English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

then

e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length

e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then or at length, and, and then [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time [JOD]; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: e-shoⁿ, hoⁿ da-tʰaⁿ-she, i-ke-ya-we i-ya (ę, h̨ datʰ̨e, keywe iy) - then, the others said to him, what is the matter with you? it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe, iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ o-kʰe a-da-shtaⁿ-taⁿ (ę okʰ datąttą) - and when he stopped talking to him....

ex: e-shoⁿ e-ti pa-ze he-be hi a-kde (ę ett ppze hbe h akd) - so already (that) evening I started home

ex: e-shaⁿ e-ti shi-a-pe da-we (ą ett ipe dwe) - then or at length/there/ashore/they went [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te, te paⁿ-ze, e-shaⁿ kde xa-da (̨įtte, tʔ pp̨ze, ą kd xda) - well, I pretended to be dead, then he went back again [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - still, yet; at all events, at any rate; and so; thus [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - by and by, after awhile, eventually [Kaw]

 

e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time, then [JOD]

cf. e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eǫh nąh̨ ik h t̨ ną) - then, after some time, she grew a little larger (a little older) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi aⁿ-kniⁿ (kįttą eǫh ąkn̨) - then after awhile we camped [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ-hi wa-zhiⁿ-ka zho-hi hi te-da-we (ęhi wąka hi h tʔdawe) - after some time, they killed many birds [JOD]

ex: ni o-ha naⁿ kde e-shoⁿ-hi ki i-ya-we (n oh ną kd ǫhi k iywe) - she followed the course of the stream/water heading home, after some time she reached home, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - still, yet; at all events, at any rate; and so; thus [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - by and by, after awhile, eventually [Kaw]

 

e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time, and then, then at length

cf. e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length; e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time, then [JOD]; e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then I only brought back (my own) this little girl [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ da-i ke o-wa-di-bnaⁿ de (ęttą da ke wadbną d) - then he smelled where they went [JOD]

 

e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then

cf. e-shaⁿ (ą), e-shoⁿ (ę) - then, at length; e-shaⁿ-hi (eąh) - at length, after some time, then [JOD]; e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time, and then

ex: e-shoⁿ-we e-ti-tʰaⁿ (ęwe etttʰą) - and from then on

 

e-ti (tti), (ett) - there, then

ex: e-ti, maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - then, sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - then, the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - then, the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: e-ti sha-ke hi e-ti niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, ma-xe-ka a-niⁿ zha-zhe, ka-hi-ke (tti ʔke h ett nįkʰe n̨, mxeka an̨ e, kahke) - then/old/very/was sitting there/past sign/maxeka/he had/name/chief [JOD]

ex: e-ti pe-tʰe-ti pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde a-niⁿ tʰi taⁿ te-ska i-niⁿ-ha i-ki-kda-naⁿ-we (tti petʰtti ppexta ̨abetʰ̨ o kikdkde an̨ tʰ tą ttesk inįh kikd-ną-we) - then/in summer/flour/barrel/filled/set up in a row/brought here/when/cattle/too/they divided among themselves [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di (di), (ed) - by, at, in, to; there; thither; said of time as well as place: then, when; used in making an assertion: it is there [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di (edi) - there; over there; at [Omaha]; e-dsi (e-ds) - there [FL-Osage]; e-tsi (ec) - be present here/there, exist here/there; be at that time; and, plus [CQ-Osage]; e-ji (ejí), (éji) - there, in that place; to that place, thither [Kaw]

 

e-ti-hi (etthi) - then, at that time [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid tʰą ną, iy) - then, at that time, he (Rabbit) made him (Rabbits son) do it repeatedly, it is said [JOD]

 

e-ti e-zha (tti a) - and then [JOD]

e-te-zha (etta) - then [JOD]

ex: e-te-zha (etta) - then [JOD]

ex: e-te-zha shoⁿ-zhi-ka ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (etta ̨ik kkikn̨wi) - then they put their pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-zha (tti a) - and then [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-zha do-taⁿ naⁿ-hi de niⁿ (tti a dttą nąh de nį) - and then he was going straight all by himself [JOD]

 

e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą), e-ti-taⁿ (etttą) - thence, subsequently [JOD]

e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on, from that

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą waxʔ ik nį diʔ) - then the old woman gave out [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-naⁿ-pa niⁿ di-sha (etttʰą nąp͓ nį diʔ) - then the second one gave out [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ i-da-bniⁿ di-sha (etttʰą dabnį diʔ) - then the third one gave out [JOD]

ex: wi-taⁿ-niⁿ hi wa-te-paⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe, e-ti-tʰaⁿ o-kda-xa-xa-we ka! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wttąnį hi wattpp̨ tta mįkʰ etttʰą okdxʔaxʔ-we k iwke iy mat̨ke tʰą) - I will give the attack cry first, immediately afterward you must give the scalp yell, the rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ko-e-kde i-ya-we, wa-xo niⁿ (etttʰą kokde iywe, waxʔ nį) - then the woman started to run, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ko-e-kde i-ya-we, maⁿ-te kʰe a-ki-ki-a-naⁿ, i-ya-we (etttʰą kokde iywe, mątt kʰe kikkiną, iywe) - then she started to run, she ran/raced back towards her canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ni shi-a-pʰe a-shka ki, i-ya-we (etttʰą ni ipʰe ka k, iywe) - thence/water/shore/near/reached there again/they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di-taⁿ (edtaⁿ) - thence [JOD-Omaha]; e-dsi-toⁿ (e-ds-toⁿ) - thence; from that place [FL-Osage]

 

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (h̨tʰąhi), haⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi (h̨tʰąhi) - then, at length, and then or accordingly

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi o-kda-xa-xa-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi, nkkaka hi hi okdxʔaxʔwe, iy) - then, a great many people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was nįkʰ) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they said) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ nįkʰ, iy) - then the rabbit sat there, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi maⁿ-te kdi-ze naⁿ e-ti de i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨tʰąhi m̨tte kdze-ną tti d iy matįke) - then, after some time, rabbit took his bow and went there, it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi e-ti h-naⁿ-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi tti h-ną-w, iy) - then when they (the hunting party) arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa ta-i ni-ha wa-hi ke wa-ska-ha h ke naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp tʔa nih wah ke waskha h ke ną, iy) - and then (when the Rabbit had gone very far into the Hill) there lay a long line of whitened bones of some of the people who had been first to arrive there and had died, it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka a-na-hi-te-xti taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa i-ya, kaxn̨ (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka anhittxti tt̨į-hi-pp iy, kaxn̨) - then a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight [JOD]

 

koi-she-taⁿ (koittą) - then at last; and [JOD]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ o-da-ki-de ki-ha taⁿ ka-xdi (koittą odkide kih tą kaxd) - when he (haⁿ-kas son) finally finished telling him (rabbit), he (rabbit) struck and killed him (haⁿ-kas son) [JOD]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ naⁿ-zha o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha i-ya-we (koittą nąa dotʰe tʰi kih iywe) - and/then/man eater/had come/already/they say [JOD]

