿ′paⁿ jik͓) - masculine name of the Kwapa Elk gens; Young Elk; Geo. Lane [JOD]

cf. oⁿ-pʰaⁿ (̨pʰą), oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ), iⁿ-pʰoⁿ (įpʰǫ) - elk; zhi-ka (ik), zhi-ga (ig) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: oⁿ-poⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ⁿpoⁿ zhiⁿga) - Young Elk, male name [Omaha]; o-pʰaⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (opʰⁿ zhⁿga) - Young Elk, male name [Kaw]

 

elliptical

sto-ka (stokk) - oblong, elliptical, Omaha sno-ka (snokka)

cf. di-sto-ka (distkka) - round, make elliptical

Dhegiha: snu-ʰka (n-ḳa) - oval, egg-shaped [FL-Osage]

 

di-sto-ka (distkka) - round, make elliptical bdi-sto-ka (bdstokka) - I, ti-sto-ka (ttstokka) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand; sto-ka (stokk) - oblong, elliptical, Omaha sno-ka (snokka)

Dhegiha: snu-ʰka (n-ḳa) - oval, egg-shaped [FL-Osage]

 

elm

e-hi (eh) - elm tree

Dhegiha: e-hiu (-hiu) - elm tree [FL-Osage]; e-hiu hiⁿ-dse ni-shtu-shtu (-hiu hiⁿ-dse ni-shtu-shtu) - slippery elm [FL-Osage]; e-hu (eh) - elm [Kaw]

 

hiⁿ-te naⁿ-be hi (h̨tte n̨be hi) - elm tree, slippery

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-dse gthi-gthi-e (hⁿ-dse gthi-gthi-e), hiⁿ-dse ni-stse-stse (hⁿ-dse ni-stse-stse) - slippery elm [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-dse ni-stsi-stu-e (hⁿ-dse ni-stsi-stu-e) - slippery elm (Ulmus fulva) [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-je hu (hⁿje hu) - elm tree, bass or linden [Kaw]; hiⁿ-je (hⁿje) - elm [Kaw]; hiⁿ-je shtsu-shtse (hⁿje shcshce) - slippery elm [Kaw]

 

elsewhere

e-ki-zhi (eki) - somewhere else, elsewhere

cf. ki (ki) - be returning to here; zhi (i) - not

ex: koⁿi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ki-zhi bde ta-ni-he (kǫįttą eki bd ttnih) - so I am going to go somewhere else

ex: ki-zhi (kji) - he did not reach home [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi (gi) - comeback, return home, to go back, go homeward [Omaha/Ponca]; a-gi (a-gi), gi-e (gi-e) - return, returned [FL-Osage]; gi (gi) - motion back to somewhere, go back, return [Kaw]

 

elusive, miss cutting something elusive

pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive pa-a-knoⁿ-da (pakn̨da) - I, pa-da-knoⁿ-da (pdakn̨da) -you

cf. ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-knoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: bi-gthoⁿ-tha (b-gthoⁿ-tha) - to miss hold [FL-Osage]; bo-gthoⁿ-tha (b-gthoⁿ-tha) - to miss a mark [FL-Osage]; ga-gthoⁿ-tha (ga-gthⁿ-tha) - failure to knock a man down by striking him [FL-Osage]; thi-gthoⁿ-tha (thi-gthⁿ-tha) - to fail to get a good hold or grasp, to let a child drop to the floor by accident [FL-Osage]; ba-laⁿ-ya (blaⁿya) - fail cutting in cutting or sawing by missing the object, to make a mistake in cutting or sawing [Kaw]; bo-laⁿ-ya (blaⁿya) - miss in shooting punching, or blowing; make a mistake in shooting, punching, or blowing with the mouth [Kaw]; bu-laⁿ-ya (bulⁿya) - miss while trying to jump upon, to press down on an object, as a rabbit, which suddenly jumps aside, going beyond the effect of the pressure, one assumes this refers to a rabbit that is being hunted or trapped [Kaw]; da-laⁿ-ya (dlaⁿya) - miss, as sparks [Kaw]; ga-laⁿ-ya (galⁿya) - fail to knock down or kill by striking, fail to cut wood, as with an ax, caused by the ax's brushing or slipping by the object without hitting it [Kaw]; naⁿ-laⁿ-ya (naⁿlⁿya) - miss one's footing, miss a place one jumps for, miss what one kicks at [Kaw]; ya-laⁿ-ya (yalⁿya), ya-laⁿ-ye (ylaⁿye) - miss with the mouth, as when trying to bite or swallow something, deceive, call names, lie [Kaw]; yu-laⁿ-ya (yulⁿya), yu-laⁿ-ye (yulaⁿye) - miss or fumble in trying to grasp or pull an object which is too large laⁿ-ye (lⁿye) to be handled [Kaw]

