English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

this

de (de) - this; now

de (de) - this [OM]

ex: haⁿ de (h̨ de) - tonight, this night

ex: hoⁿ-ba de (h̨ba de) - today, this day

ex: de zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ (d įk tʰą) - this small/young one [JOD]

ex: de ki-kiⁿ te (d kikʔ̨ tte) - this/he carry his own on his back/will [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! wi-zhiⁿ-ke, di-a-te de ki-kiⁿ te (hhox! wįk, ditte d kikʔ̨ tte) - Really! My son, let your father carry this (meat) [JOD]

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ, de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da, a-kʰe (d įxowi h ną, d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd, akʰ) - this one tells no lies, this one wants to speak the truth, it is the one [JOD]

ex: ti de wi-ki (tti d wikʔ) - I give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi naⁿ, ti de wi-ki te (ądkitt̨ dakd ną tti d wikʔ tte) - when you have taken her (have her) for me and return here, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ, ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her (my own) back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i) - this/hák͓a/his son/it is not he [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

Dhegiha: the (the) - this [Omaha/Ponca]; the (the) - this [Omaha]; the (the) - this [FL-Osage]; the (e) - that; this; those; these; they [CQ-Osage]; ye (ye) - this, here, hither [Kaw]

 

this always

de shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (de ǫkid) - this always, thus [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; shoⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de (ǫ̨kide), shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (ǫkide) - always, ever, never

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-zho-ki-de (hǫ, wttek, de ǫkid) - no, uncle (my mothers brother), it is always thus [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, unceasing, enduring [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿ-shoⁿ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-e (shⁿ-shoⁿ-e) - forever, always, without stopping [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (̨ǫ), shoⁿ-shoⁿ-we (̨ǫwe) - always, forever, during that time, refers to something going on and on through time, uninterruptedly [CQ-Osage]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ (shⁿshoⁿ) - always, ever, continually [Kaw]

 

this direction

de shoⁿ-hi (d ̨hi) - this direction [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ) - this direction/village/there/it sits [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

 

ka-ki-de-de (kkidde) - in that direction, in this direction, going in that direction [JOD]

cf. ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]; ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]; ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I/in this direction/I go/will [JOD]

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I will go in this direction [JOD]

ex: di-e ka-ki-de-de da ni-he (de kkidde d nih) - you go in that direction! [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ ka-ki-de-de (deetʰ̨ kkidde) - from this place/going in that direction [JOD]

 

this kind, this sort, like this

de-kaⁿ (dek̨), de-koⁿ (dek̨) - this sort; this kind, like this [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so; koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since, so

Dhegiha: the-goⁿ (thgoⁿ) - thus, so, after this manner, of this sort [Omaha/Ponca]; the-goⁿ (th-goⁿ) - like this, this kind [FL-Osage]; the e-koⁿ (e ek̨) - this way, that way, thus, like this, like that [CQ-Osage]

 

de-kʰe-kaⁿ (dekʰek̨) - this kind [JOD]

cf. de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying/inanimate object; de (de) - this; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so; koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since, so

Dhegiha: the-kʰe-goⁿ (thekʰgoⁿ) - like this reclining animate object or long inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]

 

this last one

de o-do-ha-ke miⁿ-xti (de odhake m̨xti) - this last one [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; o-do-ha-ke (odhake) - last one; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one, exactly one, only one, just one

ex: de o-do-ha-ke miⁿ-xti o-shte (de odhake m̨xti ot) - this last one was left; this last one remained [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thu-ha-ge (ahage) - last, at the last [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-ha-ge (u-th-ha-ge) - the last time [FL-Osage]; u-thu-ha-ge tse (u-th-ha-ge tse) - the last, final, the final act [FL-Osage]; o-tho-ha-ke (ohake) - more, last, final [CQ-Osage]; o-yo-ha-ge (oyhage) - last, to be the last [Kaw]

 

de we-ha-ke (d whake) - this last one [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; we-ha-ke (whake) - last [JOD]

ex: de we-ha-ke, de zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ (d whake, d įk tʰą) - this last one, this small/young one [JOD]

Dhegiha: we-ha-ge (w-ha-ge) - the last one in line [FL-Osage]; wa-ha-ge (wa-h-ge) - the last born of a number of young brothers [FL-Osage]

 

this lying object

de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying/inanimate

cf. de (de) - this; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ex: a-zhaⁿ de-kʰe ho-taⁿ (ą dkʰe httą) - this bedstead is good

ex: e-che-zha de-kʰe (ečča dkʰe) - my goodness, this one! [AG]

ex: de-kʰe-kaⁿ (dekʰek̨) - this kind [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-kʰe (thkʰe) - this reclining animate object or long inanimate object before us [Omaha/Ponca]; the-kshe (th-kshe) - this that lies here [FL-Osage]; the-kshe (ke) - this lying; that lying [CQ-Osage]; ye-khe (ykhe) - this, singular/lying/inanimate [Kaw]

 

this morning

ka-saⁿ-ti (ksątt), ka-soⁿ-te (kas̨tte) - this morning

ka-soⁿ-ti (kas̨tt) - morning, in the morning [AG]

cf. ka-siⁿ-a-tʰi (kas̨tʰi) - morning, in the morning [MS]; a-ka-sa-ni (kasni) - the next morning [JOD]; ka-sa-ni (kasni), ka-saⁿ-niⁿ (kas̨nį) - tomorrow; e-ka-sa-ni (kasni), e-ka-sa-ni-taⁿ (kasnittą) - morning, next morning

Dhegiha: ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (gaoⁿ thiⁿ) - tomorrow [Omaha]; ga-sa-ni (gasni) - to morrow [JOD-Omaha]; e-ga-sa-ni (gasni) - the morrow [JOD-Omaha]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ), ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (ga-ⁿ thiⁿ) - the morrow, dawn of another day, next day [FL-Osage]; ga-so-iⁿ-xtsi (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ-xtsi) - early morning, dawn [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ (kaas̨), ka-siⁿ-e (kaas̨e), ka-siⁿ-ta (kaas̨ta), ka-siⁿ-taⁿ (kaas̨tą) - tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ka-siⁿ-e-xtsi (kaas̨exc), ka-siⁿ-e-xtsiⁿ (kaas̨exc̨), ka-siⁿ-xtsi (kaas̨xci) - in the early morning, morning, this morning [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ (gasⁿ) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-si-daⁿ (gasdaⁿ), ga-si-da (gasda) - tomorrow [Kaw]; ga-siⁿ-xtsi (gasⁿxci), ga-si-xtsi (gasxci) - morning, in the morning [Kaw]

 

this moving object

de-niⁿ (dnį) - this moving/animate

cf. de (de) - this; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: the-thiⁿ (ththiⁿ) - this moving animate object (before us) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

this much

de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨) - this (much) long

cf. ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

Dhegiha: the-tʰoⁿ (thetʰoⁿ) - this far, this long (of time or space) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-txaⁿ (txą) - this time [CQ-Osage]

 

de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - this (much) deep

cf. a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - depth, equal or like; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

Dhegiha: the-tʰoⁿ-ha (thetʰⁿha) - this depth or height [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: the-toⁿ-ha the-the (the-tⁿ-ha the-the) - henceforth; from now on [FL-Osage]; the-txaⁿ-ha (etx̨ha), the-tkxaⁿ-ha (etkx̨ha) - from now on; from this time on, henceforth [CQ-Osage]

