English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

thrust and cause a cracking sound

po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting po-a-to-zhe (patte) - I, po-da-to-zhe (pdatte) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

thrust and cause a popping sound

po-ta-zhe (pttae) - thrust and cause popping sound po-a-ta-zhe (patte) - I, po-da-ta-zhe (pdatte) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-ta-zhe (batte) - to make a popping sound from pushing; bi-ta-zhe (bitte) - popping sound from pressing; da-ta-zhe (datte) - make popping sound with mouth; di-ta-zhe (ditte) - snap the fingers; ka-ta-zhe (katte), ga-ta-zhe (gatte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-pe ka-ta-zhe (nąpe katte) - clap the hands; naⁿ-ta-zhe (nątte) - pop by stepping on; ta-ta-zhe (tttae) - to make a popping sound, as wood in a fire

 

thrust the hand of fingers into

o-di-zhiⁿ-te (odįtte) - to thrust the hand of fingers into

o-di-zhiⁿ-te (odįtt) - stick something into something o-bdi-zhiⁿ-te (obdįtte) - I, o-ti-zhiⁿ-te (ottįtte) - you

ex: aⁿ-di-zhiⁿ-te (ądiįtt) - he thrust his hand/finger into my [JOD]

ex: o-di-zhiⁿ-te (odįtte) - he thrust his hand/or fingers into [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-zhiⁿ-de (thizhⁿde) - to thrust the hand down into a hole, to pull out a raccoon, etc.; to reach down the arm or hand into a kettle, bucket, or bag [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-zhiⁿ-dse (thi-zhⁿ-dse) - to thrust a finger or arm into a hole [FL-Osage]; yu-zhiⁿ-je (yuzhíⁿje) - reach into something; to thrust the hand or arm into a hole to draw out a raccoon, etc.; to reach down with the hand into a bag, kettle, pot, etc. [Kaw]

 

thrust, cause to bleed from a thrust

po-wa-paiⁿ (pwappą) - bleed from a thrust, cause to po-a-wa-paiⁿ (powappą) - I, po-da-wa-paiⁿ (pdawappą) - you]

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; wa-paiⁿ (wappą) - blood

ba-wa-paiⁿ (bawappą) - prick and cause to bleed; ka-wa-paiⁿ kawappą) - cut, slash and cause to bleed; naⁿ-wa-paiⁿ (nąwappą) - bleed, cause by kicking; pa-wa-paiⁿ (pwappaį) - bleed someone with a knife

 

thrusting, break by thrusting

ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting pa-ba-xe (ppbaγe) - I, shpa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: ba-ba-xe (b-ba-xe) - to cut a cord or rope with a knife [FL-Osage]; ba-ba-ghe (babghe) - push apart, pull apart, to break a cord, etc. with the point of a knife or stick pushed firmly against it [Kaw]

 

thrusting, make top heavy by thrusting at

po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at po-a-shoⁿ-da-da (poǫdad) - I, po-da-shoⁿ-da-da (pdaǫdad) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]

 

thrusting, miss in shooting or thrusting

po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting po-a-knoⁿ-da (pakn̨da) - I, po-da-knoⁿ-da (pdakn̨da) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive

Dhegiha: bo-gthoⁿ-tha (b-gthoⁿ-tha) - to miss a mark [FL-Osage]; bo-laⁿ-ya (blaⁿya) - miss in shooting punching, or blowing; make a mistake in shooting, punching, or blowing with the mouth [Kaw]; bu-laⁿ-ya (bulⁿya) - miss while trying to jump upon, to press down on an object, as a rabbit, which suddenly jumps aside, going beyond the effect of the pressure [Kaw]

 

thrusting, miss when thrusting at

ba-knoⁿ-da (bakn̨da) - miss when thrusting at pa-knoⁿ-da (ppknǫda) - I, shpa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; bi-knoⁿ-da (bikn̨da) - miss, slip from under; da-knoⁿ-da (dakn̨da) - snap at and miss; di-kdoⁿ-da (dikd̨da) - fumble, let slip, fail to hold; ka-knoⁿ-da (kakn̨da) - fail in hitting at something; naⁿ-knoⁿ-da (nąkn̨da) - kick at and be evaded; pa-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss cutting something elusive; po-knoⁿ-da (pknǫda) - miss in shooting or thrusting

Dhegiha: ba-gthoⁿ-tha (bagthⁿtha) - to push on an object and miss doing what was intended, to thrust at a foe and miss him because of dodging [Omaha/Ponca]

 

thumb

naⁿ-pe o-zo-taⁿ-ka (nąp zott̨ka) - thumb

cf. naⁿ-pe o-za (nąp oz) - fingers; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: noⁿ-be hi u-toⁿ-ga (noⁿbe hi utoⁿga) - thumb [Omaha]; noⁿ-be hi u-ʰtoⁿ-ga (noⁿ-be hi u-ṭoⁿ-ga) - thumb [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-bo-taⁿ-ga (naⁿbótáⁿga), noⁿ-bo-taⁿ-ga (noⁿbótaⁿga) - thumb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sha-ge u-ʰtoⁿ-ga tse (sh-ge u-ṭoⁿ-ga tse) - thumb, the large finger [FL-Osage]; sha-ge o-taⁿ-ga (sháge otáⁿga), sha-ge taⁿ-ga (sháge táⁿga) - thumb, lit. the big finger [Kaw]

 

thumb, to flip with forefinger and thumb

po-ta-xe (pttaγe) - to flip, with forefinger/thumb po-a-ta-xe (poattaγe) - I, po-da-ta-xe (pdattaγe) - you

Dhegiha: bo-da-ghe (bdaghe) - flip [Kaw]

 

thump, drum or thump as on a door

ba-ko-ke (bakkke) - drum, thump as on a door pa-ko-ke (ppkkoke) - I, shpa-ko-ke (pkkoke) - you

cf. bi-ko-ke (bikkke) - drum on something with palm; ga-ko-ke (gkkoke) - pound; ka-ko-ke (kakkke) - beat a drum; naⁿ-ko-ke (nąkkke) - drum on ground or floor with feet; po-ko-ke (pkkoke) - rumbling from shooting against

Dhegiha: ku-ge (kge) - box, drum [Omaha]; ʰku-ge (ḳu-g) - sound of a drum when beaten [FL-Osage]; ko-ge (kog) - hollow sound, like a drum; make a hollow sound [Kaw]

 

thump, make a dull sound

ka-xa-xa-da (kaxxada) - thump, make a dull sound a-xa-xa-da (xaxada) - I, da-xa-xa-da (dxaxada) - you

cf. di-xa-xa-da (dixxada) - clatter, noise of planks; ka-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

 

thump, stomp, trample, with feet

naⁿ-ta-xe (nąttxe) - stomp, trample, thump with feet a-naⁿ-ta-xe (an̨taxe) - I, da-naⁿ-ta-xe (dan̨ttaxe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

thunder

di-to-to-xi (dittttoxi) - one of the sounds of thunder

cf. di-to-xi (dittxi) - discharge, make a bang; ba-to-xi (battxi) - burst by punching, pushing; bi-to-xi (bittxi) - burst from pressure/weight; ka-to-xi (kattxi) - burst, break open; naⁿ-to-xi (nąttxi) - step on and burst something; po-to-xi (pttoxi) - burst from a shot or punch; ni po-to-xe (nippttoxe) - soda pop, exploding water; ta-to-xi (tttoxi) - to cause burst by burning

