English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

tip of an arrowhead

maⁿ-hiⁿ si pa-haⁿ te (m̨hį s pphą tte) - tip of an arrowhead

cf. maⁿ-hiⁿ si (m̨hį s) - arrowhead; pa-haⁿ te (pphą tte) - first, ahead

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿhiⁿs) - an arrow-head [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-hi si (moⁿhii) - arrowhead; spade card suit [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿ-hiⁿ-i) - arrowhead [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ su (m̨ąhįsu) - spade, gardening tool; spades, suit in a deck of cards [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ su (máⁿhiⁿ sú) - arrowhead [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-hoⁿ-ga (pahⁿga) - to go first; to be first or at the head; before, the first [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-hoⁿ-ga (pahoⁿga) - first; foremost; ahead [Omaha]; ʰp-hoⁿ-gthe (p-hoⁿ-gthe) - in the first order of time; original; primary; in advance [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-haⁿle (ʰpah̨le) - first, first in line, at the outset, from the beginning [CQ-Osage]; pa-haⁿ-le (paháⁿle) - first, before, formerly; the first [Kaw]

 

tip of daylight, daybreak

haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe (h̨ba ittγe) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; i-ta-xe (įttγe) - tip, top, point

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ba i-ʰta-xe (hⁿ-ba -ṭa-xe) - the tip or beginning of day [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-tʰa-xe (itʰxe) - tip, point, end [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ta-xe (itaxe) - tip [Omaha]; i-ʰta-xe (i-ṭ-xe) - the tip or top of an object [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta-xe (iʰtɣe) - tip [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-ghe (itghe) - tip [Kaw]

 

haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of whitish daylight

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; i-ta-xe (įttγe) - tip, top, point; saⁿ-haⁿ (s̨hą) - whitish, grayish, white in the distance; haⁿ-ba saⁿ-haⁿ ti-he (h̨ba s̨hą tih) - dawn, daybreak [JOD]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ba i-ʰta-xe (hⁿ-ba -ṭa-xe) - the tip or beginning of day [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-tʰa-xe (itʰxe) - tip, point, end [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ta-xe (itaxe) - tip [Omaha]; i-ʰta-xe (i-ṭ-xe) - the tip or top of an object [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta-xe (iʰtɣe) - tip [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-ghe (itghe) - tip [Kaw]

Dhegiha: soⁿ (oⁿ) - pale [Omaha]; soⁿ-the (sⁿthe) - cleanse, whiten, whitewash [Omaha/Ponca]; soⁿ-hoⁿ (ⁿ-hoⁿ) - resembling white, whitened animal skins [FL-Osage]; saⁿ-haⁿ (sⁿhaⁿ) - whitish, grayish [Kaw]

 

tip of something

pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill

ex: a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak

ex: ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish

ex: ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples

ex: pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose

ex: pa-si-kde (ppaskde) - point of land; hill with pointed peak or top

ex: pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tree-top, tongue-tip, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (pai) - tip; ʰpa-si (p̣a-), ʰpa-su (p̣-u) - a peak, point, top of a tree, the top of a poll; tip of nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object like the point of a pencil, corner of a room, etc. [Kaw]

 

tip of the nose

pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose

cf. pa (ppa) - nose, beak, bill; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill

Dhegiha: ʰpa ʰpa-si (p̣-p̣-i) - tip of the nose [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: pa (pa) - nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa (pa) - nose [Omaha]; ʰpa (p̣a) - snout, the projecting nose of an animal [FL-Osage]; ʰpa (ʰp) - nose, snout [CQ-Osage]; pa (pa) - nose [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tongue-tip, tree-top, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (p̣a-) - point, a peak, the top of a pole, the top of a tree [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object, like the point of a pencil [Kaw]

 

pʰa-zi zhe (p'az˙e) - nose, may mean tip of nose [VG]

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (pzhzhe), (paśse) - nose [ASG]

Dhegiha: pa-shi-zhe (pashzhe) - nose tip, tip of the nose [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-shi-zhe (pashizhe) - tip of the nose [Omaha]; ʰpa-zhu-zhe (p̣a-zh-zhe) - the tip of the nose; the bill of a swan and other birds [FL-Osage]

 

pa-zhiⁿ-zhe o-shtaⁿ-ka (ppąe ot̨ka) - nose, tip, soft part

cf. pa-zhiⁿ-zhe (ppąe) - nose, may mean tip of nose; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; shtoⁿ-ka (tǫk) - soft

Dhegiha: pa u-shtoⁿ-ga (p ushtⁿga) - the soft part of the nose, around the tip, including the septum [Omaha/Ponca]; pa u-shtoⁿ-ga (paushtoⁿga) - septum [Omaha]

 

tip, top, point

i-ta-xe (įttγe) - tip, top, point

ex: haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe (h̨ba ittγe) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight

ex: haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of whitish daylight

Dhegiha: i-tʰa-xe (itʰxe) - tip, point, end [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ta-xe (itaxe) - tip [Omaha]; i-ʰta-xe (i-ṭ-xe) - the tip or top of an object [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta-xe (iʰtɣe) - tip [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-ghe (itghe) - tip [Kaw]

 

tip, turn and tip up as a board

a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board a-kʰaⁿ i-he-da-de (kʰą ihdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ (kʰą) - to lean on; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him or her to fall; a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it

Dhegiha: a-kʰoⁿ (kʰoⁿ) - leaning against [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on, to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lie down, as to sleep or rest, lie against, lean up against [CQ-Osage]; akhaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ (gaⁿ) - against [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ zhiⁿ-he (gaⁿ zhⁿhe) - to lie against an object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he-the (ihthe) - to put or place a recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob., as a tool, plank, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; i-he-the (ihĕ) - laid down [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

tipi

ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling, lodge

ti (tti) - house [MS, MR, AB]

ti (tih) - house, hut, shack (maison, cabane) [GI]

ti (tt) - house [ASG]

Dhegiha: ti (ti) - house, lodge, tent, tipi, dwelling [Omaha/Ponca]; ti (ti) - house, coop, building, shelter, cottage, barracks [Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - house, dwelling, hovel [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi (ʰc) - house, nest, camp, make camp [CQ-Osage]; tsi (ci) - tent, lodge, house [Kaw]

 

wa-hiⁿ-ska i-ti (wah̨ska tti) - tipi [MS]

wa-hi-ska i-ti (wahska tti) - canvas tent

wa-hi-ska i-ti (wahskwĭte, ti) - tent [ASG]

cf. wa-hiⁿ-ska (wah̨ska) - calico; wa-hiⁿ (wah̨) - cloth; ska (ska) - white; i-ti (tti) - lodge or home made of

Dhegiha: ha-ska i-ʰtsi (ha-ka -ṭsi) - tent of canvas [FL-Osage]; ha-ska i-ʰtsi (haask iʰci) - tent, long arbor house, lit., cloth house [CQ-Osage]; ha-ski-tsi (haskíci), ha-ska i-tsi (haská ici) - tent, canvas lodge [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-xiⁿ-ha ska (waqⁿha sk) - white cotton or muslin [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xiⁿ-ha ska (waxiⁿha k) - muslin [Omaha]