 

koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, and then, now; despite, notwithstanding

koi-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]

koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ wa-koⁿ-da naⁿ, i-ya (kį wkkǫd ną, iy) - then he attacked the game, it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ te kiⁿ kde ta-i o-da-ke de naⁿ, i-ya (kį tt kʔį kd ttai dake d ną, iy) - then he (Rabbit) went to tell them (Grizzly bears household) they will pack the buffalo home, it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ wa-she-xti zho-ki-kde ti-kde ke naⁿ, i-ya (kį wa-xti kikde ttkde k ną, iy) - and then they lived very prosperously together, it is said [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ e-ti de naⁿ, i-ya (kiǫ tti d ną, iy) - and then he went there, it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-tʰo zhi-ka ni-kʰa to-wa ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (kį mątʰ ka nikʰa twa nikʰa ną, iy) - now there were four young Grizzly bears (at the home of the Grizzly bear), it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so (were)/3rd pl./past sign [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so they did (in the past), they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, ti-aⁿ-ti we-da-niⁿ pa naⁿ (kiǫ pp ną, ttįtti wdanį pp ną) - that is how they did/were, in the olden times, thats how they dressed [JOD]

 

koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), (kįtta), (kiǫttą) - so, thus, accordingly, in that way, then, therefore

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, a-shi-ti hi, i-ya, wa-sa niⁿ (kįttą, itti h, iy, was nį) - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

 

naⁿ-zha (n̨a) - then [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: hi naⁿ naⁿ-zha haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke o-te naⁿ, i-ya-we (h ną n̨a h̨ka ęke ott ną, iywe) - then when he arrived he looked for (sought) Haⁿ-kas son, they said [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: koi-she-taⁿ naⁿ-zha o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha i-ya-we (koittą nąa dotʰe tʰi kih iywe) - and/then/man eater/had come/already/they say [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha a-shi o-a-te naⁿ taⁿ-iⁿ tʰi (n̨a i oatt ną tt̨̨ tʰi) - then when I looked back (searching), he appeared in sight, he had come [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha di-o-za hi o-xde (n̨a diza h oxd) - then in a very short time he overtook her [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha o-di-o-za hi o-do-tʰe tʰi ki-ha (n̨a diza h dotʰe tʰ kih) - then, in a very short time the man eater had come [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de, iywe) - then he found/saw him, they said, after he had sought him for some time, he found/saw him, they said [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ, i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨, iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo niⁿ kde, i-ya-we, nika ti-te-ki-de kʰe ki-kiⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ kde, i-ya-we (kįttą n̨a waxʔ nį kd, iywe, nkka tttekid kʰe kkʔį ̨ttą kd, iywe) - then the woman started homeward, they say, when she had cooked her husband, she started home packing him on her back, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo zhi-ka shi-zhi-ka zho-wa-ki-kde wa-kda-niⁿ hi taⁿ a-di-xe (kįttą n̨a waxʔ ik nįkʰ ika wakkde wkdanį h tą adiγ) - and then the old woman married him, she took her children along with her [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha shi-naⁿ o-niⁿ-hi a-ba-zo i-ya-we (n̨a in̨ onįh abaz iywe) - then/again/directly opposite/pointed/they say [JOD]

 

to-kʰe-tʰaⁿ (tokʰtʰaⁿ) - they were there then [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi to-kʰe-tʰaⁿ (skka tt̨ka hi h tokʰtʰaⁿ) - there were many turkeys there then [JOD]

 

then, but then

e-tte e-hi (tʰe hi) - well, but then [JOD]

ex: e-te e-hi, i-ye naⁿ-hi (tte hi, iye nąh) - well, but then, is all she said [JOD]

 

then, from then on

e-shoⁿ-we e-ti-tʰaⁿ (ęwe etttʰą) - and from then on

cf. e-shoⁿ-we (ęwe) - then; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą), e-ti-taⁿ (etttą) - thence, subsequently; from then on

 

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on

cf. e-toⁿ (ett̨) - therefore; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on; thence, subsequently

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ, sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (ttǫtttʰą, sniwtte h-i ną, iy) - Therefore, from that time on, it has not been very cold, it is said (before that it was much colder than it is now, now we have the female Winter) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-doⁿ-e-di-tʰoⁿ (doⁿedtʰoⁿ) - therefore, consequently [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-doⁿ (e-dⁿ) - therefore [FL-Osage]; e-taⁿ (tą) - therefore [CQ-Osage]; e-daⁿ (édaⁿ) - so, therefore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-dsi-toⁿ (e-ds-toⁿ) - thence; from that place [FL-Osage]; e-ji-khaⁿ (ejíkhaⁿ) - there, from, thither, from that place [Kaw]

 

then, now and then

tʰi-da-da (tʰidda) - start now and then to do something a-tʰi-bda-bda (atʰbdabd) - I, da-tʰi-ta-ta (datʰttatt) - we, tʰi-oⁿ-da-da-we (tʰįdadaw) - we

cf. tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by, come forth at birth, to begin suddenly; tʰi-kde (tʰikd) - become suddenly; tʰi-kda-kda (tʰkdakd) - repeat a sudden action, they begin suddenly now and then; tʰi-he (tʰih) - becomes in a lg. line; to have become suddenly

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-da-da naⁿ (tt̨nį tʰidda ną) - to run/starting often/regularly [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to maⁿ-di-taⁿ pi-oⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-da-da naⁿ e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto mądttą ppį tt̨nį tʰidda ną kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like a boy that knows how to pull a bow well and begins to run now and then for short distances, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰi-tha-tha (tʰiththa) - beginning suddenly now and then; beginning suddenly and repeatedly [Omaha/Ponca]

 

i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi (ye dan̨nąi) - speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then [JOD]

cf. i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; da-shnaⁿ-zhi (dan̨i) - talk correctly

ex: i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa (ye dan̨nąi-pp) - speak very plainly, making no mistakes now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

i-ye tʰi-kda-kda (ye tʰkdakd) - begin to speak suddenly to one another now and then [JOD]

cf. i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; tʰi-kda-kda (tʰkdakd) - repeat a sudden action, they begin suddenly now and then; tʰi-kde (tʰikd) - become suddenly

ex: o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa (okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa) - talking to one another/to speak/they begin suddenly now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ koⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kk̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - my child, I wish that you would become like children who begin to speak suddenly to one another. it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