 

embankment

maⁿ-zi (m̨azi) - bank, embankment

cf. ma-zi o-di-ko-te (mzi diktte) - bluff, cliff; ma-zi-ya (mazya) - shore

ex: maⁿ-zi a-ka-spe (m̨azi kaspe) - to cave in on, as a bank does

ex: maⁿ-zi a-di-ka-spe na-ha (m̨azi dikspe nah) - beware lest the bank cave in on you!

Dhegiha: moⁿ-a  (moⁿa) - cliff, bank, steep place, cliff or river bank [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - earth, ground, archaic word used in compounds [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-ha (mⁿ-ha) - a cliff, a bank [FL-Osage]; maⁿ (mąą) - related to the ground or earth [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-a-hnaⁿ (mⁿahnaⁿ) - said of a stream that hugs a cliff, thereby forming a cove [Kaw]

 

embarrassed to ask a favor

a-ki-pa-kda (kipakda) - embarrassed to ask favor

cf. a-ba-kda (bakda) - hesitate from shame or diffidence when about to ask a favor of someone not related

Dhegiha: a-ba-gtha (bagtha) - to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-ba-gtha (wabagtha) - bashful [Omaha]; a-ba-gtha (-ba-gtha) - backward, bashful, diffident, shy [FL-Osage]; wa-ba-gtha (w-ba-gtha) - shy, bashful, modest, modesty, shamefaced [FL-Osage]; a-ba-la (bala) - bashful, hesitant or draw back through shame or diffidence [Kaw]; a-gi-ba-la (gibala) - be ashamed to speak to his or her in- laws, as to a father-in-law or mother-in-law, a son-in- law or daughter-in-law; to be bashful towards such a person, this term refers to traditional social customs that required avoidance between certain relatives, such as those identified here by JOD, violating this restriction would cause shame to both parties [Kaw]

 

ember

tʰa-kde (t'kkaDe) - coal, ember [FS]

ta-xde sa (txde sa) - coal, black coal [MS]

ta-xde (txde) - coals, charcoal

cf. iⁿ ta-xde (̨ ttxde) - coal, lit. stone charcoal; ta-xde ki-kde-zhe (taxd kkikde) - dead coals; ta-xde we-kdi (txde wkdi) - coal oil; ta-xde we-kdi a-ta-kaⁿ (txde wkdi ttakk̨) - coal oil lamp

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xthe na-ka-de (noⁿxth nakade) - ember [Omaha]; noⁿ-xthe (noⁿxthe) - coal fuel, charcoal [Omaha]; noⁿ-xthe (noⁿ-xth) - charcoal, coal [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-xle (naⁿxl) - coals, embers [Kaw]

 

emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell, emit any odor

bnaⁿ (bną) - smell [OM]

cf. di-bdaⁿ (dibd̨), di-bnaⁿ (dibn̨) - smell (hands); o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something; ta-bnaⁿ (tbną) - to smell of something burning; xdi bnaⁿ (xd bną), xti bnaⁿ (xt bną) - smell like decayed vegetables

ex: xoⁿ-te o-di-bnaⁿ (xǫtt odibną) - smoke, to inhale cedar smoke, to use cedar [MS]