 

ki-sto ta (kist tt) - tipi [MS]

cf. ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather; council of a gens (clans); ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ta (tt) - ask, beg, request, demand

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a season [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto), ki-sto (kisto), gi-sto (gist) - council; assemble, as people do, gather [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na (na) - to ask or beg for any object; to demand [Omaha/Ponca]; da (da) - to ask for; beg; request; solicit [FL-Osage]; ta (t) - ask for, request [CQ-Osage]; da (da) - ask for, beg, demand, request [Kaw]

 

tired of it, satiated, to have enough, surfeited, satisfied, sufficient

i-bnaⁿ (bną) - tired of it, satiated, to have enough, surfeited, satisfied, sufficient aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ (ąn̨bną) - I, i-di-bnaⁿ (dibną) - you

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ hi miⁿkʰe, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe (ąnąbn̨ hi mįkʰ, iy nįkʰ) - Ive really had enough (of being lonesome), she was saying [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-pa de aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨pa d ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am tired of it! [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ i-di-bnaⁿ ni-kʰe (hąn̨ttą idbną nikʰ) - why are you satiated? [JOD]

ex: i-bnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (bną nįkʰ) - he had enough [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ mi-zhi-ka ke aⁿ-taⁿ-taⁿ-da i-bnaⁿ (kįttą miik k ątt̨ttąd ibn̨) - then the girls had enough of what had been done [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-bthoⁿ (bthoⁿ) - enough, sufficient; satisfied [Omaha/Ponca]; i-bthaⁿ (-baⁿ) - to have sufficient of, to be satisfied [JOD-Omaha]; i-braⁿ (ibrą) - have enough of, get enough of, have ones fill of, be sated with (either a positive or negative thing); be satiated with; be tired of, be negatively affected by too much of something [CQ-Osage]

 

tired, sleepy

zhaⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį), zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ǫ tį) - to feel like lying down/reclining/sleeping a-zhaⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tį) - I, da-zhaⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tį) - you

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; ti-aⁿ (tį) - to feel like, somewhat

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - Im going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

ex: da-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tią́) - sleepy (you feel like laying down) [MS]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to recline, to lie down, to sleep, to be asleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (ą́ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, nights rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep [Kaw]

 

tired, weary

o-zhe-da (oda) - tired, weary oⁿ-zhe-da (̨eda) - I, o-di-zhe-da (odeda) - you, o-wa-zhe-da-we (wadawe) - we

o-zhe-da (oda) - tired [MS]

ex: aⁿ-zhe-da (̨eda) - I'm tired [MS]

Dhegiha: u-zhe-tha (uzhtha) - tired, weary; to be tired or weary [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhe-tha (u-zh-tha) - to be weary from hard work; to be tired; to be weary [FL-Osage]; o-zhe-tha (oa), o-zhe-the (oe) - feel tired, be fatigued, weary, tired [CQ-Osage]; o-zhe-ya (ozhya) - be tired, weary [Kaw]

 

to

ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: tʰe-ta (tʰett) - to the, at the [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ta da-kʰi taⁿ (tt tʰett dakʰ tą) - lodge-to the-you reach home-when [JOD]

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ta hi-we i-ya (akʰknį-xti tti tʰetta hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ta (kʰtta) - at the [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e ti tʰe-ta ki taⁿ ti a-naⁿ-se taⁿ kʰe-ta o-pi-zhi kʰe o-koⁿ-he (kįttą e tt tʰtta k tą tti nąs ttą kʰtta ppii kʰe kʔǫh) - then when she returned to her house, she put the box in (her) room [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: a-kde ta ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta tta mįkʰ) - Im going home [OM]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de taⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]

ex: koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (tt̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke-tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ (̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨) - horse-to the standing-she sat on her own [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

ti (-tti) - to, at, by, in; locative

ex: do-taⁿ-ti (dott̨tti) straight to the; do-taⁿ (dttą) - straight + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-ti aⁿ-da-ska (nąp-tti ̨daska) - it sticks to my hands

ex: ni-ti (ntti) - in the water, at the water; ni (ni) - water + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: ni-ti o-ka-ha niⁿ-kʰe (ntti okhaha nįkʰ) - he was floating along in the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ ni-ti spe (į nitti spe) - a stone sinks in water

ex: ni-ti n ii-he-de (ntti n ihde) - he laid it in the water [JOD]

ex: wa-xo ni-ti de (waxʔ ntti d) - the woman went into the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

ex: ni-ti naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp͓ ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti k ii-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti k ii-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: o-di-zaⁿ-ti (dizątt) - among, in the middle of; o-di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - among + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: o-shta-ti (ottti) - at a smooth place; o-shta (ot) - smooth place + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti a-shi-ti (ottittti atti) - outside in the sunshine

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te ni-he, i-ke niⁿ (ottittti atti hes̨ oktte-nih, ik nį) - look for lice on yourself outside in the sunshine, he said to her [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti (oxdtti) - into the brush; o-xda (oxd) - thicket, bushes + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: o-xda-ti ho-ho-wi da-wi (oxdtti hohwi dawi) - they went into the brush barking [JOD]

ex: o-xda-ti siⁿ-te saⁿ-haⁿ i-da-da i-de (oxdtti s̨tte s̨hą idda id) - he (rabbit) departed, his whitish tail being seen/showing off and on in the brush [JOD]

ex: pi-za-ti (ppiztti) - in the sand; pi-za (ppza) - sand + ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: pi-za-ti shka-te niⁿ (ppiztti ktte n̨) - he was playing in the sand

ex: tʰe-ti (tʰett) - to the, at the standing object; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti ki (tt tʰtti k) - he arrived to the lodge [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti ki (tt ett tʰtti k) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti kʰi naⁿ, iⁿ-knaⁿ, naⁿ-pi-aⁿ-hi miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi (tt tʰtti kʰ ną, įkn̨, n̨ppįhi mįkʰ, iy) - when they reached home, she said, first son I am hungry [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti tʰe-ti zho-kde kʰi (kįttą tt tʰett kde kʰ) - then he arrived at the lodge with him [JOD]

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ti (nįkʰtti) - at the curvilinear object, to the curvilinear object; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the sg/si/an or in + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti kʰi-wi (ppze d hąk ttǫ nįkʰtti kʰwi) - it was nearly night, they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi ki-zhi i-ya ma-shti-ke (ek̨ n̨kʰtti ttįhi ki iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ke-ti (kett) - at or to the plural objects; ke (ke) - the pl/st/an or pl/st/in + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttkde kett h-tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttkde kett h ną) - when he arrived at the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ti (kʰett) - at or to the lying object; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pp mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti k ii-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti k ii-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te kʰe-ti o-hi-kniⁿ naⁿ kde (e mąt kʰett ohknį ną kd) - that/the canoe, she got into it and sat down, then headed home [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-ti (m̨tti) - at one, to one; miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article + ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative [JOD]

ex: ti miⁿ-ti a-kʰi naⁿ (tti m̨tti akʰ ną) - when I arrive back to a lodge [JOD]

            ex: ti-kde miⁿ-ti kʰi (ttkde m̨tti kʰ) - he arrived at one lodge [JOD]