 

de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - this (much) tall

cf. de (de) - this; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height; a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

this next one

de o-ba-tʰaⁿ (d obtʰą) - this next one [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą), o-pa-taⁿ (opttą) - next

Dhegiha: u-wa-tʰaⁿ (u-w-taⁿ) - the next [JOD-Omaha]; u-wa-tʰoⁿ (uwtʰoⁿ) - next [Omaha/Ponca]; u-wa-ʰtoⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ) - next in order or line; the next time, place or rank [FL-Osage]; o-txaⁿ (otx̨), o-kxaⁿ (okx̨) - next, following, the following one [CQ-Osage]; o-wa-khaⁿ (owkhaⁿ) - next of kin [Kaw]

 

this only, just this

de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this

cf. de (de) - this; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; e-naⁿ-hi (enąh), e-naⁿ (ną) - only that, only him or her, only it

ex: de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (d nąh akdbnį akd) - this/only/I have my own/I have come home [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then I only brought back (my own) this little girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-hnaⁿ (-hnaⁿ) - this only [JOD-Omaha]; the-noⁿ (th-noⁿ) - this much [FL-Osage]; ye-naⁿ (ynaⁿ), ye-noⁿ (ynoⁿ) - this many, this much, this number [Kaw]

 

this place, arrive here to this place to get ones own object

a-kda tʰi (kda tʰ) - arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not ones home) to get ones own object (horse, child, gun, etc.) a-kda a-tʰi (kda atʰ) - I, a-da-kda da-tʰi (adkda datʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-kda oⁿ-ka-tʰi-we (ǫkkda ǫktʰiwe) - we

cf. a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch one's own; a-kda kde (kda kd) - go homeward for one's own; tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here

ex: a-wi-kda a-tʰi, iⁿ-kaⁿ, i-ke (awkda atʰ, įkk̨, ik) - he said to her, I have come for you (my own), grandmother [JOD]

 

this place, from this place

de-she-tʰaⁿ (deetʰ̨) - from this place [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length; she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that standing/visisble/animate; ka i-she-tʰaⁿ (k-ietʰ̨) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ ka-ki-de-de (deetʰ̨ kkidde) - from this place/going in that direction [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ aⁿ-ki-de aⁿ-te-a, i-ye pa (detʰ̨ ąkkde ątte, iy ppa) - we have been here long enough, they were saying [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-she-tʰoⁿ (thshetʰⁿ) - as far as this (and no further) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-she-tʰaⁿ (-ce-tⁿ) - by this time (of past); henceforth, henceforward, from this time [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that far (and no farther); that long (and no longer); the end [Omaha/Ponca]; she-tʰoⁿ (shtʰoⁿ) - that length; that short [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that so far; as far as that; till then (and no longer); past time; from that time onward [Omaha/Ponca]

 

this place, here, Dhegiha People

de-ka (dek) - Dhegiha People

Dhegiha: the-ga (the ga) - here, at this place [FL-Osage]; the-ka (eek) - there, here, these [CQ-Osage]; ye-ga (yeg) - here, right here [Kaw]

 

this place, here, right here

de-do (ddo) - here, this place, right here [AG, OM]

de-do (ddo) - here

de-to (dett), de-do (ded) - native, translates to JODs Dhegiha

cf. she-do (do) - yonder, there

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi e-naⁿ-hi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: de-do ti-aⁿ-hi kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe moⁿ (ddo ttįhi k̨ mįkʰ m̨) - I have been dwelling here a very long time [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here? he said to him [JOD]

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: wi-e de-do a-tʰi ta miⁿ-kʰe (we ddo atʰ ta mįkʰ) - Im sitting right here (I will be arriving here) [AG]

Dhegiha: the-thu (u) - here [JOD-Omaha]; the-tho (th-tho) - here at this place [FL-Osage]; ye-yo (yy) - here, right here [Kaw]

 

this place, take away something for someone and come back to this place

a-ki-niⁿ kdi (kinį kdi) - take away something for someone and come back to this place [JOD]

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; kdi (kdi) - to have come back here; a-ki-niⁿ de (kinį de) - take away something for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-ki-niⁿ hi-de (kinį hid) - to have taken someones property; a-ki-niⁿ kde (kinį kd) - to take from someone and go back [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ tʰi (kinį tʰi) - to take/come after them, ones own [JOD]; ni-zhi a-ki-niⁿ (ni kinį) - owe something to someone; wa-di-ze a-ki-niⁿ (wadze kinį) - owe something to someone

ex: a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kibnį akd) - I brought it back to him [JOD]

ex: a-ki-niⁿ kda-i taⁿ, a-ki-de aⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ naⁿ, a-ki-pʰi, a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kin̨ kdi tą, akde ̨kaį ną, akpʰi, kibnį akd) - they took it from him, he told me to go get it, I went there for it, I brought it back to him [JOD]

ex: a-wi-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (wikbnį akd) - I have brought back your (or for you) [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkitt̨ dakd ną tti d wikʔ tte) - when you have taken her (have her) for me and return here I will give you this lodge [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da-ki-tiⁿ da-kdi te koi-shoⁿ naⁿ ti de wi-ki te (ądkittį dakd tt kį ną tt d wikʔ tte) - when you bring her (my own) back to me, I will give you this lodge [JOD]

 

this quantity, this much, this many

de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - this quantity, this much, this many

cf. de (de) - this; she-naⁿ (ną) - enough, more; ka-she-naⁿ (kaną) - thats all, that is enough, just this much, be ended, finished, thats all, something is finished; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

Dhegiha: she-noⁿ (shnoⁿ) - a sufficient number of times [Omaha/Ponca]; she-na (shna) - enough; sufficient; no longer [Omaha/Ponca]; she-noⁿ (shenoⁿ) - enough [Omaha]; she-noⁿ (she-noⁿ) - sufficient [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: the-na (thna) - this much or many; this number or quantity [Omaha/Ponca]; the-noⁿ (th-noⁿ) - this much [FL-Osage]; ye-naⁿ (ynaⁿ), ye-noⁿ (ynoⁿ) - this many, this much, this number [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - be ended, finished, thats all, something is finished, closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashhnaⁿ) - thats all, that is enough, just this much [Kaw]

 

this side, arrived or reached on this side

to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that singular/moving/animate object that arrived on this side

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: du-a-hi (dahi) - on this side of it at a short distance [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-a-hi (dahi) - on this side of it at a short distance [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side of a place he has reached

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-a-hi (dahi) - on this side of it at a short distance [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

this side, on this side

to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-ta (tta) - on this side, in this direction, this way, hither

ex: to-ta hi ka ha-o (tta h ka ha) - you come hither! [JOD]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that singular/moving/animate object arriving on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: du-da-hi-the-thiⁿ (d-da-hi--iⁿ), du-a-hi-the-thiⁿ (d-a-hi--iⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a great distance (from the speaker), and on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi-the (d-da-hi-), du-a-hi-the (d-a-hi-) - at a great distance from (the speaker), and on this side of a place [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi (d-da-hi), du-a-hi (d-a-hi) - on this side of (it) at a short distance [JOD-Omaha]

 

to-ta-hi-de-tʰaⁿ (ttahdetʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object coming, on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-da-hi-the-taⁿ (d-da-hi--taⁿ), du-a-hi-the-taⁿ (d-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance from (the speaker) and on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi-the (d-da-hi-), du-a-hi-the (d-a-hi-) - at a great distance from (the speaker), and on this side of a place [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi (d-da-hi), du-a-hi (d-a-hi) - on this side of (it) at a short distance [JOD-Omaha]