Dhegiha: thi-tʰu-xi (thitʰqi) - to make a crackling sound by pulling [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-ni (kan), ka-niⁿ (kanį) - thunder

ka-ni (kan) - thunder [MS]

ex: ka-ni zhi-ka (kan ik) - masculine name, Little Thunder (not, Thunder-being); kahike stete (kahke sttte) Tall Chief or Lewis Angel, is a chief or ka-hi-ke (kahke) as well as the principal wa-pi-na (wappna) of the tribe, his subordinate wa-pi-na (wappna) is one of two Kwapa men known as naⁿ-ka to (n̨kka tto) or Green Back, the other being ka-ni zhi-ka (kan ka) or Little Thunder [JOD]

ex: ka-ni zhiⁿ-ka (kan įka) - distant thunder; little thunder [OM]

Dhegiha: u-ga-thiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - said of the roar of thunder; a continuous roar of thunder [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-ni-ni (kanni), ka-niⁿ-niⁿ (kanįn̨), ga-ni-ni (ganin) - thunder

ga-ni-ni (gańni) - thunder [ASG]

ex: ga-ni-ni niⁿ (gańnni) - it thunders [ASG]

Dhegiha: u-ga-thiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - said of the roar of thunder; a continuous roar of thunder [Omaha/Ponca]

 

taⁿ-naⁿ (tąn̨) - thunder, the Kwapa have persons named after the taⁿ-naⁿ (tąn̨), i.e. Thunder People who make their abode in the upper world [JOD]

taⁿ-naⁿ (ton-no) - thunder (tonnerre) [GI]

taⁿ-naⁿ (tnne) - lightning [ASG]

ex: taⁿ-naⁿ zhi-ka (tąn̨ ik) - Little Thunder Person or Little Thunder Being, masculine name [JOD]

cf. taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion, cougar; taⁿ-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (tt̨ną tt̨ka), taⁿ-daⁿ taⁿ-ka (tt̨dą tt̨ka) - mountain lion, puma; iⁿ-taⁿ-daⁿ (įtt̨dą) - panther, puma, mountain lion, cougar; iⁿ-ta-naⁿ taⁿ-ka (įttną tt̨ka) - mountain lion, panther, cougar, puma

 

taⁿ-naⁿ (tąn̨) - masculine name, Levi Goodeagles name [JOD, FR]

cf. taⁿ-naⁿ (tąn̨) - thunder; taⁿ-daⁿ (ttąd̨) - panther, puma, mountain lion, cougar

 

taⁿ-naⁿ haⁿ-ka (tąn̨ h̨ka), taⁿ-daⁿ haⁿ-ka (ttąd̨ h̨ka) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. taⁿ-naⁿ (tąn̨) - thunder; haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - sacred, holy, ancestral or first

 

Thunder Being

wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - Thunder-Being, masculine name of the Kwapa wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) or Thunder-being gens [JOD]

wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

Thunder Being gens (clan)

wa-kaⁿ-ta e-ni-ʰka-shi-ka (wakk̨tta nikkaka) - the Thunder Being gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere, identical to ma-xe ni-ʰka-shi-ka (mxe nkkaka) - Upper World people, obtained from George Redeagle and Buffalo Calf [JOD]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural; e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - person, people, a man, men

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

thunder, Cold Thunder Being

sni-hi wa-kaⁿ-ta (snihi wakk̨tta) - Cold Thunder Being, masculine name [JOD]

cf. sni (sni) - cold, to be cold; hi (hi) - very; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: sni (s͓ni) - cold, cool [JOD-Omaha]; zni (zni) - cold, cool [Omaha/Ponca]; sni (ni) - cold, cool [Omaha]; hni (hni), sni (n) - cold, cool [FL-Osage]; hni (hn) - cold [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

thunder, Eagle Thunder Being

xi-da wa-kaⁿ-ta (xid wakk̨tta) - Eagle Thunder Being, masculine name [JOD]

cf. xi-da (xid) - eagle; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: xi-tha (qith) - eagle [Omaha/Ponca]; xi-tha (xith) - eagle [Omaha]; xi-tha (xi-tha), xiu-tha (xiu-th), xu-tha (xu-th) - eagle, golden eagle, the golden eagle figures in the Osage rites as a symbol of courage, the black on the tips of its tail feathers represents fire and charcoal [FL-Osage]; xu-tha (xa), xi-tha (xa) - eagle [CQ-Osage]; xu-ya (xuy) - the large white or golden eagle, in this class are four or five other birds [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

thunder, Little or Distant Thunder

ka-ni zhi-ka (kan ik) - masculine name, Little Thunder (not, Thunder-being); kahike stete (kahke sttte) Tall Chief or Lewis Angel, is a chief or ka-hi-ke (kahke) as well as the principal wa-pi-na (wappna) of the tribe, his subordinate wa-pi-na (wappna) is one of two Kwapa men known as naⁿ-ka to (n̨kka tto) or Green Back, the other being ka-ni zhi-ka (kan ka) or Little Thunder [JOD]

ka-ni zhiⁿ-ka (kan įka) - distant thunder; little thunder [OM]

cf. ka-ni (kan), ka-niⁿ (kanį) - thunder; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: u-ga-thiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - said of the roar of thunder; a continuous roar of thunder [Omaha/Ponca]

 

knoⁿ zhi-ka (knǫ ike) - little thunder, distant thunder

ka-noⁿ-zhi-ka (kanǫke) - distant thunder

Dhegiha: gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - thunder; Thunder Diety [FL-Osage]; loⁿ (l̨ǫ) - thunder [CQ-Osage]; lo (lo) - thunder [Kaw]

 

thunder, Little Thunder Being or Person

taⁿ-naⁿ zhi-ka (tąn̨ ik) - Little Thunder Person or Little Thunder Being, masculine name [JOD]

cf. taⁿ-naⁿ (tąn̨) - thunder; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ (iⁿgthⁿ) - the thundergod: thunderbirds etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; gthoⁿ (gthoⁿ) - thunder deity [FL-Osage]; loⁿ (lǫǫ) - thunder [CQ-Osage]; lo (lo) - thunder, thunder god [Kaw]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthoⁿ-ga (iⁿgthⁿga) - the cougar, puma, or panther [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ-ga (iⁿgthⁿga) - cat; wild cat [Omaha]; iⁿ-gthoⁿ-ga (iⁿ-gthⁿ-ga) - puma [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-loⁿ-ka (il̨ǫka) - wildcat [CQ-Osage]

 

thunder, Loud Rolling Thunder

ka-ni taⁿ-ka (kan tt̨ka) - rolling thunder; loud, hard thunder, also personal name of Charles Goodeagle [FR, OM]

ka-ni taⁿ-ka (kan tt̨ka) - masculine name [JOD]

ka-niⁿ taⁿ-ka (kanį tt̨ka) - loud rolling thunder

cf. ka-ni (kan), ka-niⁿ (kanį) - thunder; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: u-ga-thiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - said of the roar of thunder; a continuous roar of thunder [Omaha/Ponca]

 

thunder, Rain Thunder Being

ni-zhi wa-kaⁿ-ta (ni wakk̨tta) - Rain Thunder Being, masculine name [JOD]

cf. ni-zhi (ni) - rain; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

Dhegiha: na-zhiⁿ (nazhiⁿ) - rain, to rain [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-zhiⁿ (noⁿzhiⁿ) - rain [Omaha]; na-zhiⁿ (na-jⁿ) - to rain, rain [JOD-Omaha]; ni-zhiu (ni-zhi), ni-zhu (ni-zhu) - rain [FL-Osage]; ni-zhu (niu) - rain, to rain [CQ-Osage]; ni-zhu (nizh), nu-zhu (nuzh) - rain; to rain [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

thunder, The Thunder Being Passed on or Advanced

wa-ʰkaⁿ-ʰta tʰi-de (wakk̨tta tʰid) - The Thunder Being Passed On; The Thunder Being Advanced

masculine name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) or Bird gens; the first name of Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by; come forth at birth; to begin suddenly

