English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

the

see that, this

 

the end, enough

ka-i-shoⁿ naⁿ (kiǫ n̨) - so far/only, used as ending of a story [JOD]

cf. ka (k) - that; shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough; naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone

 

ka i-she-tʰaⁿ-kʰi (k-itʰąkʰ), ka e-she-tʰaⁿ-ki (k-etʰąk) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

ka i-she-tʰaⁿ (k-ietʰ̨) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

cf. ka (k) - that; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

ex: e she-mi i-ta-de taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ ka-i-she-tʰaⁿ hi taⁿ e-hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe te ( mi ttad tą nąh̨ ik h tą k-itʰą h tą eh̨ nįkʰ tʔe) - when the girl that was born reached puberty her mother died [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that far (and no farther); that long (and no longer); the end [Omaha/Ponca]; she-tʰoⁿ (shtʰoⁿ) - that length; that short [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that so far; as far as that; till then (and no longer); past time; from that time onward [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ-ki hnoⁿ (shtʰoⁿki hnⁿ) - about that length would be long enough [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-shoⁿ (kaǫ) - thats all, thats enough

cf. ka (k) - that; shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki[e] mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

Dhegiha: ga-shoⁿ (ga-shⁿ) - it is enough; sufficient [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ (kaą) - enough (of some activity), final point, end (e.g., of ones earthly existence) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-shoⁿ ga-xe (ga-shⁿ ga-xe) - to stop work [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ ka-xe (kaą kaγe) - make that the end, stop! stop some activity; put and end to something; cease, stop (lit., make it the final point); reach a point of sufficiency, produce enough of something [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

shoⁿ iⁿ (̨ į) - that will do [JOD]

cf. shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough; iⁿ (̨) - period, oral stop; iⁿ (į) - declarative particle, female speech

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-iⁿ da (shⁿ-iⁿ da) - enough; satisfying [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

the only

e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, the aforementioned; naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance [MS]

ex: e-naⁿ (en̨) - she only [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there alone [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (ĕnⁿ mⁿnⁿ) - masculine name, Walks Alone, refers to the buffalo bull (tetka) [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - female personal name, The Only Precious, Difficult One [OM]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ tʰaⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tʰą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-hi (en̨h) - only [JOD]

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi e-naⁿ-hi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - they only [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-hnaⁿ (e-hnⁿ), e-naⁿ (-naⁿ), e-na (en) - that only, he only, only he, alone, that alone, it alone, he alone [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (-noⁿ) - that only, only one, alone, sole, exclusive, special [FL-Osage]; e-naⁿ (eną), e-na (ena), e-ʰna (ʰna) - he/she/it only, it is only he/she/it [CQ-Osage]

 

naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]

ex: ke naⁿ (ke ną) - the plural/only [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke naⁿ (mika i ke ną) - only the other girls [JOD]

ex: de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this

ex: e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

ex: e-naⁿ-xti (ną-xti) - only [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone

ex: naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

ex: naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ (naⁿ), hnaⁿ (hnⁿ) - only, alone [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - the [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), na (na) - only, just, soley, not anything else than, not anything but [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only [JOD]

naⁿ-hi (nąh) - alone, all alone

cf. naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]; hi (hi) - very; just, only

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore a breechcloth [JOD]

ex: i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke, do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ (ittkną n̨hi ittkną p ną nkka nąh̨ ke, dokkni hi p ną) - the grown men only wore a breach cloth, they were naked to the waist (no shirt) [JOD]

ex: e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ (tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk n̨hi p ną) - (back then), the grown men only wore their hair shaved [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: wa-sa tʰaⁿ xa-ke naⁿ-hi tʰaⁿ, i-ya (was tʰą γak nąh tʰą, iy) - he alone was crying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-hi-we (nąhwe) - only/plural [JOD]

ex: e-da-te naⁿ-hi a-kda-niⁿ o-shte (edtte nąh akdnį ot) - her father-only-keeping his own-remained [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-zha do-taⁿ naⁿ-hi de niⁿ (tti a dttą nąh de nį) - and then he was going straight all by himself [JOD]

ex: e-te e-hi, i-ye naⁿ-hi wa-xo kʰe (tte hi, iye nąh waxʔ kʰe) - well, but then ., is all the woman said [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰaⁿ-zi da-tʰe pa naⁿ (watʰ̨zi nąh datʰ ppa ną) - the only ate corn [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ, she-mi zhi-ka de naⁿ-hi a-kda-bniⁿ a-kdi (ęttą, mika d nąh akdbnį akd) - and then, I only brought back this little girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: naⁿ (naⁿ), hnaⁿ (hnⁿ) - only, alone [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - the [FL-Osage]; naⁿ (ną), na (na) - only, just, soley, not anything else than, not anything but [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several, many, more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots of, large amount of [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

the pile or collection of objects

tʰe (tʰe) - the pile, collection of inanimate objects [JOD]

cf. tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate object

ex: hoⁿ-be tʰe (hǫb tʰe) - the (pair of sitting) moccasins

ex: naⁿpe odi-zhiⁿ tʰe (nąp dį tʰe) - the gloves

ex: naⁿpe o-zo-skaⁿ-ska o-pa-taⁿ (nąp zoskąsk opttą tʰe) - the third finger

ex: naⁿ-piu-za i-to-wa tʰe (nąpza towa tʰe) - the fourth finger [MS]

ex: ni-sni tʰe (nisn tʰe) - the spring (the cold water)

ex: ni-zhi tʰe (ni tʰe) - the rain

ex: pa-si tʰe (psi tʰe) - the hail

ex: ti-shi tʰe (tti tʰe) - the tent pole

ex: si-kde tʰe (sikd tʰe) - the footprint

ex: si-o-ti a-ka hi-de tʰe (sitti kʔa hde tʰ) - the west wind was blowing yesterday

ex: ti-he tʰe (tithe tʰe) - the edge of the roof

ex: wa-hi ko-ke kaⁿ tʰe (wah kkke kk̨ tʰe) - the fishing line

ex: wa-kiⁿ tʰe (wakʔ̨ tʰe) - the carrying of something

ex: wa-shiⁿ tʰe (wą tʰe) - the pile of fat meat

ex: wa-shiⁿ tʰe di-ze naⁿ, i-ya (wą tʰe diz-ną, iy) - she took the fat meat (into the lodge), it is said [JOD]

ex: zho tʰe ( tʰe) - flesh/the collection [JOD]

ex: ti-te-de naⁿ o-zhi o-ki-zhi tʰaⁿ i-ya, ni-ka-shi-ka zho tʰe (tttede-n̨ i kii tʰą iy, nkkaka tʰe) - when it was done, she filled the bowl for him (Rabbit) with the human flesh [JOD]

ex: ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

ex: ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

ex: she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate

ex: to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

Dhegiha: tʰe (tʰe) - the standing inanimate object; the pile, heap, or collection of many small inanimate objects; in order that [Omaha/Ponca]; tse (tse) - stands in a pile [FL-Osage]; tsʰe (che) - positional article for standing inanimate singular nonsubject; positional article for plural sitting nonsubjects [CQ-Osage]; che (che) - the; definite article for standing/inanimate or collection of or piled things [Kaw]