 

there

e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: e-ta de-de o-ka-xde (ett dde okxde) - face the other way

ex: e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side

ex: e-ta-ha (ettah) - over there [JOD]

ex: e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite

ex: e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

ex: e-ta-ko-iⁿ-xe hi (ettkįγe hi) - he came around to him [JOD]

ex: e-ta te-ta (ett ttetta) - at or on the right side, may just be side

ex: e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

 

e-ti (tti), (ett) - there, then

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨) - there/alone/she was standing so awhile [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-ti zhoⁿ-wi (ett ̨wi) - they (the two of them) laid down there [JOD]

ex: e-ti da-tʰe shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-niⁿ da-we (tti datʰ ̨-nįkʰ tt̨nį dwe) - he sat there eating (the puppy) while they ran away [JOD]

ex: e-ti shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-da-bniⁿ tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti ̨ik dabnį tʰą kkikn̨wi) - there, they put their third pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (et omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age there

ex: e-ti o-i-he (tti ih) - follow, go with, attend

ex: e-ti-hi (etthi) - at that time

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - thence, subsequently, from then on

ex: e-ti e-zha (tti a) - and then [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di (di), (ed) - by, at, in, to; there; thither; said of time as well as place: then, when; used in making an assertion: it is there [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di (edi) - there; over there; at [Omaha]; e-dsi (e-ds) - there [FL-Osage]; e-tsi (ec) - be present here/there, exist here/there; be at that time; and, plus [CQ-Osage]; e-ji (ejí), (éji) - there, in that place; to that place, thither [Kaw]

 

there he is

she iⁿ ( į) - there he is

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; iⁿ (į) - oral stop, period

ex: she iⁿ ( į) - that visible thing/period [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e, į, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - grandmother! there he is, said the rabbit [JOD]

Dhegiha: she (she) - that way, that course or direction; that [Omaha/Ponca]; she (ce) - that way or course; that: refers to an object in sight of or near the speaker and the one addressed [JOD-Omaha]; she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - there; that one [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (e) - that, that one near you; here near you; there near you, there (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); him/her/it (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

 

there is none

ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I, di-ni-ke (dinke) - you

niⁿ-ke (nik͓) - none [JOD]

ex: ni niⁿ-ke (ni nįk) - no water [JOD]

ex: wa-niⁿ-ke-hi-we (wan̨kehiw) - we have none at all [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were lacking [JOD]

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk [MS]

ex: ni-ke hi (nik h) - there is none [OM]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿge) - blank, obsolete, zero, vanish, nothing, none, erosion, absent, lack [Omaha]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿ́-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

there, arrive or reach there

hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been pʰi (pʰi) - I, shi (i) - you, hi (h) - he/she/it, hi-we (hwe) - they, aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi), oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we, I and one other, aⁿ-ka-hi-we (ąkhiwe) - we

hi (hi) - come, be coming here (not own)

cf. a-kda-niⁿ hi (akdnį hi) - to come hither with ones own; a-ki-hi (akih) - he went thither for it [JOD]; a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone; a-niⁿ hi (an̨ hi) - take it thither [JOD]; e-ta-koiⁿ-xe hi (ettkoįγe hi) - he came around to him; i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place; hi-kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there; ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived sg/mv/an, the one who has reached; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to come to and sit, to reach/arrive and sit, to get into and sit [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - to have been there, to have reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - to arrive [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; hi (hi) - to arrive at a place [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there (motion accomplished), come here, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, get (e.g., get old), become, begin to, start to, suddenlt start to; initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu (hu) - to be coming to this place [FL-Osage]; hu (h), a-hu (ah) - come here (motion underway); initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - come to a place that is not ones own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

pʰi (pʰi) - I arrive, reach there, have been

ex: pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (pʰi anih, iy iy mat̨ke) - so I have been coming here, replied the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD)]

ex: pʰi a-ni-he naⁿ pa-ze de taⁿ a-kniⁿ (pʰ anhe n̨ ppaz d tą akn̨) - I was coming/I who move/when/after dark/when/I camped [JOD]

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰ a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xda te a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: she-mi-zhi-ka a-kda-bniⁿ pʰi (mika akdbnį pʰ) - I came here with my little girl [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ pʰi-a-ki-de (hǫn̨ttą pʰi-kid) - how can I get myself there (cause myself to reach there) [JOD]

ex: a-ki-pʰi (akpʰi) - I reached there, having gone for it; I went there for it [JOD]

Dhegiha: pi (p) - I arrive, I have been coming [JOD-Omaha]; pshi (pshi), pshi e (pshi e) - I went, I have been [FL-Osage]; pshi (p), pshi-e (pe) - I went, I be there [CQ-Osage]

phi (phi) - I arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pshu (p) - I come [CQ-Osage]; phu (phu) - I come to a place that is not my own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

shi (i) - you arrive, reach there, have been

ex: ha-ki shi e (hki i e) - where have you been? [MS]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ (ę i ek̨) - yet/you reached there/as [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawĕ, iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi (wdakitt̨ ) - you took it thither for some one [JOD]

ex: he-be wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya (hbe wdakitt̨ ąm̨, iy iy) - I think that you took a piece for someone, it is said he said.

Dhegiha: shi (shi) - you have been there, you reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; shi (shi) - you went [FL-Osage]; shi (i), shi-e (e) - you went, you come, you arrive [CQ-Osage]; shi (shi) - you [Kaw]

Dhegiha: shu (), tha-hiu (ah́) - you come [CQ-Osage]; shu (shu) - you come to a place that is your own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

hi ni-he (h-nih) - you come (imperative)

ex: hi ni-he (h-nih) - come thou!; you come! [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (h), hi (hi), a-hi (ah) - you come (imperative) [CQ-Osage]

 

hi (h) - he/she/it arrive, reach there, have been

ex: a-shi-ti hi naⁿ (itti h-ną) - outside of the lodge/arrived there/when

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ a-shi-ti hi naⁿ (waxʔik nį itti h-ną) - when the old woman went outside [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi (itti hi) - he/she arrived outside; he/she went outside

ex: ka-sa-ni-a-ti e zhiⁿ-ka tʰaⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya-we (ksaniti e įk tʰą itti h iywe) - the next morning, that little/young one went outside, they said [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi te-ti ti-zhe o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (itti hi tti tte okkixe-xti e iy mat̨ke nį) - the rabbit went outside, he defecated all around the entrance of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti hi o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke te-de i-ya wa-sa (itti hi otąka hi tą mat̨ke tʔede iy was) - just as soon as the black bear went outside, the rabbit shot the black bear, giving him a fatal wound, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ, i-ya (kiǫttą itti hi iy was nį, iy) - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi-naⁿ (tti h-ną) - there/arrive/usually [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti hi-naⁿ wa-da-xo-we-naⁿ iⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (nkkaka tti h-ną wadxow-ną ̨, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - when people go there, it always draws them into its mouth, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi-naⁿ (tti h-ną) - there/arrived/when [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti hi-naⁿ, di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we i-ba-hoⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke tti h-ną, dixi wadxow bahǫ n̨, iy) - when rabbit arrived there, hill that draws things (people) into its mouth knew him, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ (tti h ną) - there/arrived/past sign