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰi-the (ti-) - pass; to begin, commence, or start suddenly; to come forth, as an infant at birth [JOD-Omaha]; tsi-the (tsi-the), ʰtsi-e (ṭsi-e) - passing by [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-the (ṭsi-th) - he hastened, he began, denoting sudden action [FL-Osage]; chi-ye (chiy) - suddenly, action in this direction [Kaw]

 

thunder, Thunder Being Chief

wa-kaⁿ-ta ka-hi-ke (wakk̨tta kahke) - Thunder-Being Chief, masculine name of the Kwapa oⁿ-pʰoⁿ (̨pʰǫ) or Elk gens; a name of John Medicine, as told by him, Dec. 20, 1890. His other name was oⁿ-pʰoⁿ wa-ʰkaⁿ-ʰta (̨pʰǫ wakk̨tta). He belongs to the o-ka-xpa xti (okxpa xti) or Real Kwapa village or phratry of the tribe [JOD]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural; ka-hi-ke (kahke) - chief

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

thunder, Young Thunder Being

wa-kaⁿ-ta zhi-ka (wakk̨tta ka) - Young Thunder Being, masculine name of the Kwapa wa-ʰkaⁿ-ʰta (wakk̨tta) Thunder Beings gens [JOD]

cf. wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - spirit, God, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Power, personal name [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - Thunder God, male name [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-koⁿ-da (wakoⁿda) - God [Omaha]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - God, the wonderful or mysterious power [JOD-Omaha]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-da (wa-ḳⁿ-da) - God; the name applied by the Osage to the mysterious, invisible, creative power which brings into existence all living things of whatever kind [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰkoⁿ-ta (waʰk̨ta) - God [CQ-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-da (wakⁿda) - god [Kaw]

 

Thursday

shka-te haⁿ-ba (ktte h̨ba) - Thursday, lit. play day

shka-te haⁿ-ba (ktte h̨ba) - Thursday [MS]

cf. shka-te (ktte) - play; haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime

 

thus, accordingly, in that way, then, therefore, so

koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), (kįtta), (kiǫttą) - so, thus, accordingly, in that way, then, therefore

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, a-shi-ti hi, i-ya, wa-sa niⁿ (kįttą, itti h, iy, was nį) - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

 

thus, always this

de shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (de ǫkid) - this always, thus [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide), shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide) - always, ever, never

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (hǫ, wttek, de ǫkid) - no, uncle (my mothers brother), it is always thus [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿ-shoⁿ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (̨ǫwe) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

 

thus, are you thus

she-tʰe-k̨ (tʰek̨) - are you thus [JOD]

cf. she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate; she () - that; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect; e-koⁿ (ek̨), (kǫ), e-kaⁿ (ek̨), (eką), a-kaⁿ (ką) - so, like, as, thus, like that

ex: haⁿ-tʰaⁿ she-tʰe-k̨ (h̨tʰą tʰek̨) - why are you thus? [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-tʰe-goⁿ (shtʰegoⁿ) - like that visible standing inanimate object or collection of inanimate objects [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: she-goⁿ (shgoⁿ) - of that sort or kind; to do that [Omaha/Ponca]; she-goⁿ (sh-goⁿ) - that kind or sort [FL-Osage]

 

thus, like that, so, like, as

e-koⁿ (ek̨), (kǫ), e-kaⁿ (ek̨), (eką), a-kaⁿ (ką) - so, like, as, thus, like that

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ, te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya (ę i ek̨, tʔdidawĕ, iy nį, iy) - then you went and thus, they killed you, she was saying, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ i-ke taⁿ, (ę ek̨ ik tą,) - and when he had thus spoken, [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

 

tibia

hi-naⁿ-pe-hi wa-hi (hinąpphi wah) - tibia

cf. hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg, trunk; wa-hi (wah) - bone

Dhegiha: noⁿ-xpe-hi (noⁿxpehi) - shin [Omaha]; noⁿ-xpe-hi (nⁿ-xpe-hi) - that part of the leg between the knee and the ankle; the shin [FL-Osage]; na-xpe-hu (náxpehu) - shin; tibia and fibula (the two bones of the lower leg) [Kaw]; na-xpe (náxpe) - leg below the knee, lower leg; spit to hold meat over a flame [Kaw]

 

tick (insect)

ta-da-zi-pa (ttdazppa) - tick (insect)

ta-da-zi-pa (ttdazppa) - tick (insect) [MS]

Dhegiha: ta-tha-za-pʰa (tthazpʰa) - a wood-tick [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-tha-za-pʰa (ṭ-tha-a-pa) - a wood tick [FL-Osage]; ta-ze-pa (tázepá) - tick [Kaw]

 

tickle and make laugh

di-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨da) - tickle and make laugh bdi-shiⁿ-da (bdʔįda) - I, ti-shiⁿ-da (ttʔįda) - you

cf. shi-we di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (we diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs; di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs repeatedly; di-xi-xi-da (dixʔxʔida) - scratch an itch

Dhegiha: thi-i-i-tha (thiitha) - tickle, to tickle someone [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be thi-i-tha (shbe thi tha) - tickle [Omaha]; thi-ʰki-tha (thi-ḳ-tha) - to tickle [FL-Osage]; thi-ki-the (ikʔe) - scratch, tickle [CQ-Osage]; yu-ki-ki-ya (yukkiya) - scratch an itch repeatedly, to tickle [Kaw]; yu-ki-ya (yukya) - scratch an itch once [Kaw]

 

tickle the ribs

shi-we di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (we diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs

cf. shi-we (we), shiu-we (́we), shu-we (we) - guts, entrails; di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs repeatedly

Dhegiha: shi-be thi-i-i-tha (cibe iiia) - to tickle him in the ribs [JOD-Omaha]; shi-be thi-i-tha (shbe thi tha) - tickle [Omaha]

Dhegiha: shi-be (shbe) - entrails, intestines, guts, innards [Omaha/Ponca]; shi-be (shbe) - bowels, intestines [Omaha]; shi-be (c-be) - the entrails [JOD-Omaha]; shi-be (sh-be), shiu-be (shi-be), shu-be (sh-be) - entrails, the viscera, intestines [FL-Osage]; shu-pe (pe) - intestines, appendix, colon, entrails, insides, stomach area, stomach [CQ-Osage]; shu-we (shwe), shu-be (shbe) - guts, intestines, entrails [Kaw]

 

tickle the ribs repeatedly

di-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨ʔįda) - tickle the ribs repeatedly bdi-shiⁿ-shiⁿ-da (bdʔįʔįda) - I, ti-shiⁿ- shiⁿ-da (ttʔįʔįda) - you

cf. di-shiⁿ-da (diʔ̨da) - tickle and make laugh; di-xi-xi-da (dixʔxʔida) - scratch an itch

Dhegiha: thi-i-i-tha (i---a) - to tickle another [JOD-Omaha]; yu-ki-ki-ya (yukkiya) - scratch an itch repeatedly, to tickle [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-ki-tha (thi-ḳ-tha) - to tickle [FL-Osage]; thi-ki-the (ikʔe) - scratch; tickle [CQ-Osage]; yu-ki-ya (yukíya) - scratch an itch once [Kaw]

 

tie a knot

a-ka-shke (kake) - tie a knot a-a-ka-shke (akake) - I, a-da-ka-shke (dakake) - you, aⁿ-ko-ka-shke (ąkkak) - we, I and one other

cf. iⁿ-kʰe de-di ka-shke (įkʰ ddi kak) - tie for fastening a robe; di-shke (dik) - untie, loosen, open; o-kda-shke (okdke) - to tie/fasten ones own [JOD]