 

to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative moving

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ (ddaiⁿ), du-a-thiⁿ (duaiⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. on this side of (the place); what is seen [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ-ke (d-da-i-k), du-a-thiⁿ-ke (d-a-i-k) - the an. ob. st. on this side of (the place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da thiⁿ-kse (d-da thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; to-to-ka-xde (ttokxde) - facing this way; e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side, toward the sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi - (ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi (uci) - at the front [JOD-Omaha]; u-thu-shi-xti (uciqti) - at the very front [JOD-Omaha]; o-tho-shi (oi) - in the way, in front of and blocking [CQ-Osage]; ti u-taⁿ-noⁿ u-thu-shi (tiu taⁿnoⁿ uthushi) - front yard [Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-thu-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ (u-th-shi ha u-moⁿ-thiⁿ) - to walk in advance of a group of people [FL-Osage]; o-tho-shi maⁿ-thiⁿ (oimąį) - block someones way or be in the way while moving [CQ-Osage]; go-da o-yo-shi-ha (gda oyshiha) - to the other side, to the other side of [Kaw]; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (kmaⁿhaⁿtha yoshiha) - to the windward of something [Kaw]; a-la-xle-ta-ha o-yo-shi-ha (laxletha yoshiha) - to the leeward of something, on the leeward side [Kaw]; do-do-yo-shi-ha (ddoyoshiha) - adverb of motion [Kaw]

 

to-ta-tʰaⁿ (ttatʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-da-taⁿ (d-da-taⁿ), du-a-taⁿ (d-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-toⁿ (d-da toⁿ) - the one standing on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]; i-di-shaⁿ (idį) - to go around an object [JOD]; o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle; e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction; ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

Dhegiha: du-da-tʰe-ta (d-da-tĕ́-t͓a), du-a-tʰe-ta (d-a-tĕ́-t͓a) - to the std. in. od. or col. of in. objects on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-tʰe-ta-thi-shaⁿ (d-da-tĕ-t͓-i-caⁿ), du-a-tʰe-ta-thi-shaⁿ (d-a-tĕ-t͓-i-caⁿ) - on account of the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; tʰe-ta-thi-shaⁿ (tĕ-t͓-i-caⁿ) - towards, pertaining to, or on account of, the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: du-da-thi-shaⁿ (ddaicaⁿ), du-a-thi-shaⁿ (duicaⁿ) - on this side of [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-thi-shoⁿ (du-d-thi-shoⁿ) - this side, on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-thi-shoⁿ-ha (-thi-shoⁿ-ha) - to detour, to go around [FL-Osage]; i-thi-shaⁿ-ha (iąha) - detour around, go around, avoid [CQ-Osage]

 

this side, on this side of a certain point

to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point

ex: to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual/standing or collection/inanimate objects on this side

ex: to-wa-ke (twak) - those plural/standing/animate objects on this side

ex: to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

ex: to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying objects on this side

ex: to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

ex: to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

ex: to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

ex: to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual/standing or collection/inanimate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these dual/standing/inanimate; ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual/standing/invisible/inanimate; she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual/standing/visible/inanimate objects

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-ke (twak) - those plural/standing/animate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: kʰe (kʰe) - the inanimate lying, the inanimate horizontal, be positioned horizontally, an extended action in a lying position [Omaha]; kshe (kshe) - to prostrate, that lies, to lay down, to place flat on the ground or to be prostrate on any surface, the length of time from the beginning of a vigil [FL-Osage]; kshe (ke) - positional article for an entity that is lying down or long; positional article that indicates plurality of an inanimate entity that takes tsʰe (cʰe) standing positional in the singular [CQ-Osage]; kshe (ke) - lying down or long [CQ-Osage]; khe (khe) - the; definite article for lying/inanimate objects [Kaw]

 

to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones; de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying/animate; ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural sitting or lying/invisible/animate; koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder; she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; niⁿ (nį) - continuative moving

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative sitting

Dhegiha: to-wa iⁿ-kshe (twa įke) - that one of uncertain or unimportant identity (animate or inanimate); that person sitting; that object or thing sitting there; that group of objects of uncertain or unimportant identity (not animate if plural) [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - continuative aspect marker, plural of niⁿ (nį)

Dhegiha: to-wa a-pa (twa apa) - group of people or single person of unknown or unimportant identity, moving and marked as the subject of a sentence [CQ-Osage]; to-wa pa (twa pa) - group of people of unknown or unimportant identity [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collection/inanimate

Dhegiha: to-wa tsʰe (twa cʰe) - this one (thing) standing here, that one (thing) standing there; those ones, that stuff (a collection of sitting or round inanimate objects (such as a bunch of grapes) whose exact identity is unimportant or unknown) [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

this sitting object

de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this sitting/animate or inanimate object

de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this part or object [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: de niⁿ-kʰe (d nįkʰ) - this part [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ-kʰe di-e da-ki-kiⁿ te, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (d nįkʰ de dakkʔį tt, iy iy mątʰ) - you can carry this (piece of meat) for yourself, it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: te-naⁿ-te de niⁿ-kʰe shiⁿ-xti ta-ta-we ho-taⁿ ni-tʰe (tten̨tte d-nįkʰ įxt ttatwe httą nitʰ) - It would have been good for youall to eat this very fat heart [JOD]

ex: de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this part or object [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ de niⁿ-kʰe wa-pa-iⁿ di-ze niⁿ-kʰe ti xi-te a-ba-knaⁿ-ta i-naⁿ-de naⁿ iy ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ę d nįkʰe wappą diz nįkʰ tti xtte baknątta in̨de ną iy mat̨ke) - then Rabbit placed the blood which he had taken by the side of the lodge, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-thiⁿ-kʰe (ththiⁿkʰe) - this sitting animate object (before us); this curved inanimate object (before us) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-iⁿ-kshe (e įk) - that one sitting; this one here [CQ-Osage]

 

this size, of this size

de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size

cf. de (de) - this; na-ska (-nask) - size

Dhegiha: the-thoⁿ-ska (ththoⁿska) - this size, this large [Omaha/Ponca]; the-thoⁿ-ska (th-thoⁿ-ka) - this size [FL-Osage]; ye-yaⁿ-ska (yéyaⁿska) - size, this size, this large [Kaw]

 

this standing object

de-tʰaⁿ (dtʰą) - this standing/animate

de-tʰaⁿ (dȅtha) - this [ASG]

cf. de (de) - this; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: she-to a-shi-ta de-tʰaⁿ (tto atta dtʰą) - this boy standing behind (you)

ex: shoⁿ-ke de-tʰaⁿ (sh́nke dȅtha) - this dog [ASG]

Dhegiha: the-tʰoⁿ (thtʰoⁿ) - this animate object standing before us [Omaha/Ponca]; the-toⁿ (th-toⁿ) - this: this person, standing [FL-Osage]

 

de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this standing/inanimate

cf. de (de) - this; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; collective/inanimate

Dhegiha: the-tʰe (thtʰe) - this standing inanimate object or collection of inanimate objects before us [Omaha/Ponca]; the-tse (th-tse) - this, as referring to the object close at hand [FL-Osage]; ye-che (yéche) - this, these: standing inanimate or collection/pile [Kaw]