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (tti h ną iy mątʰ) - grizzly bear arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi (tti h) - he/she arrived there, he went there

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ di-shpa-shpa ke (tti hi ną dippa ke) - when she arrived there, the torn pieces were scattered about [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ zho-kde e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya (waxʔik nį okd tti hi ną iy) - the old woman accompanied him as he went there, it is said (they say) [JOD)]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tą) - as soon as day arrived, as soon as the day broke [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ba o-taⁿ-ka hi taⁿ o-da-kda-xa-xa ta-i i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ba ot̨ka hi tt̨ odkdaxʔxʔa ta iwke iy mat̨ke) - as soon as day arrives, youall will give the scalp yell, rabbit said to them, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there [JOD]

ex: e she-mi i-ta-de taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ ka-i-she-taⁿ hi taⁿ e-hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe te ( mi ttad tą nąh̨ ik h tą k-itą h tą eh̨ nįkʰ tʔe) - when the girl that was born reached puberty her mother died [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

ex: hi naⁿ naⁿ-zha haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke o-te naⁿ i-ya-we (h ną n̨a h̨ka ęke ott ną iywe) - then when he arrived he looked for (sought) Haⁿ-kas son, they said [JOD]

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi (nįkʰtti h) - to the sitting object/arrived [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi sni-wa-te niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi sniwtte nįkʰtti h, iy) - after some time he arrived at the abode of the Winter, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhi-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka eke kid-i k tą h) - then/to dance/there/they went/the pl./chief/large/his son/they took part with (=danced)/the pl. when/she arrived [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe taⁿ hi i-ya-we (hipʰ kʰ tą h iywe) - she had fallen when he arrived, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke o-zhoⁿ-ke e-ki-zhi o-ha hi (wah̨nįke ǫke eki oh h) - the orphan arrived following along a different road [JOD]

ex: zhoⁿ di-ze hi, i-ya-we (̨ dze h, iywe) - she went to get wood, they said [JOD]

ex: he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ (hbe kinį h n̨) - part/he took thither for him/the moving one [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ maⁿ-ʰto zhi-ka niⁿ he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ę mątʰ ik n̨ hbe kinį h n̨ ną, iy) - then the young grizzly bear took a piece for him (rabbit), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti mi-ka niⁿ maⁿ-shka da-tʰe hi niⁿ naⁿ (ett mikk nį m̨ka dtʰe hi n̨ ną) - raccoon arrived there and ate crawfish [JOD]

ex: ti-zhe ti hi na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ xa-ke koⁿ-ze tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tte-tt-hi ną-att̨ γak kǫz tʰą n̨ iy matįke) - the rabbit arrived to the entrance of the lodge and stood there, pretending cry, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe hi-naⁿ (m̨tʰe h-ną) - within/arrived/when [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we o-kdo-xa maⁿ-tʰe hi-naⁿ i-ki-aⁿ-shki-ka-naⁿ, i-ya (dixi wadxow okdxʔa m̨tʰe h-ną kiąkik-ną, iy) - hill that draws things (people) into its mouth felt very uncomfortable throughout its interior, on account of him (rabbit) arriving inside, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - he/she arrived, he reach there [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ah) - he/she arrive there [JOD-Omaha]; hi (hi) - he arrive [FL-Osage]; hi-pe (hpe) - its arrived [CQ-Osage]; a-hi-pe (ahpe) - he came [CQ-Osage]; a-hi-be (ahbe) - he/she/it arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hu (h) - its coming [CQ-Osage]; a-hu-be (ahube) - he/she/it come to a place that is not its own [Kaw]

 

hi-we (hwe), hi-wi (hwi), hi-pa (hi-pp) - they arrive, reach there, have been

ex: hi-we o-da, i-ya-we i-ya (hiw od, iywe iy) - they (black bears) said, theyve arrived, tell it! it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa za-ni hi a-shi-ti hi-we, i-ya (was zan hi itti hwe, iy) - all of the black bears came outside, (of their lodges), it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa be-ni-zhi e-ti hi-we, i-ya (was bniji ĕ́ti hwĕ, iy) - everyone of the black bears went there, (to the lodge were the rabbit was), it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: e-ti h-naⁿ-we (tti h-ną-w) - there/they arrived in the past [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi e-ti h-naⁿ-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi tti h-ną-w, iy) - then when they (the hunting party) arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti h-naⁿ-we shi-naⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe i-ka-naⁿ, i-ya (tti h-ną-w ną dixi wadxow nįkʰ ka-ną, iy) - when they reached the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth, again it opened its mouth, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi-wi naⁿ (tti hwi n̨) - there/they arrived there/when [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa (nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp) - people/they first/arrived/the mv. objects [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa ta-i ni-ha wa-hi ke wa-ska-ha h ke naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp tʔa nih wah ke waskha h ke ną, iy) - and then (when the Rabbit had gone very far into the Hill) there lay a long line of whitened bones of some of the people who had been first to arrive there and had died, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-hi-bi (ah-bi) - they reached the place, they arrived there [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi-be (ahibe) - they arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-hu a-pa (ah apa), a-hu a-pai (ah apa) - they come [CQ-Osage]; a-hu-be (ahube) - they come to a place that is not their own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi), oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we, I and one other

ex: aⁿ-ka-hi tai, wa-xo zhi-ka i-ki-e niⁿ (ąkhi ta, waxʔ-ik ik nį) - we will arrive there/we will go, the old woman was saying to him [JOD]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-hi (aghi) - we reach, we arrive [JOD-Omaha]; aⁿ-ka-hi (ąkhi) - we (I and one other) went, weve been there [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-hi-be (aⁿghibe) - we arrive, reach there [Kaw]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ga-hu-be (aⁿgahube) - we come to a place that is not our own, be coming here [Kaw]

 

there, arrive or reach there having gone for something

a-ki-hi (akih) - reach there having gone for something

cf. a-ki-de (akde) - go for something not ones own; fetch; a-ki-kdi (kikd) - bring back, brought back [JOD]; a-ki-tʰi (aktʰi) - to have arrived here to get someones

ex: a-ki-pʰi (akpʰi) - I reached there, having gone for it [JOD]

ex: a-ki-niⁿ kda-i taⁿ, a-ki-de aⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ naⁿ, a-ki-pʰi, a-ki-bniⁿ a-kdi (kin̨ kdi tą, akde ̨kaį ną, akpʰi, kibnį akd) - they took it from him, he told me to go get it, I went there for it, I brought it back to him [JOD]

ex: a-ki-hi (akih) - he went thither for it [JOD]

ex: ni a-ki-hi (n aki h) - he went there for water [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-hi (a-g-hi) - to reach there, not his home, in order to get something not his own [JOD-Omaha]; a-gi-hi (a-g-hi) - he has been after something [FL-Osage]; a-gu-hi (águ hi) - arrive there to get something that is not ones own [Kaw]; a-gu-hu (águ hú) - be coming here (to a place not ones own home) to get something that is not ones own [Kaw]