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, emit odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - smell, fumes, odor [Omaha]; bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - odor, scent [FL-Osage]; braⁿ (brą́) - smell, emanate an odor, give off a fragrance, scent [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ (blaⁿ) - smell, odor, emit an odor, exhale [Kaw]

 

emit bad odor

bdaⁿ shi-ke (bdą ke), bnaⁿ shi-ke (bną ke) - smell bad

cf. bnaⁿ (bną) - smell, emit any odor; shi-ke (ke) - bad

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ pi-a-zhi (bthoⁿ piazhi) - bad odor [Omaha]; bthaⁿ pi-a-zhi (bⁿ pjǐ) - a bad odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ pi-zhi (bthⁿ p̣i-zhi) - an offensive smell [FL-Osage]; braⁿ ʰpi-zhi (brą ʰpii) - it smells bad [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ pi-zhi (blaⁿ pzhi) - smell bad, emit a bad odor [Kaw]

 

emit good odor

bdaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bdą httą), bnaⁿ ho-taⁿ (bną httą) - smell good

cf. bnaⁿ (bną) - smell, emit any odor; ho-taⁿ (httą) - good

Dhegiha: bthoⁿ u-doⁿ (bthoⁿ udoⁿ) - good odor [Omaha]; bthaⁿ u-daⁿ (bⁿ daⁿ) - a good odor [Omaha/Ponca]; bthoⁿ tha-gthiⁿ (bthoⁿ-th-gthiⁿ) - odor smell good, fragrance, pleasing odor [FL-Osage]; braⁿ tha-liⁿ (brą alį) - it smells good [CQ-Osage]; blaⁿ ya-li (blaⁿ yali) - smell good, emit a good odor [ Kaw]

 

emit offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį), xo-wiⁿ (xow̨) - stink, emit offensive odor

xwiⁿ (xwį) - stink [MS]

ex: si xwiⁿ (si xwį) - stink feet [OM]

ex: ni xwiⁿ (ni xwį) - sulphur spring water [OM]

Dhegiha: xwiⁿ (qwiⁿ), xuiⁿ (quⁿ) - corrupt, putrid, rotten, offensive, stink, stinking, as carrion [Omaha/Ponca]; xuiⁿ (xuiⁿ) - stink, stench [Omaha]; xwiⁿ (xwiⁿ) - fetid, offensive smell [FL-Osage]; xoiⁿ (ɣǫ) - stink, stinky, fetid odor or offensive smell [CQ-Osage]

 

zaⁿ-ze (z̨ze) - smell, offensive, strong smell

cf. to-si zaⁿ-ze (tos z̨ze) - armpit odor

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-ze (zⁿze) - musky, smelly, strong smelling like a goat or a male deer [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-ze (zoⁿze) - stink [Omaha]; zaⁿ-zi (z̨zi) - sour odor, acrid smell, such as armpit odor or onion smell [CQ-Osage]

 

empty

kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty

cf. maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa), maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out

Dhegiha: xthu-a (qthua) - hollow, baggy [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (qthua) - intestines, guts, innards, everything inside the abdominal cavity, hollow places above the hips [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xthua) - hollow, empty [Omaha]; xthu-xa (qthqa) - empty, emptied of its contents [Omaha/Ponca]; xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xthu-a (xth-a) - any kind of a hollow in a tree or log, sometimes written xthu-ʰka (xth-ḳa) [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

empty by pulling contents out

di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out bdi-kdo-xa (bdkdoxʔa) - I, ti-kdo-xa (ttkdoxʔa) - you

cf. kdo-xa (kdoxʔa), xdo-xa (xdoxʔa) - empty; maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa), maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa) - cave, lit. hollow earth; o-kdo-xa (okdxʔa) - insides, interior of animal

Dhegiha: yu-xlo-ka (yuxlka) - empty by pulling out the contents, as a quiver or a basket [Kaw]

 

empty something, pour out

ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something a-xtaⁿ (xtą) - I, da-xtaⁿ (dxtą) - you

cf. a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize; di-xtaⁿ (dixt̨) - pull at, pull over, upset; naⁿ-xtaⁿ (nąxt̨) - kick over, spill