 

this standing object or collection

she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate

cf. she () - that tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; collection/inanimate

Dhegiha: she-tʰe (shtʰe) - that visible std. in. ob.; that pile or col. of small in. objects [Omaha/Ponca]

 

this third one

de i-da-bniⁿ (d dabnį) - this third one [JOD]

cf. de (de) - this; i-da-bniⁿ (dabn̨) - third, ordinal numeral

 

this way, facing this way

to-to-ka-xde (ttokxde) - facing this way to-to-a-ka-xde (ttokaxde) - I, to-to-da-ka-xde (ttodakxde) - you, to-toⁿ-ka-xda-we (tot̨kaxdwe) - we

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side, in this direction, this way, hither; o-ka-xde (kaxde) to be facing a certain direction

Dhegiha: du-du-ga-xthe (ddugqthe) - with the face this way, facing this way [Omaha/Ponca]; do-da o-ga-xle (dda ogxle) - facing this way [Kaw]

 

this way, this direction

to-ta (tta) - on this side, in this direction, this way, hither

ex: to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that singular/moving/animate object arriving on this side

ex: to-ta-hi-de-tʰaⁿ (ttahdetʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object coming, on this side

ex: to-ta hi ka ha-o (tta h ka ha) - you come hither! [JOD]

ex: to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of

ex: to-to-ka-xde (ttokxde) - facing this way

ex: to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side

ex: to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

ex: to-ta-tʰaⁿ (ttatʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side

ex: to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

this, why or how is this

haⁿ-e-taⁿ (h̨ett̨) - why or how is this; wherefore

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner

ex: haⁿ-e-taⁿ? e-ti bde te, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ett̨? tti bd tt, nį̨ iy mat̨ke) - why is this? I will go there, thought Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-e-doⁿ (hⁿ-e-doⁿ) - to be in suspense [FL-Osage]

 

thorn

to-hi (thi) - thorn [JOD]

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka a-niⁿ pa (thi ttąk an̨ pa) - they had a large thorn [JOD]

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka kʰe (thi ttąk kʰe) - the large thorn [JOD]

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka kʰe ki-ki-oⁿ-da de-da-we (thi ttąk kʰe kkkįda ddawe) - they threw the large thorn [JOD]

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka po-i hi zi-ka a-ta-ha (thi ttąk ppi h zkka ttaha) - thorn, large extremely sharp at one end [JOD)]

 

those

ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: ka-ki ke wa-di-haⁿ-zhi (kak ke wadhąi) - those/he let them go [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke mi-zhi-ka ke (kak ke miik ke) - those/girl/the plural [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke mi-zhi-ka ke xa-ke a-pa (kak ke miik ke γak pa) - those girls were crying [JOD]

 

those dual standing

ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual/standing/invisible/inanimate

cf. ka (k) - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

Dhegiha: ga-a-tʰe (gatʰe) - those two standing inanimate objects or collections of inanimate objects at a distance and out of sight (but whose place is known or inferred) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual / standing / visible / inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

 

ko-wa-da-tʰe (kwadatt) - those dual/standing/inanimate or collections

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular / standing / inanimate or collection

ex: zhoⁿ ko-wa-da-tʰe (ǫ kwadatt) - yon two trees

 

she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual/standing /visible/inanimate objects

cf. she () - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: she-a-tʰe (shatʰ) - those two visible std. in. objects or col. of in. objects [Omaha/Ponca]

 

to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual/standing or collection/inanimate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these dual/standing/inanimate; ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual/standing/invisible/inanimate; she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual/standing/visible/inanimate objects

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

those I used to see

wi-a-de pa (wide pp) - those I used to see [JOD]

cf. i-de (de) - see, find; we-de (wde) - to see, find or discover things; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker

ex: wi-a-de pa (wide pp) - I have seen them/the ones who (those I used to see) [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ wi-a-de pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, įtʰ̨na m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną wide pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the young unmarried men (able to take wives) whom I have seen carrying quivers on their backs, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

those lodges

ti ke (tti ke) - those lodges

ti ke (tti ke) - lodge/the plural inanimate objects [JOD]

cf. ti (tti) house, tent, dwelling; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha! ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we, i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah! tti ke niγtte nikwe, iy iy) - she said, do not go to those lodges a second time! they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

 

those plural moving

ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate

cf. ka (k) - that; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

Dhegiha: ga-ma (gma) - these remote ones; those that are nearer to me than to you; those that are far from both of us (excluding all others) [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-a-ma (gama) - those [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-a-ma (gama) - those unseen ones [JOD-Omaha]; ka-pa (ka pa) - these ones [CQ-Osage]; ga-a-ba (gàabá) - those over there [Kaw]

 

koi-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate

cf. koi (ki) - that, there; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

 

ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker;

Dhegiha: gu-a-ma (g-a-ma), gu-da-ma (g-da-ma) - the ones in sight and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side [Kaw]

 

she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate

cf. she () - that; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder; to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

Dhegiha: she-ma (shma) - those near the one addressed [Omaha/Ponca]; she-a-ma (sham) - that visible an. ob., coming or going, but not distant; those visible an. objects, coming or going, but not distant; those visible an. objects, the pl. sub. of a voluntary action [Omaha/Ponca]; she apa (e apa) - those ones in motion, there near you [CQ-Osage]; she-ba (shéba) - those yonder (plural/visible/animate) [Kaw]

 

to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker; de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate; ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate; koi-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate; ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder; she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa apa) - that person [CQ-Osage]; to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-a-ma (dama), du-da-ma (ddama) - the ones on this side of (a place), the sub. of a voluntary action [Omaha/Ponca]; du-a (dua), du-da (duda) - on this side of [Omaha/Ponca]; du-da (d-da) - this side [FL-Osage]; do-da (dóda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

those plural sitting or lying

ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/invisible/animate

cf. ka (k) - that; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones; de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying/animate; kaⁿ-ni-kʰa (k̨-nikʰ) - so they were awhile, so they had been awhile, so they were [JOD]; koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural/sitting or lying, yonder; she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible; shoⁿ-ni-kʰa (ǫ-nikʰ) - after they had been so awhile [JOD]; to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural/sitting or lying objects on this side

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - that: refers to what is at one side or out of sight [Omaha/Ponca]; ga (ga) - that [FL-Osage]; ka (ka), (k) - these, this, this one [CQ-Osage]; ga (ga) - that, that yonder, that over there [Kaw]

 

ko-i-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible

cf. koi (ki) - that, there; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

cf. she (sh) - that [JOD]; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones

 

to-wa-ni-kʰa (twanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3rd person plural continuative sitting; they who sit; they were (plural classifier); the reclining ones; de-ni-kʰa (dnikʰ) - these sitting or lying/animate; ka-ni-kʰa (knikʰa) - those plural sitting or lying/invisible/animate; koi-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible; ko-wa-ni-kʰa (kwanikʰ) - those plural sitting or lying, yonder; she-ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - those plural/sitting or lying/visible

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

those plural standing

ka-ke (kke) - those plural/standing/invisible/animate; those scattered objects

cf. ka (k) - that; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: a-ma-ka-ke (makak) - smaller than the others, the other one of those things [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-spe a-ma-ka-ke a-ki-te naⁿ kde, i-ya-we (̨spe makak kitte n̨ kd, iywe) - ax/smaller than the others/she took hers in her arm/when/she started homeward/they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-ge (gge) - those things: referring to in. objects here and there, scattered, wherever they may be [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-ge (gge) - these [FL-Osage]; ga-ge (gáge) - those plural/scattered/inanimate objects [Kaw]