 

the plural lying objects

iⁿ-ke (įk) - lying objects, plural/lying/animate; collections of lying objects take the sitting art. as a bundle

ex: ha-na iⁿ-ke (han įk) - some

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, maⁿ ha-na iⁿ-ke aⁿ-ka-xa! (įttatt, m̨ han įk ̨kaγ!) - my father, make some arrows for me! [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (ąkan̨ įk) - we have [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte hotaiⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we got some good (stomp dance) leaders here [MS]

ex: o-zha wa-zho-kte ho-ta-i aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (a waokte httą hi ąkan̨ įk) - we have good (stomp dance) leaders [MS]

ex: ke-ha-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ-ke (keh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

 

the plural moving objects

a-pa (apa), pa (ppa) - the, definite article for plural/moving/animate objects; plural continuative aspect marker

pa (ppa) - the moving objects; the moving ones [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa (was pa) - the (moving) black bears

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka-pa (nkkaikapa) - the moving people

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi (was pa zan hi) - the moving black bears/all/very [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi te-wa-de, i-ya (was pa zan hi tʔwade, iy) - all of the black bears were killed, it is said [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa (tt̨į-hi-pp) - in sight/were coming/the moving ones [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka a-na-hi-te-xti taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa i-ya, kaxn̨ (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka anhittxti tt̨į-hi-pp iy, kaxn̨) - then a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-xnaⁿ a-na-hi-te taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa-naⁿ, i-ya (in̨ kaxn̨ anhitte tt̨į-hi-pp-ną, iy) - again a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa ta-i (nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp tʔa) - people/they first/arrived/the moving objects/died [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa ta-i ni-ha wa-hi ke wa-ska-ha h ke naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp tʔa nih wah ke waskha h ke ną, iy) - and then (when the Rabbit had gone very far into the Hill) there lay a long line of whitened bones of some of the people who had been first to arrive there and had died, it is said [JOD]

ex: xa-ke a-pa (γak pa) - they were crying [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke mi-zhi-ka ke xa-ke a-pa (kak ke miik ke γak pa) - those girls were crying [JOD]

ex: da-taⁿ pa (datt̨ ppa) - they are drinking it [JOD]

ex: ma-kaⁿ-sha haⁿ da-taⁿ-wa-zhi, e-niⁿ-te iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ da-taⁿ pa (makk̨a hą datt̨wa, nįtt ̨čʰǫ tą datt̨ ppa) - they didnt drink coffee, though now they do [JOD]

ex: pa naⁿ (pp ną) - 3pl/past; 3d.pl. ending (classifier)/past sign [JOD]

ex: o-zha a-di-shtaⁿ ki-baⁿ o-bi-xoⁿ pa naⁿ (a ditą kibą obγǫ p ną) - they quit dancing when a flute was blown [JOD]

ex: te ki-da-kniⁿ pa naⁿ (tʔe kidknį pa ną) - they liked to die

ex: koⁿ pa (kǫ pp) - so/3d.pl. classifier, so they were so [JOD]

ex: datʰe pa naⁿ (datʰ ppa ną) - they were eating/past sign [JOD]

ex: de-pa (dpa) - these moving/animate

ex: ka-pa (kpa), (kppa) - those plural/moving/invisible/animate

ex: koi-pa (kipa) - those remote plural/moving/visible/animate

ex: ko-wa-pa (kwapa) - those plural/moving/animate, yonder

ex: she-pa (pa), (ppa) - those moving/visible/animate

ex: to-wa-pa (twapa) - those plural/moving/animate objects on this side

Dhegiha: a-ma (am) - the plural moving [JOD-Omaha]; a-ʰpa (a-p) - they are [FL-Osage]; a-pa (apa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person sg. or pl. moving or absent subject [CQ-Osage]; a-ba (ab) - continuative he/she/it (animate), while moving or not within sight [Kaw]

 

the plural standing objects

ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate

cf. ke (ke) - the scattered inanimate objects

ex: aⁿ-ka-ke (ąkke), oⁿ-ka-ke (ǫkke) - we, 1st person plural continuative auxiliary standing

ex: da-i ke (d-i ke) - they went/the plural [JOD]

ex: o-zha ka-ki da-i ke (a kki d-i ke) - they went there to the dance [JOD]

ex: da-ke-she (dake) - youall, 2nd person plural continuative auxiliary standing

ex: da-tʰa-i ke (datʰa k) - they stood eating [JOD]

ex: de-ke (dke) - these standing/animate

ex: i-ke-ya-we ke (keywe k) - they said (in the past) the preceding to (one)/the standing animate objects [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke ka-hi-ke aⁿ-ka-xe ta-i, i-ke-ya-we ke, i-ya (mat̨ke kahke ąkγe tta, keywe k, iy) - we shall make Rabbit chief, they said to one another, it is said [JOD]

ex: i-maⁿ ke (im̨ ke) - other one/the standing animate objects [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ i-maⁿ ke da-bniⁿ za-ni te-wa-de naⁿ, i-ya (ę im̨ ke dbnį zan tʔwade ną, iy) - then he (Rabbit) killed all three of the others, it is said [JOD]

ex: ka-ke (kke) - those plural/standing/invisible/animate

ex: a-ma-ka-ke (makak) - smaller than the others, the other one of those things [JOD]

ex: ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke-tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ke-ti (kett) - at the plural inanimate objects, at the plural, at the many [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the plural [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

ex: ko-i-ke (kike) - those remote plural/standing/visible/animate

ex: ko-i-ke (kike) - lodge/yonder ones [JOD]

ex: ti ko-i-ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we (tt kike niγtte nikwe) - those lodges over there, those people are disobedient [JOD]

ex: ko-wa-ke (kwake) - those plural/standing/animate, yonder

ex: she-ke (ke) - those non-singular/standing/animate or inanimate objects

ex: ti-kde ke (ttkde k) - dwelt/the standing animate objects [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ wa-she-xti zho-ki-kde ti-kde ke naⁿ, i-ya (kį wa-xti kikde ttkde k ną, iy) - and then they lived very prosperously together, it is said [JOD]

ex: ti ke (tti ke) - lodge/the plural inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: i-naⁿ-paⁿ te na-ha ti ke ni-xi-te ni-ka-we i-yi iya (nąp̨ tt nah tti ke niγtte nikwe iy iy) - a second time she said, do not go to those lodges, they are disobedient, they say [JOD]

ex: to-wa-ke (twak) - those plural/standing/animate objects on this side

ex: mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke (mika i ke) - girl/other/the plural [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿtaⁿ mi-zhi-ka e-zhi ke i-ho-sa a-ta-ha, ni-xo-te a-zhi a-taⁿ ta-xa-xa-ke ka-xe a-taⁿ i-ki-xa koⁿ pa (kįttą mika i ke ihos attah, nixtte i ttą tγaγke kγe ttą kixa kǫ p) - then the other girls scolded her, they put ashes on her which made her cry from the heat, they were laughing at her [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ke (nkkaka ke) - the (standing) people