 

there, arrive there

e-ti hi (ett hi) - arrive there e-ti pʰi (ett pʰi) - I, e-ti shi (ett i) - you, e-ti hi (ett hi) - he/she, e-ti aⁿ-ka-hi (ett ąkhi) - we, e-ti hi-we (ett hwe), e-ti hi-wi (ett hwi) - they

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been

ex: e-ti hi (tti hi) - there/arrive; there/arrived; there/arrived there [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe ti e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (was kahke niⁿkʰe ti tti hi ną iy mat̨ke) - rabbit arrived there, to where the black bear chief resides, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ zho-kde e-ti hi naⁿ, i-ya (waxʔik nį okd tti hi ną, iy) - the old woman arrived there with him, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ, di-shpa-shpa ke (tti hi ną, dippa ke) - when she arrived there, the torn pieces were scattered about [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti hi-naⁿ, di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we i-ba-hoⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke tti h-ną, dixi wadxow bahǫ n̨, iy) - when Rabbit arrived there, Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth knew him, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e-ti hi-naⁿ wa-da-xo-we-naⁿ iⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe (nkkaka tti h-ną wadxow-ną ̨, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ) - when people go there, it always draws them into its mouth, it is said the old woman said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo niⁿ e-ti hi naⁿ, i-ya (mątʰ nį tti hi ną, iy) - the Grizzly bear arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (tti h ną iy mątʰ) - Grizzly bear arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi-we (tti hwe), e-ti hi-wi (tti hwi) - there/they arrived there; there/they arrived there [JOD]

ex: wa-sa be-ni-zhi e-ti hi-we, i-ya (was bnii tti hwe, iy) - everyone of the black bears went there (to the lodge where the rabbit was), it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we, i-ya, i-we-ke, i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw, iy, iwke, iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - it is said that a great many people went to the black bear principal chief and there they killed him, the rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti h-naⁿ-we (tti h-ną-w) - there/they arrived in the past [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi e-ti h-naⁿ-we, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi tti h-ną-w, iy) - then when they (the hunting party) arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti h-naⁿ-we shi-naⁿ di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe i-ka-naⁿ, i-ya (tti h-ną-w ną dixi wadxow nįkʰ ka-ną, iy) - when they reached the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth, again it opened its mouth, it is said [JOD]

 

there, arrived or reached there

e-ti kʰi (ett kʰi) - arrived or returned there, to ones own

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; kʰi (kʰi) - arrive back at ones own

ex: e-ti kʰi (tti kʰ) - there/reached home [JOD]

ex: sni-wa-te e-ti kʰi, i-ya (sniwtte tti kʰ, iy) - Winter had returned there, to his home, it is said [JOD]

 

e-ti ki (ett ki) - arrived or returned there again

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; ki (ki) - be returning to here

ex: e-ti ki (ett ki) - there/reached again [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, pa-ze he-be taⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti ki, i-ya (h̨tʰąh, ppze heb tą, mat̨ke ett ki, iy) - after a while, when it was dusk, Rabbit returned there (to Winters home), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti ki naⁿ (tti ki) - there/reached there again [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ e-ti ki naⁿ, i-ya (ę ęke nį tti ki ną, iy) - then his son arrived there (to the place of the slaughter), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti ki (tti k) - there/reached again [JOD]

ex: e-ti ki naⁿ, i-ya (tti k ną, iy) - he arrived there (at the lodge of the Grizzly bear), it is said [JOD]

 

there, at or to that place

she-ta (tta) - there, at or to that place

cf. she () - that; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: she-ta da-kʰi-kniⁿ naⁿ (tta dakʰknį n̨) - return thither and take your seat!

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d! iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first! I will join you later on

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi tta ǫkatʰ̨), a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: she (she) - that way, that course or direction; that [Omaha/Ponca]; she (ce) - that way or course; that: refers to an object in sight of or near the speaker and the one addressed [JOD-Omaha]; she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - there; that one [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (e) - that, that one near you; here near you; there near you, there (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); him/her/it (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

there, cause to arrive there

hi-kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there hi-a-kʰi-de (hakʰide) - I, hi-da-kʰi-de (hdakʰide) - you

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; kʰi-de (kʰide), (kʰde) - cause to

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - to have been there, to have reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - to arrive [JOD-Omaha]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; hi (hi) - to arrive at a place [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there (motion accomplished), come here, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, get (e.g., get old), become, begin to, start to, suddenlt start to; initial a is often omitted, regularly so with 1st singular and second person subject [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

 

there, go over there!

she-do (ed) - get out of the way!, imperative function

she-do (ed) - get away! [MS]

cf. she-do (do) - yonder, there

Dhegiha: she-thu (shthu) - in that place which you see: there near you, or there where you are [Omaha/Ponca]; she-thu (sh-thu) - yonder, there where you are [FL-Osage]; she-tho (eeo), she-thoⁿ (eę) - there where you are, right there where you are, that person there [CQ-Osage]; she-yo (shy) - there in the distance, yonder [Kaw]

 

there, go there

e-ti de (tti de) - go there e-ti bde (tti bd) - I; e-ti te (tti tt) - you; e-ti de (tti d) - he/she; e-ti aⁿ-ka-da-we (tti ąkdawe) - we; e-ti da-we (tti dwe), e-ti da-wi (tti dwi), e-ti da-i (tti da) - they

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; de (de) - go

ex: e-ti bde (tti bd) - there/I go [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e-taⁿ? e-ti bde te, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨ett̨? tti bd tt, nį̨ iy mat̨ke) - why is this? I will go there, thought Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha! (tti tt nah!) - there/you go/beware lest! [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha! i-ke naⁿ, i-ya (tti tt nah! ik ną, iy) - beware lest you go there! she said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha! i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah! idsisike hi ttai ed) - you do not go there! They will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha! i-he naⁿ (tti tt nah! ih ną) - you do not go there! Ive been saying [JOD]

ex: e-ti de (tti d) there/went [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-ti de naⁿ wa-koⁿ-da naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ę tti d-ną wkkǫd-ną iy mat̨ke) - then Rabbit went there and attacked the game, it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi maⁿ-te kdi-ze naⁿ e-ti de i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (h̨tʰąhi m̨tte kdze ną tti d iy mat̨ke) - then, after some time, rabbit took his bow and went there, it is said [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ e-ti de naⁿ, i-ya (kiǫ tti d ną, iy) - and then he went there, it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti de naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke ett d ną, iy) - and so it happened that Rabbit went there, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti da (tti d) - go there!