 

ko-i-ke (kike) - those remote plural/standing/visible/animate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: ti koi-ke (tti kike) - lodge/yonder ones [JOD]

ex: ti koi-ke, ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tti kike, niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, they are disobedient [JOD]

 

ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those plural/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

 

she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects

cf. she (sh) - that [JOD]; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: she-ke-ti (ektti) - by yonder things [JOD]

ex: she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there! [JOD]

 

 

to-wa-ke (twak) - those plural/standing/animate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

Dhegiha: to-wa (twa) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

those things

koi-de (kode) - those things [JOD]

 

those, by those standing objects

she-ke-ti (ektti) - by those standing objects

she-ke-ti (ektti) - by yonder things [JOD]

cf. she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there! [JOD]

 

those, you did not say those

ko-i-she-sha-zhi (kie-i) - you did not say those [JOD]

cf. ko-i-she (kie) - aforementioned words or manner; so; that; that part; e-sha-zhi (ei) - you say not

ex: i-ye tʰe ko-i-she-sha-zhi (ye tʰe kie-i) - words/the/you did not say those [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! ma-shtiⁿ-ke, i-ye tʰe ko-i-she-sha-zhi naⁿ niⁿ-tʰe (hhox! mat̨ke, ye tʰe kie-i n̨ nįtʰ) - really! Rabbit, you have never talked in this manner before now [JOD]

 

thousand

kde-bdaⁿ hi taⁿ-ka (kdbdą hi tt̨ka) - thousand, large stock of 10s

kde-bnaⁿ hi taⁿ-ka (gĕdēhbŏnāh-hih-tonka) - 1000 [GI]

kde-bna hi hi taⁿ-ka (kdebn-hi-hi-tg) - 1000 [LH]

cf. kde-bdaⁿ hi (kdbdą h) - hundred, a stock of tens; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: gthe-ba-hi-wiⁿ toⁿ-ga (gthbahwiⁿ tⁿga) - the great hundred one thousand [Omaha/Ponca]; le-blaⁿ hu-taⁿ-ga (léblaⁿ hutaⁿga), kle-blaⁿ hu-taⁿ-ga (kléblaⁿ hutáⁿga) - thousand [Kaw]

 

thread, deers sinew

ta kaⁿ (ttakk̨) - deers sinew, thread

cf. ta (tta) - deer; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - sinew, string, line; root of a plant

Dhegiha: ta-koⁿ (takⁿ) - sinew, sinew taken from the backs of deer and buffalo and used for thread, bows, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-ʰkoⁿ (ṭa-ḳⁿ) - sinew, the sinew made from deerskin was used for sewing [FL-Osage]; ta-kaⁿ (tkⁿ) - deer sinew used for sewing [Kaw]

 

thread, string, lariat

wa-hi-oⁿ (wahǫ) - string, thread, lariat

ex: wa-hi-oⁿ zhi-ka (wahǫ ka) - little rope, string [MS]

ex: wa-hi-oⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (wahǫ ̨ka), wa-hi-oⁿ zhi-ka (wahǫ ka) - small string

ex: ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ) - telegraph wire

ex: ma-ze wa-hi-oⁿ o-na-xoⁿ i-ka-xe (mze whiǫ onxʔǫ ikγe) - telegraph

ex: ni-ka wa-hi-oⁿ (nkka wahǫ) - rope

 

thread, to thread a needle

wa-hi-ka zhi-ka o-da-ze (wahkka ka odze) - to thread a needle

cf. wa-hi-ka zhi-ka (wahkka ka) - needle; wa-hi-ka (wahkka) - awl; o-da-ze (odze) - to thread a needle

Dhegiha: wa-hiu-ʰka (wa-hi-ḳa) - an awl [FL-Osage]; wa-hu-ʰka (wahʰka) - fork [CQ-Osage]; wa-hu-ka (wahka) - awl of any sort [Kaw]

 

o-da-ze (odze) - to thread a needle o-bda-ze (obdze) - I, o-ta-ze (ottze) - you, oⁿ-ko-da-za-we (ǫkdazawe) - we

Dhegiha: o-ya-ze (oyze) - push through, thread a needle; to push, as a ring on the finger or as a stick into a ring [Kaw]

 

threaten

i-yi-yaⁿ (yiy̨), i-e oⁿ (i ʔǫ) - promise, threaten, speak of i-yi-maⁿ (yim̨) - I, i-yi-zhaⁿ (yį) - you

cf. i-e (i) - say, talk, speak, word; oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do

ex: i-yi-zhaⁿ (yį) - you speak of it [JOD]

ex: he-be da-ki-kiⁿ ta-tʰe i-yi-zhaⁿ te (hbe dakkʔį ttatʰ yį tte) - you will speak of carrying your share on your back [JOD]

 

three

da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three

da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three [MS, MR, AB, FR, OM]

da-bniⁿ (dā́bne) - three [ASG]

ex: da-bniⁿ za-ni (dbnį zan) - three/all [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ i-maⁿ ke da-bniⁿ za-ni te-wa-de naⁿ, i-ya (ę im̨ ke dbnį zan tʔwade ną, iy) - then he (Rabbit) killed all three of the others, it is said [JOD]

ex: she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte (tto dbnį ̨kit) - boy/three/I have remaining

ex: o-wi-ki ta miⁿ-kʰe, she-to da-bniⁿ aⁿ-ki-shte, she-mi she-to aⁿ-niⁿ-ke (owikki tta mįkʰ tto dbnį ̨kit, semi tto ąnke) - Im going to tell you something, I only have three boys remaining (still alive), I have already lost a boy and a girl [MS]

Dhegiha: tha-bthiⁿ (thbthiⁿ) - three [Omaha/Ponca]; tha-bthiⁿ (thabthiⁿ) - three; trio [Omaha]; tha-bthiⁿ (thbthiⁿ) - three [FL-Osage]; tha-briⁿ (abrį) - three [CQ-Osage]; ya-bliⁿ (ybliⁿ) - three [Kaw]

 

three apiece, by threes

da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - by threes; 3 apiece

cf. da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three; naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną), na-na (-nan) - distributive of numerals

 

three sleeps, Wednesday

da-bni zhoⁿ (dbni ǫ) - Wednesday, three sleeps

da-bni zhoⁿ (dbni ǫ) - Wednesday [MS]

cf. da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - sleep, lie, recline; naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday, lit. two sleeps

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba tha-bthiⁿ (oⁿ-ba thabthiⁿ) - Wednesday, third day [Omaha]; hoⁿ-ba we-tha-bthiⁿ (hⁿ-ba we-tha-bthiⁿ) - Wednesday, the third day [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-pa we-tha-briⁿ (h̨ąpa waabrį) - Wednesday, lit., third day [CQ-Osage]

 

three, just three

da-bni-hi (dabnhi) - only three; just three

cf. da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three; hi (-hi) - very; with numerals: just, only; naⁿ-pa-hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba-hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two; to-wa-hi (towhi) - four only, just four; sa-taⁿ hi (satt̨hi) - just five, only five