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ e-ti a-ka-shke (ppidttą tti kake) - he tied it on/to his belt [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ko-ka-shke (ąkkak) - we (dual) fastened it [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: a-ki-ka-shka-i (kikaki) - he fastened his own to it [JOD]

ex: i-pi-da-taⁿ-ti a-ki-ka-shka-i taⁿ o-zha tʰe tʰi-de (ppidttątt kikaki tą a tʰe tʰid) - he fastened it (his own) to his belt and began dancing [JOD]

ex: ma-te aⁿ-ko-kda-shka taⁿ shi-a-pe aⁿ-ka-de (mątt ąkkdak tą ipe ąkde) - we (dual) tied up our canoe and went ashore [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ga-shke (-ga-cke) - to button, to tie a knot [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-shke (gashke) - buckle, button, pin [Omaha]; a-ga-shke (-ga-shke) - to tie a knot, to tie a scalp lock on a pole [FL-Osage]; a-ka-shke (kake) - tie to something, tie up (as a horse), tie a knot [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-shke (gashke) - tie something, tie on, to tie a knot [Kaw]

 

tie for fastening a robe

iⁿ-kʰe de-di ka-shke (įkʰ ddi kak) - tie for fastening a robe

cf. iⁿ-kʰe-te (įkʰtte) - shoulder; di (di) - cause by using the hands; general causative; a-ka-shke (kake) - tie a knot

Dhegiha: iⁿ-kshe-dse a-ga-shke (iⁿ-ksh-dse a-ga-shke) - the stick used as a pin for fastening the blanket at the shoulder [FL-Osage]; i-khe-je ga-shke (ikhje gashk) - tie used to fasten a robe around the shoulders [Kaw]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-ke-de (iⁿkde) - shoulder [Omaha]; iⁿ-ke-de (i-k-de) - a shoulder [JOD-Omaha]; iⁿ-kshe-de (iⁿ-ksh-de) - shoulder [FL-Osage]; i-khe-je (ikhéje) - the two parts of a tent that are fastened together with small pieces of rope; the two parts of a shirt or coat that are fastened together with buttons; shoulder (less common term) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-ga-shke (gashke) - buckle, button, pin [Omaha]; a-ga-shke (-ga-cke) - to button; to tie a knot [JOD-Omaha]; a-ga-shke (-ga-shke) - to tie a knot, to tie a scalp lock on a pole [FL-Osage]; a-ka-shke (kake) - tie to something, tie up, tie a knot [CQ-Osage]; a-ga-shke (gashke) - tie something, tie on, to tie a knot [Kaw]

 

tie in a knot

a-di-ka-se-de (dikʔsede) - tie in a knot

cf. a-di-ka-se-de ni-ke (dikʔsede nik) - knot, a hard knot

 

tie tightly leaving mark or dent

di-ski-ta (disktta) - dent, tie tightly leaving mark bdi-ski-ta (bdskitta) - I, ti-ski-ta (ttskitta) - you

Dhegiha: thi-sku-da (thiskda) - mark by tying or drawing rope over, to mark across the grain by tying or drawing a rope over the surface [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ski-da (thi-k-da) - to tie something tightly, to make an indention [FL-Osage]; yu-ski-da (yuskda) - mark, make a mark with the hands, to make a groove or depression in a bag, or a mark on the leg of a person or animal by tying it very tightly [Kaw]

 

tie, necktie

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace, necktie, neckerchief

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - necklace [MS]

wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wŭ nŭ ī) - medicine necklace [MH]

wa-naⁿ-ⁿ (wan̨ʔį) - beads, something worn around the neck [MS, OM]

cf. naⁿ-iⁿ (nąʔ̨) - wear around the neck

ex: ma-ze-ska ka-sta wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (mazska ksta wan̨ʔį) - silver breast ornament (gorget), from Harrison Quapaw [MH]

ex: to-te wa-na-iⁿ (ttte wan̨ʔį) - necklace

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ a-ba-tʰe (wan̨ʔį abtʰe) - necklace made of beadwork that is sewed on

ex: wa-naⁿ-iⁿ si zhi-ka (wan̨ʔį sik) - small beads

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka sha-ke to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ke ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds claw necklace

Dhegiha: wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, mans necklace; something worn around a mans neck [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wanoⁿpiⁿ) - choker, necklace, necktie [Omaha]; wa-noⁿ-ʰpiⁿ (wa-noⁿ-p̣iⁿ) - necklace, these were made of shells, nuts of trees, elk teeth, pendants were made of mussel shells also, this is also applied to the symbolic neck ornament, gorget [FL-Osage]; wa-noⁿ-piⁿ (wan̨pʔį) - necklace, gorget, choker, medallion, medal, something worn around the neck [CQ-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-piⁿ (wanⁿpiⁿ) - necklace, a general word used for all ornaments [Kaw]

 

till, cooked till done

ti-te (titt) - cooked till done [JOD]

ti-te (ttte) - ripe, cooked

cf. ti-te-de (tttede) - cook something; wa-ti-te (wattte) - mush, boiled until done

ex: o-ki-hoⁿ ti-te naⁿ wa-naⁿ-bde niⁿ-kʰe (kihǫ ttte ną wan̨bde nįkʰ) - when done boiling/cooking, he ate [JOD]

ex: ti-te-ki-de naⁿ kda-ta-we (tttekde ną kdatwe) - when it was done, they ate it (their own) [JOD]

ex: o-ki-haⁿ naⁿ ti-te-ki-de naⁿ kda-ta-we (okhą ną tttekde ną kdatwe) - she boiled/cooked (her own food), when she had cooked it, they ate it (their own) [JOD]

ex: ti-te-ki-de (tttekid) - she caused her own to be done [JOD]

ex: ti-te-ki-da-zhi (tttekidi) - she had not caused it to be done [JOD]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-de (nⁿ-de) - cooked till done, as food; burnt or frozen, as parts of the body or the face, by exposure to heat or cold; blistered, as by a mustard plaster or fly blister [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ-de (niⁿ-de) - ripe, cooked [Omaha]; niⁿ-je (níⁿje) - cooked [Kaw]

Dhegiha: dsi-dse (dsi-dse) - ripe; mature; as applied to fruit or grain [FL-Osage]; dsu-dse (ds-dse) - mellow; softened with ripeness; cooked well done [FL-Osage]; tsu-tse (cuce) - done; cooked; ripe, mellow, mature; cook well done [CQ-Osage]; ju-je (júje) - cooked, done, as when fully cooked; burned, blistered [Kaw]

 

till, plow

we (we) - plow, till [JOD]

ex: wa-we (wwe) - they tilled the ground [JOD]

Dhegiha: we (we) - to plow [FL-Osage]; we (we) - plow, to plow [Kaw]

 

till, until

shoⁿ-hi (̨hi) - till, until [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-mi-zhi-ka taⁿ-hi a-hi-bda shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-naⁿ-haⁿ (ąmik tąh ahbda ̨hi ̨nąh̨) - though/when I was a young girl, I bathed (in the creek/river) until I was grown [JOD]

 

timbers, cross timbers of house

sa-ti o-kdaⁿ oⁿ-he (stti kdą ǫh) - joists, cross timbers of house

cf. sa-ti o-kdaⁿ (stti kdą), sa-ti o-knaⁿ (stti kną) - ceiling of a house; rafter; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put into; oⁿ-he (ǫh) - lay sg/ly/in inside something, put