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ke (nkkaka ke) - people/the standing animate objects [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya ni-ka-shi-ka ke (zan hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy nkkaka ke) - all of the people gave the scalp yell, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: she-mi ke (mi ke) - the (standing) girls

ex: she-mi ke (mi ke) - girl/the plural [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, da-knoⁿ-ke koⁿ-bda, she-mi ke a-wa-ki-shka-te kaⁿ-a-ni-he koⁿ-bda (įttatt, dknǫk kkǫbd, mi ke awkiktte k̨-anih kkǫbd) - father, I want you to marry her, I want to play with the girls [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke (mi i ke) - girl/other/the plural [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there alone [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke (was ke) - the (standing) black bears

ex: wa-sa ke (was ke) - black bear/the standing animate objects [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - lets kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka e-naⁿ-xti wa-da-tʰe-we, i-ya (was ke nkkaka ną-xti wdatʰwe, iy) - the black bears only ate Indians, they ate no other kind of food, it is said [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ za-ni te-a-wa-dai ni-hoⁿ, i-ya-we i-ya wa-sa ke (hǫn̨ttą zan tʔewada nih̨ iywe iy was ke) - the black bears said, how could anyone kill all of us?, they say [JOD]

ex: wi-ke (wik) - continuative plural

ex: kʰa-ke, ha-zhoⁿ wi-ke (kʰak, hą wike) - younger brothers, what are you doing? [JOD]

wa-jhi-ni a-ki-sho-ka ma-zhaⁿ-ti o-kniⁿ wi-ke (waǰni kkioka mątti okn̨ wik) - the Americans are very plentiful

 

the scattered objects

ke (ke) - the scattered inanimate objects

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate

ex: kaⁿ-te ke (kk̨tte ke) - the (scattered) plums

ex: ta ke (tt ke) - meat/the scattered inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ta ke pa-shoⁿ-shoⁿ naⁿ i-ya (ę tt ke pǫ̨ ną, iy) - so he cut the meat into small pieces with a knife, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti hi naⁿ, di-shpa-shpa ke (tti hi ną, dippa ke) - when she arrived there, the torn pieces were scattered about [JOD]

Dhegiha: ge (ge) - the scattered inanimate objects [Omaha/Ponca]; ge (ge) - scattered about [FL-Osage]; ke (ke) - positional article for dispersed, scattered, or randomly located entities; around, in dispersed locations or with dispersing action [CQ-Osage]; ge (ge) - the; definite article used with scattered inanimate objects, such as beads, rocks, etc.; the, used with cloth-like objects like fabric, hides, thin paper [Kaw]

 

the singular lying objects

kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

kʰe (kʰe), (kʰ) - the lying object; the reclining object; the reclining [JOD]

ex: a kʰe (a kʰe) - the arm

ex: a shtoⁿ-ka kʰe (a t̨ka kʰe) - the right arm

ex: a-na-zhiⁿ kʰe (naį kʰe) - the floor

ex: a-zhaⁿ kʰe (ą kʰe), o-miⁿ-zhe kʰe (mįe kʰe) - the bed

ex: ma-zhaⁿ kʰe (mą kʰe) - the land

ex: maⁿ-ke wa-hi kʰe (m̨ke wah kʰe), mo-iⁿ-ke kʰe (mǫke wah kʰe) - the sternum, the breast bone

ex: naⁿ-pe a-shi kʰe (nąp i kʰe) - the back of the hand

ex: ni-zhi-ha kʰe (niha kʰe) - the hair

ex: o-pi-zhi kʰe (ppii kʰe) - the box [JOD]

ex: pa-zhiⁿ-zhe i-koⁿ-kde kʰe (ppąe kkǫkde kʰe) - the septum

ex: si-ha kʰe (sih kʰe) - the sole of the foot

ex: te kʰe (t kʰe) - the lake

ex: ti xi-te kʰe (tti xtte kʰe) - the wall

ex: wa-xo kʰe (waxʔ kʰe) - the (reclining) woman

ex: wa-zhoⁿ-te kʰe (wzǫtte-kʰe) - the mat

ex: zhaⁿ kʰe (̨ kʰe) - the log, the lying wood

ex: zhe kʰe ( kʰe) - the penis

ex: ziⁿ-ba kʰe (z̨ba kʰ) - the back

ex: e-ti-kʰe (ett-kʰe) - the lying object is there; the lying object was there [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi miⁿ e-ti-kʰe d (dixi mį ett-kʰe d) - a hill is truly there [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we miⁿ e-ti-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya (dixi wadxowe mį ett-kʰe ną, iy) - there was a Hill that drew things (people) into its mouth, it is said [JOD]

ex: ha kʰe (h kʰe) - the skin, the hide

ex: ha kʰe (h kʰe) - skin/the lying object [JOD]

ex: ha kʰe bdo-ka hi o-di-shto-te (h kʰe bdka h odtotte) - he pulled off all the skin [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ha kʰe ma-shtiⁿ-ke o-ba-haⁿ (kįttą h kʰe mat̨ke obhą) - then the rabbit put the skin on [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-di-shto-te o-ba-haⁿ a-taⁿ ma-xi-wa-de tʰaⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke i-niⁿ-aⁿ-we ke i-ya-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ i-ya-we (h̨ka ęke h kʰe odtotte obhą att̨ maγwad tʰ̨ iywe, h̨ka ęke etʰ̨ inį̨we k iyw, mat̨ke etʰ̨ iywe) - he skinned Haⁿ-kas son, put on his skin and tricked them, they thought that rabbit was Haⁿ-kas son, they say [JOD]

ex: ki-di-za-we e-shoⁿ haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-ba-haⁿ tʰaⁿ o-naⁿ-shto-te naⁿ da taⁿ ni-a-ta ko-e-kde i-ya-we (kdikizwe ę h̨ka ęke h kʰe obhą tʰą on̨totte ną d tą nitta kokde iywe) - after they made a way for him, he started to run back towards the water, he kicked off Haⁿ-kas sons skin in which he had been wearing, they say [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe (hipʰ kʰ) - she fell/the reclining object (she lay) [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe taⁿ hi, i-ya-we (hipʰ kʰ tą h, iywe) - she had fallen when he arrived, they say [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ zhoⁿ-kʰe (hǫ ̨kʰ) - what is the matter with you who recline? [JOD]

ex: kaⁿ-kʰe (ką-k) - she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing); so she lay awhile [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰe naⁿ ki-ka-ze kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (watʰ ną kikze ką-kʰ iywe) - dress/only(?)/it flew up on her/she lay so for awhile (or, doing nothing)/they say [JOD]

ex: i-shta xi-xi-te ka-xa-taⁿ toⁿ-we de-de kaⁿ-kʰe i-ya-we (it xixtte kaγ[e]-ttą t̨we ded ką-kʰ iywe) - peeping out of the corner of the eyes in intervals/she did it/when/she looked at him/she sent it off/so she lay awhile/they say [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ti (kʰett) - at or to the lying object [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (mątt kʰett) - to the canoe; at the canoe [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: o-xde haⁿ-ke hi taⁿ ni-ti ki, i-ya-we, waxo niⁿ, maⁿ-te kʰe-ti ki, i-ya-we (oxd hąk h tą ntti k, iywe, waxʔ nį, mątt kʰett k, iywe) - they say, he had nearly overtaken the woman when she reached the water, she arrived back at the canoe, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, aⁿ-te taⁿ, si pa-hi naⁿ-pe i-niⁿ-ha ta-x[e]-aⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye kʰe naⁿ (kįttą, ątʔ tą, s ppah nąp inįh tx[e]ąkid-nih, ąn̨kiye kʰe ną) - then, when I die, barbecue may feet, head, and hands, he said to me as he lay [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe (m̨tte kʰe) - bow/the lying object [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe a-ki-na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ i-ki-kaⁿ-de niⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ (m̨tte kʰe kinį attą kikk̨de n̨ iy mat̨ke ęke nį) - and the Rabbits son was stringing his bow, it is said (When carrying a bow not in use, one end of the string is kept loose. When the bow is strung, it is bent with the foot, and the string put on the other end.) [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka i-ta-de kʰe (ika ttade kʰ) - that baby was born [MS]

ex: te kʰe (tt kʰe) - the (lying) buffalo

ex: te kʰe bdo-ka hi (tt kʰe bdka h) - buffalo/the lying object/entire/very [JOD]

ex: kiⁿ kʰi-naⁿ-we i-ya, te kʰe bdo-ka hi (kʔį kʰi ną w iy, tt kʰe bdka h) - they packed the entire buffalo back home, it is said [JOD]

ex: te kʰe (tʔe kʰe) - the dead (person)