Dhegiha: pe ni a-ga-xtoⁿ (pni agaxtoⁿ) - baptize, anoint [Omaha]; xtoⁿ (qtoⁿ) - drip, pour [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xtoⁿ (thixtoⁿ) - drain [Omaha]; ni ga-xtoⁿ (n-ga-xtoⁿ) - to pour water, to spill water [FL-Osage]; wa-ga-xtoⁿ (wagxtoⁿ) - the act of pouring water [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xtaⁿ (okxtą), o-ka-xta (okxta) - pour or dump out [CQ-Osage]; thi-xtaⁿ (ixt̨) - pour, draw water or run water [CQ-Osage]; ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtⁿ) - pour out, empty out, throw out dirt [Kaw]; xtaⁿ (xtⁿ) - leak in, drip out, empty out, spill [Kaw]

 

end

o-hoⁿ-ke (oh̨ke) - end

Dhegiha: u-hoⁿ-ge (uhoⁿge) - end [Omaha]; u-hoⁿ-ge (u-hⁿ-ge) - the end of anything, as a month, year, or stick, the borders, the outer edge, the head of, the source, of a stream [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-hoⁿ-ge (oⁿhⁿge) - end of something [Kaw]

 

shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

cf. shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫn̨) - finally, mv/an/sb; shoⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - finally; shoⁿ-tʰe (ǫtʰ) - finally

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - fit, proper, as it should be, enough, that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit, stop, ready [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete, perfect, it is done [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-a-ba (shⁿ-a-ba) - finally, at length [FL-Osage]; sho-iⁿ-da (shⁿ-iⁿ da) - enough, satisfying [FL-Osage]; ga-shoⁿ (ga-shⁿ) - it is enough, sufficient [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ (kaą) - enough of some activity, final point, end [CQ-Osage]

 

ends touch

a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-a-de (kkikkkde itʰade) - I, a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-da-de (kkikkkde itʰdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch

 

a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch a-ki-ki-kde i-he-da-de (kkikkkde ihdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch

 

a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-a-de (kkikdska itʰade) - I, a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-da-de (kkikdska itʰdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch

 

enemy within the tribe

o-zhaⁿ wa-kniⁿ-zhi (ą wakn̨i) - enemy (within the tribe), a bad person to sleep among

cf. ti o-zhaⁿ (tt ǫ) - household, family; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline, sleep; ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented

Dhegiha: u-ki-te (ukte) - tribe, fight external foes [Omaha]; u-kʰi-te (ukʰte) - fight, to fight [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ki-te-the (u-k-tĕ-ĕ) - to regard one as an enemy [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ki-te i-e (u-k-tĕ i-) - a foreign word or language [Omaha/Ponca]; o-ʰki-ʰtse (oʰkʰce) - tribe other than Osage, off-tribe, enemy, stranger [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-tse (okce), o-ku-tse (okce) - nation, different tribe, stranger, foreigner, enemy, foe [Kaw]

 

engine, railroad engine

pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te (ptĕ jⁿ ditaⁿd sutĕ΄) - railroad engine [JOD]

zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te  (ǫ́ dittą́da sott) - train, locomotive, lit., wagon go fast [MS]

pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da (pptte ǫ́dittą́da) - locomotive, lit., fire wagon

pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da ti (pptte ǫ́dittą́da tt) - train, lit., fire wagon house

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - tree, wood; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; o-di-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (odttątt̨da) - roll something over and over; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (ą ditt̨da) - wagon, cart; so-te (sott) - fast, swift of an animal

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (thi-ṭⁿ-tha) - to roll [FL-Osage]; u-thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-th-ṭoⁿ-tha) - anything propelled by rolling, a wagon, buggy, a carriage [FL-Osage]; o-thi-taⁿ (oʰtą) - car, wagon [CQ-Osage]; i-taⁿ-yaⁿ (taⁿyaⁿ) - wagon, cart [Kaw]; o-yu-taⁿ-ya (oytaⁿya), o-yu-taⁿ-ya (yutaⁿya) - wagon, cart [Kaw]

 

 

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