 

thrice

hi-da-bniⁿ (hdabn̨) - thrice

cf. da-bniⁿ (dbnį) - three; hi-noⁿ-xtiⁿ (hnǫxtį) - once, one time; hi-naⁿpa-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times; hi-to-wiⁿ (htow̨) - four times; hi-sha-piⁿ (happ̨) - six times; hi-shaⁿ-kiⁿ (h̨kk̨) - nine times; hi-sha-pe-a-kniⁿ (happeakn̨) - sixteen times

 

throat

to-te (ttte) - throat

to-te (ttte) - throat [MS]

ex: ma-kaⁿ ko-i to-te da-kdi-zha miⁿ-kʰe (makk̨ ki ttte dakdi mįkʰ) - gargle my throat, rinsing, washing (with medicine) [MS]

ex: to-te ba-xaⁿ (ttte bxą) - adams apple

ex: to-te i-te-de (ttte itʔde) - strangle someone

ex: to-te o-xi-xi-we (ttte oxxiwe) - windpipe, trachea

ex: to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (ttte wan̨ʔį) - necklace

Dhegiha: nu-de (nde) - the throat, the whole forepart of the neck, including the throat proper and the windpipe [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-de (nude) - throat [Omaha]; do-dse (d-dse) - throat; gullet [FL-Osage]; to-tse (toce) - throat, gullet [CQ-Osage]; do-je (dje) - throat [Kaw]

 

through

a-ki-da-xda-te (kkidaxdtte) - through

ex: a-ki-da-xda-te de (kkidaxdtte d) - to go through

ex: a-ba-xda-te (baxdtte) - he stuck it into (the hair) [JOD]

ex: i-ka-pʰe a-ba-xda-te (kapʰe baxdtte) - comb that is worn in the hair [JOD]

ex: ni-shki-ta a-ba-xda-te i-tʰe-de (niktta baxdtte itʰde) - he stuck it (the pin) into his hair (on the back of the head) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ki-tha-xtha-de (akthaxthade) - through [Omaha]; we-a-ba-xtha-de (webaqthde) - hairpin [Omaha/Ponca]; na-zhi-ha we-ba-xtha-de (nazhha wbaqthde) - hairpin [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ thi-xtha-de (mⁿthiqthde) - an arrow-shaft polisher, made of two stones with a small groove through the middle of the inner surface of each [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ yu-xla-je (mⁿyuxlje) - arrow shaft polisher made of grooved stones [Kaw]

 

through, pierce through

ka-xdo (kaxd) - he got through [JOD]

cf. ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; o-po-xdo (opxdo), o-po-kto (opkto) - shoot through something

ex: ka-ta-te ka-xdo (katttte kaxd d) - he got on the mire/he got through/he went [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ni-tʰe ka-ta-te ka-xdo de (h̨nitʰ katttte kaxd d) - somehow or other he got through (pierced) the mud/mire [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole, to pierce, to punch through [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

through, push through

ba-ki-ki-za (bakkkkiza) - push through a crowd pa-ki-ki-za (ppkkikkza) - I, shpa-ki-ki-za (pkkikkza) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; ki-di-ki-ze (kidikze) - give room, make way, clear out [JOD]; wa-ki-za (wakkza) - space, bare spot; di-ki-ki-za (dikkkkiza) - clean up, put house in order; di-ki-za (dikkza) - clean up, put things away

 

ba-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (baz̨zą) - comb, run fingers through hair pa-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (ppzązą) - I, shpa-zaⁿ-zaⁿ (pzązą) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - pull open, pull apart

Dhegiha: ba-zaⁿ (ba-zⁿ) - to part or separate the grass or undergrowth, in pushing his way through [JOD-Omaha]; ba-za-za (baaa) - section [Omaha]; ba-za-za-be (bazázabe) - push apart into slivers [Kaw]

 

o-da-ze (odze) - to thread a needle o-bda-ze (obdze) - I, o-ta-ze (ottze) - you, oⁿ-ko-da-za-we (ǫkdazawe) - we

ex: wa-hi-ka zhi-ka o-da-ze (wahkka ka odze) - to thread a needle

Dhegiha: o-ya-ze (oyze) - push through, thread a needle; to push, as a ring on the finger or as a stick into a ring [Kaw]

 

through, shoot through something

o-po-xdo (opxdo), o-po-kto (opkto) - shoot through something o-a-po-xdo (opoxdo) - I, o-da-po-xdo (odpoxdo) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching, thrusting; ba-xdo (baxd), ba-xto (baxt) - pierce, stab, perforate; ka-xdo (kaxd), ka-xto (kaxt) - he got through [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-xthu (baxthu) - pierce [Omaha]; ba-xthu (ba-q) - to punch a hole, to pierce, to punch through [JOD-Omaha]; ba-xtho-ge (ba-xth-ge) - to pierce, perforate, punch, make a hole in a piece of leather [FL-Osage]; ba-xlo-ge (baxlge) - pierce, impale, hold with a fork [Kaw]

 

through, split by pulling a knife through

o-di-ste (odste) - split by pulling a knife through o-bdi-ste (obdste) - I, o-ti-ste (ottste) - you

cf. di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers; o-ste (oste) - crack, cracked, split; o-ste-ke (ostke) - crack, split; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; ka-ste-ste-ye (kaststeye) - to have cut to shreds; o-ka-ste (okste) - split something by striking; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

 

throw at and shatter

ka-to-we de-de (kattwe dde) - throw at and shatter a-to-we de-a-de (ttowe dade) - I, da-to-we de-da-de (dttowe dedade) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ka-to-we (kattwe) - shatter, break in pieces; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; ba-to-we (battwe) - break into pieces, cut up; bi-to-we (bittwe) - break, crumble into pieces; da-to-we (dattwe) - chew to pieces; di-to-we (dittwe) - plow, pulverize the soil; we-di-to-we (wdittwe) - plow; naⁿ-to-we (nąttwe) - step on or kick and break something; pa-to-we (pttowe) - cut into large pieces; po-to-we (pttowe) - punch or shoot to pieces; to-wa-de (ttowde) - crumble of its own accord

Dhegiha: ga-tu-be (gtube) - crush [Omaha]; ga-ʰto-be (ga-ṭo-be) - to shatter, to pulverize [FL-Osage]

 

throw away

oⁿ-da (̨da) - throw away

ex: oⁿ-da (̨da) - threw it away [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-da de-da-we (̨da ddawe) - they threw it away [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-da de-da-we (̨da ddawe) - threw it away/they sent it off [JOD

Dhegiha: oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - to forsake, abandon, leave, throw away [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - oust; discard; abandon; discharge; disqualify; desert; abandoned [Omaha]; oⁿ-tha (ⁿ-tha) - to throw away; to dispense [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-tha (̨ǫa) - throw away, throw, leave or quit someone, discard someone or something, toss out [CQ-Osage]