 

time when

na (na), naⁿ (ną) - when, time when

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - past sign, when, past act [JOD]

ex: de naⁿ (de ną) - went/when [JOD]

ex: de naⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ zho-kde de, i-ya (de ną mat̨ke nį okd de, iy) - he departed, accompanied by the Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: de naⁿ wa-koⁿ-da naⁿ (d-ną wkkǫd) - went/when/he attacked them [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-ti de naⁿ wa-koⁿ-da naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ę tti d-ną wkkǫd-ną iy mat̨ke) - then Rabbit went there and attacked the game, it is said [JOD]

ex: ti-te-de naⁿ (tttede-n̨) - caused to be cooked/when [JOD]

ex: ti-te-de naⁿ o-zhi o-ki-zhi tʰaⁿ i-ya, ni-ka-shi-ka zho tʰe (tttede-n̨ i kii tʰą iy, nkkaka tʰe) - when it was done, she filled the bowl for him (Rabbit) with the human flesh [JOD]

ex: o-naⁿ-bde kda-sniⁿ naⁿ (nąbde kdasn̨ ną) - food/he devoured/when [JOD]

ex: o-naⁿ-bde kda-sniⁿ naⁿ, shi-naⁿ ta-bde de ta-we, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (nąbde kdasn̨ ną, ną tbde d ttaw, iy iy sniwtte) - when all the food had been consumed, it is said that Winter spoke of going hunting again [JOD]

ex: wa-koⁿ-da naⁿ (wkkǫd ną) - then he attacked them/when [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ wa-koⁿ-da naⁿ te miⁿ te-de naⁿ, i-ya (ę wkkǫd ną tt mį tʔde ną, iy) - then when he (Rabbit) attacked the game, he killed a buffalo, it is said [JOD]

ex: kʰi-naⁿ (kʰ-ną) - reached home/when [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kʰi-naⁿ, o-wa-hoⁿ, i-ya (nkkaka nikʰ wakʔ̨ kʰ-ną, wahǫ, iy) - when he (Winter) returned to his home carrying the Indians, she (Winters wife) cooked them, it is said [JOD]

ex: ka-xe naⁿ (kγe ną) - made/when [JOD]

ex: sni-wa-te shi-naⁿ sni-wa-te hi ka-xe naⁿ, shi-naⁿ de, i-ya (sniwtte ną sniwtte h kγe ną, ną d, iy) - Winter made it very cold again and again departed, it is said [JOD]

 

time, a long time ago

ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago

cf. ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

 

ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]

jhi-aⁿ-hi (jhįhi), zhoⁿ-hi (ǫ́h) - longtime [OM]

cf. ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi ki-zhi i-ya ma-shti-ke (ek̨ n̨kʰtti ttįhi ki iy mat̨ke) - rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ-miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

 

ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

cf. ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti taⁿ (ttįtti tą) - in the olden times/when [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-ti e-koⁿ pa naⁿ i-ya-we (ttiątt ek̨ p ną iywe) - in the olden times they were like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, ti-aⁿ-ti we-da-niⁿ pa naⁿ (kiǫ p ną, ttįtti wdanį p ną) - that is how they did/were, in the olden times thats how they dressed [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-tʰoⁿ-thi--di (itʰⁿthidi) - of old, in olden times [Omaha/Ponca]

 

time, a short time ago

di-o-za (diza) - just now, a short time ago

di-o-za (diza) - in a little while; a little while ago [JOD]

ex: di-e-taⁿ di-o-za te-da-de tʰe ho-taⁿ ni-tʰe, i-yi i-ya (dettą diza tʔdad tʰe httą nitʰ, iy iy) - it would be good if it had been you that had recently killed it, it is said she said (The words of the old woman are not to be taken literally. Even though she doubted him, she was proud of what the rabbit said he had done and was praising him.  Though he was deformed, he had done what should have been done long ago by others.) [JOD]

ex: di-o-za hi (diza h) - in a little while/very [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha di-o-za hi o-xde (n̨a diza h oxd) - then in a very short time he overtook her [JOD]

 

o-di-o-za (diza) - in a little while [JOD]

ex: o-di-o-za hi (odiza h) - in a little while/very [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: bdo-ka o-di-o-za hi o-wa-xde (bdok odiza h waxde) - in a very short time, he overtook the entire group [JOD]

 

time, after some time

e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eǫh nąh̨ ik h t̨ ną) - then, after some time, she grew a little larger (a little older) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-kniⁿ (kįttą eǫh ąkn̨) - then after awhile we camped [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: ni o-ha naⁿ kde e-shoⁿ-hi ki, i-ya-we (n oh ną kd ǫhi k, iywe) - she followed the course of the stream/water heading home, after some time she reached home, they say [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de, iywe) - then, after he had sought him for some time, he found him, they said [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-ni-kʰa (ǫ-nikʰ) - after they had been so awhile [JOD]

cf. ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫ-n̨) - as she moved, after he ran awhile, after he moved awhile [JOD]

cf. niⁿ (nį) - 3rd person singular, he or she continuative moving; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de, iywe) - then, after he had sought him for some time, he found him, they said [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨-nįkʰ) - after sitting awhile

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

ex: e-ti da-tʰe shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-niⁿ da-we (tti datʰ ̨-nįkʰ tt̨nį dwe) - he sat there eating while they ran away [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-tʰaⁿ (ǫ-tʰ̨) - after he stood awhile [JOD]

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing one; the standing object [JOD]

 

time, all the time

a-tʰaⁿ-tʰe bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdok) - forever, all the time

cf. a-tʰaⁿ (atʰ̨) - when [JOD]; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect; bdo-ka (bdka) - entire, whole, circular, round

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-tʰe bdo-ka (atʰ̨tte bdka) - when/the/entire [JOD]

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-tʰe bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ niⁿ-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time [JOD]

 

shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide), shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide) - always, ever, never

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (hǫ, wttek, de ǫkid) - no, uncle (my mothers brother), it is always thus [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿ-shoⁿ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (̨ǫwe) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

 

shtaⁿ (tą) - habitual aspect suffix

ex: wa-maⁿ-da-shtaⁿ (wam̨dat̨) - thief, who steals habitually

ex: i-ye-shtaⁿ (yet̨) - talker, loquacious person

ex: ha-te shtaⁿ (hątʔ tą) - sickly [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

Dhegiha: shtoⁿ (shtoⁿ) - habitually [Omaha/Ponca]; shtoⁿ (shtoⁿ) - habitually [Omaha]; shtoⁿ (shtoⁿ) - in the habit of, habitually, constantly [FL-Osage]; shtaⁿ (tą) - all the time, incessantly, always, a lot, constantly, continuously, keep on doing something [CQ-Osage]; shtaⁿ (shtaⁿ) - habitual aspect suffix or postclitic [Kaw]

 

naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ), ʰnaⁿ (ʰną) - habitual postclitic

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-naⁿ (nįkʰną) - continuative sitting habitual

ex: niⁿ-naⁿ (nįn̨) - continuative moving habitual

ex: shi-naⁿ (ną), shi-noⁿ (nǫ) - again, over and over, repeatedly

ex: bda-taⁿ naⁿ (bdatt̨ ną) - I drink, Im a drunkard

ex: a-tʰaⁿ-te bdo-ka aⁿ-kda-xti naⁿ ni-tʰe (atʰ̨tte bdka ̨kdaxti n̨ nitʰ) - I have suffered exceedingly all the time

ex: hoⁿ-i-she naⁿ (hǫi ną) - what do you usually say? [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ naⁿ (ttatt̨ ną) - you drink, you're a drunkard