Dhegiha: di (-di) - in, to, at [JOD-Omaha]; dsi (dsi) - there, designating place [FL-Osage]; tsi (ci) - in, to, at [CQ-Osage]; ji (-ji), jhi (-ǰi) - to, at, in [Kaw]

 

to a location

ta-ti (ttti) - to a location

ex: Baxter ta-ti (Baxter-ttti) - to Baxter Springs

 

to another

ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another a-ki-kniⁿ (akknį) - I, da-ki-kniⁿ (dakknį) - you

cf. kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - to sit [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ) -dwell, live, reside [Kaw]

 

ki-maⁿ-niⁿ (kmąnį) - walk with reference to another, behind, etc.

cf. maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

ex: a-shi-ta ki-maⁿ-niⁿ (aitta kmąnį) - to walk behind him/it

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿthⁿ) - to walk [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ-thiⁿ (maⁿ-ⁿ) - to walk; used to express continued action; to go [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿ-thiⁿ), moⁿ-iⁿ (moⁿ-ⁿ) - to walk, exist [FL-Osage]; maⁿthiⁿ (mą̨), maⁿ-iⁿ (m̨į) - walk, go by walking, go by foot, go away, go, go on, get moving, go ahead, approach, move in closer, stay, act or live a certain way, go around a certain way [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ (maⁿyⁿ) - walk, move [Kaw]

 

ki-na-zhiⁿ (knaį) - stand with reference to another a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (aknaį) - I, da-ki-na-zhiⁿ (daknaį) - you

cf. na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: gi-na-zhiⁿ (g-na-jiⁿ) - to stand for another, as a kinsman [JOD-Omaha]

 

o-ki-da (okda) - tell something to another o-a-ki-bda (okibd) - I, o-da-ki-ta (odkitt) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-da-we (ǫkkidwe) - we

cf. o-da (od) - tell something; o-da-ke (odke) - tell about something; o-ki-da-ke (okdake) - tell it to (some)one

ex: aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi (̨kidi h) - he did not tell me at all [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi tʰe aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi a-ta-pa (̨kidi h tʰe ą̨i ttapp) - I did not like it much that he did not tell me at all [JOD]

ex: o-da-ki-ta (dakitt) - you told it to her

ex: e-ka-xna niⁿ-kʰe wa-kiⁿ tʰe o-da-ki-ta ti, (ekxną nįkʰe wakʔ̨ tʰe dakitt tti,) - when you summoned his wife to carry the meat to the lodge, [JOD]

ex: o-wa-ki-da (wakid) - he told it to them [JOD]

ex: haⁿ bdo-ka za-ni hi o-wa-ki-da (hą bdok zan hi wakid) - all night long, he told it to everyone [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-tha (uth) - tell anything, tell anything about another [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha (tha) - to tell them about [Omaha/Ponca]; u-tha (utha) - announce, report, warn, inform, tell [Omaha]

 

to each

na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals

ex: miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece

ex: naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece

ex: da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes; 3 apiece

ex: to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours

ex: sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives

ex: sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, 6 at a time

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens

ex: pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, eight at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines

ex: kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece, 10 at a time

ex: da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens; 13 apiece

ex: sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, seventeen at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each

ex: kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece

ex: kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each

ex: e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

ex: ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each

ex: wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿthoⁿthⁿ) - by ones; one at a time; one here and there; one to each [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]

 

to each other, talk to each other or oneself

o-ki-ki-e (okkkkie) - talk to each other or oneself o-a-ki-ki-e (okkikkie) - I, o-da-ki-ki-e (odkkikkie) - you, o-ki-ki-a-wi (okkkkiawi) - they

cf. o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okk), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one; court a girl; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation; i-e (e), i-ye (ye) - word; talk, speak; i-e (i), i-ye (iy), e (e) - say; quotative, non-hearsay evidential

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-ki-e a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (we okkkkie akn̨ mįkʰ) - I/I talk to myself/I sit/I who sit (I am sitting) [JOD]

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-ki-e a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (we okkkkie akn̨ mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - I am just sitting here talking to myself, it is said rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa (ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa) - children (boys)/talking to one another/to speak/they begin suddenly now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who begin to talk, saying words here and there, not speaking plainly or connectedly, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa (ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp) - children (boys)/they talk to one another/when/speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ki-e (ukkie) - to talk together [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-ki-ye (ukikiye) - court, converse, conversation [Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-ḳi-e) - to speak to one another, to hold a conversation, talk together or to each other, a dialogue [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-ʰki-e (oʰkʰkie) - talk with one another, converse with each other (usually more than two people) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-gi-ki-e (u-g-ki-e) - to talk with his own relation or friend [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-ʰki-e (u-g-ḳi-e) - to speak to a friend or some relation [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ʰki-e (okʰkie) - speak to ones own relative, family, or friends [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-ki-ye (ogkiye) - talk with ones own (kinsman or friend) [Kaw]

 

to his belt

i-pi-da-taⁿ-ti (ppidttątt) - to his belt [JOD]

cf. i-pi-da-taⁿ (ppidttą) - belt; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ-ti a-ki-ka-shka-i (ppidttątt kikaki) - to his belt/he fastened his own to it [JOD]

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ-ti a-ki-ka-shka-i taⁿ o-zha tʰe tʰi-de (ppidttątt kikaki tą a tʰe tʰid) - he fastened it (his own) to his belt and began dancing [JOD]

 

i-pi-da-taⁿ e-ti (ppidttą tti) - to his belt [JOD]

cf. i-pi-da-taⁿ (ppidttą) - belt; e-ti (tti) - there

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ e-ti a-ka-shke (ppidttą tti kake) - he tied it on/to his belt [JOD]

 

to me

aⁿ (ą) - to me, for me, at me; I, me

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ (ąb̨) - he, she, or it call to me, aⁿ (ą) - to me + baⁿ (bą) - he, she, or it call or halloo

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨ ąb̨ hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-baⁿ-wi (ąb̨wi) - they call to me, aⁿ (ą) - to me + baⁿ-wi (p̨͓wi) - they call or haloo

ex: aⁿ-ki (ąkʔ) - he, she, or it give to me, aⁿ (ą) - to me + ki (kʔi) - he, she, or it give

ex: ti aⁿ-ki (tt ąkʔ) - he gave a lodge to me

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi (̨nąxʔ̨i) - he, she, or it not listen to me, aⁿ (ą) - to me + na-xoⁿ (naxʔ̨) - he, she, or it hear, listen + zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: shi-naⁿ ta-bde bde a-kdi naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-xoⁿ-zhi hi da-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (ną tbde bd akd ną ̨nąxʔ̨i h datʰ nįkʰ tą mika γak nįkʰ) - I went hunting again, when I came back, she had not listened to me, she was eating it and the little girl was crying [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ba-zo (̨bazo) - he, she, or it pointed to me, aⁿ (ą) - to me + a-ba-zo (bazo) - he, she, or it point at