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da, a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d, iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first! and I will join you later on

ex: di-e e-ti da (de ett d) - you go! (you go there!) [MS]

ex: e-ti da, iⁿ-knaⁿ (tti d, įkną) - first son, you go there! [JOD]

ex: e-ti da (tti d) - there/go thou! [JOD]

ex: di-te-ke wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe ta e-ti da! (dtteke was niⁿkʰe tta tti d!) -  go to your uncle, the black bear! [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, di-a-te da-ni-a-ki-da-na-zhiⁿ tʰe e-ti da, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (ę, ditte dnikidanį tʰe tti d, iy iy mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - then, it shall be your duty to go and fetch water for your father, it is said the Rabbits son said [JOD]

ex: e-ti da-we! (tti daw!) - there/go ye! [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo i-shta zhi-te e-ti da-we! te da-kiⁿ da-kdi ta-i! i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (mątʰ it itt tti daw! tt dakʔį dakd ttai! iwke iy mat̨ke) - youall go there, to the red-eyed Grizzly bear! youall will pack the buffalo back here! Rabbit said to them, it is said [JOD]

 

there, go there to ones home

e-ti kda! (tti kd!) - go there to your home!

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; kde (kd) - go home, to start homeward

ex: e-ti kda! (tti kd!) - there/go there; there/go thou [JOD]

ex: te kiⁿ kde ta-i o-da-ke e-ti kda! i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo tʰaⁿ (tt kʔį kd ttai dak tti kd! iy iy mątʰ tʰą) - go home and tell those there that they will pack the buffalo home! it is said that the Grizzly bear said (the Grizzly bear ordered the Rabbit to return to the lodge and request the household to come and aid in carrying the buffalo meat to their home) [JOD]

ex: e-ti kda-we-ka! (ett kdaw-ka!) - there/go ye again/imperative [JOD]

ha-ki-de-de-tʰaⁿ da-tʰi-ke-we i-te e-ti kda-we-ka! (hkidedtʰą datʰ-k-we itt ett kdaw-ka!) - from wherever youall may have come from, go there to your respective homes! [JOD]

ex: e-ti kda (ek-tigadah) - go away, be off, command (va-ten) [GI]

 

there, here and there

i-kdi-za-za (kdizza) - stick to one here and there

ex: zho i-kdi-za-za (o kdizza) - flesh/adhering here and there to its own [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ zho i-kdi-za-za hi ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ o kdizza h nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there with their flesh adhering here and there, it is said [JOD]

 

kde-zha-zha (kdea) - spotted here and there

cf. kde-zhe (kde) - spotted, speckled

Dhegiha: gthe-zha-zha (gthezhzha) - spotted, patterened [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-zha-zha (gthe-zh-zha) - spotted; spotted in different parts of the body [FL-Osage]

 

sa-sa (sas) - black here and there

cf. sa (sa) - black

Dhegiha: sa-sa-be (ssabe) - black spotted, black striped, black here and there, black in spots or stripes [Omaha/Ponca]

 

tʰi-kda-kda (tʰkdakd) - repeat a sudden action

cf. tʰi-kde (tʰikd) - become suddenly; tʰi-he (tʰih) - becomes in a lg. line; to have become suddenly; tʰi-de (tʰid) - pass by, come forth at birth, to begin suddenly; tʰi-da-da (tʰidda) - start now and then to do something

ex: i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa (ye tʰkdakd-ppa) - to speak/they begin suddenly now and then/the ones who [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who begin to talk, saying words here and there, not speaking plainly or connectedly, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰi-gtha-gtha (tʰigthgtha) - denotes sudden action at intervals [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: tʰi-gthe (tʰgthe) - expressive of sudden action; used after other verbs [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭsi-gth) - denoting sudden action; sudden; suddenly [FL-Osage]

 

there, in that place

ko-i-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

cf. ko-i (ki) - there, that; ta (-tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ko-i-ta de-de (kitta dde) - a little to one side

ex: i-ka-xa-ta ko-i-ta kniⁿ (kaxtta kitta kn̨) - on the opposite side of the lodge/in that place/sit thou [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta ko-i-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

there, live or reside there

e-ti o-kniⁿ (tti okn̨) - live there [JOD]

cf. e-ti (tti) - there; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

Dhegiha: u-gthiⁿ (ugthⁿ) - seat, place to sit, sit in, to sit in something [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gthiⁿ (-gthiⁿ) - to occupy a seat [FL-Osage]; o-liⁿ (ol̨į) - live in or at, dwell in, inhabit, live within metaphorically, sit in, occupy, be seated on, sit down on, take a seat, ride, ride in [CQ-Osage]; o-liⁿ (olⁿ) - dwell, live in a place, sit in a place, stay in a place [Kaw]

 

there, not there

e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi (ett nįkʰa) - not there

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - 3rd person singular continuative sitting; the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti niⁿ-ka-zhi (mat̨ke ett nįkʰa) - the rabbit was not there [JOD]

ex: e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi (ett nįkʰa hi) - there/it sits not/very [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di (ed) - there [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di (edi) - there, over there, at [Omaha]; e-dsi (e-ds) - there [FL-Osage]; e-tsi (ec) - be present here/there, exist here/there; be at that time [CQ-Osage]; e-ji (ej) - there, in that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (ik) - sitting one, animate sitting [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the (one) sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - 3rd person sitting continuative aspect marker; sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkh) - the sitting animate object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhi (zhi), a-zhi (zhi) - not [Omaha/Ponca]; zhi (jǐ), a-zhi (a-jǐ) - negation, not [JOD-Omaha]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (a-zh) - not, is not [FL-Osage]; zhi (i), a-zhi (a) - not, negaitive, negator; initial a replaces final e of preceding verb [FL-Osage]; zhi (zhi), a-zhi (azhi) - negative suffix of verbs [Kaw]

 

there, over there by those things

she-ke-ti (ektti) - by yonder things [JOD]

she-ke-ti (ektti) - by those standing objects

cf. she (sh) - that [JOD]; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered; she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: she-ke-ti (ektti) - by yonder things [JOD]

ex: she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there by those things! [JOD]

 

there, over there on the opposite side

i-ka-xa-ta ko-i-ta (kaxtta kitta) - over there on the opposite side

cf. i-ka-xa-ta (kaxtta) - on the opposite side of something; ka-xa (kax) - to outdistance, surpass, excel, exceed, go ahead or beyond a person or place, outrun, outstrip, beat someone in a race, get the better of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ko-i-ta (kitta) - there, in that place; ko-i (ki) - there, that; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: i-ka-xa-ta ko-i-ta (kaxtta kitta) - on the opposite side of the lodge/in that place [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta ko-i-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, they said [JOD]

 

there, over there, yonder

e-ta-ha (ettah) - over there [JOD]

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: e-ta-ha (e-t͓-ha) - in that direction, thitherward [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta-ha (e ʰtha) - in the direction of, toward that direction, over there, along that way [CQ-Osage]; e-ta-ha (taha), (etha)  - there, over there, thither [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰta-ha (ṭa ha) - toward FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - termination of direction, used with verbs of motion; in different ways or places; so mnay in each place [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of; from [CQ-Osage]