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: wa-hi kʰe (wah kʰe) - the bones laying in a row

ex: wa-hi ke wa-ska-ha h kʰe (wah ke waskha h kʰe) - bones/the line of/whitened/very/the lying object [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka e-taⁿ-ni-hi-pa ta-i ni-ha wa-hi kʰe wa-ska-ha h kʰe naⁿ, i-ya (h̨tʰąhi nkkaka ett̨ni-hi-pp tʔa nih wah kʰe waskha h kʰe ną, iy) - and then (when the Rabbit had gone very far into the Hill) there lay a long line of whitened bones of some of the people who had been first to arrive there and had died, it is said [JOD]

ex: de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying/inanimate

ex: ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular/lying/invisible/inanimate

ex: koi-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular/lying/visible/animate or inanimate

ex: ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular/lying/animate or inanimate, yonder

ex: she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object

ex: to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular lying/inanimate object on this side

ex: to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

Dhegiha: kʰe (kʰe) - the inanimate lying, the inanimate horizontal, be positioned horizontally, an extended action in a lying position [Omaha]; kshe (kshe) - to prostrate, that lies, to lay down, to place flat on the ground or to be prostrate on any surface, the length of time from the beginning of a vigil [FL-Osage]; kshe (ke) - positional article for an entity that is lying down or long; positional article that indicates plurality of an inanimate entity that takes tsʰe (cʰe) standing positional in the singular [CQ-Osage]; kshe (ke) - lying down or long [CQ-Osage]; khe (khe) - the; definite article for lying/inanimate objects [Kaw]

 

the singular moving object

niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate, the moving one, the moving object

niⁿ (nį) - 3rd person singular continuative moving a-ni-he (anih) - I, ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - you, niⁿ (nį) - he/she/it, aⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį), oⁿ-ka-niⁿ (̨kanį) - we, a-pa-she (ape) - youall, a-pa (apa) - they

ex: a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ (kinį hi n̨) - he took thither for him/the moving one [JOD]

ex: da-tʰa-i tʰe he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ naⁿ i-ya maⁿ-da-taⁿ (datʰa tʰe hbe kinį hi n̨ ną iy mąd-ttą) - he would secretly take a piece of what they ate to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ (an̨ nį) - he or she has

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ (an̨ nį) - he was keeping it [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ niⁿ naⁿ (an̨ nį-n̨) - he is the one who has her [JOD]

ex: ma-ze-ska o-she a-niⁿ niⁿ (mazska e an̨ nį) - rich people (he/she has a lot of money) [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke ta-kde-ska a-niⁿ niⁿ (̨ke takdska an̨ nį) - dog got fleas [MS]

ex: shpoⁿ a-niⁿ niⁿ (pǫ an̨ nį) - when a baby is wet (he/she has a soaked diaper) [MS]

ex: de niⁿ (d n̨) - went/the moving one [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ de niⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (ę d n̨ ną iy mat̨ke n̨) - then the Rabbit left, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ (ęke nį) - his son/the moving object [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ e-ti ki naⁿ, i-ya (ę ęke nį tti ki ną, iy) - then his son arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: i-ye niⁿ (iy nį) - she said/the moving object or as she walked [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte, iy nį, iy waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, I will look for him wherever they may have killed him, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ i-ya (ę i ek̨ tʔdidawe, iy nį iy) - then, you went and thus, like that, they killed you, she was saying, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (mat̨ke nį) - the (moving) rabbit

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha, i-ya (mat̨ke nį sis ttaha, iy) - the Rabbit was very active, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ de niⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (ę d n̨ ną iy mat̨ke n̨) - then the Rabbit left, it is said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ (mat̨ke ęke nį) - rabbit/his son/the moving object

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ ki naⁿ, i-y (mat̨ke ęke nį k ną, iy) - the Rabbits son was coming, it is said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe a-ki-na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ i-ki-kaⁿ-de niⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ (m̨tte kʰe kinį attą kikk̨de n̨ iy mat̨ke ęke nį) - and the Rabbits son was stringing his bow, it is said (When carrying a bow not in use, one end of the string is kept loose. When the bow is strung, it is bent with the foot, and the string put on the other end.) [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo niⁿ (mątʰ nį) - the (moving) grizzly bear

ex: maⁿ-tʰo niⁿ e-ti hi naⁿ, i-ya (mątʰ nį tti hi ną, iy) - the Grizzly bear arrived there, it is said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo niⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe wa-ki-toⁿ-we kʰi naⁿ, i-ya (mątʰ nį mat̨ke nįkʰ wakttǫwe kʰi ną, iy) - the Grizzly bear arrived home after scouting game for the Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ka-xa-da i-he-de naⁿ maⁿ-tʰo niⁿ ki-te naⁿ i-ya, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (ę kaxda ihde ną mątʰ nį kktte ną iy, mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - then the Rabbits son knocked down the Grizzly bear and shot him, it is said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-ʰto zhi-ka niⁿ (mątʰ ik n̨) - the (moving) young grizzly bear

ex: e-shoⁿ maⁿ-ʰto zhi-ka niⁿ he-be a-ki-niⁿ hi niⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ę mątʰ ik n̨ hbe kinį h n̨ ną, iy) - then the young grizzly bear took a piece for him (rabbit), it is said [JOD]

ex: mi-ka niⁿ (mikk nį) - the (moving) raccoon

ex: mi o-ka-shaⁿ niⁿ (mi kaą nį) - Traveling Sun or Traveling Moon, female name of the Kwapa Sun gens [JOD]

ex: o-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da niⁿ (obttątt̨da nį) - he rolled him over and over in it by pressure/the moving object [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-ka ti o-naⁿ taⁿ, wa-pa-iⁿ ti o-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da niⁿ i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (n̨kka-tt on̨ tą, wappą-tti obttątt̨da nį iy mątʰ) - grizzly bear seized the rabbit by the back and rolled him over and over in the blood, they say (it is said) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa niⁿ (was nį) - black bear/the moving object [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi-ti hi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ, i-ya (kiǫttą itti hi iy was nį, iy) - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ (waxʔ nį) - the (moving) woman

ex: wa-xo niⁿ kde (waxʔ nį kd) - the woman went home [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (waxʔik nį) - the (moving) old woman