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-he naⁿ (tti tt nah ih ną) - you do not go there, Ive been saying [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ i-ki-pʰe ki-ha naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi tʰi-naⁿ-we (kįttą kipʰe kih ną nkkaka hi h tʰ-ną-we) - then, when he is finished inviting many people, they usually come [JOD]

ex: to ke de-naⁿ-wi (t kʔe d-ną-wi) - they usually dig for potatoes [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-toⁿ-we-naⁿ-we (ąt̨we-ną-w) - they usually look (watch) at me [JOD]

ex: pi-naⁿ (ppną), pi-noⁿ (ppnǫ) - do well at something precociously

Dhegiha: hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - customary [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - usually, customarily [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - always, repeatedly, habitually, customarily, usually, recurringly, continually, continue to, used to [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ (hnaⁿ) - habitual aspect; usually; always generally; used to, it used to be so [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-maⁿ (ąm̨), oⁿ-moⁿ (ǫm̨), moⁿ (m̨) - I usually, I used to [JOD]

cf. naⁿ (ną), noⁿ (nǫ) - past sign; when, time when; habitual; aⁿ (ʔą), oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do, be; use

ex: a-xa-ke aⁿ-maⁿ (aγke ąm̨) - I usually cry [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-aⁿ-zhi aⁿ-maⁿ (h̨ą ih ąm̨) - I usually say no [JOD]

ex: a-wa-ki aⁿ-maⁿ (awkʔi ąm̨) - I usually give them [JOD]

ex: o-ka-ki-xe hi o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi o-a-zha aⁿ-maⁿ (okkixe h osk̨ską h a ąm̨) - I usually dance, going around in the middle [JOD]

ex: bda-taⁿ oⁿ-maⁿ (bdatt̨ ǫm̨) - I used to drink

ex: naⁿ-pe-aⁿ-hi aⁿ-maⁿ (n̨ppęhi ąm̨) - me hungry/I used to be [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ, wi-zhiⁿ-de naⁿ-pe-aⁿ-hi aⁿ-maⁿ taⁿ-ha he-be a-ki-kiⁿ koⁿ-bda, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wehǫ, wįde n̨ppęhi ąm̨ t̨ha hbe akkʔį kkǫbd, iy iy mat̨ke) - my elder brother, I too want to carry my own piece because I have been hungry, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe moⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨ mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ zhoⁿ (ttatt̨ ̨) - you used to drink

ex: da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we (daxʔąkkid nąw) - you (plural) used to be kind to him for me [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ho-wa ni-kʰa-she da-xe-aⁿ-ki-de naⁿ-we e (mat̨ke hwa nikʰe daxʔąkkid nąw e) - which of youall were kind to Rabbit for me? [JOD]

 

time, at a time

naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną), na-na (-nan) - distributive of numerals

ex: miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - by ones, one each, one apiece

ex: naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece

ex: da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes; 3 apiece

ex: to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours

ex: sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives

ex: sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - by sixes, 6 apiece, 6 at a time

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens

ex: pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, eight at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - by nines

ex: kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - by tens, 10 apiece, 10 at a time

ex: da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - by thirteens; 13 apiece

ex: sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - by sixteens, 16 each

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, seventeen at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - by nineteens, 19 each

ex: kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece

ex: kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - by thirties, 30 each

ex: e-zhi-naⁿ-naⁿ (in̨ną) - different things, different

ex: ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big is each

ex: wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly

ex: zha-ko-i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akin̨ną), zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ (akk in̨ną) - he leaped often, or each time [JOD]; leaping at intervals; jump, make sudden leaps

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿthoⁿthⁿ) - by ones; one at a time; one here and there; one to each [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]

 

time, at night time

haⁿ-taⁿ (h̨tą) - at night, night time [JOD]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; taⁿ (tą) - when

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-doⁿ (hⁿdoⁿ) - at night, during the night, by night, nightly [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-doⁿ (hoⁿdoⁿ) - nightfall [Omaha]; hoⁿ-doⁿ (hⁿ-doⁿ) - during the night [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-taⁿ (h̨ą tą) - when night [CQ-Osage]

 

time, at some future time

a-tʰaⁿ-ta-i te (atʰ̨ttai tte) - at some future time

cf. ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in future; i-te (-itt) - indefinite prn. marker, -ever; hi-te (hitt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-doⁿ (atʰⁿdoⁿ) - at what time or season [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-ʰtoⁿ-doⁿ (ha-ṭoⁿ-doⁿ) - when; when will [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakháⁿda) - when, at what future time? [Kaw]

 

time, at that time

e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ da-i ke o-wa-di-bnaⁿ de (ęttą da ke wadbną d) - then he smelled where they went [JOD]

 

e-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ettątʰ̨) - at that time [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti, e-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ąįktti ettątʰ̨) - at that time, when I was small [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-tʰoⁿ-doⁿ (tʰoⁿdoⁿ) - at the proper time or season; to be the time or opportunity for [Omaha/Ponca]

 

e-ti-hi (etthi) - at that time [JOD]

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here

ex: e-ti-hi (etthi) - at that time [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (etthi dixi wadxow nįkʰ wkdewa ną, iy) - at that time the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth did not vomit him up, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de (etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid) - at that time/he caused him to do so at short intervals [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid tʰą ną, iy) - at that time, he (Rabbit) made him (Rabbits son) do it repeatedly, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di-hi (edhi) - then [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di-hi (dih) - it is time for it [Omaha/Ponca]; e-dsi-hi (e-ds-hi) - when that happens [FL-Osage]

 

time, at what time

ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time (in the past)

cf. ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą) - when (in the future)

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-ti da-tʰi e (hatʰą́tti datʰ e) - when did you come? [MS]

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-a-di (atʰⁿadi) - when? at what past time? [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-ʰtoⁿ-dsi (ha-ʰtⁿ-dsi) - when; at what time; when did [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-tsi (haatx̨ci), ha-kxaⁿ-tsi (haakx̨ci), ha-tkxaⁿ-tsi (haatkx̨ci) - when in the past, at what time in the past [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-ji (hakháⁿji) - when, at what past time? [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha-ʰtoⁿ-dsi tha-tsi a (ha-ʰtⁿ-dsi tha-tsi a) - when did you come? [FL-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-ji ya-chí (hakháⁿji yachí) - when did you come (get here)? [Kaw]

 

ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when (in the future)

cf. ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time (in the past)

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ te te (hatʰ̨ttą tt tte) - when you going? [MS]

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-doⁿ (atʰⁿdoⁿ) - at what time or season [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-ʰtoⁿ-doⁿ (ha-ṭoⁿ-doⁿ) - when; when will [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakháⁿda) - when, at what future time? [Kaw]

 

time, for some time

kaⁿ a-ni-he (k̨-anih) - so I move awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; a-ni-he (anih) - 1st person singular, I continuative moving

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, da-knoⁿ-ke koⁿ-bda, she-mi ke a-wa-ki-shka-te kaⁿ-a-ni-he koⁿ-bda (įttatt, dknǫk kkǫbd, mi ke awkiktte k̨-anih kkǫbd) - father, I want you to marry her, I want to play with the girls [JOD]

 

kaⁿ a-tʰaⁿ-he (k̨-atʰ̨he) - while I stood [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; a-tʰaⁿ-he (atʰąh) - I, 1st person singular, continuative auxiliary standing

ex: ta-bde kaⁿ-a-tʰaⁿ-he si-ka i-ta da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-da-ki-ho-shi (tbde k̨-atʰ̨he skka itt datʰ dikn̨ tą idkiho) - while I was hunting, she decided to eat a chicken egg, which I had forbidden her to do [JOD]

 

kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ką-ąn̨kʰe) - we sit awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ąn̨kʰe), oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - I and one other, 1st person dual continuative sitting

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

 

kaⁿ-hiⁿ kniⁿ (kąh̨ knį) - so she sat awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp, sit, be sitting

 

kaⁿ-kʰe (ką-k) - she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing); so she lay awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

 

kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (k̨-miⁿkʰ) - I was so for awhile; I stay there awhile; so I sat awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, 1st person singular continuative sitting; I who sit