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe taⁿ aⁿ-ba-zo (kįttą m̨i mįkʰ tą ̨bazo) - then as I was sitting above, it pointed at me [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-ha aⁿ-ba-zo (m̨i mįkʰe t̨ha ̨bazo) - because I was sitting above, it pointed at me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ska (̨daska) - it sticks to me, aⁿ (ą) - to me + a-da-ska (daska) - he, she, or it stick, adhere

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ (ądkitt̨) - you have it for me, aⁿ (ą) - for me + a-da-ki-tiⁿ (adkittį) - you have or keep for someone

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi (ądkitt̨ dakd) - you have it for me/you come back to this place; you bring her, my own, back to me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkitt̨ dakd ną tti d wikʔ tte) - when you have taken her (have her) for me and return here I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her (my own) back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ta-zho-zhi (̨ttai) - you insult me, aⁿ (ą) - me + ta-zho-zhi (ttoi) - you insult, you criticize

ex: i-di-na-zhiⁿ di-taⁿ i-bniⁿ-aⁿ taⁿ i-ye aⁿ-ta-zho-zhi de, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (dinį ditt̨ bn̨ą t̨ ye ̨ttai d, iy iy mątʰ) - I think that you speak so improperly to me on account of you depending on someone to help you, it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

 

to one another, they said the preceding to one another

i-ke-ya-we (keywe) - they said the preceding to one, one another [JOD]

i-ke-ye (ikye) - to have said something to someone i-da-a-ki-he-ye (idakihye) - I, i-da-da-ki-she-ye (iddakiye) - you, i-ke-ya-we (keywe) - they

cf. i-ke (ik) - say (the preceding) to someone; ye (ye) - past, past suffix

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke aⁿ-ka-xe ta-i, i-ke-ya-we ke, i-ya (mat̨ke kahke ąkγe tta, keywe k, iy) - We shall make Rabbit chief, they said to one another, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we, i-ya (ę, hǫ dtʰą, keywe, iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de! ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de! i-ke-ya-we niⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke tʰi ed! mat̨ke tʰi ed! keywe n̨, iy) - they said to one another, Rabbit has come!, Rabbit has come! it is said [JOD]

ex: hau, ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-da-ke tʰi i-ye, i-ke-ya-we niⁿ, i-ya (hau, mat̨ke odke tʰ iy, keywe n̨, iy) - ho, rabbit says that he has come to tell us something, they said to one another, it is said [JOD]

ex: ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi shoⁿ-ti to-skide i-ke-ya-we ni e-ti kʰe, mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi oⁿ-kniⁿ oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ naⁿ (mą iki ̨tti to skde keywe ni ett kʰe, mi xpettaddedi ǫkn̨ ̨katʰ̨ ną) - before the late civil war, we dwelt on the west side of what they called, Sweet Potato Creek [JOD]

 

to one side, a little to one side

ko-i-ta de-de (kitta dde) - a little to one side

cf. ko-i-ta (kitta) - there, in that place; ko-i (ki) - that, there; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of

 

to one, shout to one at a distance

bda-se de-de (bdas ded) - shout to one at a distance a-bda-se de-a-de (abdse dade) - I, da-bda-se de-da-de (dabdse ddade) - you

cf. bda-se (bdas) - shout, cry out (human); de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

to one, stick to one here and there

kdi-za-za (kdizza) - stick to one here and there

i-kdi-za-za (kdizza) - stick to one here and there

ex: zho i-kdi-za-za (o kdizza) - flesh/adhering here and there to its own [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ zho i-kdi-za-za hi ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ o kdizza h nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there with their flesh adhering here and there, it is said [JOD]

 

to one, to a

miⁿ-ti (m̨tti) - at one, to one [JOD]

cf. miⁿ (mį) - one, a, an, indefinite article; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: ti-kde miⁿ-ti kʰi (ttkde m̨tti kʰ) - he arrived at one lodge [JOD]

ex: ti miⁿ-ti a-kʰi naⁿ (tti m̨tti akʰ ną) - when I arrive back to a lodge [JOD]

 

to ones own, give to ones own (kin)

ki-ki (kikʔ) - give to ones own (kin) a-ki-ki (akkʔi) - I, da-ki-ki (dakkʔi) - you

cf. ki-ki (kkʔi) - give back, return; ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

ex: a-ki-ki (akkʔi) - I give to him, my relation [JOD]

ex: a-ki-ki za-ni, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (akkʔi zan, iy iy mątʰ) - I have given it all (the meat) to him (my relation), it is said Grizzly said [JOD]

ex: ki-ki (kikʔ) - he gave to his own [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi zhaⁿ-pi-zhi o-zhi taⁿ ki-ki (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą tttą hott̨ hi ąppi o tą kikʔ) - so then when they (the other girls) went back, he gave his own (his daughter) a wooden box filled with something very good [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe ki-ki a-taⁿ i-de (tt tʰe kikʔ ttą id) - he gave his own lodge to him and departed [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-i (gi) - give to ones own [JOD-Omaha]; ki-ku (kkʔu) - give to ones own, give away to ones own people [CQ-Osage]

 

to ones own, glue to ones own

i-da-ki-da (idkid) - glue to ones own [JOD]

cf. i-da-da (idda) - glue something to something

ex: e-naⁿ-xti i-da-ki-da (en̨-xti idkid) - only those/he glued to his arrows [JOD]

ex: maⁿ xi-da ma-shoⁿ e-naⁿ-xti i-da-ki-da naⁿ, i-ya (m̨ xid mǫ en̨-xti idkid ną, iy) - he used only eagle feathers to glue to the arrows, it is said [JOD]

 

to oneself, refer to oneself

wa-ki-kʰe (wakkkʰe) - refer to oneself a-wa-ki-kʰe (awkkikʰe) - I, wa-da-ki-kʰe (wadkkikʰe) - you

cf. wa-kʰe (wakʰ) - mean something, refer to something

Dhegiha: wa-ke (wa-k) - to mean, to intend, to refer to [JOD-Omaha]; wa-kshe (wa-ksh) - to mean anything [FL-Osage]; wa-kshe (wak) - mean, intend, have in mind [CQ-Osage]; wa-khe (wakh) - mean something, refer to, intend [Kaw]

 

to oneself, talk to each other or oneself

o-ki-ki-e (okkkkie) - talk to each other or oneself o-a-ki-ki-e (okkikkie) - I, o-da-ki-ki-e (odkkikkie) - you, o-ki-ki-a-wi (okkkkiawi) - they

cf. o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okk), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one; court a girl; o-ki-ki-e (okkkie) - talk to a relation; i-e (e), i-ye (ye) - word; talk, speak; i-e (i), i-ye (iy), e (e) - say; quotative, non-hearsay evidential