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ a-shi-ti hi naⁿ (waxʔik nį itti h-ną) - when the old woman went outside [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ zho-kde e-ti hi naⁿ, i-ya (waxʔik nį okd tti hi ną, iy) - the old woman arrived there with him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe ki-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (waxʔik nį wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kikʔ̨ kd iy) - the old woman carried her sewing bag upon her back and went homeward, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ho-wa-tʰe-ti te-dai tʰe i-te i-da-ki-de te, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ (hwa tʰett tʔdai tʰe itt idkide tte, iy nį, iy waxʔik nį) - the old woman said, I will look for him wherever they may have killed him, it is said [JOD]

ex: xa-ke niⁿ (γak nį) - crying (he/she is crying) [MS]

ex: de-niⁿ (dnį) - this moving/animate

ex: ka-niⁿ (knį) - that singular/moving/invisible/animate

ex: kaⁿ niⁿ (ką-n̨) - so he was moving awhile, so he moved awhile [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha wa-zhiⁿ-ka naⁿ maⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, wa-zhiⁿ-ka te-de naⁿ-haⁿ ki-di-ze kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we, maⁿ kʰe de-de naⁿ-haⁿ a-ki-de naⁿ ki-ki kaⁿ-niⁿ i-ya-we (n̨a wąka ną mą kidiz ką-nį iywe, wąka tʔde nąh̨ kidiz ką-n̨ iywe, m̨ kʰe dde nąhą akid ną kikʔ ką-n̨ iywe) - when he would shoot at a bird, he would get his arrow for him, when he killed a bird, he got it for him, if he shot an arrow off, he would go after it and give it back to him, he was moving around doing this for awhile, they said [JOD]

ex: ko-i-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote singular/moving/visible/animate

ex: ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

ex: ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived singular/moving/animate; the one who has reached

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that singular/moving/animate, yon

ex: she-niⁿ (nį) - that moving/visible/animate

ex: shoⁿ-niⁿ (ǫn̨) - the moving, as she moved, after he ran awhile, after he moved awhile; finally, moving/animate/subject

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: shka-te shoⁿ-niⁿ naⁿ-zha ma-sa-ni-taⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka miⁿ ki-baⁿ hi-de (ktte ǫ-n̨ n̨a msantą nkkaka m̨ kbą hde) - after he had been playing awhile, a person called to him from the other side (of the river) [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-zha i-de i-ya-we, o-te shoⁿ-niⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (n̨a de iywe, ott ǫ-n̨ de, iywe) - then, after he had sought him for some time, he found him, they said [JOD]

ex: to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that singular/moving/animate object that arrived on this side

ex: to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that singular/moving/animate object arriving on this side

ex: to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side

ex: to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving; the moving animate object, not going on a journey; the growing inanimate object; the collection or class of inanimate objects, as grasses, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

the singular sitting object

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - the sitting one; the curvilinear inanimate object; the part; the subject; the one who [JOD]

niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - continuative aux sitting miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - I, ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - you, niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰ) - he/she/it, oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - we, I and one other, ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - youall, ni-kʰa (nikʰa) - they

ex: wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (was niⁿkʰe) - the (sitting) black bear

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke nįkʰ) - the (sitting) rabbit

ex: hoⁿ-be niⁿ-kʰe (hǫb nįkʰe) - the moccasin

ex: si-de-te niⁿ-kʰe (sidtte nįkʰ) - the heel

ex: pe niⁿ-kʰe (ppe nįkʰ), pe o-shta niⁿ-kʰe (pp ot nįkʰ) - the forehead

ex: ta-xpi niⁿ-kʰe (ttaxp nįkʰe) - the top of the head

ex: ta-to-ka niⁿ-kʰe (ttatkka nįkʰ) - the fresh meat

ex: wa-pa-iⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (wappą nįkʰ) - the blood

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ nįkʰ) - the woman

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe (waxʔ kitʔ nįkʰ) - the widower

ex: shi-noⁿ-te (in̨tte nįkʰ) - the knee

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (pphi okną nįkʰe), pa-ho-knaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ppahokną nįkʰe) - the hat

ex: niⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe (n̨tte nįkʰ) - the buttocks

ex: ni-shki niⁿ-kʰe (nik nįkʰ) - the back of the head

ex: de-niⁿ-kʰe (dnįkʰe) - this sitting/animate or inanimate object

ex: ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/invisible/animate

ex: ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

ex: ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular, sitting, visible, animate or inanimate

ex: ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate/yonder

ex: ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

ex: she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

ex: to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

ex: to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

ex: to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ek̨ nįkʰe) - his grandmother/the one who [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (was niⁿkʰe) - black bear/the one who [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ da-xa-ke e i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke, hǫn̨ttą daγke e iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - Rabbit, why are you crying? it is said that the black bear said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe) - black bear/chief/the sitting one [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe (ǫt nįkʰe) - scrotum/the part [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (ek̨ nįkʰe) - his grandmother/the one who

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe (wabtʰe iha nįkʰe) - sewing/bag/the curvilinear inanimate object [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe kdi-ze (waxʔik nįkʰe wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kdze) - the old woman took her sewing bag [JOD]

ex: e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (ett nįkʰ) - there (was) the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: te shoⁿ-shoⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (t ̨ǫ ett nįkʰ) - there was the circular lake [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe (ppah nįkʰ) - the head

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe (ppah nįkʰ) - head/the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe pa-xoⁿ taⁿ ki kde naⁿ, i-ya (ppah nįkʰ pxǫ tą kʔį kd ną, iy) - he cut off the head, packed it on his back and went home, it is said JOD]

ex: o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe (owditte nįkʰ) - place for surrounding the game/the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: de tʰe o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe a-pa-po e-ta-kaⁿ-za a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe (d tʰe owditte nįkʰ ppapo ettkkąza witt̨we ą tta mįkʰ) - when he (Grizzly bear) goes, I will lie down looking at you, at the edge of the hill directly above the place where you capture the game [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (was niⁿkʰe) - black bear/the one who [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke, hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ da-xa-ke e i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (mat̨ke, hǫn̨ttą daγke e iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - Rabbit, why are you crying? it is said that the black bear said [JOD]

v wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe) - black bear/chief/the sitting one [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe (ǫt nįkʰe) - scrotum/the part [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe (wabtʰe iha nįkʰe) - sewing/bag/the curvilinear inanimate object [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha niⁿ-kʰe kdi-ze (waxʔik nįkʰe wabtʰe iha nįkʰe kdze) - the old woman took her sewing bag [JOD]

ex: e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (ett nįkʰ) - there (was) the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: te shoⁿ-shoⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (t ̨ǫ ett nįkʰ) - there was the circular lake [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe (ppah nįkʰ) - head/the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe pa-xoⁿ taⁿ ki kde naⁿ, i-ya (ppah nįkʰ pxǫ tą kʔį kd ną, iy) - he cut off the head, packed it on his back and went home, it is said JOD]

ex: o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe (owditte nįkʰ) - place for surrounding the game/the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: de tʰe o-wa-di-te niⁿ-kʰe a-pa-po e-ta-kaⁿ-za a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ tta miⁿ-kʰe (d tʰe owditte nįkʰ ppapo ettkkąza witt̨we ą tta mįkʰ) - when he (Grizzly bear) goes, I will lie down looking at you, at the edge of the hill directly above the place where you capture the game [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-kʰe (thiⁿkʰ) - the sitting animate object; the curved inanimate object; third person singular [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-kshe (thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-kshe (įk), thiⁿ-kshe (įk) - sitting singular animate or inanimate positional article, follows a noun or pronoun (usually not the subject of a sentence) that represents a singular sitting entity or singular round entity; lying down or horizontal inanimate plural positional article [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-khe (yiⁿkhé) - the; definite article used with the object of the verb; singular inanimate or animate; the in reference to an animate subject of a stative verb [Kaw]