 

ha-ki-wa-de-de (hkiwadede) - how do you get over there?, which road, how do you go? [MS]

cf. ha-ki (hki) - where; ha-ki-de-de (hkidede) - where, which direction; ha-ki-de-de-tʰaⁿ (hkidedtʰą) - where from, from whatever place; ha-ki-tʰaⁿ (haktʰą) - from whatever place; ha-ki e-hi-te (hak ehitt) - anywhere, where+soever [JOD]; ha-ke hi-te (hak hitt), ha-ke i-te (hak itt) - wherever, anywhere

 

ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there

ex: ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]

ex: ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kda-i ke-ni-te ka-ki niⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kʰi a-taⁿ we-da-niⁿ shi-ke he-naⁿ i-da-ki-kda-niⁿ a-taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ki-we (kįttą ett̨nį kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨nį kʰ ttą wdanį ke hną idkikdnį ttą ką-tʰ̨ tą kwe) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters), and she put on her bad clothes and was there awhile when they (her step-sisters) reached home [JOD]

ex: ka-ki o-zha da-i (kki a d-i) - there/to dance/they went [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka ęke kkid-i k tą h) - then/to dance/there/they went/the plural/chief/large/his son/they took part with (=danced)/the plural/when/she arrived [JOD]

ex: ka-ki de-da (kki ded) - send (throw) it in that direction!

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club there, yonder again! she said to me [JOD]

 

ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti (kihidnįkʰe tti) - that remote singular/sitting/visible/at, by, in, locative

ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti (kihidnįkʰe tti) - at yonder distant visible place [JOD-Omaha]

cf. ko-i (ki) - there, that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; continuative aux. sitting; ti (tti) - at, by, in, locative

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd nįkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

 

ko-i-ke (kike) - yonder ones [JOD]

ko-i-ke (kike) - those remote plural/standing/visible/animate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered

ex: ti ko-i-ke (tti kike) - lodge/yonder ones [JOD]

ex: ti ko-i-ke, ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tti kike, niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, they are disobedient [JOD]

 

ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead

ex: ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

ex: ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ko-ta-ha (kőtőhah) - that, which, who (qui) [GI]

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; ko-ha (kha) - in that direction [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: ko-ta-ha (kootha) - (to/from) farther away (in space); farther back, farther ahead (in space or time); beyond; the next to last, the one before last; the one after next, the one past the next [CQ-Osage]; go-da-ha (gdaha) - over there, thither [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: go (go) - there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; that distant person or object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - termination of direction, used with verbs of motion; in different ways or places; so mnay in each place [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of; from [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-the-thiⁿ (g-da-e-iⁿ), gu-a-the-thiⁿ (g-a-e-iⁿ) - that visible one beyond or on that side of a person or place, who has started and is moving [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-the (gda e), gu-a-the (ga e) - to go beyond [JOD-Omaha]; ko-ta the (kota e) - (in the) future, future months (refers to traveling or going along in age, traveling down the road moving into the future) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta the (kota e) - that one over there (beyond speaker and hearer) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-da-taⁿ (g-da-taⁿ), gu-a-taⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-the (gda e), gu-a-the (ga e) - to go beyond [JOD-Omaha]; ko-ta the (kota e) - (in the) future, future months (refers to traveling or going along in age, traveling down the road moving into the future) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta the (kota e) - that one over there (beyond speaker and hearer) [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

cf. niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ), gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ) - the visible an. ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate, yonder

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ-ke (g-da-i-k), gu-a-thiⁿ-ke (g-a-i-k)  - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-da thiⁿ-shke (g-da thiⁿ-shke) - the one sitting on the opposite side [FL-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-kshe (kotaįk) - that one sitting over there or yonder (beyond speaker or hearer) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-ke (kootįke) - over there, yonder, farther than another thing, way over there, way back in thime or distance [CQ-Osage]; go-da-yiⁿ-khe (gdayiⁿkhe) - over there; yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-da-taⁿ (g-da-taⁿ), gu-a-taⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; go-da-toⁿ (g-da toⁿ) - that person standing yonder [FL-Osage]

 

ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate

ex: ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - yonder pile [JOD]

ex: ko-wa-tʰe toⁿ-wa! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kwatʰe tǫw! iy iy mat̨ke) - Look at that pile (of fat meat) over there! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-tʰe (g-a-tĕ) - the std. in. ob. or col. on in. objects beyond (another place); the visible object which is beyond (the place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

she-do (do) - yonder, there

cf. she-do (ed) - get out of the way!, imperative function; she-do (ed) - get away! [MS]

ex: she-do i-hi ki-ta! (do ih kkitta!) - it goes to you/shoot! [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ta miⁿ she-do i-hi! ki-ta! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wtteke, tta mį do ih! kkitta! iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), there is a deer approaching over there! shoot it! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: she-do i-hi-we (do ihwe) - they go to you [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka de-pa she-do i-hi-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wtteke, nkkaka dpa do ihwe, iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), over there are some Indians who are approaching, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-thu (shthu) - in that place which you see: there near you, or there where you are [Omaha/Ponca]; she-thu (sh-thu) - yonder, there where you are [FL-Osage]; she-tho (eeo), she-thoⁿ (eę) - there where you are, right there where you are, that person there [CQ-Osage]; she-yo (shy) - there in the distance, yonder [Kaw]

 

there, return home there and stay

a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay

cf. kʰi (kʰi) - arrive back at ones own; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: she-ta da-kʰi-kniⁿ naⁿ (tta dakʰknį n̨) - return thither and take your seat!

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-gthiⁿ (a-k-giⁿ) - to return and sit in a place where he used to be, or at his home [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰki-gthiⁿ (-ḳ-gthiⁿ) - returns to his own seat [FL-Osage]; khi-liⁿ (khíliⁿ) - to have gone back to sit, to sit there again [Kaw]

 

there, send someone there for him

a-kda-de wa-ki-de (akdde wkkide) - send someone there for him

cf. a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch ones own

 

there, sit there

e-ti kniⁿ (tti kn̨) - sit there

cf. e-ti (tti) - there; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

ex: e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ niⁿkʰe, iy) - there/sat/the sitting one [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke tti kn̨ niⁿkʰe, iy) - then the rabbit sat there, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - to sit [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ) -dwell, live, reside [Kaw]

 

she-ke-ti kniⁿ! (ektti kn̨!) - sit over there by those things! [JOD]

cf. she-ke-ti (ektti) - by those standing objects, by yonder things; she (sh) - that [JOD]; ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered; she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