 

oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave oⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I, oⁿ-te (ǫtt) - you, oⁿ-oⁿ-da-we (̨ǫdawe) - we, oⁿ-da-we (ǫdwe) -they

ex: oⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I throw it away [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-a-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-bde naⁿ ho-taⁿ te (̨įtte xw̨ nįkʰ pape ną ǫbd ną httą tte) - well, when I cut out the bad/offensive smelling part and I throw it away, then it will be good [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-de (ǫd) - to throw it away [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-i-te xwiⁿ niⁿ-kʰe pa-shpe naⁿ oⁿ-de naⁿ ho-taⁿ te, i-yi (̨įtte xwį nįkʰe ppe ną ǫd ną httą tte, iy) - well, when the bad/offensive smelling part is cut out and thrown away, then it will be good, he said [JOD]

ex: oⁿ-da-we (ǫdwe) - they threw them away [JOD]

ex: zho-i-ka bdo-ka di-shpa-shpa taⁿ oⁿ-da-we, i-ya (oka bdka dippa attą ǫdwe, iy) - tearing his entire body to pieces and scattering the pieces all around, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: oⁿ-the (̨ǫe) - throw away, discard, leave behind, remove, as from office, quit someone, divorce or separate from [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ-ye (ⁿye) - leave, throw away, abandon, forsake [Kaw]

 

throw away ones own for someone

ki-ki-oⁿ-de (kikkįde) - to throw away ones own for someone

cf. oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave; ki-oⁿ-de de-de (kįde dde) - throw something at someone suddenly

ex: kdi-ze naⁿ ki-ki-oⁿ-de de-de (kdiz ną kkkįd dde) - he took it (his own) and threw it to her [JOD]

ex: ki-ki-oⁿ-de (kikkįde) - she threw away her own for him [JOD]

ex: ki-ki-oⁿ-da de-da-we (kkkįda ddawe) - threw away her own for him/they sent it off [JOD]

ex: to-hi taⁿ-ka kʰe ki-ki-oⁿ-da de-da-we (thi ttąk kʰe kkkįda ddawe) - they threw the large thorn [JOD]

 

throw away suddenly

oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly oⁿ-bde de-a-de (̨bde dad) - I, oⁿ-te de-da-de (̨tte ddad) - you

cf. oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; suddenly, forcibly; throw it off or away

Dhegiha: oⁿ-tha the-the (ⁿtha ththe) - to throw, toss, fling away [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ-tha the-the (oⁿtha thethe) - throw; toss, cast [Omaha]; oⁿ-tha i-the-the (ⁿ-tha i-the-the) - to fling or to toss [FL-Osage]; oⁿ-ye ye-ye (óⁿye yéye) - to throw an object [Kaw]

 

throw back and forth, as the arms when running

oⁿ-de de-da-da (̨de ddad) - throw back and forth, as the arms when running

cf. oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; suddenly, forcibly; throw it off or away; oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly

Dhegiha: oⁿ-tha the-tha-tha (oⁿtha ththatha) - to throw or fling repeatedly [Omaha/Ponca]; a ke aⁿ-tha the-tha-tha ( kĕ ⁿ-a -a-a) - to send off the arms often; to swing the bent arms often in running [JOD-Omaha]

 

throw it away

wa-di-si (wadis) - throw it away, lit. do not save it [JOD]

ex: wa-di-si, ka-xtaⁿ, a-shi-ti aniⁿ hi a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (wadis, kaxt̨, atti an̨ hi att̨ kaxt̨) - throw it away, pour it out, take it outside and pour it out! [JOD]

ex: wa-di-si, e-zhi o-do-hi pa-xe te (wadis, i odhi ppγe tte) - throw it out, I will come up with something different [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-yu-si (wayúsi) - give away belongings at the death of a kinsman [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-si (this) - to give his property at the death of a relation [Omaha/Ponca]; yu-si (yusí) - distribute wealth; give away everything at the death of one of the household or clan [Kaw]

 

throw it off or away

de-de (dde) - to throw it off; he sent it off or thither; he threw it away or off [JOD]

de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go de-a-de (dad) - I, de-da-de (ddad) - you, de-de (ded) - he/she, de-oⁿ-da-we (dędawe) - we, de-da-we (ddawe) - they

ex: oⁿ-de de-de (̨de dde) - throw away suddenly

ex: di-hi de-de (dih dede) - scare off (an animal)

ex: maⁿ de-de (mą dde) - shoot an arrow

ex: chʰo de-de (čʰo dde) - spit, send saliva off

ex: de-a-de (dede) - I sent it off or thither [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-a-de (̨tʰį dede) - I threw the stick/club [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zhi-ka de-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (ką nį wa h ate ka dede k̨-mįkʰ) - so, I urinated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de i-niⁿ-haⁿ, i-da-a-ki-he de-a-de (hąn̨ttą pʰi-kkid inįh̨, idakih dad) - how can I get myself there? I said to him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te pa-xa-taⁿ a-toⁿ-we de-a-de miⁿ-kʰe (it xixtte ppaγ[e]-ttą at̨we dede mįkʰ) - I was peeping out of the corner of my eyes looking at him [JOD]

ex: de-de (dde) - to throw it off; he sent it off or thither; he threw it away or off [JOD]

ex: wa-xo kʰe ni-ka tʰaⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de i-ke (waxʔ kʰe nkka tʰą ̨tʰį dde ik) - the woman told the man to throw the stick/club away/off [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de naⁿ ni-ti chʰo-kʰe hi niⁿ (̨tʰį ded ną ntti čʰokʰ hi nį) - when he threw the stick/club in the water, it made the sound chʰo [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de (̨tʰį dde) - stick, club/to throw it off [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-de (̨tʰį ded) - stick, club/he threw it away or off [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de i-niⁿ-haⁿ, i-ke de-de (hąn̨ttą pʰi-kkid inįh̨, ik dde) - how can I get myself there? he said to him [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals/she did it/when/she looked at him/she sent it off/so she lay awhile/they say [JOD]

ex: maⁿ kʰe de-de (m̨ kʰe dde) - arrow/the lg. ob./he sent it off [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: de-da-we (ddawe) - they sent it off [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-da de-da-we (̨da ddawe) - threw it away/they sent it off [JOD]

ex: ki-ki-aⁿ-da de-da-we (kkįda ddawe) - threw away her own for him/they sent it off [JOD]

ex: de-da (ded) - send/throw it away or off! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da (̨tʰį ded) - club, stick/throw it away or off! [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club/stick there again! she said to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: the-the (ththe) - to cause to go; to send off an object; used as an auxiliary verb [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (theth) - to go this way (in his own footprints, made previously) [Omaha/Ponca]; the-the (the the) - start; send [Omaha]; the-the (ĕ) - send suddenly [JOD-Omaha]; the-the (th-the) - to send; to transmit [FL-Osage]; the-the (ee) - make go, cause to go; send; mail [CQ-Osage]; ye-ye (yéye) - auxiliary verb indicating sudden movement or forceful action; far off, in the distance [Kaw]

 

throw it out!

ba-shoⁿ de-da (bą de-d) - throw it out! [MS]

cf. ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; de-da (ded) - throw it away or off!