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe maⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨-mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so as I was sitting there, I urinated a little, I sent a little off [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-ha-ti a-zhoⁿ koⁿ-bda-zhi hi (k̨-mįkʰ-tti kihtti ą kk̨bdi h) - so, I stayed there awhile, I really didnt want to sleep on the ground [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ miⁿ-kʰeʰ ta miⁿ-kʰe (gaⁿmike ta mike) - I will sit here for sometime [JOD-Omaha]

 

kaⁿ ni-kʰa (k̨-nikʰ) - so they were awhile; so they had been awhile; so they were [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

 

kaⁿ niⁿ (ką-n̨) - so he was moving awhile, so he moved awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; niⁿ (nį) - 3rd person singular, he or she continuative moving; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

 

kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ) - so he or she sat awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe wa-te-zo-knaⁿ taⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nįkʰ wattzokn̨ tą k̨ nįkʰ) - the woman was pregnant [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną, iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ a-te, i-ya-we, a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-shi kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we (ą tte iywe, abakk kį mąi k̨-nįkʰ, iywe) - she climbed high up into a crooked tree and sat there, they say [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti ka-xta-i ke o-ki-te a-taⁿ i-de-ki-de naⁿ da-tʰe kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti kaxtąi ke oktte ttą dekid ną datʰ k̨-nįkʰ) - the things (food) that were poured outside, she searched for them and she found/saw them, so she sat awhile eating [JOD]

ex: te-zhe zhi-ka hi-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we, o-do-tʰe niⁿ-kʰe a-te-zhe naⁿ, i-ya-we (te ka hde k̨-nįkʰ, iywe, dotʰe nįkʰ tee ną, iywe) - as she sat awhile, she urinated a little, they say, she urinated upon the man eater, they say [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe shoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ką-nįkʰ ǫ-nįkʰ) - so he sat awhile/he acted differently as he sat [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti, ke naⁿ, iya (ę k̨-nįkʰ tti, k ną, iy) - when he sat for some time [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti, ke naⁿ, iya (ę k̨-nįkʰ tti, k ną, iy) - and when he (Rabbits son) had sat for some time, he (Rabbits son) said the following, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gaⁿ thiⁿ-kʰe (gaⁿ ike) - he sits a little while [JOD-Omaha]

 

kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (ką-tʰ̨) - he was standing so awhile; so he stood awhile [JOD]

kaⁿ-iⁿ tʰaⁿ (k̨į tʰ̨) - she stood so awhile [JOD]

cf. koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - so, as, since; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kda-i ke-ni-te ka-ki niⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kʰi a-taⁿ we-da-niⁿ shi-ke he-naⁿ i-da-ki-kda-niⁿ a-taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ki-we (kįttą ett̨nį kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨nį kʰ ttą wdanį ke hną idkikdnį ttą ką-tʰ̨ tą kwe) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters), and she put on her bad clothes and was there awhile when they (her step-sisters) reached home [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there alone [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

time, from that same time on

e-ki-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ekkttątʰ̨) - from that same time on

 

time, from that time

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on

cf. e-toⁿ (ett̨) - therefore; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on; thence, subsequently

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ, sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (ttǫtttʰą, sniwtte h-i ną, iy) - Therefore, from that time on, it has not been very cold, it is said (before that it was much colder than it is now, now we have the female Winter) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-doⁿ-e-di-tʰoⁿ (doⁿedtʰoⁿ) - therefore, consequently [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-doⁿ (e-dⁿ) - therefore [FL-Osage]; e-taⁿ (tą) - therefore [CQ-Osage]; e-daⁿ (édaⁿ) - so, therefore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-dsi-toⁿ (e-ds-toⁿ) - thence; from that place [FL-Osage]; e-ji-khaⁿ (ejíkhaⁿ) - there, from, thither, from that place [Kaw]

 

time, having a good time

a-zho-wa (aow) - having a good time [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-zha-wa (zhawa) - agreeable, pleasant [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zha-wa (uzha wa) - fun [Omaha]

Dhegiha: gi-u-zha-wa (guzhawa) - to be pleasant for; to be pleased with [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-u-zha-wa (kiu zhawa) - enjoy [Omaha]

Dhegiha: wa-zha-wa (wa-zh-wa) - to have a pleasant time at a feast or at a dance; revelry [FL-Osage]

 

ki-da-kni (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like aⁿ-da-kni (̨dakni) - Im, di-da-kni (ddakni) - youre

cf. ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased; wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; da-kni (dkni), da-kniⁿ (dknį) - archaic word for good, used primarily in Quapaw personal names

ex: i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wkide ̨dakn) - Im glad to see you [AB, OM]

ex: aⁿ-da-kni wi-tʰi-koⁿ (̨dakni witʰkǫ) - Im glad its (my) grandpa [MS]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ̨dakn) - my aunt, Im glad to see you [FR]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ̨dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: aⁿ-da-kni wi-tʰi-koⁿ (̨dakni witʰkǫ) - Im glad its (my) grandpa [MS]

ex: zhoⁿ ki-da-kni ki-ta (ǫ kidkni ktta) - get up sleepy head [MS]

ex: i-e ki-da-kni (i kidkni) - he likes to talk [MS]

ex: te ki-da-kniⁿ pa naⁿ (tʔe kidknį pa ną) - they liked to die

Dhegiha: gi-tha-gthiⁿ (g-tha-gthiⁿ) - happy, pleased [FL-Osage]; ki-tha-liⁿ (kilį) - be glad, feel good, also used as an equivalent of thank you, like, enjoy, be happy about, be pleased with [CQ-Osage]; gi-ya-le (gyale) - be happy [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ) and the Kansas ya-liⁿ(yaliⁿ). Used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid, to be pleased [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį) - be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, good, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good oe well-behaved person, or good food [Kaw]

 

wa-da-kni (wadkni) - be happy, be pleased

cf. wa-da-kni-zhi (wadknii) - be unhappy, be displeased; ki-da-kni  (kidkni), ki-da-kniⁿ (kdaknį) - happy, pleased, to like; ki-da-kni-zhi (kdakni) - unhappy, discontented; da-kni (dkni), da-kniⁿ (dknį) - archaic word for good, used primarily in Quapaw personal names

Dhegiha: tha-gthiⁿ (-giⁿ) - good, this is the Ponka notation of the Osage tha-gthiⁿ (ak͓iⁿ) and the Kansas ya-liⁿ(yaliⁿ). Used primarily in Ponca names [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-gthiⁿ (th-gthiⁿ) - good, fine, nice, pleasing in manner, exceedingly good, splendid, to be pleased [FL-Osage]; tha-liⁿ (alį) - be good, feel good about something, be glad, thank you, fine, splendid, pretty, beautiful, handsome, good, well, finely, skillfully [CQ-Osage]; ya-li (yli), ya-liⁿ (yliⁿ), ya-le (yle) - to be good, as a good oe well-behaved person, or good food [Kaw]

 

ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - to like, pleased

ki-ho-taⁿ (khottą) - convalesce, improve aⁿ-ho-taⁿ (̨hottą) - I, di-ho-taⁿ (dhottą) - you

cf. ho-ta (httą) - good

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo koi (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it [MS]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

Dhegiha: gi-u-doⁿ (gudoⁿ) - to be good to or for one [Omaha/Ponca]

 

time, hour

wa-da (wad) - hour, time; cent

ex: wa-da miⁿ-naⁿ-naⁿ (wad m̨nąn̨) - hourly

ex: wa-da zhi-ka (wad ka) - acre

ex: ma-zhoⁿ wa-da (mą wad) - acre of land

Dhegiha: wa-tha-wa (wawa) - count [JOD-Omaha]; wa-tha-wa (wathawa) - numbers; numerals; counting; census [Omaha]; wa-tha-wa (wa-th-wa) - counting; cents [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-wa (waawa) - count, say numbers, counting, numbers [CQ-Osage]