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-ki-e a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (we okkkkie akn̨ mįkʰ) - I/I talk to myself/I sit/I who sit (I am sitting) [JOD]

ex: wi-e o-a-ki-ki-e a-kniⁿ miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (we okkkkie akn̨ mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - I am just sitting here talking to myself, it is said rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa (ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa) - children (boys)/talking to one another/to speak/they begin suddenly now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who begin to talk, saying words here and there, not speaking plainly or connectedly, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa (ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp) - children (boys)/they talk to one another/when/speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ki-ki-e (ukkie) - to talk together [JOD-Omaha]; u-ki-ki-ye (ukikiye) - court, converse, conversation [Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰki-e (u-ḳ-ḳi-e) - to speak to one another, to hold a conversation, talk together or to each other, a dialogue [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-ʰki-e (oʰkʰkie) - talk with one another, converse with each other (usually more than two people) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-gi-ki-e (u-g-ki-e) - to talk with his own relation or friend [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-ʰki-e (u-g-ḳi-e) - to speak to a friend or some relation [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ʰki-e (okʰkie) - speak to ones own relative, family, or friends [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-ki-ye (ogkiye) - talk with ones own (kinsman or friend) [Kaw]

 

to that place

she-ta (tta) - there, at/to that place

cf. she () - that; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: she-ta da-kʰi-kniⁿ naⁿ (tta dakʰknį n̨) - return thither and take your seat!

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d! iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first! I will join you later on

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi tta ǫkatʰ̨), a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: she (she) - that way, that course or direction; that [Omaha/Ponca]; she (ce) - that way or course; that: refers to an object in sight of or near the speaker and the one addressed [JOD-Omaha]; she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - there; that one [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (e) - that, that one near you; here near you; there near you, there (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); him/her/it (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

to the lodge

ti-a-ti (ttitti) - to the lodge, into the house [JOD]

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: ti-a-ti a-niⁿ kdi (ttitti an̨ kdi) - he brought her back to the lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de (ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - into the house/so/she carried her own [JOD]

ex: e e-ta taⁿ-ha kdi-ze a-taⁿ ti-a-ti kaⁿ a-kda-niⁿ de ( ett tąh kdze ttą ttatti ką kdan̨ d) - because it was hers, she took it (her own), she took it into the house [JOD]

ex: ti-a-ti o-ka-xnaⁿ-xnaⁿ (ttitti kaxnąxn̨) - different articles in the lodge [JOD]

ex: ti-a-ti kda (ttatti kd) - go in the house! [MS]

Dhegiha: ti-a-di (tadi) - in house, in the house or lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-a-di (tadi) - inside a house [Omaha]

 

ti tʰe-ti (tt tʰtti) - to the lodge [JOD]

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: ti tʰe-ti (tt tʰtti) - lodge/to the [JOD]

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ti hi-we, i-ya (kkikn̨xti tt tʰtti hwe, iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti kʰi (tt tʰtti kʰ) - he arrived to the lodge [JOD]

 

ti e-ta tʰe-ti (tt ett tʰtti) - to his lodge

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; e-ta (ett) - his [JOD]; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti (tt ett tʰtti) - lodge/his/to the [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti kʰi (tt ett tʰtti kʰ) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

 

to the lying object

kʰe-ti (kʰett) - at or to the lying object [JOD]

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti ki, i-ya-we, waxo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti ki, i-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k, iywe, waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k, iywe) - they say, he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

 

to the many or plural objects

ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: ti-kde ke ta (ttikd ke tta) - lodges(=village)/to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

 

ke-ti (kett) - at the plural [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: ke-ti (kett) - at the plural [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the plural [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the (plural) inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

 

to the sitting object

niⁿ-kʰe-ti (nįkʰtti) - to the sitting object; at the curvilinear object; to the curvilinear object [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti) - his grandmother/to the sitting object [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi kʰi-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti ttįhi kʰi-i iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe-ti (was kahke niⁿkʰeti) - black bear/chief/to the one who [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe ti e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (was kahke niⁿkʰe ti tti hi ną iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit arrived there, to where the black bear chief resides, it is said [JOD]

ex: a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ni kihidnįkʰetti) - hill/at yonder distant visible place [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

ex: sni-wa-te niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi (sniwtte nįkʰtti h) - winter/to the sitting object/arrived [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi sni-wa-te niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi sniwtte nįkʰtti h, iy) - after some time he arrived at the abode of the Winter, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe-di (thiⁿkʰdi) - by or near the sitting animate object; by or near the one who [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe dsi (thiⁿ-kshe dsi) - at the place where he is sitting [FL-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe-ji (yiⁿkhéji) - to or by the sitting animate object; over there [Kaw]

 

niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object; to the one who [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (t̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe-ta (dtteke was niⁿkʰetta) - your mothers brother/black bear/to the one who [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da! i-ye naⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-sa naⁿ (įkk̨ dtteke was niⁿkʰe tta tti d! iy ną ąn̨hos naⁿ) - my grandmother scolded me and said, go to your uncle, the black bear! [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe-ta (thiⁿkʰta) - to the sitting animate object, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

 

to the standing object

tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the standing object

tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]

cf. tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; the collection/inanimate; the act, past, completive aspect; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: o-zha da-i tʰe-ta (a d-i tʰtta) - they went to the dance [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ta (tt tʰtta) - lodge/to the [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ta da-kʰi taⁿ (tt tʰett dakʰ tą) - when you return to your home [JOD]

ex: e ti tʰe-ta ki (e tt tʰtta k) - her house/at the/came there again [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e ti tʰe-ta ki taⁿ ti a-naⁿ-se taⁿ kʰe-ta o-pi-zhi kʰe o-koⁿ-he (kįttą e tt tʰtta k tą tti nąs ttą kʰtta ppii kʰe kʔǫh) - then when she returned to her house, she put the box in (her) room [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰe-ta (tʰta) - at or to the standing inanimate object, etc.; on account of the act or fact [Omaha/Ponca]

 

tʰe-ti (tʰett) - at the, to the; when [JOD]

tʰe-ti (tʰett) - at the standing object; when, at the time

cf. tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; the collection/inanimate; the act, past, completive aspect; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti tʰe-ti zho-kde kʰi (kįttą tt tʰett kde kʰ) - then he arrived at the lodge with him [JOD]

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ti hi-we i-ya (kkikn̨xti tt tʰtti hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ti kʰi (tt tʰtti kʰ) - he arrived to the lodge [JOD]

ex: ti e-ta tʰe-ti ki (tt ett tʰtti k) - he arrived/returned to his lodge [JOD]

ex: ho-wa tʰe-ti (hwa tʰett) - at or by what collection of inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te i-ye niⁿ i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte iy nį iy waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, wherever they may have killed him, I will seek him, it is said [JOD]

ex: tʰe-ti (tʰtti) - when [JOD]

ex: si di-ze de-de naⁿ hi tʰe-ti (s diz ded ną h tʰtti) - at every step which he took [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hi-de tʰe-ti, ma-shtiⁿ-ke sni-wa-te ka-xnoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe i-ki-aⁿ-xe, i-ya (hid tʰett, mat̨ke sniwtte kxnǫ nįkʰ kiąγ, iy) - when he had gone, Rabbit questioned the wife of Winter, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰe-di (tʰdi) - at the standing object; to the standing object; at, by, in, or near the standing inanimate objects or collection of small objects; at the time; when [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-dsi (ṭse-ds) - there at that place [FL-Osage]; che-ji (chéji) - to the [Kaw]