Dhegiha: ba-shaⁿ (ba-cⁿ) - to put out of joint, by pushing or punching; to dislocate, as an arm [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashoⁿtha) - pour, dump [Omaha]; ba-shaⁿ-tha (ba-cⁿ-a) - to push a vessel, cup, box, etc., causing the contents to be spilt out [JOD-Omaha]; ba-shoⁿ-tha (ba-shⁿ-tha) - to spill water from a vessel, either by accident or on purpose [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-ba-shoⁿ-tha (bashⁿtha) - push, knock over, spill; to knock over a vessel and spill its contents on someone or something [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-shaⁿ-tha (-ba-cⁿ-a) - to push over a vessel accidentally and empty its contents on a person or on the ground [JOD-Omaha]

 

throw off suddenly

oⁿ-de-de (̨ded) - threw off suddenly

cf. oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave; de (de) - cause to, to cause

ex: oⁿ-de-de (̨ded) - threw off suddenly [JOD]

ex: ta-to-ka niⁿ-kʰe he-be oⁿ-de-de naⁿ, i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (ttatkka nįkʰ hbe ̨ded ną, iy mątʰ) - Grizzly bear suddenly threw the piece of fresh meat (towards Rabbit), it is said [JOD]

 

throw on

a-aⁿ-de (ąde), a-oⁿ-de (ǫde) - to give an illness; communicate a disease a-a-aⁿ-bde (aąbde) - I, a-da-aⁿ-te (daątte) - you, oⁿ-ka-aⁿ-da-we (̨kaądawe) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave

ex: a-wi-aⁿ-bde (wįbde) - I give it (illness) to you

ex: a-di-aⁿ-de (dįde) - he has thrown it on you, he has left his illness with you

ex: aⁿ-da-aⁿ-te (̨daątte) - you have thrown away yours (illness) on me

Dhegiha: a-oⁿ-tha (oⁿtha) - throw, give, to throw something on someone, to give someone a disease [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-oⁿ-the (-ḳi-oⁿ-the) - to throw upon [FL-Osage]

 

a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - throw on [JOD]

a-ka-xtaⁿ (kaxtą) - pour water on, baptize a-a-ka-xtaⁿ (akaxtą) - I, a-da-ka-xtaⁿ (dakaxtą) - you, oⁿ-ka-ka-xtaⁿ-we (ǫkkaxtąwe) - we

cf. a (a) - on, upon; ka-xtaⁿ (kaxt̨) - pour out, empty something

Dhegiha: a-ga-xtoⁿ (gaqtoⁿ) - to drop a liquid on something [Omaha/Ponca]; pe ni a-ga-xtoⁿ (pni agaxtoⁿ) - baptize, anoint [Omaha]; a-ga-xtoⁿ (-ga-xtoⁿ) - to shed tears, to weep [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-xtaⁿ (ga-qtⁿ) - to pour out; to throw away a liquid; to empty a barrel, etc., of grain, sugar, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; ni ga-xtoⁿ (n-ga-xtoⁿ) - to pour water, to spill water [FL-Osage]; ga-xtaⁿ (gaxtⁿ) - pour out, empty out, throw out dirt [Kaw]

 

throw oneself down on

a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨)) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on

cf. a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down; o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (mat̨ke bisątte ̨) - to throw himself down on a rabbit to catch it

Dhegiha: a-bi-soⁿ-de (bisⁿde) - usual meaning is a vulgar one; to catch an object, as a bird, by pressing the hands down on and around it; to press down on, as a chair leg on any object [Omaha/Ponca]; a-bi-soⁿ-dse (-bi-oⁿ-dse) - to press to the ground [FL-Osage]; a-pi-saⁿ (pisą) - mash, push down on, shut, close, hold down [CQ-Osage]; a-bu-saⁿ-je (busaⁿje) - press down on with the hands, as in catching a bird or rabbit; to press or bear hard on, as with a chair leg; to run and jump on something, wrestle [Kaw]; a-ki-bu-saⁿ-je (kbusaⁿje) - to wrestle each other [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - recline, lie, lie down, to sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - day, night, sleep, day, night, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, sleep, night's rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, sleep, recline [Kaw]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - day, a sleep [Kaw]

 

throw something at someone suddenly

ki-oⁿ-de de-de (kįde dde) - throw something at someone suddenly

cf. oⁿ-de (ǫd) - throw away, abandon, leave; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; suddenly, forcibly; throw it off or away

ex: ki-oⁿ-de de-de (kǫde dde) - he threw it suddenly towards his relation [JOD]

ex: ki-oⁿ-de de-de naⁿ, te-xti hi zhaⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te (kǫde dde n̨, tʔxti hi ̨ iy sniwtte) - when he threw it (the head) at him (Winter), Winter laid there stone cold dead, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gi-oⁿ-tha the-the (goⁿtha ththe) - to throw an object against or towards another, not the owner, and to his injury or disadvantage [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ-tha the-the (oⁿtha thethe) - hurt; throw; toss; cast [Omaha]

Dhegiha: gi-oⁿ-tha (giⁿtha) - to abandon, leave, forsake, or throw away his own [Omaha/Ponca]; gi-oⁿ-tha (gioⁿtha) - discharge; disqualify [Omaha]; ki-oⁿ-tha (kioⁿtha) - exclude [Omaha]; ʰki-oⁿ-tha (ḳi-ⁿ-tha) - to throw each other away; divorce [FL-Osage]; gi-oⁿ-tha (gi-ⁿ-tha) - to discharge [FL-Osage]; ʰki-oⁿ-the (ʰkǫe) - divorce, throw each other away [CQ-Osage]

 

throw something down from above

i-ka-sa de-de (kasa ded) - throw something down from above i-da-ka-sa de-a-de (idkasa dade) - I, i-da-ka-sa de-da-de (dakasa dedade) - you

 

throw up, to vomit

kde-we (kdwe) - to vomit a-kde-we (akdwe) - I, da-kde-we (dakdwe) - you, oⁿ-kde-wa-we (ǫkdewawe) - we

cf. i-kde-we (kdewe) - vomit up, vomit because of

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-kde-we naⁿ (mat̨ke kdewe ną) - rabbit/vomited him up/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke i-kde-we naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi wadxow nįkʰ mat̨ke kdewe ną, iy) - then the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth vomited Rabbit up, it is said [JOD]

ex: we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ (wkdewa ną) - vomited him not up/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (etthi dixi wadxow nįkʰ wkdewa ną, iy) - at that time the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth did not vomit him up, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthe-be (gthbe) - to vomit [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-be (gthbe) - vomit; gag; throw up [Omaha]; gthe-be (gth-be) - to vomit; retch; spew [FL-Osage]; le-pe (lpe) - vomit [CQ-Osage]; le-be (lébe) - to vomit [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-gthe-be (gthebe) - to vomit on account of something [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: we-gthe-be (wgthebe) - to vomit on account of them; to vomit them up [Omaha/Ponca]

 

throwing, fail in throwing or striking

ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking a-iⁿ-zhi (įi) - I, da-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - you, oⁿ-ka-iⁿ-wa-zhi (ǫkįwa) - we

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; zhi (-i) - negative, not; ba-iⁿ-zhi (bąi) - fail or miss pushing at something; bi-iⁿ-zhi (bįi) - fail/miss pressing/blowing; da-iⁿ-zhi (dąi) - fail using the mouth, voice; di-iⁿ-zhi (dįi) - fail in pulling, rowing, etc.; ka-iⁿ-zhi (kąi) - fail in throwing or striking; naⁿ-iⁿ-zhi (ną̨i) - fail in walking or with machine; pa-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - fail in cutting or sawing; po-iⁿ-zhi (pįi) - to be unsuccessful shooting or punching; ta-iⁿ-zhi (tįi), (ttįi) - fail in cooking, as when fire is not hot enough

Dhegiha: ga-iⁿ-ba-zhi (ga-ⁿ-ba-zhi) - failure to chop wood because the ax is dull [FL-Osage]; ga-iⁿ-ba-zhe (gaⁿbazhe) - fail in chopping; fail in throwing, to fail in chopping wood with a dull ax that does not cut at all; to be unsuccessful in throwing [Kaw]

 

 

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