 

naⁿ (ną) - the singular/sitting/inanimate definite article, marginal in Quapaw except where fossilized

Dhegiha: thoⁿ (thⁿ) - the, the sitting object [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ (noⁿ) - the [FL-Osage]

 

the singular standing animate object

tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate

tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing one; the standing object; the standing [JOD]

tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - 3rd person singular standing continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate a-tʰaⁿ-he (atʰąh) - I, da-tʰaⁿ-she (dtʰą) - you, tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - he/she, aⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (̨katʰą), oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (̨katʰą) - I and one other, aⁿ-ka-ke (ąkke), oⁿ-ka-ke (ǫkke) - we, da-ke-she (dake) - youall

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (mat̨ke tʰą) - the (standing) rabbit

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e wa-sa ka-hi-ke te-a-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e was kahke tʔede iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, I have killed the black bear chief, said the rabbit, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa tʰaⁿ (was tʰą) - the (standing) black bear

ex: wa-sa tʰaⁿ xa-ke naⁿ-hi tʰaⁿ, i-ya (was tʰą γak nąh tʰą, iy) - the black bear was crying all by himself, it is said. [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka tʰaⁿ (waxʔik tʰą) - old woman/the standing one [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ iⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo zhi-ka tʰaⁿ (ǫ į, iy iy waxʔik tʰą) - that will do, the old woman replied [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ hi a-shi-ti de, i-ye tʰaⁿ wa-xo-zhi-ka tʰaⁿ (̨čʰǫ h itti d, iy tʰą waxʔik tʰą) - he just now went outside, the old woman said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (mat̨ke tʰą) - rabbit/the standing one [JOD]

ex: wa-te-baⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (wattb̨ iy mat̨ke tʰą) - the rabbit gave the attack signal, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e į, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, thats him, it is said that the rabbit said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-de te, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (ąkde tte, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - lets go, it is said that the rabbit said [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-tʰo tʰaⁿ (mątʰ tʰą) - the (standing) grizzly

ex: maⁿ-tʰo tʰaⁿ (mątʰ tʰą) - grizzly bear/the standing one [JOD]

ex: te kiⁿ kde ta-i o-da-ke e-ti kda! i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo tʰaⁿ (tt kʔį kd ttai dak tti kd! iy iy mątʰ tʰą) - go home and tell those there that they will pack the buffalo home! it is said that the Grizzly bear said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - rabbit/his son/the standing one [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, di-e kiⁿ e-ka! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (h̨i, de kʔ̨ ek! iy iy mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - no, carry it yourself! it is said the Rabbits son said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ka-xa-da i-he-de naⁿ maⁿ-tʰo niⁿ ki-te naⁿ i-ya, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (ę kaxda ihde ną mątʰ nį kktte ną iy, mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - then the Rabbits son knocked down the Grizzly bear and shot him, it is said [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-ʰto wa-xo-zhi-ka te-de naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (kįttą mątʰ waxʔik tʔde ną iy mat̨ke ęke tʰą) - then the Rabbits son killed the little old Grizzly bear woman, it is said [JOD]

ex: o-ki-zhi tʰaⁿ (kii tʰą) - filled for him/the standing one [JOD]

ex: ti-te-de naⁿ o-zhi o-ki-zhi tʰaⁿ i-ya, ni-ka-shi-ka zho tʰe (tttede-n̨ i kii tʰą iy, nkkaka tʰe) - when it was done, she filled the bowl for him (Rabbit) with the human flesh [JOD]

ex: i-ye tʰaⁿ (iy tʰą) - he was saying as he stood [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ, te-aⁿ-da-we, i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ, i-ya (wehǫ, tʔędaw idhǫbde, iy tʰą, iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: xa-ke koⁿ-ze tʰaⁿ (γak kǫz tʰą) - to cry/pretend/the standing one [JOD]

ex: ti-zhe ti hi na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ xa-ke koⁿ-ze tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (tte-tt-hi ną-att̨ γak kǫz tʰą n̨ iy matįke) - the rabbit arrived to the entrance of the lodge and stood there, pretending cry, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ta tʰaⁿ (tta tʰ̨) - future/the standing (he was about to) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ sha-ke tʰaⁿ ni o-ha wa-taⁿ a-ki-de ta tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą ʔak tʰą ni oh watt̨ akid tta tʰ̨ ną) - then the old man was about to go after goods along the creek/river [JOD]

ex: te-ska a-shi-oⁿ-he tʰaⁿ a-niⁿ-ki (ttska iǫh tʰą an̨k) - bring the ox standing outside (the fence) here

ex: na-zhiⁿ tʰaⁿ (ną tʰą) - he stood/the standing (he stood, or was, standing) [JOD]

ex: o-skaⁿ-skaⁿ hi na-zhiⁿ tʰaⁿ (osk̨ską hi ną tʰą) - he stood in the middle, he was standing in the middle [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ (a tʰą) - dancing/the standing object (the dancing one) [JOD]

ex: de-tʰaⁿ (dtʰą) - this standing/animate

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - it stands there

ex: ka-tʰaⁿ (ktʰą) - that singular/standing/invisible/animate

ex: ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote singular/standing/visible/animate

ex: ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

ex: ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, the further one

ex: shaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (̨tʰą) - the standing (newly) object

ex: she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that standing/visible/animate

ex: shoⁿ-tʰaⁿ (ǫtʰ̨) - after he stood awhile [JOD]

ex: tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

ex: to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side of a place he has reached

ex: to-ta-hi-de-tʰaⁿ (ttahdetʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object coming, on this side

ex: to-ta-tʰaⁿ (ttatʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side

Dhegiha: tʰaⁿ (tⁿ) - the; standing; the standing; the standing object; the standing animate object; the standing one [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ), toⁿ (toⁿ) - to stand; to stand, as a man, woman, or horse [FL-Osage]; txaⁿ (txą), kxaⁿ (kxą) - positional article for a singular animate standing entity; continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd person singular animate standing subject; also may indicate initiation of an activity by subject regardless of position [CQ-Osage]; kha (kha), khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - the; definite article for standing/animate objects; positional continuative [Kaw]

 

the singular standing inanimate object

tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate object

tʰe (tʰe) - the; the standing object [JOD]

cf. tʰe (tʰe) - the pile, collection of inanimate objects

ex: ti tʰe (tt tʰ) - the lodge

ex: zhaⁿ tʰe (̨ tʰe) - the tree

ex: tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the standing object

ex: tʰe-ti (tʰett) - at the standing object; when, at the time

ex: de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this standing/inanimate

ex: de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this/the [JOD]

ex: i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

ex: ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

ex: ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

ex: ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

ex: ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that singular/standing/invisible, yon

ex: she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate

ex: to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

Dhegiha: tʰe (tʰe) - the standing inanimate object; the pile, heap, or collection of many small inanimate objects; in order that [Omaha/Ponca]; tse (tse) - stands in a pile [FL-Osage]; tsʰe (che) - positional article for standing inanimate singular nonsubject; positional article for plural sitting nonsubjects [CQ-Osage]; che (che) - the; definite article for standing/inanimate or collection of or piled things [Kaw]