 

time, not a long time

ti-aⁿ-zhi (ttįi) - not a long time, soon [JOD]

cf. ti-aⁿ-he (ttįhe) - long ago; ti-aⁿ-hi (ttįhi) - a long time, a very long time, long ago, for a long time [JOD]; ti-aⁿ-ti (ttįtti) - in the olden times, old time [JOD]

ex: ti-aⁿ-zhi hi (ttįi h) - not a long time/very (very soon) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti-aⁿ-zhi hi ha-te (kįttą ttįi h hatʔ) - then in a very short time, he became sick [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

 

time, once upon a time

haⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (h̨tʰąh), haⁿ-taⁿ-hi (h̨ttąh) - once upon a time

cf. ha-tʰaⁿ (hatʰ̨), aⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - when; ha-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (hatʰ̨ttą), a-tʰaⁿ-taⁿ (atʰ̨ttą) - when, in the future; ha-tʰaⁿ-ti (hatʰ̨tti) - when, at what time; hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ (h̨tʰą) - why; when

 

ex: haⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka wa-xo i-da-kda-niⁿ ta-bde da-we (h̨tʰąh nkka waxʔ idkdan̨ tbde dwe) - once upon a time, a man and his woman went hunting [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-doⁿ (atʰⁿdoⁿ) - at what time or season [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-ʰtoⁿ-doⁿ (ha-ṭoⁿ-doⁿ) - when; when will [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-ta (haatx̨ta), ha-kxaⁿ-ta (haakx̨ta) - when in the future, what time in the future [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-da (hakháⁿda) - when, at what future time? [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-tʰoⁿ-a-di (atʰⁿadi) - when? at what past time? [Omaha/Ponca]; ha-ʰtoⁿ-dsi (ha-ʰtⁿ-dsi) - when; at what time; when did [FL-Osage]; ha-txaⁿ-tsi (haatx̨ci), ha-kxaⁿ-tsi (haakx̨ci), ha-tkxaⁿ-tsi (haatkx̨ci) - when in the past, at what time in the past [CQ-Osage]; ha-khaⁿ-ji (hakháⁿji) - when, at what past time? [Kaw]

 

time, one time

hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi-oⁿ (wiⁿqchioⁿ) - once [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-o-xji-oⁿ (wiⁿoxjioⁿ) - once [Omaha]; wiⁿ-a-xtshi-aⁿ (wiⁿ--qtchi-aⁿ) - once [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-xtsi-oⁿ (wⁿ-xtsi-oⁿ), wⁿ-a-xtsi-oⁿ (wⁿ--xtsi-oⁿ) - once [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xtsaⁿ (mⁿxcaⁿ) - once, one time [Kaw]

 

time, planting time

ma-bnaⁿ (mbną) - planting time

 

time, second time

i-naⁿ-paⁿ (nąp̨), i-naⁿ-baⁿ (nąb̨) - second time, again

cf. i-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - second; hi-naⁿ-paⁿ-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ aⁿ-baⁿ hi-de taⁿ bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (nąp̨ ąbą hde t̨ bd tta mįkʰ) - if he calls to me a second time, I will go [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha! ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we, i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah! tti ke niγtte nikwe, iy iy) - she said, do not go to those lodges a second time! they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-thoⁿ-boⁿ (thoⁿbⁿ) - a second time; again: usually followed by a negative, making the meaning, never again [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thoⁿ-boⁿ (i-thⁿ-boⁿ) - again, second time [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-boⁿ (noⁿboⁿ) - twice [Omaha]; noⁿ-baⁿ (noⁿbáⁿ) - twice, two times [Kaw]

 

time, sign of past time

e-de (ed) - but, sign of past time

ex: miⁿ-kʰe tʰe-de (m̨kʰe tʰed) - told the truth/in the past, but [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! wi-to-shpa miⁿ-kʰe tʰe-de, i-yi i-ya (hǫ! wittpa m̨kʰe tʰed, iy iy) - oh! my grandson did tell the truth, but . it is said she said [JOD]

ex: e-de (ed) - but

ex: e-de ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya bdo-ka hi (ed nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy bdka hi) - but there were a great many people, the entire group gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

time, wintertime

pa-de-taⁿ (pdettą) - wintertime, when it is Winter [MS]

pa-de taⁿ (pdettą) - winter

cf. pa-de (pde) - winter

ex: sni-wa-te hi pa-de taⁿ (snwatte hi pde ttą) - cold, wintertime [MS]

Dhegiha: ma-the doⁿ (mthedoⁿ) - during the winter; in the wintertime; refers to past winters, those before last winter [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-the doⁿ (b-the doⁿ) - in winter [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: doⁿ (doⁿ) - of time when, season when [Omaha/Ponca]; doⁿ (doⁿ) - when; because; did [FL-Osage]; taⁿ (tą), toⁿ (tǫ) - when; since; because; if; provided that; daⁿ (daⁿ), da (da) - and, when, so [Kaw]

 

times, eleven times

miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (m̨xtiakn̨) - eleven times

miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (m̨xti knį) - eleven

cf. miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; kde-bnaⁿ miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbną m̨xti knį) - eleven; kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ m̨xti knį) - eleven, 10 when 1 sitting on

 

times, fold, x-fold

hi-numeral-a-ki-kde (hi-numeral-kkikde) - times, fold, x-fold

ex: hi-naⁿ-pa-a-ki-kde (hnąp kkikd) - double, twofold

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-koⁿ kʰi-gthe (shⁿkoⁿ kʰgthe) - nine times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-boⁿ kʰi-gthe (gthboⁿ kʰgthe) - ten times in succession, ten times in a row [Omaha/Ponca]

 

times, four times

hi-to-wiⁿ (htow̨) - four times

cf. to-wa (twa) - four; hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time; hi-naⁿpa-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times; hi-da-bniⁿ (hdabn̨) - thrice; hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times; hi-shaⁿ-kiⁿ (h̨kk̨) - nine times; hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

 

times, nine times

hi-shaⁿ-kiⁿ (h̨kk̨) - nine times

cf. shaⁿ-ka (̨kka) - nine; hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time; hi-naⁿpa-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times; hi-da-bniⁿ (hdabn̨) - thrice; hi-to-wiⁿ (htow̨) - four times; hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times; hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

 

times, prewar times

ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi (mą iki) - prewar times, before civil war, lit. land was not bad 1880s

cf. ma-zhaⁿ shi-ke (mą ike) - war, lit. bad land; ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; shi-ke (ke) - bad; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi (mą iki) - land/not bad [JOD]

ex: ma-zhaⁿ shi-ka-zhi shoⁿ-ti to-ski-de i-ke-ya-we ni e-ti kʰe mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi oⁿ-kniⁿ oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ naⁿ (mą iki ̨tti toskde keywe ni ett kʰe mi xpettaddedi ǫkn̨ ̨katʰ̨ ną) - before the (Civil) war we used to live on the west side of what they called Sweet Potatoe Creek [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-zhoⁿ pi-a-zhi ga-xe (mazhⁿ pazhi gxe) - to make the land bad; to make the land bad by fighting, to wage war [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ pi-a-zhi (moⁿzhoⁿ piazhi) - badlands [Omaha]

 

times, six times

hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times

cf. hi . iⁿ (h ̨) - times; sha-pe (app) - six

 

times, sixteen times

hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

cf. hi . iⁿ (h ̨) - times; sha-pe a-kniⁿ (app knį) - sixteen

 

times, two times

hi-naⁿ-paⁿ-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; hi-naⁿ-pa a-ki-kde (hnąp kkikd) - double, twofold

 

tin plate

ma-ze o-zhi (mze i) - tin plate

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron, metal; o-zhi (i) - bowl, dish; o-zhi (o) - put collection into something, plant, fill

 

 

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