 

tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta (̨keknį tʰątt) - to the (standing) horse [JOD]

 

ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: ti-kde ke ta (ttikd ke tta) - lodges(=village)/to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha, i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah, ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

to the water

ni-a-ta (nitta) - to the water [JOD]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: ni-a-ta de-de (nitta dde) - towards the water [JOD]

ex: ni-a-ta ko-e-kde (nitta kokde) - to the water/he started to run back to [JOD]

ex: ki-di-ki-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ taⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing and quickly started to run towards the water, they said [JOD]

 

ni-ti (ntti) - at, to, or in the water

            cf. ni (ni) - water; ti (tti) - at, by, in

ex: ni-ti (ntti) - at or to the water [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti ki i-ya-we wa-xo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti ki i-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k iywe waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k iywe) - he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: ni-ti naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp͓ ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

ex: ni-ti (ntti) - in the water [JOD]

ex: ni-ti o-ka-ha niⁿ-kʰe (ntti okhaha nįkʰ) - he was floating along in the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ ni-ti spe (į nitti spe) - a stone sinks in water

ex: ni-ti ni i-he-de (ntti n ihde) - he laid it in the water [JOD]

ex: wa-xo ni-ti de (waxʔ ntti d) - the woman went into the water [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

 

to the, with his back to the wind

a-ka-hi-da o-ka-xde (kahda okxde) - facing downstream, with his back to the wind a-ka-hi-da o-a-ka-xde (kahda okaxde) - I, a-ka-hi-da o-da-ka-xde (kahda odkaxde) - you

cf. a-ka-hi-da (kahda) - downstream, downwind, with the wind or current; o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards

Dhegiha: hi-de u-ga-xthe (hde gaqthe) - facing, downward, downstream, facing the bottom or lower part, facing the mouth of a stream [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-ga-xthe (-ga-qe) - to be facing a certain direction [JOD-Omaha]; o-ka-le (okle) - face a certain direction [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xle (ogxle) - facing, face a direction, facing towards [Kaw]

 

to them, said it to them

i-we-ki (iwki), i-we-ke (iwke) - to say the preceding to them [JOD]

ex: i-we-a-ki-he (iwakih atʰąh) - I tell the preceding to them, I am standing here telling this [JOD]

ex: i-we-ki (iwki) - he said the preceding to them [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ, i-we-ki taⁿ we-kda-sa, i-ya (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į, iwki tą wkdas, iy) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles, he (rabbit) said to them (black bears), when he (rabbit) whipped them with it (their chiefs testicles), it is said (they say)

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ, hoⁿ-pe i-maⁿ-ta ma-sa-ni ki-di-shto-ta-i ni-he, i-we-ki niⁿ i-ya ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą, hǫp im̨tta masni kidtot-i nih, iwki n̨ iy nikkąs̨) - then/just as they started home/when/shoe/other one/on one side/pull ye it off from her/he was saying it to them/it is said/police [JOD]

ex: i-we-ke (iwke) - said the preceding to them; he said it to them [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta, iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, a-tʰi o-wi-ki-bda-ke a-tʰi, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ, atʰ wikibdke atʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - yes, I have come, I have come to tell you something, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, o-wi-ki-bda-ke tai miⁿ-kʰe, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ, wikibdke ta mįkʰ, iwke iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit said, yes, I will tell youall it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy, iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: di-xa a-taⁿ te-da-we, i-we-ke i-ya (dix attą tʔdaw, iwke iy) - chase him and kill him! he said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka, i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k, iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo i-shta zhi-te e-ti da-we! te da-kiⁿ da-kdi ta-i! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mątʰ it itt tti daw! tt dakʔį dakd ttai! iwke iy mat̨ke) - youall go there, to the red-eyed Grizzly bear! youall will pack the buffalo back here! Rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (iwke iy mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - the Rabbits son said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: wi-e-taⁿ bdatʰ tʰe, iwke, iy (wettą bda-tʰe te, i-we-ke, i-ya) - if it were I, I would have eaten it, he said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ iⁿ-kaⁿ wa-shiⁿ ni-ke hi taⁿ-ha e-koⁿ a-ki a-tʰi a-ni-he, i-we-ke, i-ya (wehǫ įkk̨ wą nik hi t̨ha ek̨ ki tʰi nih, iwke, iy) - as for me, my grandmother does not have any fat meat at all, because of that I came here to get it for her, he said to them, it is said [JOD]

 

to town

toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de ta-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

toⁿ ti (ttǫ tti) - to town

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why are you going to town? [MS]

Dhegiha: di (-di) - in, to, at [JOD-Omaha]; dsi (dsi) - there, designating place [FL-Osage]; tsi (ci) - in, to, at [CQ-Osage]; ji (-ji), jhi (-ǰi) - to, at, in [Kaw]

 

toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta (t̨ nįkʰett) - to the town

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta (t̨ nįkʰett) - village/to the cv. ob. [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (t̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿkʰ) - the sitting animate object; the curved inanimate object; third person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article, follows a noun or pronoun (usually not the subject of a sentence) that represents a singular sitting entity or singular round entity; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkhé) - the; definite article used with the object of the verb; singular inanimate or animate; the in reference to an animate subject of a stative verb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti (ttǫ nįkʰtti) - to the town

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti (ttǫ nįkʰtti) - village/at the cv. ob. [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿkʰ) - the sitting animate object; the curved inanimate object; third person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article, follows a noun or pronoun (usually not the subject of a sentence) that represents a singular sitting entity or singular round entity; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkhé) - the; definite article used with the object of the verb; singular inanimate or animate; the in reference to an animate subject of a stative verb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: di (-di) - in, to, at [JOD-Omaha]; dsi (dsi) - there, designating place [FL-Osage]; tsi (ci) - in, to, at [CQ-Osage]; ji (-ji), jhi (-ǰi) - to, at, in [Kaw]

 

to you

di (di) - to you; you

ex: a-di-da-ska (didska) - it sticks to you, di (di) - to you + a-da-ska (daska) - he, she, or it stick, adhere

ex: di-baⁿ (dib̨) - call to you, di (di) - to you + baⁿ (bą) - he, she, or it call or halloo

ex: be ni-ka-shi-ka di-baⁿ i-niⁿ-haⁿ (b nkkaka dib̨ inįh̨) - who could this person be, that called to you? [JOD]