 

the, all of the

za-ni (zan) - all, all of the

za-ni (zan) - all [AB]

za-ni (sań) - all [ASG]

ex: ta-taⁿ za-ni (tttą zan) - everything

ex: ta-taⁿ za-ni hi ki-kiⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ da-wi (tttą zan hi kikʔ̨ ̨tą dwi) - she carried everything on her back when they went [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: za-ni o-zha ki-we (zan a kiw) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: o-zha za-ni ki-wa-we (a zan kiwawe) - everybody come dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ o-zha kdi hne za-ni (ną a kdi hn zan) - you (all) come back again and dance [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ za-ni kdi hne (ną zan kdi hn) - everybody come back again (request) [MS]

ex: aⁿ-ba o-zha hne za-ni (̨ba a hn zan) - whole bunch of them dance all night (request) [MS]

ex: a-ki-ki za-ni, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (akkʔi zan, iy iy mątʰ) - I have given it all (the meat) to him (my relation), it is said Grizzly said [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-hi-te aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe, aⁿ-te taⁿ zho za-ni ta-xaⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿki-ye (̨hite ątʔ tta mįkʰ, ątʔ tą zan txʔąkid-nih, ąn̨kiye) - well/at any rate I am going to die, when I'm dead barbecue all my flesh for me, he said to me [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ za-ni te-a-wa-dai ni-hoⁿ, i-ya-we i-ya wa-sa ke (hǫn̨ttą zan tʔewada nih̨, iywe iy was ke) - the black bears said, how could anyone kill all of us?, they say [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there [JOD]

ex: di-sha-i taⁿ za-ni di-sha-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ niⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ki de-da-wi (diʔai tą zan diʔa tą wah̨nįk nįkʰ kikʔ dedwi) - they all failed, when they failed, they gave it back to the orphan [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

 

za-ni hi (zanhi) - every single one

cf. za-ni (zan) - all, all of the; hi (hi) - very

ex: za-ni hi (zan hi) - all/very [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ za-ni hi ki-kiⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ da-wi (tttą zan hi kikʔ̨ ̨tą dwi) - she carried everything on her back when they went [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we, i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kd-ną-we, iy) - all of the people went out (from the Hill) and started for home, it is said [JOD]

ex: kda-we-naⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi ki-sto-naⁿ, i-ya (kdwe-ną nkkaika zan hi kist-ną, iy) - as they started homeward, all of the people assembled, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke za-ni hi te-aⁿ-wa-de ta-i (was ke zan hi tʔęwade ta) - lets kill all the black bears [JOD]

ex: za-ni hi o-kda-xa-xa-we i-ya ni-ka-shi-ka ke (zan hi okdxʔaxʔwe iy nkkaka ke) - all of the people gave the scalp yell, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa-pa za-ni hi te-wa-de, i-ya (was apa zan hi tʔwade, iy) - all of the black bears were killed, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-sa za-ni hi a-shi-ti hi-we, i-ya (was zan hi itti hwe, iy) - all of the black bears came outside of their lodges, it is said [JOD]

ex: haⁿ bdo-ka za-ni hi o-wa-ki-da (hą bdok zan hi wakid) - all night long, he told it to everyone [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti mi-zhi-ka za-ni hi i-ki-ta-i taⁿ di-sha-wi (kįttą tti mika zan hi kʔita tą diʔawi) - then, every single one of the girls there tried it and they failed [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

 

za-ni xti (zan xti) - all, all of the

cf. za-ni (zan) - all, all of the; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ, za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ, i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke, nkkaka odwaki ek̨, zan-xti tʔwade k̨da ną, iy) - therefore rabbit, who sided with the Indians, wanted to kill all of the black bears, it is said [JOD]

ex: za-ni-xti te-a-wa-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde (zan-xti tʔewadaw idhǫbde) - I dreamed that they killed us all, every single one of us [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ni (zan) - all [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ni (a-n) - all, everything, everybody [FL-Osage]; za-ni (zani) - whole, all, everyone, everybody [CQ-Osage]; za-niⁿ (zanⁿ) - all everybody or everything [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xti (qti), xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

the, to the

ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; the scattered; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha, i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah, ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

ke-ti (kett) - at the plural [JOD]

cf. ke (ke) - the plural/standing/animate or plural/standing/inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

 

kʰe-ti (kʰett) - at or to the lying object [JOD]

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my

 

niⁿ-kʰe-ti (nįkʰtti) - to the sitting object; at the curvilinear object; to the curvilinear object [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ti-aⁿ-hi kʰi-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ek̨ nįkʰe-tti ttįhi kʰi-i iy mat̨ke) - the rabbit had not returned to his grandmother for a long time, it is said [JOD]

 

niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object; to the one who [JOD]

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (t̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

 

tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the standing object, to the, at the [JOD]

cf. tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; the collection/inanimate; the act, past, completive aspect; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: o-zha da-i tʰe-ta (a d-i tʰtta) - they went to the dance [JOD]

 

tʰe-ti (tʰett) - at the standing object, at the, to the; when, at the time

cf. tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate; the collection/inanimate; the act, past, completive aspect; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ti hi-we i-ya (kkikn̨xti tt tʰtti hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

cf. tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta (̨keknį tʰątt) - to the (standing) horse [JOD]

 

their, theirs

i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs

cf. i-ta (itt), e-ta (ett) - his, hers, its (alienable); we (-we), a-we (-awe) - pluralizer; wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine; di-ta (dtta) - your, yours; di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, youalls; aⁿ-ko-ta (ąktta), oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours (dual); aⁿ-ko-ta-we (ąkttawe), oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: iⁿ-da, wi-te-ke, e-ta-we, di-da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (įd, wittke, ettwe, ddatʰ taitʰ) - my mother, my uncle, theirs (offspring), they will eat you [JOD]

ex: shi-zhi-ka e-ʰta-we (ika ettwe) - their children

ex: shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke (ika ettwe enąh ot ke) - child/their/they only/are left/the [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: e-hoⁿ e-ta-we (hǫ ettwe) - their mother [ASG]

Dhegiha: e-ta-i (eti) - their, theirs [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ʰta-bi (i-ṭ-bi) - the things that are theirs [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta-pi (ʰtaapi) - their [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-be (itbe) - their [Kaw]