 

there, take it there

a-niⁿ hi (an̨ hi) - take it thither [JOD] a-bniⁿ pʰi (abn̨ pʰi) - I, a-tiⁿ shi (att̨ i) - you

cf. a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; a-niⁿ de (an̨ d) - take away; a-niⁿ kde (an̨ kde) - to take homeward [JOD]; a-niⁿ kdi (an̨ kdi) - to bring home [JOD]; a-niⁿ ki (an̨ k) - bring back here [JOD]; a-niⁿ tʰi (an̨ tʰ) - brought here; bring here; arrive here with something [JOD]

ex: wa-di-si, ka-xtaⁿ, a-shi-ti aniⁿ hi a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (wadis, kaxt̨, atti an̨ hi att̨ kaxt̨) - throw it away, pour it out, take it outside and pour it out! [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti a-niⁿ hi a-taⁿ ka-xtaⁿ (itti an̨ hi ttą kaxt̨) - she took it outside and poured it out [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-niⁿ-hi-we (̨nį-hiw) - they took me thither [JOD]

ex: wi-e-haⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-hi-we (wieh̨ ̨nį-hiw) - they took me there also [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ hi (athⁿ hi) - to arrive at a place (not here) with something not his own; to reach there with something not his own [Omaha/Ponca]; a-thiⁿ hi (a-thⁿ hi) - to reach a place with some object [FL-Osage]; a-thiⁿ hi (ąhi), a-thiⁿ a-hi (ąahi) - take there; bring there, deliver [CQ-Osage]

 

there, take something there for someone

a-ki-niⁿ hi (kinį hi) - take something there for someone a-ki-bniⁿ pʰi (akbnį pʰ) - I, a-da-ki-tiⁿ shi (adkittį ) - you

cf. a-ki-niⁿ (kinį) - have or keep for someone; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep

ex: a-ki-niⁿ hi (aknį h) - he took it thither to her [JOD]

ex: i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi (kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h) - he wrote a letter and took it to her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

ex: he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi (hbe kinį hi) - part/he took thither for him [JOD]

ex: da-tʰa-i tʰe he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ naⁿ i-ya maⁿ-da-taⁿ (datʰa tʰe hbe kinį hi n̨ ną iy mąd-ttą) - he would secretly take a piece of what they ate to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ maⁿ-ʰto zhi-ka niⁿ he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ę mątʰ ik n̨ hbe kinį h n̨ ną, iy) - then the young Grizzly bear took a piece for him (Rabbit), it is said [JOD]

ex: he-be wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi (hbe wdakitt̨ ) - part/you took it thither for some one

ex: he-be wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (hbe wdakitt̨ ąm̨) - I think that you took a piece for someone [JOD]

 

there, that

ko-i (ki) - that, there

ex: ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual/standing/visible/inanimate

ex: ko-i-de (kode) - those things [JOD]

ex: ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

ex: ko-i-ke (kike) - those remote plural/standing/visible/animate

ex: ko-i-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate

ex: ko-i-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object

ex: ko-i-ni-kʰa (kinikʰ) - those remote sitting or lying/visible

ex: ko-i-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote singular/moving/visible/animate

ex: ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

ex: ko-i-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate

ex: ko-i-she (kie) - that, that part, aforementioned words or manner, so

ex: ko-i-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding, and then, so, of that sort, in that case

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - in that way, therefore, thus, accordingly

ex: ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote singular/standing/visible/animate

ex: ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

ex: ko-i-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

ex: ko-i-ta de-de (kitta dde) - a little to one side

Dhegiha: gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

there, the curvilinear or sitting object there

e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (ett nįkʰ) - there (was) the curvilinear object [JOD]

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; 3sg continuative aux sitting; the sitting one; the curvilinear inanimate object; the part; the subject; the one who

ex: e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (ett nįkʰ) - there (was) the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: te shoⁿ-shoⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (t ̨ǫ ett nįkʰ) - there was the circular lake [JOD]

 

there, the lying object there

e-ti-kʰe (ett-kʰe) - there; the lying object there

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

ex: e-ti-kʰe (ett-kʰe) - the lying object is there; the lying object was there [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we miⁿ e-ti-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya (dixi wadxowe mį ett-kʰe ną, iy) - there was a Hill that drew things (people) into its mouth, it is said [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi miⁿ e-ti-kʰe d (dixi mį ett-kʰe d) - a hill is truly there [JOD]

 

there, the plural sitting or lying objects there

e-ti-ni-kʰa (ett-nikʰ) - the plural sitting or lying objects there

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they, 3rd person plural continuative sitting or lying, they were (plural classifier)

ex: e-ti-ni-kʰa (ett-nikʰ) - they sat there [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ zho i-kdi-za-za hi ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ o kdizza h nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there with their flesh adhering here and there, it is said [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi te ni-ha e-ti-ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (i-n̨ ̨čʰǫ h tʔ nih ett-nikʰ ną, iy) - on and on, some (corpses) were sitting there who had just now died, it is said [JOD]

 

there, the standing object there

e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - it stands there

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - it stands there [JOD]

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi e-naⁿ-hi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi (etttʰą) - there it stands not [JOD]

ex: e-ti a-shka hi ti-kde e-ti-tʰaⁿ-zhi e-te te (tti ak hi ttkde etttʰą tte tt) - I wonder, is there not a lodge very near [JOD]

 

there, they were there then

to-kʰe-tʰaⁿ (tokʰtʰaⁿ) - they were there then [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi to-kʰe-tʰaⁿ (skka tt̨ka hi h tokʰtʰaⁿ) - there were many turkeys there then [JOD]

 

therefore

e-toⁿ (ett̨) - therefore [JOD]

e-toⁿ (ett̨) - and, but

cf. e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time, from then on

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ, za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ, i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke, nkkaka odwaki ek̨, zan-xti tʔwade k̨da ną, iy) - therefore rabbit, who sided with the Indians, wanted to kill all of the black bears, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-doⁿ (doⁿ) - therefore; therefore, from that time [Omaha/Ponca]; e-doⁿ (e-dⁿ) - therefore [FL-Osage]; e-taⁿ (tą) - therefore [CQ-Osage]; e-daⁿ (édaⁿ) - so, therefore [Kaw]

 

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on

cf. e-toⁿ (ett̨) - therefore; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ, sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (ttǫtttʰą, sniwtte h-i ną, iy) - Therefore, from that time on, it has not been very cold, it is said (before that it was much colder than it is now, now we have the female Winter) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-doⁿ-e-di-tʰoⁿ (doⁿedtʰoⁿ) - therefore, consequently [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: a-doⁿ (doⁿ) - therefore; therefore, from that time [Omaha/Ponca]; e-doⁿ (e-dⁿ) - therefore [FL-Osage]; e-taⁿ (tą) - therefore [CQ-Osage]; e-daⁿ (édaⁿ) - so, therefore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-dsi-toⁿ (e-ds-toⁿ) - thence; from that place [FL-Osage]; e-ji-khaⁿ (ejíkhaⁿ) - there, from, thither, from that place [Kaw]

 

ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kiǫttą) - in that way, therefore, thus, accordingly, in that way, then

cf. ko-i-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding, so

 

 

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