 

she-do i-hi (do ih) - it goes to you

cf. she-do (do) - yonder, there; i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place

ex: she-do i-hi ki-ta! (do ih kkitta!) - it goes to you/shoot! [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ta miⁿ she-do i-hi! ki-ta! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wtteke, tta mį do ih! kkitta! iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), there is a deer approaching over there! shoot it! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: she-do i-hi-we (do ihwe) - they go to you [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka de-pa she-do i-hi-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wtteke, nkkaka dpa do ihwe, iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), over there are some Indians who are approaching, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-de (ǫd) - go toward you, go to the place where you are or near you; come toward you; go to someone, go to a person shoⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I

ex: shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ǫbd tta mįkʰ) - I go to you/I will [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-e, shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kįe, ǫbd tta mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - no matter what, I will go with you, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (d ǫbd tt mįkʰ) - this/I go to you/I will [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wttek, d ǫbd tt mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), I will go with you, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: shu-the (shuth) - to go to you [Omaha/Ponca]; sho-the (sho-th), shu-the (shu-th) - come toward you; coming where you are [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-the (ǫe), sho-the (oe) - go toward you, go to the place where you are or near you [CQ-Osage]; sho-ye (shoyé), sho-we (showé) - go to someone; go to a person [Kaw]

 

wi (wi) - I to you, first person singular acting on second person

ex: wi-ki (wikʔ) - I give to you; from ki (kʔi) - to give something to someone

ex: a-wi-aⁿ-bde (wįbde) - I give it (illness) to you; from a-aⁿ-de (ąde) - to give an illness; communicate a disease

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you; from a-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (bdaska akn̨) - I sit close

ex: o-wi-ki (owikki) - I say/talk to you; from o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (okki) - speak, talk with one

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe (owikki tta mįkʰ) - Im going to talk to you [MS]

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

Dhegiha: wi (wi) - a pr. fragment, including both sub. and ob.; I--you(s) [JOD-Omaha]; wi (wi) - combined marker of 1st person sg. Subject and 2nd person object, I you [CQ-Osage]; wi (wi) - I/you, where 'I' is the subject and 'you' is the object [Kaw]

 

to, about to, going to

ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta mįkʰ) - I, ta niⁿ-kʰe (tta nįkʰ) - you; taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ttąkatʰ̨), ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (tta ǫkatʰ̨) - we, I and one other

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - I am going to come back tomorrow

ex: a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta mįkʰ) - I am going to go home

ex: mo-shiⁿ o-ki o-ti a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe, ka-sa-ni (m̨i okk tti akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - tomorrow, I am going to go to church

ex: bda-taⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (bdatt̨ tta mįkʰ) - I am going to be drinking

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - will, shall, potential or future marker [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta (ṭa) - shall, he shall, you shall [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - future tense marker, will, be going to, could, so that it could/might be, what if, were it the case that, would be [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - future potential or intentive aspect [Kaw]

 

ta tʰaⁿ (tta tʰą) - about to [JOD]

cf. ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: ta tʰaⁿ (tta tʰ̨) - future/the standing (he was about to) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔak tʰą ni oh watt̨ akid tta tʰ̨ ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰa-tʰoⁿ (tʰatʰⁿ) - will be standing; continuous or incomplete action [Omaha/Ponca]

 

te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall, will be

ex: bda-taⁿ te (bdatt̨ tte) - I am going to drink

ex: pa-hi-o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I am going to put my hat on the table

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going to go?

ex: ni-zhi te (ni tte) - its going to rain

Dhegiha: te (te) - will [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, often translated as let, allow, have, tell someone to, lets [CQ-Osage]; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

te kaⁿ (tte k̨) - about to [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall; kaⁿ (k̨) - so, as [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-kda-kiⁿ te kaⁿ (ąkkdakʔ̨ tte k̨) - about to carry me on her back [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰe-goⁿ (tʰgoⁿ) - a contraction of tʰe - future sign, and goⁿ - as, so [Omaha/Ponca]; e-tʰe-goⁿ (etʰgoⁿ) - may; apt to [Omaha/Ponca]

 

to, in, for, at, of

o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into

ex: o-ti (ott) - house for, house of, house to, o (o) + ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ o-ti (̨keknį ott) - stable, barn, house for horses

ex: maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, house to talk above

ex: wa-pi-na o-ti (wappna tti) - council house of a gens

ex: o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in, o (o) + kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting;

ex: o-maⁿ-niⁿ (om̨nį) - to walk or move in, o (o) + maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

ex: o-shta (ot) - smooth place, o (o) + shta (ta) - smooth, bald, bare

ex: o-ta-shti-te-ti (ottittti) - in the sunshine, o (o) + ta-shti-te (ttite) - warm, heat up + ti (tti) - at, by, in, locative

Dhegiha: u (u) - a prefix, usually the inseparable preposition, in, prefixed to verbs [Omaha/Ponca]; o (o) - place at which, culmination of (a certain action or state), wherein (a certain thing takes place) [CQ-Osage]; o (o) - locative: in, inside, into, at a place [Kaw]

 

to, used to

aⁿ-maⁿ (ąm̨), oⁿ-moⁿ (ǫm̨), moⁿ (m̨) - I usually, I used to [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - past sign; when, time when; habitual; aⁿ (ʔą), oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do, be; use

ex: bda-taⁿ oⁿ-maⁿ (bdatt̨ ǫm̨) - I used to drink

ex: naⁿ-pe-aⁿ-hi aⁿ-maⁿ (n̨ppęhi ąm̨) - me hungry/I used to be [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ, wi-zhiⁿ-de naⁿ-pe-aⁿ-hi aⁿ-maⁿ taⁿ-ha he-be a-ki-kiⁿ koⁿ-bda, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wehǫ, wįde n̨ppęhi ąm̨ t̨ha hbe akkʔį kkǫbd, iy iy mat̨ke) - my elder brother, I too want to carry my own piece because I have been hungry, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe moⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨ mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ zhoⁿ (ttatt̨ ̨) - you used to drink

ex: da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we (daxʔąkkid nąw) - you (plural) used to be kind to him for me [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ho-wa ni-kʰa-she da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we e (mat̨ke hwa nikʰe daxʔąkkid nąw e) - which of youall were kind to Rabbit for me? [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-maⁿ (naⁿ-mⁿ), hnaⁿ-maⁿ (hnaⁿ-mⁿ) - I used to [JOD-Omaha]; hnaⁿ-i (hnaⁿi) - they used to [JOD-Omaha]

 

to, with which to

i () - by means of, with which to, with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to

ex: i-di-shi-we (diwe) - key, i () + di-shi-we (diwe) - open up, open

ex: i-ka-xe (ikγe) - with which to make, i () + ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: i-ka-za (kaza) - whip; to hit with, i () + ka-za (kaz) - whip

ex: i-kiⁿ (kʔį) - suspenders, i (i) + kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry or pack on the back

ex: i-te-de (itʔde) - kill with something, i () + te (tʔe) - die + de (de) - cause

ex: ni i-da-taⁿ (ni datt̨) - cup, ni (ni) - water + i (i) + da-taⁿ (datt̨) - drink

ex: wa-naⁿ-bde i-ba-xto (wan̨bde baxto) - fork, a table fork, wa-naⁿ-bde (wan̨bde) - eat a meal, dine; food + i () + ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate

ex: zhaⁿ i-maⁿ-niⁿ (̨ im̨nį) - stilts, zhaⁿ (ą) wood + i (i) + maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

Dhegiha: i () - instrumental, by means of, with which to [JOD-Omaha]; i (i) - with which to [FL-Osage]; i () - with, using, as a means of or to, through, from, due to [CQ-Osage]; i () - instrumentive locative: with, using, by means of [Kaw]