 

them

wa (wa) - things, stuff, people, folks, they, them

ex: a-wa-xo-ka (awxokk) - I sing to them, wa (wa) + a-xo-ka (axkka) - I sing dancing songs

ex: a-wa-ki (awkʔi) - I give to them, wa (wa) + a-ki (akʔ) - I give

ex: wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I call to them, wa (wa) + paⁿ (pp̨) - I call or halloo

ex: wa-pa-xe (wappγe) - I make them, wa (wa) + pa-xe (ppγe) - I make, do, cause

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde shiⁿ wa-pa-xe naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde ̨ wappγe ną) - the four women that live together, I made them fat [JOD]

ex: wa-bdi-xe (wabdxe) - I chased them, wa (wa) + bdi-xe (bdxe) - I chase, pursue, hunt

ex: wa-bdi-xe a-taⁿ wa-bdi-ze (wabdxe att̨ wbdize) - I chased them and I caught them [JOD]

ex: wa-bdi-ze (wbdize) - I caught them, wa (wa) + bdi-ze (bdze) - I get, take, receive

ex: wa-bdi-xe a-taⁿ wa-bdi-ze (wabdxe att̨ wbdize) - I chased them and I caught them

ex: o-wa-te (watte) - seeking them, wa (wa) + o-te (ott) - look for, hunt, search

ex: wa-ba-zhi (wba) - drive them off, wa (wa) + ba-zhi (ba) - drive something or someone off

ex: wa-ki (wakʔ) - he gave to them, wa (wa) + ki (kʔi) - give something to someone

ex: o-wa-di-bnaⁿ (wadbną) - he smelled them, wa (wa) + o-di-bnaⁿ (odbną) - inhale something, smell something

ex: wa-niⁿ (wnį) - he has them, wa (wa) + a-niⁿ (an̨) - have, keep

ex: to-wa wa-niⁿ naⁿ (twa wnį ną) - he had four of them [JOD]

ex: o-wa-zhi (wai) - he put them in, wa (wa) + o-zhi (o) - put collection into something

ex: o-zhi-ha zhi-ka e-ti o-wa-zhi naⁿ (iha ik tti wai ną) - he put them in there, in the little bag [JOD]

ex: wa-di-ze (wadze) - he took them, wa (wa) + di-ze (diz) - get, take, receive

ex: ka-ni-ke, i-ya-taⁿ wa-di-ze niⁿ (kanik, iy-tą wadze nį) - he said, thanks! when he took them [JOD]

ex: wa-kiⁿ (wakʔ̨) - carrying them on his back, wa (wa) + kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa kda-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kde, i-ya (nkkaka nikʰ kdkʰą wakʔ̨ kd, iy) - he (Winter) put the Indians across his back and packed them to his home, it is said [JOD]

ex: o-wa-hoⁿ (wahǫ) - she boiled them, wa (wa) + o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kʰi-naⁿ, o-wa-hoⁿ, i-ya (nkkaka nikʰ wakʔ̨ kʰ-ną, wahǫ, iy) - when he (Winter) returned to his home carrying the Indians, she (Winters wife) cooked them, it is said [JOD]

ex: o-wa-kye (wakye) - he talks to them, wa (wa) + o-ki-e (okkie), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-kye, i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp nikʰ wakye, iy) - the rabbit spoke to the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa (wa) - a syllable used in different ways: a fragment pronoun denoting the plural animate object, them, of verbs; a sign of the subject of an action [JOD-Omaha]; wa (wa) - them; a thing which [FL-Osage]; wa (wa) - things, stuff; people, folks; they, them [CQ-Osage]; wa (wa) - them: plural object marker [Kaw]

 

them, the both of them

naⁿ-pa (n̨pa) - both, also, too

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too, also, too

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną, iy) - Rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka miⁿ-xti wa-xo miⁿ-xti, naⁿ-pa o-ka-shte, i-ya (nkka m̨-xti waxʔ m̨-xti, n̨pa okt, iy) - one male and one female, two remained after the striking down of the others, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too, also, too

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa) - both, also, too; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa (mikk mat̨ke enąp) - raccoon and rabbit, the both of them [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ni-ka she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa (nkka mika enąp) - both the man and little girl [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka niⁿ-kʰe she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kda-we, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka nįkʰ mika enąp kdwe, iywe) - then both the man and little girl started homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka she-mi-zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kde pa, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka mika enąp kde p, iywe) - then both the man and little girl were going homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa (h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp) - yes, my mothers brother and also my fathers sister (addressing Winter and his wife) [JOD]

ex: di-e-hoⁿ e-ti-koⁿ i-ha pa-zhiⁿ-zhe e-naⁿ-pa o-do-ki-di-shpa-shpa-zhi koⁿ iⁿ (dehǫ ettik̨ ha ppąe en̨p͓a odkkidpapa k̨ į) - you too/that way/mouth/nose/it too/you (are) split in many places/so (=like)/period [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-pa (nąp) - she too [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa, (h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp,) - yes, uncle (my mothers brother) and aunt (my fathers sister), her also, [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-ba (thoⁿba) - also, too: refers to two objects, and to no more [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-pa (-thoⁿ-ba) - and; he also; of the two divisions [FL-Osage]; e-thoⁿ-pa (eǫǫpa) - group including just mentioned individual(s) (can sometimes be translated as both, all, and another, and others, or as and I when followed by a verb with 1st pl. inflection) [CQ-Osage]; e-yoⁿ-ba (yoⁿba) - both, too, also; and (used with nouns) [Kaw]

 

ni-kaⁿ-ni (nkkąn), ni-koⁿ-ni-hi (nikk̨nihi) - pair, both

ex: si ni-kaⁿ-ni (si nkkąn) - both feet

ex: iⁿ-shta ni-koⁿ-ni (inschta nikkoni) - both eyes (deaux yeux) [GI]

ex: hoⁿ-pe ni-kaⁿ-ni (hǫp nkkąn) - moccasin/both [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰaⁿ ha hoⁿ-pe ni-kaⁿ-ni o-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną įtʰ̨ ha hǫp nkkąn otʰ̨ ną, iy) - and he (Rabbits son) put on a pair of owl skin moccasins, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ʰku-wiⁿ (nⁿ-ḳu-wiⁿ) - the two, both [FL-Osage]; na-ʰkoⁿiⁿ (naʰkǫ̨), naⁿ-ʰko-wiⁿ (nąʰkwį) - pair, couple, the two of them [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-koⁿ-mi (nⁿkoⁿm) - pair, both, couple, two together [Kaw]

 

themselves

ki (ki), (kki) + wi (wi) - themselves

cf. ki (ki), (kki) - oneself, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves; we (we), wi (wi), i (i) - pluralizer

ex: i-ki-pa-hoⁿ-wi (kipahǫw) - they knew it for themselves

ex: i-ki-kda-naⁿ-we (kikd-ną-we) - they divided among themselves

Dhegiha: ʰki (ḳi) - themselves [FL-Osage]; ʰkik (ʰkik) - reflexive prefix: oneself, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves [CQ-Osage]; ki (ki) - reflexive: oneself [Kaw]

Dhegiha: Kansa uses be (-be) or bi (-bi), and the Osage, pe (-pe) or pi (-pi), as a plural ending, where the Omaha and Ponka employ i (-i) [JOD-Omaha]; a-pi (-api), pi (-pi), a-pe (-ape), pe (-pe) - pluralizer of 1st or 2nd persons (we, us, you); pluralizer of imperative; pluralizer of 3rd person; noncontinuative marjer for 3rd person (sg. or pl.); marker of predicative noun-plus-adjective phrases [CQ-Osage]; be (-be) - plural marker; 3rd singular non-continuative marker; completed action (usually translated into English as past tense) [Kaw]; bi (-bi) - plural and 3rd singular marker used after Kaw]

 

 

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