 

we (we) - that by which, with which to

ex: ma-ze we-ba-xto (mze wbaxto) - spear, war spear, ma-ze (maze) - iron + we (we) + ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate

ex: ma-ze we-ka-sta (maz wkast) - hammer, ma-ze (maze) - iron + we (we) + ka-sta (kast) - strike, fall on

ex: we-ki-te (wkkitte) - bullet, lead bullet, we (we) + ki-te (kktte) - shoot at something

ex: we-kiⁿ (wkʔį) - pack, bundle carried on back, we (we) + kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

ex: we-sa-de hi (wsade h) - soft maple, black dye tree, we (we) + sa (sa) - black; de (de) - cause + hi (hi) - tree

ex: we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, we (we) + ska (ska) - white + de (de) - cause

Dhegiha: we (we) - to, with or by means of [Omaha/Ponca]; we (we) - with, with which to, for, that by which [FL-Osage]; we (w) - combination of wa (wa) and i (i), this formation  is regularly seen in the ordinal numerals and in several names of tools [CQ-Osage]

 

wi (wi) - that which, that by means of which, used less frequent than we (we)

ex: wi-o-hoⁿ (wohǫ) - pot, kettle (of metal) [ASG], wi (w) + o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

ex: wi-o-do-hoⁿ (widohǫ) - what is used for boiling/cooking [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-u (wiu) - to, that which, that by means of which; most words in wi-u are derived from corresponding verbs in u-thu [Omaha/Ponca]

 

toad

te-a-xa (ttexʔa) - toad

cf. wa-xno-shka (waxnka) - frog

Dhegiha: te-bi-a (tbia) - a frog [Omaha/Ponca]; te-bi-a (tbia) - frog [Omaha]; ʰtse-biu-ʰka (ṭs-biu-ḳa) - frog [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-o-ka (ʰcokʔa) - frog [CQ-Osage]; tse-bu-ka (cébuka) - frog [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-kʰoⁿ-gi-te (ikʰⁿgit) - a toad [Omaha/Ponca]; i-koⁿ-gi-te (kⁿgite) - toad [Omaha]

Dhegiha: ni-zhu-a-xa-ge (ni-zh-a-xa-ge) - toad, cries for rain [FL-Osage]; ni-zhu o-xa-ke (niu oxke) - toad [CQ-Osage]

 

tobacco

ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco

ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco [MS, AG, OM]

ta-ni (tad-nih) - tobacco (tabac) [GI]

tʰa-ni (t'ni˙) - tobacco [FS]

ta-ni (tnni), (tnne) - tobacco [ASG]

ex: ki-ta-ni (kitni) - to smoke [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-spe ta-ni-ba (mǐspǐ na nǐ bŭ) - tomahawk, from Francis Good Eagle [MH]

ex: ta-ni-ba (tanba) - pipe

ex: ta-ni-ba i-ba (tanba ba) - pipestem

ex: ta-ni-ba wa-xo-we (tanba waxwe) - the sacred pipe

ex: ta-ni-ba-he-ta hi (tanbahtta hi) - elder bush (Sambucus)

ex: ta-ni-ba-he-ta o-da-siⁿ (tanbahtta dasʔį) - elderberries

Dhegiha: ni-ni (nin) - tobacco [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ni (nini) - tobacco; cigarette; cigar [Omaha]

noⁿ-ni (noⁿ-n) - tobacco [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-nu (naⁿnú), noⁿ-nu (noⁿnú), naⁿ-ni (naⁿní), na-nu (nanú) - tobacco [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-ni hi (nini hi) - any kind of tobacco; tobacco plant [Omaha]; noⁿ-ni-hi (noⁿ-n-hi) - tobacco; white mans tobacco; trade tobacco; archaic Osage name for plants used for smoking [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-nu-hu (nąnhu) - tobacco [CQ-Osage]

 

tobacco pouch

ta-ni o-zhi-ha (tni iha) - tobacco pouch [JOD]

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; o-zhi-ha (iha) - pouch, sack, bag, pocket; o-zhi (o) - put collection into something, fill; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

Dhegiha: ni-ni u-zhi-ha (nnijiha) - tobacco pouch [Omaha/Ponca]; ni-ni u-zhi-ha (nini uzhiha) - tobacco pouch [Omaha]; noⁿ-nu-zhi-ha (noⁿ-n-zhi-ha) - a tobacco pouch [FL-Osage]

naⁿ-nu-hu o-zhu-ha (nąnhuoohaa), naⁿ-ni o-zhu-ha (nąniouhaa) - tobacco bag [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-nu o-zhu-ha (naⁿnú ozhuha) - tobacco pouch, originally of skunk skin [Kaw]

 

tobacco smoke

ta-ni sho-te (tan tte) - tobacco smoke [AB, OM]

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; sho-te (tte) - smoke

 

tobacco, mix with tobacco

ta-ni-ka-hi (tankahi) - sumac, lit. mix with tobacco

ta-ni-ka-hi (tankahi) - kinnikinnick [ASG]

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; i-ka-hi (kahi) - mixed with, to mix ingredients

Dhegiha: ni-ni-ga-hi (ni-n-ga-hi) - kinnikkinnick; a leaf mixed with tobacco [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-nu-hu i-ki-a-hiⁿ (nąnhu kiahį) - plant to mix with tobacco (a small, sweet-smelling plant with yellow flowers that is mixed with tobacco; apparently lit., mix into tobacco [CQ-Osage]; naⁿ-nu- i-ga-hi (naⁿnú ígahi) - to mix tobacco, to make kinnikinnick; kinnikinnick [Kaw]

 

tobacco, twisted tobacco

ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. twisted tobacco

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands

Dhegiha: naⁿ-nu be-bliⁿ (naⁿn bbliⁿ) - cigar, twisted tobacco, a reference to how cigars are made [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-ni (nin) - tobacco [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ni (nini) - tobacco; cigarette; cigar [Omaha]; noⁿ-ni-hi (noⁿ-n-hi) - tobacco [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-nu-hu (nąnhu) - tobacco; naⁿ-nu (naⁿnú), noⁿ-nu (noⁿnú), naⁿ-ni (naⁿní), na-nu (nanú) - tobacco [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-be-bthiⁿ (thibbthiⁿ) - to twist in the hands; to twist, as yarn, with a wheel; to make warp [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-be-bthiⁿ (thi-b-bthiⁿ) - to twist [FL-Osage]; yu-be-bliⁿ (yubbliⁿ) - twist something coarse with the hands, as a cord or rope [Kaw]

 

today

hoⁿ-ba de (h̨bade) - today, this day

haⁿ-ba de (h̨ba de) - today [AB, OM]

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; de (de) - this, now

ex: haⁿ-pa de, aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨pa d, ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am tired of it! [JOD]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba the (oⁿbthe) - today, this day [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-ba the (hⁿ-ba the) - today [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-pa the (h̨ǫpa ), haⁿ-pa the (h̨ąpa ) - today, lit., this day [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ba ye (hⁿbaye) - today, this day [Kaw]

 

 

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